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Sample records for 3d transesophageal echocardiography

  1. Front-end receiver electronics for a matrix transducer for 3-D transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zili; Blaak, Sandra; Chang, Zu-yao; Yao, Jiajian; Bosch, Johan G; Prins, Christian; Lancée, Charles T; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P; Meijer, Gerard C M

    2012-07-01

    There is a clear clinical need for creating 3-D images of the heart. One promising technique is the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3-D TEE, we are developing a miniature ultrasound probe containing a matrix piezoelectric transducer with more than 2000 elements. Because a gastroscopic tube cannot accommodate the cables needed to connect all transducer elements directly to an imaging system, a major challenge is to locally reduce the number of channels, while maintaining a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. This can be achieved by using front-end receiver electronics bonded to the transducers to provide appropriate signal conditioning in the tip of the probe. This paper presents the design of such electronics, realizing time-gain compensation (TGC) and micro-beamforming using simple, low-power circuits. Prototypes of TGC amplifiers and micro-beamforming cells have been fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. These prototype chips have been combined on a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an ultrasound-receiver system capable of reading and combining the signals of three transducer elements. Experimental results show that this design is a suitable candidate for 3-D TEE.

  2. Transesophageal echocardiography in NeoChord procedure

    PubMed Central

    Demetrio, Pittarello; Andrea, Colli; Gianclaudio, Falasco; Antonio, Marcassa; Gino, Gerosa; Carlo, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transapical off-pump mitral valve intervention with neochord implantation for degenerative mitral valve disease have been recently introduced in the surgical practice. The procedure is performed under 2D-3D transesophageal echocardiography guidance. Methods: The use of 3D real-time transesophageal echocardiography provides more accurate information than 2D echocardiography only in all the steps of the procedure. In particular 3D echocardiography is mandatory for preoperative assessment of the morphology of the valve, for correct positioning of the neochord on the diseased segment, for the final tensioning of the chordae and for the final evaluation of the surgical result. Result and Conclusion: This article is to outline the technical aspects of the transesophageal echocardiography guidance of the NeoChord procedure showing that the procedure can be performed only with a close and continuous interaction between the anesthesiologist and the cardiac surgeon. PMID:25849688

  3. Efficient feature-based 2D/3D registration of transesophageal echocardiography to x-ray fluoroscopy for cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, Charles R.; Speidel, Michael A.; Raval, Amish N.

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel 2D/ 3D registration algorithm for fusion between transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and X-ray fluoroscopy (XRF). The TEE probe is modeled as a subset of 3D gradient and intensity point features, which facilitates efficient 3D-to-2D perspective projection. A novel cost-function, based on a combination of intensity and edge features, evaluates the registration cost value without the need for time-consuming generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Validation experiments were performed with simulations and phantom data. For simulations, in silica XRF images of a TEE probe were generated in a number of different pose configurations using a previously acquired CT image. Random misregistrations were applied and our method was used to recover the TEE probe pose and compare the result to the ground truth. Phantom experiments were performed by attaching fiducial markers externally to a TEE probe, imaging the probe with an interventional cardiac angiographic x-ray system, and comparing the pose estimated from the external markers to that estimated from the TEE probe using our algorithm. Simulations found a 3D target registration error of 1.08(1.92) mm for biplane (monoplane) geometries, while the phantom experiment found a 2D target registration error of 0.69mm. For phantom experiments, we demonstrated a monoplane tracking frame-rate of 1.38 fps. The proposed feature-based registration method is computationally efficient, resulting in near real-time, accurate image based registration between TEE and XRF.

  4. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  5. Prosthesis-patient mismatch after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact of 2D-transthoracic echocardiography versus 3D-transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cristina; Sahlen, Anders; Winter, Reidar; Bäck, Magnus; Rück, Andreas; Settergren, Magnus; Manouras, Aristomenis; Shahgaldi, Kambiz

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the role of 2D-transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) and 3D-transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) in the determination of aortic annulus size prior transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and its' impact on the prevalence of patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM). Echocardiography plays an important role in measuring aortic annulus dimension in patients undergoing TAVI. This has great importance since it determines both eligibility for TAVI and selection of prosthesis type and size, and can be potentially important in preventing an inadequate ratio between the prosthetic valvular orifice and the patient's body surface area, concept known as prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM). A total of 45 patients were studied pre-TAVI: 20 underwent 3D-TEE (men/women 12/8, age 84.8 ± 5.6) and 25 2D-TTE (men/women 9/16, age 84.4 ± 5.4) in order to measure aortic annulus diameter. The presence of PPM was assessed before hospital discharge and after a mean period of 3 months. Moderate PPM was defined as indexed aortic valve area (AVAi) ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2) and severe PPM as AVAi < 0.65 cm(2)/m(2). Immediately post-TAVI, moderate PPM was present in 25 and 28 % of patients worked up using 3D-TEE and 2D-TTE respectively p value = n.s) and severe PPM occurred in 10 % of the patients who underwent 3D-TEE and in 20 % in those with 2D-TTE (p value = n.s). The echocardiographic evaluation 3 months post-TAVI showed 25 % moderate PPM in the 3D-TEE group compared with 24 % in the 2D-TTE group (p value = n.s) and no cases of severe PPM in the 3DTEE group comparing to 20 % in the 2D-TTE group (p = 0.032). Our results indicate a higher incidence of severe PPM in patients who performed 2DTTE compared to those performing 3DTEE prior TAVI. This suggests that the 3D technique should replace the 2DTTE analysis when investigating the aortic annulus diameter in patients undergoing TAVI. PMID:25102782

  6. Artifacts in three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Faletra, Francesco Fulvio; Ramamurthi, Alamelu; Dequarti, Maria Cristina; Leo, Laura Anna; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pandian, Natesa

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is subject to the same types of artifacts encountered on two-dimensional TEE. However, when displayed in a 3D format, some of the artifacts appear more "realistic," whereas others are unique to image acquisition and postprocessing. Three-dimensional TEE is increasingly used in the setting of percutaneous catheter-based interventions and ablation procedures, and 3D artifacts caused by the metallic components of catheters and devices are particularly frequent. Knowledge of these artifacts is of paramount relevance to avoid misinterpretation of 3D images. Although artifacts and pitfalls on two-dimensional echocardiography are well described and classified, a systematic description of artifacts in 3D transesophageal echocardiographic images and how they affect 3D imaging is still absent. The aim of this review is to describe the most relevant artifacts on 3D TEE, with particular emphasis on those occurring during percutaneous interventions for structural heart disease and ablation procedures.

  7. Combined transesophageal echocardiography and transesophageal cardioversion probe: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Kronzon, Itzhak; Tunick, Paul A; Scholten, Marcoen F; Kerber, Richard E; Roelandt, J R T C

    2005-03-01

    A probe assembly for simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography and transesophageal cardioversion has been developed. This probe allows cardioversion with the delivery of much lower energy than the standard external approach. Details of the probe construction and its use are described, as is the prospect for future practice. The use of a combined probe may be the technique of choice for patients who require both cardioversion and transesophageal echocardiography. PMID:15746708

  8. Emerging Concepts in Transesophageal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Cory; Konoske, Ryan; Mark, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduced in 1977, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) offered imaging through a new acoustic window sitting directly behind the heart, allowing improved evaluation of many cardiac conditions. Shortly thereafter, TEE was applied to the intraoperative environment, as investigators quickly recognized that continuous cardiac evaluation and monitoring during surgery, particularly cardiac operations, were now possible. Among the many applications for perioperative TEE, this review will focus on four recent advances: three-dimensional TEE imaging, continuous TEE monitoring in the intensive care unit, strain imaging, and assessment of diastolic ventricular function. PMID:26998250

  9. TU-F-BRF-04: Registration of 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography and X-Ray Fluoroscopy Using An Inverse Geometry X-Ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, M; Hatt, C; Tomkowiak, M; Raval, A; Funk, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for the fusion of 3D echocardiography and Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) fluoroscopy to assist with catheter device and soft tissue visualization during interventional procedures. Methods: SBDX is a technology for low-dose inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy that performs digital tomosynthesis at multiple planes in real time. In this study, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) images were fused with SBDX images by estimating the 3D position and orientation (the “pose”) of the TEE probe within the x-ray coordinate system and then spatially transforming the TEE image data to match this pose. An initial pose estimate was obtained through tomosynthesis-based 3D localization of points along the probe perimeter. Position and angle estimates were then iteratively refined by comparing simulated projections of a 3D probe model against SBDX x-ray images. Algorithm performance was quantified by imaging a TEE probe in different known orientations and locations within the x-ray field (0-30 degree tilt angle, up to 50 mm translation). Fused 3D TEE/SBDX imaging was demonstrated by imaging a tissue-mimicking polyvinyl alcohol cylindrical cavity as a catheter was navigated along the cavity axis. Results: Detected changes in probe tilt angle agreed with the known changes to within 1.2 degrees. For a 50 mm translation along the source-detector axis, the detected translation was 50.3 mm. Errors for in-plane translations ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 mm. In a fused 3D TEE/SBDX display, the catheter device was well visualized and coincident with the device shadow in the TEE images. The TEE images portrayed phantom boundaries that were not evident under x-ray. Conclusion: Registration of soft tissue anatomy derived from TEE imaging and device imaging from SBDX x-ray fluoroscopy is feasible. The simultaneous 3D visualization of these two modalities may be useful in interventional procedures involving the navigation of devices to soft tissue anatomy.

  10. Transesophageal echocardiography in the postoperative child with an open sternum.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B; Wong, P C; Wells, W J; Lindesmith, G G; Starnes, V A

    1994-07-01

    We report the use of transesophageal echocardiography in 3 children whose sternums remained open for several days postoperatively. In these patients transesophageal echocardiography provided critical information when transthoracic echocardiography was ineffective due to limited acoustic windows. This report points out the application of transesophageal echocardiography in children with chest wall distortion. PMID:8037535

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of multiplane transesophageal rotational scanning echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Aijun; Wang, Tianfu; Zheng, Changqiong; Li, Deyu; Yin, Lixue; Zheng, Yi

    2001-09-01

    The present paper studies the method of 3D reconstruction of multiplane transesophageal rotational scanning echocardiography. According to the characteristic of rotational scanning echocardiography, a direct matching interpolation method is exploited to reconstruct regular volume data from distributed ultrasound scanning points. The whole system is developed and clinical ultrasound data is tested for this method. The volume rendering results show that the proposed method is valid and effective. At last, the possibility of functional reconstruction based on tissue Doppler imaging is explored.

  12. Clinical usefulness of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: comparison to biplanar imaging.

    PubMed

    Tardif, J C; Schwartz, S L; Vannan, M A; Cao, Q L; Pandian, N G

    1994-07-01

    The increased diagnostic usefulness of multiplane over biplane transesophageal echocardiography has not yet been conclusively determined. In this study the diagnostic yield of multiplanar and biplanar imaging was compared blindly by using the information content obtained from multiplane transesophageal echocardiography to that derived from biplanar type of imaging planes available in the multiplane echocardiography recordings in 80 patients with a variety of cardiac disorders. Among these patients 9 new abnormalities were identified by multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in 8 patients. Multiplane imaging yielded better delineation of 40 various lesions in 31 patients. Thus multiplane transesophageal echocardiography has a greater diagnostic yield than biplane imaging by depicting more lesions in 10% of patients and by enhanced delineation of the extent of pathologic characteristics in 39% of patients. This versatility, coupled with the ease of obtaining a vast assembly of imaging planes without undue probe manipulations, makes multiplane transesophageal echocardiography more useful than biplanar imaging.

  13. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  14. Transesophageal echocardiography assessment of severe ostial left main coronary stenosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Lin, S. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Alexander, L. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography is commonly used in the assessment of stenotic valvular orifices. We describe the application of transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of a critical ostial left main coronary stenosis. Because preoperative coronary angiography often is not routinely performed in young patients undergoing valve surgery, application of Doppler echocardiography can potentially prevent catastrophic complications, particularly in atypical cases.

  15. Assessment of coronary artery aneurysms with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kosar, E; Chandraratna, P A

    1997-05-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms are rare and may be difficult to detect clinically. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography provides numerous imaging planes that may improve the assessment of coronary aneurysms and act as an adjunct to standard angiography. Five patients with angiographically detected coronary aneurysms were studied with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and Doppler flow imaging. Transesophageal echocardiography was successful in identifying the size and characteristics of the coronary aneurysms. Doppler ultrasound identified markedly increased flow velocity in a patient with a coronary arteriovenous fistula and decreased coronary flow velocity in two patients with aneurysmal coronary arteries and intracoronary thrombus. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography is a useful, noninvasive method of assessing coronary artery aneurysms and may act as an adjunct to angiography in identifying fistula anastomosis.

  16. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  18. The role of transesophageal echocardiography in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Machen, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Aortic disease, when left untreated, is still associated with major morbidity and mortality. Aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm are the main reasons for performing aortic surgery procedures in the adult. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a key role in the preoperative evaluation. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become a safe and invaluable perioperative imaging tool for aortic disease over the past decade with high sensitivity and specificity. TEE can increase patient safety and improve overall patient outcome in aortic surgery. Especially during endovascular aortic repair, TEE is more sensitive than other imaging modalities in diagnosing complications such as graft endoleaks. Newer echocardiographic techniques such as three-dimensional (3D) TEE and contrast-enhanced TEE are emerging and seem to have a valuable role especially in aortic dissection repair and endovascular aortic stent procedures. In the absence of contraindications, TEE should generally be performed during aortic surgery and endovascular aortic procedures. PMID:27650342

  19. Transesophageal echocardiography: first-line imaging for aortic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Thomas, J. D.; Homa, D.; Flachskampf, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is now commonly used to evaluate the thoracic aorta, because it is widely available and provides high-resolution images and flow information by Doppler. This article reviews the essential features on TEE of acute and chronic aortic diseases, such as aortic dissection, aneurysm, and atherosclerosis, and discusses its strengths, weaknesses, and indications.

  20. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography with agitated saline injection to differentiate between atrial septal defects and echo drop-out artifacts.

    PubMed

    Alherbish, Aws; Shanks, Miriam; Choy, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of multiple atrial septal defects is less challenging with 3-D transesophageal echocardiography. However, the common occurrence of echo drop-out (acoustic shadow) artifacts with 3-D echocardiography can make the differentiation between a second defect and an artifact challenging. Agitated saline injection with direct visualization using 3-D echocardiography can help resolve this by allowing visualization of the bubbles crossing from true defects.

  1. Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium: multiplane transesophageal echocardiography diagnosis in an adult.

    PubMed

    Maltagliati, A; Pepi, M

    2000-11-01

    We describe a case of isolated noncompaction of the myocardium in a 66-year-old patient. Peculiar anatomic features of this disease were clearly suspected on transthoracic echocardiography and precisely recognized through transesophageal echocardiography. The role of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the detection of this rare disease is described in this report.

  2. How standard transesophageal echocardiography views change with dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Raut, Monish S; Maheshwari, Arun; Shad, Sujay; Rachna, G

    2013-01-01

    Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a rare condition. Situs inversus with dextrocardia is also called as "situs inversus totalis". Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) views in dextrocardia patient are not discussed in the literature. The cardiac position and the cardiac chambers are mirror image of the normal anatomy. Because of this positional change, certain TEE probe and multiplane angle manipulations are required to obtain the recommended views.

  3. Real-time transesophageal echocardiography facilitates antegrade balloon aortic valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazato; Yano, Kentaro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Nakashoji, Tomohiro; Tonomura, Daisuke; Takehara, Kosuke; Kino, Naoto; Yoshida, Masataka; Kurotobi, Toshiya; Tsuchida, Takao; Fukumoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of severe aortic stenosis (AS) where antegrade balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) was performed under real-time transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance. Real-time TEE can provide useful information for evaluating the aortic valve response to valvuloplasty during the procedure. It was led with the intentional wire-bias technique in order to compress the severely calcified leaflet, and consequently allowed the balloon to reach the largest possible size and achieve full expansion of the aortic annulus. PMID:27054107

  4. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a roadmap for mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Shah, P M; Raney, A A; Duran, C M; Oury, J H

    1999-11-01

    Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is useful in providing a detailed anatomic map for successful mitral valve repair. This report describes an approach, developed over the past two to three years, which helps to delineate valve anatomy in specific detail. Mid-esophageal views are selected to view different segments of the valve leaflets. When correlated with surgical anatomy, this approach is found to be both practical and useful.

  5. A Case of Kommerell's Diverticulum Initially Detected by Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Hancheol; Lee, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Son, Jung-Woo; Son, Jang-Won; Hong, Geu-Ru

    2013-03-01

    Kommerell's diverticulum is a rare congenital disorder characterized by typical right sided aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery which are usually detected by accident in asymptomatic patients. However, some of patients complain of severe symptoms caused by compression of the adjacent organs or complicated aortic dissection by the diverticulum. Early detection of the disease can lead to elective surgical correction. In this article, we report a Kommerell's diverticulum case initially detected by transesophageal echocardiography.

  6. A Case of Kommerell's Diverticulum Initially Detected by Transesophageal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Hancheol; Lee, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Son, Jung-Woo; Son, Jang-Won

    2013-01-01

    Kommerell's diverticulum is a rare congenital disorder characterized by typical right sided aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery which are usually detected by accident in asymptomatic patients. However, some of patients complain of severe symptoms caused by compression of the adjacent organs or complicated aortic dissection by the diverticulum. Early detection of the disease can lead to elective surgical correction. In this article, we report a Kommerell's diverticulum case initially detected by transesophageal echocardiography. PMID:23560141

  7. Role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jijeh, Abdulraouf M.Z.; Omran, Ahmad S.; Najm, Hani K.; Abu-Sulaiman, Riyadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has a major role in detecting residual lesions during and/or after pediatric cardiac surgery. Methods All pediatric patients who underwent cardiac surgery between July 2001 and December 2008 were reviewed. The records of surgical procedure, intraoperative TEE, and predischarge transthoracic echocardiograms were reviewed to determine minor and major residual cardiac lesions after surgical repair. Results During the study period, a total of 2268 pediatric cardiac patients were operated in our center. Mean age was 21 months (from 1 day to 14 years). Of these patients, 1016 (48%) had preoperative TEE and 1036 (46%) were evaluated by intraoperative echocardiography (TEE or epicardial study). We identified variations between TEE and preoperative transthoracic echocardiography in 14 patients (1.3%). Only one surgical procedure was cancelled after atrial septal defect exclusion. The other 13 patients had minor variation from their surgical plan. Major residual lesions requiring surgical revision were detected in 41 patients (3.9%), with the following primary diagnoses: tetralogy of Fallot in 12 patients (29%), atrioventricular septal defect in seven patients (17%), ventricular septal defect in seven patients (17%), double outlet right ventricle in two patients (5%), Shone complex in two patients (5%), subaortic stenosis in two patients (5%), mitral regurgitation in two patients (5%), pulmonary atresia in two patients (5%), and five patients (12%) with other diagnoses. Conclusion Intraoperative TEE has a major impact in pediatric cardiac surgery to detect significant residual lesions. Preoperative TEE has a limited role in case of a high quality preoperative transthoracic echocardiography. We recommend routine use of intraoperative TEE during and/or after intracardiac repair in children. PMID:27053898

  8. Premature aortic stiffness in systemic lupus erythematosus by transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Roldan, C A; Joson, J; Qualls, C R; Sharrar, J; Sibbitt, W L

    2010-12-01

    To assess aortic stiffness by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and to determine its clinical predictors and relation to age, blood pressure, renal function, and atherosclerosis, 50 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 94% women, with a mean age of 38 ± 12 years, and 22 age and gender-matched healthy controls underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations and multiplane TEE to assess stiffness, intima-media thickness (IMT), and plaques of the proximal, mid, and distal descending thoracic aorta. Stiffness at each level and overall aortic stiffness by the pressure-strain elastic modulus was higher in patients than in controls after adjusting for age (overall, 8.25 ± 4.13 versus 6.1 ± 2.5 Pascal units, p = 0.01). Patients had higher aortic stiffness than controls after adjusting both groups to the same mean age, blood pressure, creatinine, and aortic IMT (p = 0.005). Neither IMT nor plaques were predictors of aortic stiffness. Moreover, normotensive patients, those without aortic plaques, and non-smokers had higher stiffness than controls (all p < 0.05). Age at SLE diagnosis and non-neurologic damage score were the only SLE-specific independent predictors of aortic stiffness (both p ≤ 0.01). Thus, increased aortic stiffness is an early manifestation of lupus vasculopathy that seems to precede the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  9. Transesophageal echocardiography in the management of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Maybauer, Marc O; Asmussen, Sven; Platts, David G; Fraser, John F; Sanfilippo, Filippo; Maybauer, Dirk M

    2014-06-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the level of evidence for the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the management of burn patients. We searched any article published before and including June 30, 2013. Our search yielded 118 total publications, 11 met the inclusion criteria of burn injury and TEE. Available studies published in any language were rated and included. At the present time, there are no available systematic reviews/meta-analyses published that met our search criteria. Only a small number of clinical trials, all with a limited number of patients were available. Therefore, a meta-analysis on outcome parameters was not performed. However, the major pathologic findings in burn patients were reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, mitral valve vegetation, pulmonary hypertension, pericardial effusion, fluid overload, and right heart failure. The advantages of TEE include offering direct assessment of cardiac valve competency, myocardial contractility, and most importantly real time assessment of adequacy of hemodynamic resuscitation and preload in the acute phase of resuscitation, with minimal additional risk. TEE serves multiple diagnostic purposes and is being used to better understand the fluid status and cardiac physiology of the critically ill burn patient. Randomized controlled trials especially on fluid resuscitation and cardiac performance in acute burns are warranted to potentially further improve outcome.

  10. Incremental Value of Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography over the Two-Dimensional Technique in the Assessment of a Thrombus in Transit through a Patent Foramen Ovale.

    PubMed

    Thind, Munveer; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gok, Gulay; Joson, Marisa; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Tuck, Benjamin C; Townsley, Matthew M; Klas, Berthold; McGiffin, David C; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a right atrial thrombus traversing a patent foramen ovale into the left atrium, where three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided considerable incremental value over two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in its assessment. As well as allowing us to better spatially characterize the thrombus, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided a more quantitative assessment through estimation of total thrombus burden.

  11. Acute Bilateral Internal Carotid Occlusion from Embolization of Left Atrial Thrombus During Transesophageal Echocardiography: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Syed Saad; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Xavier, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a relatively safe imaging modality used to visualize intracardiac thrombus. Summary of case: We report on a unique, fatal complication during TEE of embolization of a pre-existing “smoking” left atrial thrombus causing acute bilateral internal carotid occlusion, confirmed on angiogram. Conclusions: Patients with history of lung pathology, such as COPD, who experience retching and cough during transesophageal echocardiography may be more susceptible to embolization of pre-existing thrombi. A need exists to risk stratify such patients. PMID:27403219

  12. Improved Segmentation of Multiple Cavities of the Heart in Wide-View 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Haak, Alexander; Ren, Ben; Mulder, Harriët W; Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo; van Burken, Gerard; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van Stralen, Marijn; Pluim, Josien P W; van Walsum, Theo; Bosch, Johannes G

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventions in the heart such as in electrophysiology are becoming more and more important in clinical practice. Currently, preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) is used to provide anatomic information during electrophysiology interventions, but this does not provide real-time feedback and burdens the patient with additional radiation and side effects of the contrast agent. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an excellent modality for visualization of anatomic structures and instruments in real time, but some cavities, especially the left atrium, suffer from the limited coverage of the 3-D TEE volumes. This leads to difficulty in segmenting the left atrium. We propose replacing or complementing pre-operative CTA imaging with wide-view TEE. We tested this proposal on 20 patients for which TEE image volumes covering the left atrium and CTA images were acquired. The TEE images were manually registered, and wide-view volumes were generated. Five heart cavities in single-view and wide-view TEE were segmented and compared with atlas based-segmentations derived from the CTA images. We found that the segmentation accuracy (Dice coefficients) improved relative to segmentation of single-view images by 5, 15 and 9 percentage points for the left atrium, right atrium and aorta, respectively. Average anatomic coverage was improved by 2, 29, 62 and 49 percentage points for the right ventricle, left atrium, right atrium and aorta, respectively. This finding confirms that wide-view 3-D TEE can be useful in supporting electrophysiology interventions.

  13. Patient-Specific Mitral Valve Closure Prediction using 3D Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Burlina, Philippe; Sprouse, Chad; Mukherjee, Ryan; DeMenthon, Daniel; Abraham, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling the closure of the mitral valve using patient-specific anatomical information derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE). Our approach uses physics-based modeling to solve for the stationary configuration of the closed valve structure from the patient-specific open valve structure, which is recovered using a user-in-the-loop, thin-tissue detector segmentation. The method utilizes a tensile shape finding approach based on energy minimization. This method is used to predict the aptitude of the mitral valve leaflets to coapt. We tested the method using ten intraoperative 3D TEE sequences by comparing (a) the closed valve configuration predicted from the segmented open valve, with (b) the segmented closed valve, taken as ground truth. Experiments show promising results, with prediction errors on par with 3D TEE resolution and with good potential for applications in pre-operative planning. PMID:23497987

  14. Therapeutic implications of transesophageal echocardiography after transthoracic echocardiography on acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, Tiago Tribolet; Mateus, Sonia; Carreteiro, Cecilia; Correia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Background The role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the evaluation of acute stroke patients is still ill-defined. We conducted a prospective observational study to find the prevalence of TEE findings that indicate anticoagulation as beneficial, in acute ischemic stroke patients without indication for anticoagulation based on clinical, electrocardiographic and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. Methods We prospectively studied all patients referred to our laboratory for TTE and TEE. Patients were excluded if the diagnosis was not acute ischemic stroke or if they had an indication for anticoagulation based on clinical, electrocardiographic, or TTE data. Patients with TEE findings that might indicate anticoagulation as beneficial were identified. Results A total of 84 patients with acute ischemic stroke and without indication for anticoagulation based on clinical and electrocardiographic or TTE data were included in the study. Findings indicating anticoagulation as beneficial were found in 32.1%: spontaneous echo contrast (1.2%), complex aortic atheroma (27.4%), thrombus (8.3%), and simultaneous patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm (2.4%). Conclusions The results of our study show that TEE can have therapy implications in 32.1% of ischemic stroke patients in sinus rhythm and with TTE with no indication for anticoagulation. PMID:18629351

  15. Three-dimensional left ventricular wall motion analysis using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ding-Horng; Chen, Shieh-Chu; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Sun, Yung-Nien

    1996-04-01

    The left ventricular (LV) wall motion is the most challenging and interesting task in cardiac evaluation. In this paper, an integrated system that measures and displays left ventricular wall motion is presented. Based on the 3D reconstruction of ventricle from nine rotational cross- sectional images acquired with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a quantitative and visual expression of the motion of LV is presented. Nine images were obtained with the transducer rotating around a central axis passing through LV. A sequence of image processing operations have been developed for detecting left ventricular boundaries from TEE images obtained with different angle in a whole cardiac cycle. The algorithm which integrates 2D boundary information into 3D volume representation is designed based on automata theory. The phantom study for computing the scaling factors between the image metrics and the physical metrics shows a good correlation between the computed results and the specimens in the in vitro study. Finally, the 3D shape visualization of the reconstructed moving ventricle is presented. The performance of proposed experiments shows good feasibility of the new application of TEE in cardiac evaluation.

  16. Parachute mitral valve accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve on three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tian-Ying; Li, Zhi-An; He, Yi-Hua; Han, Jian-Cheng; Luan, Shu-Rong; Wang, Lin-Lin

    2012-09-01

    We report the findings of three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in a patient with a parachute mitral valve (MV) accompanied by aortic valve (AV) malformation. The results indicated an enhanced echo in MV anterior leaves, incrassate, and shortened subvalvular chordae tendineae, and posteromedial papillary muscle that had echo reinforcement, calcification, retroposition, and a significant decrease compared with anterolateral papillary muscle. In addition, the anterolateral papillary muscle was huge, with the bilateral papillary muscles fused partly, and the posterior subvalvular chordae tendineae incrassate, shortened, and attached parachute-like to the anterolateral papillary muscle. The MV appeared dome-shaped for the open limit in diastole with an MV area of 1.6 cm. Moreover, the left ventricle increased in size and the bicuspid AV was malformed. Continuous wave Doppler angiograph showed that the flow rate increased to 398 cm/seconds at the AV orifice area. A 3D form of the MV structure was observed from the left ventricle using 3D-TEE inspection. The anterolateral papillary muscle was fused with its posteromedial homologue. The chordae tendineae was attached to the anterolateral papillary with the parachute-like structure, indicating dome movement.

  17. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a basic oblique plane patient imaging sequence.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M; Rafferty, T

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported a standardized 10-step sequence of monoplane (transverse plane) transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiographic views and a standardized 7-step vertical plane examination, both suitable for expeditious intraoperative use by the beginning practitioner. A multiplane transesophageal examination involves transverse plane views, vertical plane views and the remaining "in-between" oblique plane views. This report describes a sequence of specific oblique views to be used as a framework for the completion of a multiplane transesophageal examination. Each of these steps is illustrated with a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. This description of oblique plane imaging, therefore, completes the components of a multiplane transesophageal examination.

  18. Benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia: a potentially fatal complication of transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rajesh; Pugeda, Jaime G; Casale, Linda R; Meizlish, Jay L; Zarich, Stuart W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the cases of 2 patients who developed benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia after the administration of benzocaine as premedication for transesophageal echocardiography. The use of intravenous methylene blue resolved the cyanosis in both patients. Physicians who perform procedures involving the application of topical anesthesia need to be aware of this side effect to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  19. Left atrial ball thrombus with acute mesenteric ischemia: anesthetic management and role of transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Neeti; Malankar, Dhananjay; Singh, Pooja; Goyal, Sameer; Patel, Kartik; Jagia, Priya

    2014-01-01

    A 62 year old female with severe mitral stenosis, large left atrial ball thrombus and acute mesenteric ischemia emergently underwent mitral valve replacement, left atrial clot removal and emergency laparotomy for mesenteric ischemia. Peri-operative management issues, particularly, the anesthetic challenges and the role of transesophageal echocardiography are discussed.

  20. Integration of trans-esophageal echocardiography with magnetic tracking technology for cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John T.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Wedlake, Chris; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a standard component of patient monitoring during most cardiac surgeries. In recent years magnetic tracking systems (MTS) have become sufficiently robust to function effectively in appropriately structured operating room environments. The ability to track a conventional multiplanar 2D TEE transducer in 3D space offers incredible potential by greatly expanding the cumulative field of view of cardiac anatomy beyond the limited field of view provided by 2D and 3D TEE technology. However, there is currently no TEE probe manufactured with MTS technology embedded in the transducer, which means sensors must be attached to the outer surface of the TEE. This leads to potential safety issues for patients, as well as potential damage to the sensor during procedures. This paper presents a standard 2D TEE probe fully integrated with MTS technology. The system is evaluated in an environment free of magnetic and electromagnetic disturbances, as well as a clinical operating room in the presence of a da Vinci robotic system. Our first integrated TEE device is currently being used in animal studies for virtual reality-enhanced ultrasound guidance of intracardiac surgeries, while the "second generation" TEE is in use in a clinical operating room as part of a project to measure perioperative heart shift and optimal port placement for robotic cardiac surgery. We demonstrate excellent system accuracy for both applications.

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography in congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Acar, P; Dulac, Y; Taktak, A; Villacèque, M

    2004-05-01

    The introduction of the 3D mode in echocardiography has led to its use in everyday clinical practice. One hundred and fifty real time 3D echocardiographic examinations were performed in 20 foetus, 110 children and 20 adults with various congenital heart lesions (shunts, valvular lesions, aortic diseases). The 4x matricial probe enables the instantaneous acquisition of transthoracic volumes. Four modes of 3D imaging were used: real time, total volume, colour Doppler and biplane. Quantitative measurements were performed at an outlying station. The feasibility of the method in the foetus, the child and the adult was respectively 90%, 99% and 85%. Real time 3D echocardiography did not affect the diagnoses made by standard echocardiography. The 3D imaging gave a more accurate description of atrial septal defects and congenital valvular lesions. Biplane imaging was decisive in the quantitative approach to aortic dilatation of Marfan's syndrome and in segmental analysis of the foetal heart. 3D colour Doppler imaging has been disappointing but the possibilities of volumic quantification of blood flow are very promising. The present limitations of the method are the inadequate resolution in the small child and the absence of quantitative measurement on the echograph. The facility of utilisation of the matricial probe should lead to routine usage of 3D echocardiography as with 2D and the Doppler modes. Its value should be decisive in many congenital cardiac lesions requiring surgery or interventional catheterisation. PMID:15214550

  2. Does multiplane transesophageal echocardiography improve the assessment of prosthetic valve regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Flachskampf, F A; Hoffmann, R; Franke, A; Job, F P; Schöndube, F A; Messmer, B J; Hanrath, P

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of prosthetic valve regurgitation by echocardiography remains difficult. To study the value of the newly introduced multiplane transesophageal technology for this purpose, prosthetic valve regurgitation was examined in 63 consecutive patients with 35 mitral and 33 aortic prostheses (23 bioprostheses and 45 mechanical prostheses). Transvalvular, paravalvular and, in mechanical valves, normal or pathologic transvalvular regurgitation were identified first with 0 degrees (transverse) and 90 degrees (longitudinal) planes combined with flexion of the echoscope tip and then additionally with multiple intermediary planes by transducer rotation. In a subgroup of 20 patients interobserver variability was evaluated. Both methods showed regurgitation in 56 of 68 valves; one additional case of regurgitation was seen by multiplane imaging only. However, 19 cases of regurgitation were not clearly classifiable by biplane transesophageal echocardiography compared with only three with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography. Grading of severity was concordant by both modalities in 66 and discordant in only two cases. Observers disagreed on severity in two of 20 cases based on biplane imaging but in none based on multiplane imaging; classification of regurgitation differed in six of 20 (biplane) and one of 20 (multiplane), respectively. Multiplane transesophageal imaging improves classification of prosthetic regurgitation but has little effect on severity grading.

  3. [Neurologic accident of decompression: a new indication of transesophageal echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Boussuges, A; Blanc, P; Habib, G

    1995-05-20

    Decompression sickness in a 33-year-old SCUBA diver led to neurological lesions with brain damage. The existence of a patent foramen ovale detected with a transoesophageal contrast echocardiography suggested paradoxal gas embolism. This observation emphasizes the intest of transoesophageal contrast echocardiography in decompression sickness as discussed in the literature. Its widely utilization would permit a better understanding of the pathophysiology of decompression sickness. It also may help the physician in deciding whether or not to authorize further diving.

  4. Endovascular treatment of painless aortic ulcer detected by transesophageal echocardiography as an incidental finding.

    PubMed

    Citro, Rodolfo; Bossone, Eduardo; Patella, Marco Mariano; Provenza, Gennaro; Luongo, Francesco; Galasso, Luigi; Meucci, Eugenio; Gregorio, Giovanni; Masip, Arturo Evangelista

    2007-12-01

    Penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) is defined as an ulcerating atherosclerotic lesion that disrupts the aortic wall layers, penetrating the internal elastic lamina. The natural history of the disease and the preferred treatment are still debated. We report a case of painless PAU in a 78-year-old man detected by transesophageal echocardiography at the level of proximal descending aorta as an incidental finding. The patient underwent endovascular stent-graft placement without any complications at early and late follow-up.

  5. Role of transesophageal echocardiography: A rare case of acute left atrial free wall dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. Anil; Nandakumar, N. M.; Sudhir, B. V.; Pasarad, Ashwini Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been used routinely in the diagnosis and follow-up of cardiac cases. Left atrial dissection (LAd), an exceedingly rare complication of cardiac surgery, is most commonly associated with mitral valve surgery. A case of LAd is presented, and the pathology was accurately defined and immediately diagnosed using intraoperative TEE. This case highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis of LAd using intraoperative TEE, and a second cardiac surgery was avoided. PMID:26440252

  6. Diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with transesophageal echocardiography following the induction of anesthesia for suspected testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Stephen M.; Wang, Xiao; Sullivan, Erin A.

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool for evaluating hemodynamic instability in patients under general anesthesia. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with complaints of testicular pain concerning for testicular torsion. After induction of general anesthesia for scrotal exploration and possible orchiopexy, the patient developed severe and persistent hypotension. Using intraoperative TEE, the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade was made, and an emergent pericardial window was performed. PMID:26139762

  7. Accurate localization and echocardiographic-pathologic correlation of tricuspid valve angiolipoma by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Misra, Satyajeet; Sinha, Prabhat K; Koshy, Thomas; Sandhyamani, Samavedam; Parija, Chandrabhanu; Gopal, Kirun

    2009-11-01

    Angiolipoma (angiolipohamartoma) of the tricuspid valve (TV) is a rare tumor which may be occasionally misdiagnosed as right atrial (RA) myxoma. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provides accurate information regarding the size, shape, mobility as well as site of attachment of RA tumors and is a superior modality as compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Correct diagnosis of RA tumors has therapeutic significance and guides management of patients, as myxomas are generally more aggressively managed than lipomas. We describe a rare case of a pedunculated angiolipoma of the TV which was misdiagnosed as RA myxoma on TTE and discuss the echocardiographic-pathologic correlates of the tumor as well as its accurate localization by TEE.

  8. Transesophageal echocardiography in the anesthetic management of total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C; Lewis, K D; Steen, S N; Mok, M S; Wu, C C

    2001-09-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a common procedure in the elderly and thromboembolism continues to be a cause of mortality and morbidity associated with this procedure. When properly diagnosed and treated the mortality rate from pulmonary embolism can be reduced significantly. Transesophageal echocardiograpic (TEE) detection of central pulmonary artery thromboemboli in patients with severe pulmonary embolism has been reported to have a sensitivity of 96.7% and a specificity of 88%. However TEE is not universally available due to its cost and expertise that is required. Taking into consideration its cost/effectiveness we suggest that in patients undergoing the cement type of total hip arthroplasty who are cardiopulmonary compromised, debilitated or elderly the use of TEE is indicated.

  9. Accuracy assessment of fluoroscopy-transesophageal echocardiography registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Pencilla; Seslija, Petar; Bainbridge, Daniel; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Chu, Michael W.; Holdsworth, David W.; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    This study assesses the accuracy of a new transesophageal (TEE) ultrasound (US) fluoroscopy registration technique designed to guide percutaneous aortic valve replacement. In this minimally invasive procedure, a valve is inserted into the aortic annulus via a catheter. Navigation and positioning of the valve is guided primarily by intra-operative fluoroscopy. Poor anatomical visualization of the aortic root region can result in incorrect positioning, leading to heart valve embolization, obstruction of the coronary ostia and acute kidney injury. The use of TEE US images to augment intra-operative fluoroscopy provides significant improvements to image-guidance. Registration is achieved using an image-based TEE probe tracking technique and US calibration. TEE probe tracking is accomplished using a single-perspective pose estimation algorithm. Pose estimation from a single image allows registration to be achieved using only images collected in standard OR workflow. Accuracy of this registration technique is assessed using three models: a point target phantom, a cadaveric porcine heart with implanted fiducials, and in-vivo porcine images. Results demonstrate that registration can be achieved with an RMS error of less than 1.5mm, which is within the clinical accuracy requirements of 5mm. US-fluoroscopy registration based on single-perspective pose estimation demonstrates promise as a method for providing guidance to percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. Future work will focus on real-time implementation and a visualization system that can be used in the operating room.

  10. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital coronary artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Lin, F C; Chang, H J; Chern, M S; Wen, M S; Yeh, S J; Wu, D

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the advantages of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital coronary artery fistula, specifically in depicting the origin, the course, and the drainage site. Seven consecutive patients ranging in age from 20 to 72 years with a suspected coronary artery fistula underwent conventional transthoracic and multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic studies between March 1993 and July 1994. When a coronary artery fistula was noted, the origin, the course, and the drainage site were carefully searched for. All patients then underwent a cardiac catheterization with the performance of coronary angiography. A large right coronary artery fistula was detected in three patients; one of them had a drainage to the posterior left ventricle, one to the lateral right ventricle, and the other to the medial aspect of the right ventricle just below the insertion of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. A small coronary artery fistula arising from the left coronary artery was noted in four patients, two from the left anterior descending artery and the other two from the left circumflex artery. Three of these four patients had a drainage to the main pulmonary artery and one to the left ventricle. The drainage site was clearly depicted in all seven patients, whereas the origin and the course were precisely defined in five patients by using multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic examination. The multiplane transesophageal echocardiography provides a panoramic view of the coronary artery and the fistulous vessel with a precise definition of the origin, the course, and the drainage site of the fistula. Therefore it is the noninvasive diagnostic mode of choice. PMID:7484775

  11. The Effect of Perioperative Rescue Transesophageal Echocardiography on the Management of Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Matthew J; Singleton, Andrew; Zimmerman, Joshua M; Morgan, David E; Nirula, Raminder

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of rescue transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on the management of trauma patients, we reviewed imaging and charts of unstable trauma patients at a level I trauma center. Critical rescue TEE findings included acute right ventricular failure, stress cardiomyopathy, type B aortic dissection, mediastinal air, and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Left ventricular filling was classified as low (underfilled) in 57% of all cases. Rescue TEE revealed a variety of new diagnoses and led to a change in resuscitation strategy about half of the time. PMID:27301053

  12. Intraoperative Monitoring of Pulmonary Artery Physiology With Transesophageal Echocardiography in a Patient With an Extensive Pulmonary Aneurysm Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Michael J; Maxwell, Cory D; Bottiger, Brandi A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension present a significant challenge to the anesthesiologist. Continuous perioperative monitoring of pulmonary artery (PA) pressure is recommended and most often accomplished with a PA catheter. Placement of a PA catheter may be difficult or contraindicated, and in these cases, transesophageal echocardiography is a useful alternative to monitor dynamic PA physiology. In this case, we used intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography to detect changes in peak PA pressure and guide clinical treatment in a patient with pulmonary hypertension and an extensive PA aneurysm undergoing partial nephrectomy. PMID:27580409

  13. Quantitation of aortic valve area in aortic stenosis with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: comparison with monoplane transesophageal approach.

    PubMed

    Tribouilloy, C; Shen, W F; Peltier, M; Mirode, A; Rey, J L; Lesbre, J P

    1994-09-01

    The accuracy and reliability of two-dimensional monoplane and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the quantitation of aortic valve area were compared in 54 patients with aortic stenosis. Fifty patients had aortic valve area calculated by the continuity equation and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE); 25 underwent cardiac catheterization. Two-dimensional echocardiograms adequate for quantitation of aortic valve area were obtained in 21 (39%) patients with monoplane TEE and in 51 (94%) with multiplane TEE. The mean aortic valve area determined by both TEE methods did not differ significantly from that derived from TTE and catheterization. The mean difference of aortic valve area measurements between monoplane TEE and TTE was -0.045 +/- 0.11 cm2; that between multiplane TEE and TTE was 0.001 +/- 0.11 cm2. Multiplane TEE provided a better correlation of aortic valve area measurements with either TTE (y = 0.97 x + 0.03; r = 0.96; SEE = 0.11 cm2) or catheterization (y = 0.84 x + 0.11; r = 0.90; SEE = 0.12 cm2) than the monoplane TEE (y = 0.88 x + 0.13; r = 0.83; SEE = 0.15 cm2 and y = 0.41 x + 0.42; r = 0.81; SEE = 0.15 cm2). Severe aortic stenosis with valve orifice area of < or = 0.75 cm2 during TTE examination was found by multiplane TEE with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. Thus aortic valve area can be directly and reliably measured by two-dimensional multiplane TEE in majority of patients with aortic stenosis.

  14. Usefulness of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography to improve the assessment of severity of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, E P; Hamer, H P; Sluijs, R A; Ravelli, A C; Tijssen, J G; Crijns, H J; Lie, K I; Visser, C A

    1996-11-15

    This study was designed to examine the accuracy of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) color Doppler measurements in comparison to monoplane or biplane measurements in estimating the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). Multiplane TEE potentially increases diagnostic accuracy of transesophageal examinations; it is unknown if multiplane is more accurate in assessing the severity of MR than monoplane or biplane TEE. Left ventricular cineangiograms of 91 patients with MR (40 no or mild, 30 moderate, and 21 severe) were compared with systolic pulmonary venous flow reversal and transesophageal color Doppler measurements: jet area and length in the transverse and longitudinal plane, maximal and average of those 2 planes (biplane), and maximal and average of 11 different planes (multiplane). Flow reversal (16 patients) identified severe MR with a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 62%; these were 96% and only 10% to 43%, respectively, for color Doppler measurements. In the absence of flow reversal, multiplane maximal jet area predicted severe MR with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 75%, which were 85% and 76%, respectively, for no or mild MR; this did not differ significantly from results obtained by monoplane or biplane measurements. Color Doppler measurements of eccentric jets were not reliable for identification of severe MR. Systolic pulmonary venous flow reversal identifies 2 of 3 patients with severe MR with a high accuracy. In patients without flow reversal, multiplane color Doppler TEE is very capable of assessing MR severity, but biplane and monoplane TEE are equally accurate.

  15. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in diagnosis of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S Y; Lin, F C; Chang, H J; Yeh, S J; Wu, D

    1998-06-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in adults is difficult to identify reliably by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We describe a 32-year-old woman with this coronary anomaly mimicking a coronary artery fistula on conventional TTE study. This anomaly was suggested by multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and subsequently confirmed by coronary angiography. Multiplane TEE thus may serve as a first-line diagnostic tool for detecting anomalous origin of coronary arteries.

  16. Role of transesophageal echocardiography in the clinical management of a patients with a giant coronary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wolford, D C; Jost, C M; Madu, E C; Walker, W; Ramanatian, K B

    1997-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has substantial limitations for the study of abnormalities of the coronary tree. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) allows a more complete examination of the coronary arteries, particularly the proximal segments. This report describes the use of TEE after cardiac catheterization in the clinical management of a patient with unstable angina. While angiography first showed the giant aneurysm of the left circumflex coronary artery. TEE, by revealing an active thrombus of the lumen, prompted an immediate surgical resolution.

  17. Evaluation of shunt flow by multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in adult patients with isolated patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Tai; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Hsieh, I-Chang; Chang, Hern-Jia; Chern, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Fun-Chung; Wu, Delon

    2002-11-01

    The role of multiplane (M) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the diagnosis of isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in adults and its effectiveness in the assessment of the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio were evaluated and compared with those obtained from cardiac catheterization examination. Eleven consecutive patients, ranging from 17 to 56 years old (mean of 29.5 +/- 12.0), with clinically suspected PDA were subjects of this study. A complete transthoracic echocardiographic study was performed in each patient before MTEE. MTEE with Doppler color flow mapping showed clear visualization of a ductal structure between the descending aorta and pulmonary artery with a continuous turbulent mosaic flow suggestive of PDA in all 11 patients. The pulmonary/systemic flow and vascular resistance ratios obtained by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization correlated well (r = 0.8732, P =.0004; r = 0.623, P =.04, respectively). This study demonstrated that MTEE combined with transthoracic echocardiography examination is an accurate noninvasive means in the diagnosis of PDA and assessment of the pulmonary to systemic flow and vascular resistance ratios in adult patients.

  18. Characteristics of Patent Foramen Ovale Associated with Cryptogenic Stroke: A Biplane Transesophageal Echocardiography Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homma, S.; DiTullio, M. R.; Sacco, R. L.; Mihalatos, D..; LiMandri, G.; Mohr, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale is associated with ischemic stroke in patients without a clearly identifiable etiology for stroke (cryptogenic stroke). Paradoxical embolization is thought to be a potential mechanism. However, patent foramen ovale is also found in patients with known cause of stroke. Therefore, using contrast transesophageal echocardiography, we characterized the patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients to assess morphological factors that may contribute to paradoxical embolization. Methods: Contrast transesophageal echocardiographic studies of 74 consecutive patients referred for ischemic stroke were reviewed. Twenty-three patients with patent foramen ovale were identified. These patients were classified as having strokes of determined origin or cryptogenic strokes according to criteria developed for the Stroke Data Bank of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Separation of septum primum from secundum and the number of microbubbles appearing in left atrium were then quantitated. These parameters were compared between patients with cryptogenic stroke and those with known cause of stroke. Results: The patent foramen ovale dimension was significantly larger in patients with cryptogenic stroke compared with patients with an identifiable cause of stroke (2.1+/-1.7 mm versus 057+/-0.78 mm [mean+/-SD]; P<.01). The number of microbubbles was also greater in patients with cryptogenic stroke compared with patients with an identifiable cause of stroke (13.9+/-10.7 versus 1.62+/-0.8 [mean+/-SD]; P<.0005). Conclusions: Patients with cryptogenic stroke have larger patent foramen ovale with more extensive right-to-left inter-atrial shunting than patients with stroke of determined cause. Transesophageal echocardiographically identifiable characteristics of patent foramen ovale may be important in defining the clinical significance of individual patent foramina.

  19. Hemodynamic Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Venous-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in a Case of Giant Cell Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Ratzlaff, Robert A.; Menke, David M.; Olave, Maria C.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare and commonly fatal form of fulminant myocarditis. During the acute phase, while immunosuppressive therapy is initiated, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is commonly used as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. Until recently, conventional transesophageal echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were the tools available for hemodynamic assessment of patients on this form of mechanical circulatory support. Nevertheless, both techniques have their limitations. We present a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with GCM requiring VA-ECMO support that was monitored under a novel miniaturized transesophageal echocardiography (hTEE) probe recently approved for 72 hours of continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Our case highlights the value of this novel, flexible, and disposable device for hemodynamic monitoring, accurate therapy guidance, and potential VA-ECMO weaning process of patients with this form of severe myocarditis.

  20. Hemodynamic Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Venous-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in a Case of Giant Cell Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Ratzlaff, Robert A.; Menke, David M.; Olave, Maria C.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare and commonly fatal form of fulminant myocarditis. During the acute phase, while immunosuppressive therapy is initiated, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is commonly used as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. Until recently, conventional transesophageal echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were the tools available for hemodynamic assessment of patients on this form of mechanical circulatory support. Nevertheless, both techniques have their limitations. We present a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with GCM requiring VA-ECMO support that was monitored under a novel miniaturized transesophageal echocardiography (hTEE) probe recently approved for 72 hours of continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Our case highlights the value of this novel, flexible, and disposable device for hemodynamic monitoring, accurate therapy guidance, and potential VA-ECMO weaning process of patients with this form of severe myocarditis. PMID:27648312

  1. Hemodynamic Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Venous-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in a Case of Giant Cell Myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Juan G; Ratzlaff, Robert A; Menke, David M; Olave, Maria C; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Díaz-Gómez, José L

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare and commonly fatal form of fulminant myocarditis. During the acute phase, while immunosuppressive therapy is initiated, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is commonly used as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. Until recently, conventional transesophageal echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were the tools available for hemodynamic assessment of patients on this form of mechanical circulatory support. Nevertheless, both techniques have their limitations. We present a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with GCM requiring VA-ECMO support that was monitored under a novel miniaturized transesophageal echocardiography (hTEE) probe recently approved for 72 hours of continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Our case highlights the value of this novel, flexible, and disposable device for hemodynamic monitoring, accurate therapy guidance, and potential VA-ECMO weaning process of patients with this form of severe myocarditis. PMID:27648312

  2. Prediction of thrombus-related mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction using transesophageal echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Tiong, I. Y.; Asher, C. R.; Murphy, M. T.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Identification of thrombus-related mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction (MPVD) has important therapeutic implications. We sought to develop an algorithm, combining clinical and echocardiographic parameters, for prediction of thrombus-related MPVD in a series of 53 patients (24 men, age 52 +/- 16 years) who had intraoperative diagnosis of thrombus or pannus from 1992 to 1997. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed to identify predictors of thrombus and pannus. Prevalence of thrombus and diagnostic yields relative to the number of predictors were determined. There were 22 patients with thrombus, 19 patients with pannus, and 12 patients with both. Forty-two of 53 masses were visualized using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), including 29 of 34 thrombi or both thrombi and panni and 13 of 19 isolated panni. Predictors of thrombus or mixed presentation include mobile mass (p = 0.009), attachment to occluder (p = 0.02), elevated gradients (p = 0.04), and an international normalized ratio of < or = 2.5 (p = 0.03). All 34 patients with thrombus or mixed presentation had > or = 1 predictor. The prevalence of thrombus in the presence of < or = 1, 2, and > or = 3 predictors is 14%, 69%, and 91%, respectively. Thus, TEE is sensitive in the identification of abnormal mass in the setting of MPVD. An algorithm based on clinical and transesophageal echocardiographic predictors may be useful to estimate the likelihood of thrombus in the setting of MPVD. In the presence of > or = 3 predictors, the probability of thrombus is high.

  3. Prediction of thrombus-related mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction using transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lin, S S; Tiong, I Y; Asher, C R; Murphy, M T; Thomas, J D; Griffin, B P

    2000-11-15

    Identification of thrombus-related mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction (MPVD) has important therapeutic implications. We sought to develop an algorithm, combining clinical and echocardiographic parameters, for prediction of thrombus-related MPVD in a series of 53 patients (24 men, age 52 +/- 16 years) who had intraoperative diagnosis of thrombus or pannus from 1992 to 1997. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed to identify predictors of thrombus and pannus. Prevalence of thrombus and diagnostic yields relative to the number of predictors were determined. There were 22 patients with thrombus, 19 patients with pannus, and 12 patients with both. Forty-two of 53 masses were visualized using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), including 29 of 34 thrombi or both thrombi and panni and 13 of 19 isolated panni. Predictors of thrombus or mixed presentation include mobile mass (p = 0.009), attachment to occluder (p = 0.02), elevated gradients (p = 0.04), and an international normalized ratio of < or = 2.5 (p = 0.03). All 34 patients with thrombus or mixed presentation had > or = 1 predictor. The prevalence of thrombus in the presence of < or = 1, 2, and > or = 3 predictors is 14%, 69%, and 91%, respectively. Thus, TEE is sensitive in the identification of abnormal mass in the setting of MPVD. An algorithm based on clinical and transesophageal echocardiographic predictors may be useful to estimate the likelihood of thrombus in the setting of MPVD. In the presence of > or = 3 predictors, the probability of thrombus is high. PMID:11074206

  4. In-vivo continuous monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic transesophageal echocardiography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Andrawes, Michael N.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-02-01

    Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), measured from pulmonary arteries, is a gold-standard measure of the dynamic balance between the oxygen supply and demand in the body. In critical care, continuous monitoring of SvO2 plays a vital role in early detection of circulatory shock and guiding goal-oriented resuscitation. In current clinical practice, SvO2 is measured by invasive pulmonary artery catheters (PAC), which are associated with a 10% risk of severe complications. To address the unmet clinical need for a non-invasive SvO2 monitor, we are developing a new technology termed photoacoustic transesophageal echocardiography (PA-TEE). PA-TEE integrates transesophageal echocardiography with photoacoustic oximetry, and enables continuous assessment of SvO2 through an esophageal probe that can be inserted into the body in a minimally invasive manner. We have constructed a clinically translatable PA-TEE prototype, which features a mobile OPO laser, a modified ultrasonography console and a dual-modality esophageal probe. Comprised of a rotatable acoustic array detector, a flexible optical fiber bundle and a light-integrating acoustic lens, the oximetric probe has an outer diameter smaller than 15 mm and will be tolerable for most patients. Through custom-made C++/Qt software, our device acquires and displays ultrasonic and photoacoustic images in real time to guide the deployment of the probe. SvO2 is calculated on-line and updated every second. PA-TEE has now been used to evaluate SvO2 in living swine. Our findings show that changing the fraction of oxygen in the inspired gas modulates SvO2 measured by PA-TEE. Statistic comparison between SvO2 measurements from PA-TEE in vivo the gold-standard laboratorial analysis on blood samples drawn from PACs will be presented.

  5. 3D reconstruction and quantitative assessment method of mitral eccentric regurgitation from color Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ge, Yi Nan; Wang, Tian Fu; Zheng, Chang Qiong; Zheng, Yi

    2005-10-01

    Based on the two-dimensional color Doppler image in this article, multilane transesophageal rotational scanning method is used to acquire original Doppler echocardiography while echocardiogram is recorded synchronously. After filtering and interpolation, the surface rendering and volume rendering methods are performed. Through analyzing the color-bar information and the color Doppler flow image's superposition principle, the grayscale mitral anatomical structure and color-coded regurgitation velocity parameter were separated from color Doppler flow images, three-dimensional reconstruction of mitral structure and regurgitation velocity distribution was implemented separately, fusion visualization of the reconstructed regurgitation velocity distribution parameter with its corresponding 3D mitral anatomical structures was realized, which can be used in observing the position, phase, direction and measuring the jet length, area, volume, space distribution and severity level of the mitral regurgitation. In addition, in patients with eccentric mitral regurgitation, this new modality overcomes the inherent limitations of two-dimensional color Doppler flow image by depicting the full extent of the jet trajectory, the area of eccentric regurgitation on three-dimensional image was much larger than that on two-dimensional image, the area variation tendency and volume variation tendency of regurgitation have been shown in figure at different angle and different systolic phase. The study shows that three-dimensional color Doppler provides quantitative measurements of eccentric mitral regurgitation that are more accurate and reproducible than conventional color Doppler.

  6. Comparison of multiplane and biplane transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Maxted, W; Nanda, N C; Coggins, K; Roychoudhry, D; Espinal, M; Fan, P; Camino, A; Sanyal, R; Finch, A; Kirklin, J; Pacifico, A

    1997-02-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with the more conventional biplane technique in the direct assessment of aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis. Short-axis images of the aortic valve adequate for measuring aortic valve area were obtained in all 81 patients studied by multiplane TEE but in only 56 of 64 patients (88%) using the biplane approach. The correlation coefficient for aortic valve area determined by multiplane TEE (r = 0.89; SEE = 0.04 cm2) was higher (p < 0.01) than biplane TEE (r = 0.74; SEE = 0.06 cm2). Correlations were higher for bicuspid valves (multiplane, r = 0.93; biplane, r = 0.75) than tricuspid valves (multiplane, r = 0.87; biplane, r = 0.75). Our study has demonstrated the superiority of multiplane TEE to both biplane TEE and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the direct evaluation of aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis.

  7. Value of real-time transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography in guiding ablation of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter and pulmonary vein isolation.

    PubMed

    Faletra, Francesco F; Regoli, François; Acena, Marta; Auricchio, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, both the range of indications and the efficacy and safety of interventional electrophysiology has improved considerably. This progress is attributed to both the accumulating experience of electrophysiologists and the advances in technological tools facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) has emerged as a new imaging tool in the clinical arena. Its ability to image in "real time" cardiac structures "en face" and the almost entire length of intracardiac catheters has made this technique a promising imaging tool to guide percutaneous catheter-based procedures. More recently it has been used in monitoring ablation procedures. In this review, the advantages and current limitations of RT 3D TEE during ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter and pulmonary vein isolation are described.

  8. Analysis of right ventricular kinesis by means of transesophageal echocardiography: present problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kozàkovà, M; Palombo, C; Benanti, C; L'Abbate, A; Distante, A

    1994-03-01

    The evaluation of right ventricular (RV) kinesis by two-dimensional echocardiography represents a difficult task. Transthoracic echocardiography can visualize the RV in several projections, but the image quality and the variability of imaging views usually do not allow quantitative analysis. We investigated the potential of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for evaluating RV global function and regional kinesis, in 32 controls and in 16 patients with inferior myocardial infarction (MI) and asynergy involving the inferior wall of both ventricles. Good-quality images of at least one horizontal section of the RV were obtained in 73% of subjects by conventional, 90 degrees sector and in 100% of subjects by wide-angle, "panoramic" sector. Images of the RV in short-axis view at medium level were acquired and evaluated in 93% of cases, but at basal and apical levels only in 67% and 39%, respectively. The low percentage of successful detection and evaluation of the RV at apical level can be explained by prominent motion and trabeculation of the apex. Global systolic area changes (SAC) in controls attained similar values at apical and medium levels (60% and 59%, respectively), but were significantly lower (48%, P less than 0.05) at basal level. In patients with previous inferior MI and inferoposterior asynergy, global SAC were significantly (P less than 0.01) lower at medium and basal levels (32% and 27%, respectively) compared with controls. Regional kinesis of RV was assessed as segmental SAC in 12 different segments, by fixed and float system of center of cavity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography: in vivo determination of left ventricular mass in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kühl, H P; Bücker, A; Franke, A; Maul, S; Nolte-Ernsting, C; Reineke, T; Hoffmann, R; Günther, R W; Hanrath, P

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the in vivo calculation of left ventricular mass (LVM). In addition, mass values obtained by M-mode echocardiography were compared with those calculated by MRI. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the left ventricle was performed from a transesophageal and transgastric transducer position with a multiplane transducer in 20 patients. Left ventricular mass was calculated from both transducer positions by using slices of various thicknesses, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Reproducibility was determined by 5 repeated measurements of mass in each of 5 randomly selected left ventricles. M-mode echocardiography was performed according to the method described by Devereux. For MRI, multiple short-axis views with 10-mm slice thickness were acquired in inspiration hold. Correlation was high for mass determined by 3DE and MRI (for 10-mm slice thickness: r = 0.99; y = 0.99 x - 0.7 g; standard error of estimate = 8.5 g; P <.001). There was no statistical bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from +/-16.4 g to +/-27.2 g, depending on the slice thickness. Variability was lowest for a slice thickness of 10 mm (SD +/- 8.2 g). The reproducibility of mass determination was excellent (mean width of the 95% CI 12.8 g). Left ventricular mass values calculated from the transgastric and transesophageal transducer position were not different from each other (mean bias 0.6 +/- 9.1 g; P = ns). M-mode-based LVM calculations showed systematic overestimation and large measurement variability (bias 23.7 g; 95% CI +/- 92.8 g). Compared with MRI, transesophageal 3DE is an accurate and reproducible method for the determination of LVM and clearly superior to M-mode echocardiography. PMID:10708469

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography for valvular perforation in acute infective endocarditis: correlation with anatomic findings.

    PubMed

    De Castro, S; Cartoni, D; d'Amati, G; Beni, S; Yao, J; Fiorell, M; Gallo, P; Fedele, F; Pandian, N G

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TTE and TEE, respectively) for assessing valvular perforation during active infective endocarditis by correlating the results of TTE and TEE with anatomic findings of 88 valves examined at surgery or autopsy. Compared with TEE, TTE has a low diagnostic sensitivity in the detection of this complication and, in the presence of hemodynamic instability, multiplane TEE should be performed directly.

  11. Value of repeated multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with mitral valve ring abscess and left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wisbar, A; Keim, M W; Momper, R; Eschenbruch, E M; Braun, B; Hust, M H

    2001-07-01

    Mitral valve ring abscess and ventricular pseudoaneurysm are rare complications of infective endocarditis. We describe the case of a 58-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and in whom tricuspid and mitral valve endocarditis developed within 2 weeks. Despite widespread antibiotic therapy, the endocarditis proceeded to form a mitral valve ring abscess and a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. The diagnosis was set by repeated multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and confirmed by heart surgery.

  12. Multiplane Transesophageal and Intracardiac Echocardiography in Large Swine: Imaging Technique, Normal Values, and Research Applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Fang; Schwartzman, David; Lighty, George W.; Menz, Volker; Michele, John J.; Li, Kun S.; Dillon, Stephen M.; Marchlinski, Francis E.; Segal, Bernard L.

    1997-03-01

    Transthoracic echocardiographic imaging has been difficult to attain in the swine model. This study: (1) compares multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with single plane TEE and intracardiac catheter echocardiography (ICE) for imaging of the swine cardiovascular system; and (2) defines normal values using these techniques in a closed chest large swine model (n = 24, body weight 50-114 kg). Multiplane TEE increased success rate over the single plane (the variable plane array only at 0 degrees ) TEE (P < 0.01) for imaging the left ventricular (LV) long-axis view (100% vs 50%), LV outflow tract (100% vs 33%), right atrium and its appendage (79% vs 33%), ascending aorta (100% vs 58%), and aortic arch (100% vs 17%). TEE-derived normal values at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) were: LV internal diameter (ID) = 49 +/- 3 mm (ED) and 33 +/- 4 mm (ES); LV wall thickness = 7 +/- 1 mm (ED); right ventricular (RV) ID = 24 +/- 4 mm (ED); RV wall thickness = 4 +/- 2 mm (ED); left atrial ID = 48 +/- 6 mm (ES); aortic root ID = 26 +/- 3 mm (ES); LV volume = 157 +/- 49 ml (ED) and 57 +/- 22 ml (ES). Baseline LV ejection fraction (64% +/- 6%), Doppler-derived stroke volume (86 +/- 14 ml), and cardiac index (107 ml/min per kg) were determined. Basal normal values, except for an elevated cardiac index in swine, are comparable to those reported for human adults. Multiplane TEE provided better overall cardiac imaging than did single plane TEE. ICE provided higher resolution imaging of individual cardiac chambers and structures when the ultrasound catheter was introduced into the right or left heart, but whole heart imaging was limited by ultrasound penetration at 12.5 MHz. Normal indices of chamber size and function provide a reference for the physiological significance of induced pathological states in this relevant animal model.

  13. Different transseptal puncture for different procedures: Optimization of left atrial catheterization guided by transesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Radinovic, Andrea; Mazzone, Patrizio; Landoni, Giovanni; Agricola, Eustachio; Regazzoli, Damiano; Bella, Paolo Della

    2016-01-01

    Background: Left atrial catheterization through transseptal puncture is frequently performed in cardiac catheterization procedures. Appropriate transseptal puncture is critical to achieve procedural success. Aims: The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of selective transseptal punctures, using a modified radiofrequency (RF) transseptal needle and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), in different types of procedures that require specific sites of left atrial catheterization. Setting and Design: This was an observational trial in a cardiac catheterization laboratory of a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing different percutaneous procedures requiring atrial transseptal puncture such as atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion, and mitral valve repair were included in the study. All procedures were guided by TEE and an RF transseptal needle targeting a specific region of the septum to perform the puncture. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was descriptive only. Results: RF-assisted transseptal punctures were performed in six consecutive patients who underwent AF ablation (two patients), LAA closure (two patients), and mitral valve repair (two patients). In all patients, transseptal punctures were performed successfully at the desired site. No adverse events or complications were observed. Conclusions: Selective transseptal puncture, using TEE and an RF needle, is a feasible technique that can be used in multiple approaches requiring a precise site of access for left atrial catheterization. PMID:27716687

  14. Pediatric Transesophageal Echocardiography by Means of a Miniature 5-MHz Multiplane Transducer.

    PubMed

    Cromme-Dijkhuis, Adri H.; Djoa, Kie K.; Bom, Nicolaas; Hess, John

    1996-11-01

    The development of a miniature multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) transducer for pediatric use is the latest development in TEE. Horizontal, longitudinal, and all possible intermediate oblique planes can be obtained with minimal transducer manipulation. We studied 48 patients with an experimental 5-MHz transducer, which contains 48 transmitting elements. The dimensions of the tip are 27 x 10.6 x 7.9 mm. Patients ages ranged from 2 days to 16 years, their weights from 3.6-67 kg. Multiplane TEE proved to be complementary to the single horizontal plane in assessing the right ventricular outflow tract, the left ventricular outflow tract, ascending aorta, the atrial septum, the atrioventricular (AV) valves, especially in AV septal defects, and double inlet left ventricle (DILV). Moreover, multiplane TEE was extremely helpful in judging the outflow tracts and ventricular septal defects in more complex heart defects such as DILV, double outlet right ventricle, and hearts with discordant connections. Multiplane TEE offered superb monitoring of cardiac interventions. We conclude that multiplane TEE provides new imaging planes and enables visualization of every major structure of the heart by unlimited scan planes. Multiplane TEE is indispensable in congenital heart defects. Thus, multiplane TEE adds to diagnostic assurance and enhances decision making for surgery. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 13, November 1996)

  15. Multiplane Transesophageal Echocardiography with Dobutamine in Patients with Biventricular Inferior Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús; Romero-Cárdenas, Angel; Bialostozky, David; Alexanderson, Erick; Martinez-Sanchez, Carlos; Peña-Duque, Marco; Keirns, Candace; Rijlaarsdam, María; Lupi-Herrera, Eulo

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alterations of ventricular wall movement in patients with acute posteroinferior myocardial infarction with extension to right cavities with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), as well as the utility of dobutamine with this technique to analyze myocardial viability. Nine men with a mean age of 51 years fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Myocardial TEE was performed in all the men 72 hours after the acute event with long- and short-axis transgastric images of both ventricles under basal conditions and with dobutamine infusions of 5 and 10 µg/kg per minute. Results were compared with myocardial perfusion findings obtained with Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT. Left ventricular myocardial viability was demonstrated in 28 of 45 altered segments with dobutamine stress myocardial TEE and Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT. Right ventricular myocardial viability was identified in 27 of 30 altered segments with dobutamine stress myocardial TEE in transgastric short and long axes, and with Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT in 23 of 25 segments only in short-axis images. Multiplane TEE provided excellent image resolution and better definition of endocardial and epicardial borders, which facilitated detailed evaluation of ventricular segmental wall movement. Infusion of low doses of dobutamine made it possible to identify viable tissue in both ventricles, and results were comparable to those of nuclear medicine.

  16. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: image orientation, examination technique, anatomic correlations, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Seward, J B; Khandheria, B K; Freeman, W K; Oh, J K; Enriquez-Sarano, M; Miller, F A; Edwards, W D; Tajik, A J

    1993-06-01

    Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) consists of a single ultrasound array or imaging sector that can be rotated around the long axis of the ultrasound beam typically in a 180 degrees arc. This capability produces a circular (conical) continuum of tomographic two-dimensional images. The principal advantage of multiple TEE is that the transducer can be rotated to an image-specific orientation and critically optimized. Thus, manipulation of the transducer is less complex than with the biplane technique, and user adaptation is considerably enhanced. The logical image notation (that is, degrees of rotation) and orientation are described in this report. A step-by-step approach to the multiplane TEE examination, which evolved from our initial experience with 400 consecutive patients, is correlated with accompanying tomographic anatomic corroboration. The unique clinical applications are discussed and related to the amplification of diagnostic information. Although the multiplanar TEE transducer is relatively large, all adult patients who weigh 40 kg or more can be examined. No major complications occurred in our initial experience with this promising new technology. PMID:8497131

  17. Automated Assessment of Right Ventricular Volumes and Function Using Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Nillesen, Maartje M; van Dijk, Arie P J; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Thijssen, Johan M; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is known to be of diagnostic value in patients with RV dysfunction. Because of its complex anatomic shape, automated determination of the RV volume is difficult and strong reliance on geometric assumptions is not desired. A method for automated RV assessment was developed using three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography without relying on a priori knowledge of the cardiac anatomy. A 3-D adaptive filtering technique that optimizes the discrimination between blood and myocardium was applied to facilitate endocardial border detection. Filtered image data were incorporated in a segmentation model to automatically detect the endocardial RV border. End-systolic and end-diastolic RV volumes, as well as ejection fraction, were computed from the automatically segmented endocardial surfaces and compared against reference volumes manually delineated by two expert cardiologists. The results reported good performance in terms of correlation and agreement with the results from the reference volumes.

  18. Value of postoperative assessment of cardiac allograft function by transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kaye, D M; Bergin, P; Buckland, M; Esmore, D

    1994-01-01

    Heart transplantation now provides an acceptable therapy for patients with severe end-stage heart disease. Although patient outcome has significantly improved both early and late after heart transplantation, early morbidity and mortality continues to affect overall survival and may be unpredictable. In an attempt to identify factors that may assist in predicting early outcome after orthotopic heart transplantation, we assessed allograft function in 16 patients in the immediate postoperative period, 30 minutes after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass by measuring the fractional shortening of the left ventricle with transesophageal echocardiography. In addition, standard hemodynamic indexes of allograft function (arterial blood pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and cardiac output) were obtained at this early time point. Early outcome was assessed by the duration and peak dose of inotrope support required after transplantation, requirement for mechanical support, and the duration of stay in the intensive care unit. Left ventricular fractional shortening 30 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass was significantly lower in those patients requiring inotropic support (28.4% +/- 4.6% versus 43.7% +/- 3.5%, p < 0.05), whereas hemodynamic variables failed to distinguish these groups. In those patients requiring inotropes, there was a significant negative correlation of fractional shortening with the peak dose (r = -0.87, p < 0.01) and the duration of inotropic support (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). The total ischemic time of the allograft (206 +/- 22 minutes, range 77 to 359) did not correlate with the subsequent fractional shortening, but patients requiring inotrope support after the operation had significantly longer ischemic times (259 +/- 22 versus 138 +/- 22 minutes, p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Characterization of the left atrial vortex flow by two-dimensional transesophageal contrast echocardiography using particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu-Hwan; Son, Jang-Won; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ung; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Hong, Geu-Ru

    2013-01-01

    This article is the first clinical investigation of the quantitative left atrial (LA) vortex flow by two-dimensional (2-D) transesophageal contrast echocardiography (2-D-TECE) using vector particle image velocimetry (PIV). The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of LA vortex flow analysis and to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow in controls and in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thirty-five controls and 30 patients with AF underwent transesophageal contrast echocardiography. The velocity vector was estimated by particle image velocimetry. The morphology and pulsatility of the LA vortex flow were compared between the control and AF groups. In all patients, quantitative LA vortex flow analysis was feasible. In the control group, multiple, pulsatile, compact and elliptical-shaped vortices were seen in the periphery of the LA. These vortices were persistently maintained and vectors were directed toward the atrioventricular inflow. In the AF group, a large, merged, lower pulsatile and round-shaped vortex was observed in the center of the LA. In comparisons of vortex parameters, the relative strength was significantly lower in the AF group (1.624 ± 0.501 vs. 2.105 ± 0.226, p < 0.001). It is feasible to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow by transesophageal contrast echocardiography in patients with AF, which offers a new method to obtain additional information on LA hemodynamics. The approach has the potential for early detection of the LA dysfunction and in decisions regarding treatment strategy and guiding anticoagulation treatment in patients with AF.

  20. Incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in the assessment of a tuberculoma involving the left atrium and appendage.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu Öz, Tuğba; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Nanda, Navin C; Kalenderoğlu, Koray; Akyüz, Şükrü; Atasoy, Işıl; Ösken, Altuğ; Onuk, Tolga; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Intracardiac tuberculomas are extremely rare, and cardiac involvement in tuberculosis accounts for only 0.5% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report for the first time incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of a tuberculoma involving the left atrium and left atrial appendage.

  1. Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Detection of Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus: A Useful Technique in Patients with Transesophageal Echocardiography Contraindication

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; López-Viedma, Bartolomé; Piqueras-Flores, Jesús; López-Lluva, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is a diagnostic and therapeutic technique used in specialized centers for patients that have undergone digestive procedures. This technique enables highly precise real-time imaging of the digestive tract wall and surrounding organs. Endoscopic ultrasound is also useful in patients with cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation. In patients with contraindication for transesophageal echocardiography due to high risk of esophageal bleeding or complications that may require immediate intervention, endoscopic ultrasound may be a safer option for visualizing atrial chambers to rule out the presence of left atrial appendage thrombi before cardioversion.

  2. Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Detection of Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus: A Useful Technique in Patients with Transesophageal Echocardiography Contraindication.

    PubMed

    Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Jurado-Román, Alfonso; López-Viedma, Bartolomé; Piqueras-Flores, Jesús; López-Lluva, María T

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is a diagnostic and therapeutic technique used in specialized centers for patients that have undergone digestive procedures. This technique enables highly precise real-time imaging of the digestive tract wall and surrounding organs. Endoscopic ultrasound is also useful in patients with cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation. In patients with contraindication for transesophageal echocardiography due to high risk of esophageal bleeding or complications that may require immediate intervention, endoscopic ultrasound may be a safer option for visualizing atrial chambers to rule out the presence of left atrial appendage thrombi before cardioversion. PMID:27642527

  3. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Anatomical Assessment of Isolated Parachute Mitral Valve in an Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    López-Pardo, Francisco; Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; González-Calle, Antonio; Laviana-Martinez, Fernando; Esteve-Ruiz, Iris; Lagos-Degrande, Oscar; López-Haldon, Jose E

    2015-11-01

    Parachute mitral valve (PMV) is a rare congenital anomaly of the mitral valve apparatus usually evidenced in infants and young children. Adult presentation is extremely rare and is generally mild in terms of mitral stenosis. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department due to progressive dyspnea, with NYHA functional class IV symptoms on presentation. The echocardiographic examination identified a PMV with moderate mitral stenosis and a secondary smaller subvalvular mitral orifice. The report shows the usefulness of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the detection and quantification of this rare anomaly. PMID:26096823

  4. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Anatomical Assessment of Isolated Parachute Mitral Valve in an Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    López-Pardo, Francisco; Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; González-Calle, Antonio; Laviana-Martinez, Fernando; Esteve-Ruiz, Iris; Lagos-Degrande, Oscar; López-Haldon, Jose E

    2015-11-01

    Parachute mitral valve (PMV) is a rare congenital anomaly of the mitral valve apparatus usually evidenced in infants and young children. Adult presentation is extremely rare and is generally mild in terms of mitral stenosis. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department due to progressive dyspnea, with NYHA functional class IV symptoms on presentation. The echocardiographic examination identified a PMV with moderate mitral stenosis and a secondary smaller subvalvular mitral orifice. The report shows the usefulness of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the detection and quantification of this rare anomaly.

  5. Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Detection of Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus: A Useful Technique in Patients with Transesophageal Echocardiography Contraindication

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; López-Viedma, Bartolomé; Piqueras-Flores, Jesús; López-Lluva, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is a diagnostic and therapeutic technique used in specialized centers for patients that have undergone digestive procedures. This technique enables highly precise real-time imaging of the digestive tract wall and surrounding organs. Endoscopic ultrasound is also useful in patients with cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation. In patients with contraindication for transesophageal echocardiography due to high risk of esophageal bleeding or complications that may require immediate intervention, endoscopic ultrasound may be a safer option for visualizing atrial chambers to rule out the presence of left atrial appendage thrombi before cardioversion. PMID:27642527

  6. Variations of transesophageal echocardiography practices in India: A survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Deepak Prakash; George, Antony; Joshi, Shreedhar; Nair, Suresh; Koshy, Thomas; Gandhe, Uday; Chakravarthy, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Use of perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has expanded in India. Despite attempts to standardize the practice of TEE in cardiac surgical procedures, variation in practice and application exists. This is the first online survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia, research and academic wing of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists (IACTA). Aims: We hypothesized that variations in practice of intraoperative TEE exist among centers and this survey aimed at analyzing them. Settings and Design: This is an online survey conducted among members of the IACTA. Subjects and Methods: All members of IACTA were contacted using online questionnaire fielded using SurveyMonkey™ software. There were 21 questions over four pages evaluating infrastructure, documentation of TEE, experience and accreditation of anesthesiologist performing TEE, and finally impact of TEE on clinical practice. Questions were also asked about national TEE workshop conducted by the IACTA, and suggestions were invited by members on overseas training. Results: Response rate was 29.7% (382/1222). 53.9% were from high-volume centers (>500 cases annually). TEE machine/probe was available to 75.9% of the respondents and those in high-volume centers had easier (86.9%) access. There was poor documentation of preoperative consent (23.3%) as well as TEE findings (66%). Only 18.2% of responders were board qualified. Almost 90% of the responders felt surgeons respected their TEE diagnosis. Around half of the responders felt that new intraoperative findings by TEE were considered in decision-making in most of the cases and 70% of the responders reported that surgical plan was altered based on TEE finding more than 10 times in the last year. Despite this, only 5% of the responders in this survey were monetarily awarded for performing impactful skill of TEE. Majority (57%) felt that there is no need for overseas training for Indian cardiac anesthesiologists

  7. [A new approach to the tricuspid valve in Ebstein's anomaly by real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Taktak, A; Acar, P; Dulac, Y; Abadir, S; Chilon, T; Roux, D; Glock, Y; Fournial, G

    2005-05-01

    Ebstein's anomaly affects the tricuspid valve with a large range of anatomical forms. Successful tricuspid valvuloplasty depends mainly on the ability to mobilise the leaflets. Evaluation of the leaflet surface is difficult with 2D echocardiography whereas 3D echocardiography provides intracardiac views of the valve. The authors used this method in 10 patients with 3 modes of imaging: biplane, real time and total volume. The study population (age: 1 day to 30 years) included: 1 prenatal diagnosis, 1 neonate with refractory cyanosis, 5 patients with mild tricuspid regurgitation, 3 patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 2 of whom underwent valvuloplasty. 3D echocardiography was disappointing in the foetus and neonate because of poor spatial resolution. The ventricular view of the tricuspid valve in older children and adults allowed analysis of tricuspid leaflet coaptation and of the mechanism of regurgitation. The commissures and leaflet surfaces were assessed. The results of surgical valvuloplasty could be evaluated by 3D echocardiography. 3D echocardiography is now transthoracic and a real time investigation. Technical advances are required before it comes into routine usage: a more manoeuvrable matricial probe (integrating pulsed and continuous wave Doppler) and larger volume real time 3D imaging with better resolution. Its role in the assessment of Ebstein's anomaly should be evaluated in a larger series of patients. PMID:15966604

  8. The value of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis of the native aortic infective endocarditis valve complications: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Adrian; Sacui, Diana; Manole, Simona; Radulescu, Amanda; Beyer, Ruxandra

    2016-06-01

    Despite its current limitations transthoracic echocardiography is still widely used for the anatomical and functional evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. However, all these limitations can be overcome by using transesophageal echocardiography. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient, diagnosed with aortic valve infective endocarditis, whose transthoracic echocardiography showed only a cusp vegetation and aortic regurgitation, but raised the suspicion of periannular complications. The transesophageal echocardiography revealed a circular aortic root abscess and a ventricular septal defect with left-to-right shunt, and consequently leads to a complete different surgical tactical approach. The patient was urgently referred for surgery due to the rapid deterioration of the hemodynamic status, and had a good outcome on the short-term follow-up.

  9. The role of 3D and speckle tracking echocardiography in cardiac amyloidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nucci, E M; Lisi, M; Cameli, M; Baldi, L; Puccetti, L; Mondillo, S; Favilli, R; Lunghetti, S

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a disorder characterized by amyloid fibrils deposition in cardiac interstitium; it results in a restrictive cardiomyopathy with heart failure (HF) and conduction abnormalities. The "gold standard" for diagnosis of CA is myocardial biopsy but possible sampling errors and procedural risks, limit it's use. Magnetic resonance (RMN) offers more information than traditional echocardiography and allows diagnosis of CA but often it's impossible to perform. We report the case of a man with HF and symptomatic bradyarrhythmia that required an urgent pacemaker implant. Echocardiography was strongly suggestive of CA but wasn't impossible to perform an RMN to confirm this hypothesis because the patient was implanted with a definitive pacemaker. So was performed a Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE) and a 3D echocardiography: STE allows to differentiate CA from others hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by longitudinal strain value < 12% and 3D echocardiography shows regional left ventricular dyssynchrony with a characteristic temporal pattern of dispersion of regional volume systolic change. On the basis of these results, finally was performed an endomyocardial biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of CA. This case underlines the importance of news, noninvasive techniques such as eco 3D and STE for early diagnosis of CA, especially when RMN cannot be performed.

  10. Coronary artery fistula: 64-slice computed tomographic delineation and correlation with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jonathan K; Beache, Garth M; Slaughter, Mark S; Sobieski, Michael A; Schneider, William; Stoddard, Marcus F

    2012-03-01

    A 49-year-old female who presented with 3 weeks of exertional chest pain had an abnormal mediastinal finding at chest x-ray imaging. Conventional, nongated computed tomography of the chest revealed a "mass" in proximity to the right atrium. 64-slice, cardiac gated computed tomographic coronary angiography, and transesophageal echocardiography delineated the "mass" as a coronary artery fistula structure. The fistula originated from the left main as a tubular vessel that continued into an aneurysmal sac-like cavity that emptied into the superior vena cava near the right atrium. Computed tomographic coronary angiography showed otherwise normal coronary arteries. Findings were ultimately confirmed at cardiac catheterization. Coronary steal was clinically diagnosed and she underwent surgical ligation and resection of the fistula and aneurysm. Her subsequent course was uncomplicated.

  11. Transesophageal echocardiography-guided thrombectomy of intracardiac renal cell carcinoma without cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Souki, Fouad Ghazi; Demos, Michael; Fermin, Lilibeth; Ciancio, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) resection has important anesthetic management implications, particularly when tumor extends, suprahepatic, into the right atrium. Use of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is essential in identifying tumor extension and guiding resection. Latest surgical approach avoids venovenous and cardiopulmonary bypass yet requires special precautions and interventions on the anesthesiologist's part. We present a case of Level IV RCC resected without cardiopulmonary bypass and salvaged by TEE guidance and detection of residual intracardiac tumor. PMID:27716710

  12. Cleft posterior mitral valve leaflet in an adult with Turner syndrome diagnosed with the use of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Negrea, Stefania Luminita; Alexandrescu, Clara; Sabatier, Michel; Dreyfus, Gilles D

    2012-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a monosomy (45,X karyotype) in which the prevalence of cardiovascular anomalies is high. However, this aspect of Turner syndrome has received little attention outside of the pediatric medical literature, and the entire spectrum of cardiovascular conditions in adults remains unknown. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who had Turner syndrome. When she was a teenager, her native bicuspid aortic valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. Fifteen years later, during preoperative examination for prosthesis-patient mismatch, severe mitral regurgitation was detected, and a congenital cleft in the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve was diagnosed with use of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. The patient underwent concurrent mitral valve repair and aortic valve replacement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cleft in the posterior mitral valve leaflet as a cardiovascular defect observed in Turner syndrome, and the first such instance to have been diagnosed with the use of 3-dimensional echocardiography.

  13. Residual Inferior Vena Cava Thrombus Detected by Transesophageal Echocardiography After Resection of a Malignant Adrenal Mass.

    PubMed

    Burbano, Nelson H; Vlah, Claudene; Argalious, Maged

    2015-10-15

    A 43-year-old woman with a history of the Cushing syndrome secondary to adrenocortical carcinoma presented to the operating room for right adrenalectomy, hepatectomy, nephrectomy, and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy. Initial intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) confirmed the presence of an IVC tumor below the hepatic veins. Total vascular exclusion of the liver was necessary to perform the operation. A repeat TEE showed a residual thrombus within the IVC prompting an additional cavotomy to successfully remove the entire mass. The remainder of the procedure finalized uneventfully. The case highlights the importance of TEE monitoring for noncardiac surgery with thrombotic involvement of the IVC. PMID:26466307

  14. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography performed according to the guidelines of the American Society of Echocardiography in patients with mitral valve prolapse, flail, and endocarditis: diagnostic accuracy in the identification of mitral regurgitant defects by correlation with surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Agricola, Eustachio; Oppizzi, Michele; De Bonis, Michele; Maisano, Francesco; Toracca, Lucia; Bove, Tiziana; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2003-01-01

    Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography is a useful tool to study mitral regurgitation. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography performed according to the guidelines of the American Society of Echocardiography. We used 4 midesophageal and 2 transgastric views in 313 patients with degenerative lesions, endocarditic lesions, or both to identify regurgitant defects, comparing transesophageal echocardiography results with surgical findings. The overall diagnostic accuracy using individual scallops was 97.2% (P <.00001) with a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 97.6%. Considering the single sections of the mitral valve, an accuracy of 98%, 97.1%, and 98%, was found, respectively, for the lateral, middle, and medial third of the anterior leaflet. For the posterior leaflet, the accuracy was 98% for the lateral scallop, 98.4% for the middle, and 96.1% for the medial. This strategy provides good accuracy in diagnosing both simple and challenging mitral-valve lesions and its widespread use should be recommended.

  15. [Acute post-traumatic aortic insufficiency: transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis and therapy of the lesions].

    PubMed

    Brandstätt, P; Carlioz, R; Fontaine, B; Hémery, Y; Pats, B; Chapuis, O; Lang-Lazdunsky, L; Jancovici, R; Burlaton, J P; Hvass, U

    1998-10-01

    A 58-year-old car driver suffered a road accident responsible for severe blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma. Transoephageal echocardiography, performed following the secondary development of a diastolic murmur, confirmed the presence of aortic incompetence due to commissural avulsion and guided the surgical treatment, which consisted of commissural suspension under cardiopulmonary bypass via a mini transverse trans-sternal incision. The rarity of acute aortic valve incompetence following non-penetrating thoracic trauma is illustrated by the data of the literature. This lesion is due to either avulsion of a sigmoid cusp or commissure, or laceration of the valvular tissue. Transthoracic echocardiography confirms the reality of aortic incompetence suggested clinically by appearance of a diastolic murmur, but confirmation of the mechanism of the lesions is based on transoesophageal echocardiography which allows perfectly safe and rapid visualization of the mechanism of the valvular lesion, investigation of associated lesions and guidance of therapeutic management.

  16. Patent Foramen Ovale: Association between the Degree of Shunt by Contrast Transesophageal Echocardiography and the Risk of Future Ischemic Neurologic Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, David A.; Godard, Joel; Godard, Joel; Corretti, mary C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Sample, Cindy; Price, Thomas R.; Plotnick, Gary D.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is an association between the degree of interatrial shunting across a patent foramen ovale, as determined by saline contrast transesophageal echocardiography, and the risk of subsequent systemic embolic events, including stroke. Thirty-four patients found to have patent foramen ovale during transesophageal echocardiography were divided into two groups on the basis of the maximum number of microbubbles in the left heart in any single frame after intravenous saline contrast injection: group 1 (n = 16) with a "large" degree of shunt (220 microbubbles) and group 2 (n = 18) with a "small" degree of shunt (23 but <20 microbubbles). Patients were followed up over a mean period of 21 months for subsequent systemic embolic events, including transient ischemic attack and stroke. Five (31%) of the patients with large shunts had subsequent ischemic neurologic events, whereas none of the patients with small shunts had embolic events (p= 0.03). These events occurred in spite of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. We conclude that patients with a large degree of shunt across a patent foramen ovale, as determined by contrast transesophageal echocardiography, are at a significantly higher risk for subsequent adverse neurologic events compared with patients with a small degree of shunt.

  17. Heart wall motion analysis by dynamic 3D strain rate imaging from tissue Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenteufel, Mark; Wolf, Ivo; de Simone, Raffaele; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-04-01

    The knowledge about the complex three-dimensional (3D) heart wall motion pattern, particular in the left ventricle, provides valuable information about potential malfunctions, e.g., myocardial ischemia. Nowadays, echocardiography (cardiac ultrasound) is the predominant technique for evaluation of cardiac function. Beside morphology, tissue velocities can be obtained by Doppler techniques (tissue Doppler imaging, TDI). Strain rate imaging (SRI) is a new technique to diagnose heart vitality. It provides information about the contraction ability of the myocardium. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is still the most important clinical method for estimation of morphology and function. Two-dimensional methods leads to a lack of information due to the three-dimensional overall nature of the heart movement. Due to this complex three-dimensional motion pattern of the heart, the knowledge about velocity and strain rate distribution over the whole ventricle can provide more valuable diagnostic information about motion disorders. For the assessment of intracardiac blood flow three-dimensional color Doppler has already shown its clinical utility. We have developed methods to produce strain rate images by means of 3D tissue Doppler echocardiography. The tissue Doppler and strain rate images can be visualized and quantified by different methods. The methods are integrated into an interactively usable software environment, making them available in clinical everyday life. Our software provides the physician with a valuable tool for diagnosis of heart wall motion.

  18. The Incidence of Patent Foramen Ovale in 1,000 Consecutive Patients: A Contrast Transesophageal Echocardiography Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Fisher, Edward A.; Budd, Jacqueline H.; Rosen, Stacey E.; Goldman, Martin E.

    1995-01-01

    Study objective: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in 10 to 35% of people and has been reported to be an important risk factor for cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) and transient ischemic attacks (TIAS), especially in younger patients. While contrast transthoracic echocardiography has been used to detect PFO, contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has a greater sensitivity. Prior studies reported the incidence of PFO in patients presenting with a CVA or TIA. Design: To determine the incidence of PFO in a more general population, we reviewed 1,000 consecutive TEES performed with contrast and color Doppler for the presence of PFO and other cardioembolic risk factors, including atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), aortic plaque, atrial fibrillation (AFib), and atrial thrombi. While imaging with monoplane or biplane TEE, multiple injections of agitated saline solution were injected during cough or Valsalva maneuver to detect flow through a PFO. Patients: There were 482 male and 518 female patients with mean age of 60 + 17 years (range 11 to 93 years). Results: Patent foramen ovale was found in 9.2% of all patients and, though seen in all age groups divided by decade, the incidence in patients aged 40 to 49 years was greater than those aged 70 to 79 years (12.96% vs 6.15%',, p=0.03). Contrast TEE had a much higher detection rate than color Doppler alone. Importantly, there was no greater incidence of PFO in patients with CVA vs thos without CVA, or in male vs female patients. Also, there was a very strong correlation between the presence of ASA and PFO (p<.001). Conclusion: Thus, PFO detected by TEE, frequently seen with ASA, is seen in all age groups and does not in itself present a risk factor for CVA. The association of PFO with peripheral thrombosis and CVA needs further study.

  19. Atrial Mechanical Function Before and After Electrical or Amiodarone Cardioversion in Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment by Transesophageal Echocardiography and Pulsed Doppler.

    PubMed

    Maria Amuchastegui, Luis; Cravero, Cecilia; Salomone, Oscar; Amuchastegui, Marcos

    1996-03-01

    In some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), it has been suggested that left atrial mechanical dysfunction can develop after successful electrical cardioversion, justifying postcardioversion anticoagulant treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in left atrial appendage peak flow velocities and the incidence of left atrial spontaneous echo contrast in patients with AF before and after electrical cardioversion or intravenous amiodarone, studied using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and pulsed Doppler. We performed a control TEE in 7 patients in the electrical group and 6 in the amiodarone group, with no significant clinical differences between both groups. A second TEE was performed immediately in the 7 patients with successful electrical cardioversion. The peak flow velocities in the appendage before and after the procedure were: filling 43.3 +/- 22 vs 27.7 +/- 28 cm/sec (P = 0.01) and emptying 35.5 +/- 22 vs 23.6 +/- 17 cm/sec (P = 0.01), respectively. The spontaneous echo contrast increased in 4 of the 7 patients. In 4 patients of the amiodarone group, the peak flow velocities in the appendage during AF and within the first 24 hours after restoration of sinus rhythm were: filling 37.4 +/- 12 vs 37.8 +/- 18 cm/sec and emptying 36.4 +/- 18 vs 35.9 +/- 18 cm/sec, respectively (P = NS). There was no change in spontaneous echo contrast. In conclusion, patients with AF reverted to sinus rhythm using amiodarone did not show changes in left atrial mechanical function; however, patients with electrical cardioversion showed mechanical dysfunction. Further investigations on the effects of amiodarone and other drugs on the mechanical function of the atria are needed to determine if patients reverted pharmacologically require anticoagulation post reversion. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 13, March 1996)

  20. The value of transesophageal echocardiography in the investigation and management of cryptogenic cerebral ischemia: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Patsouras, Dimitrios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kosmidou, Maria; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2016-04-01

    The diagnostic utility of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has often been challenged in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS). We estimated the prevalence of different findings on TEE examination of CS patients, their impact on secondary stroke prevention and the presence of potential age or gender disparities. We reviewed all TEE examinations that were performed in a single echocardiography laboratory during a 7-year-old period to identify CS patients that underwent investigation with TEE. Of the 518 total TEE examinations, we identified 88 CS patients. TEE revealed abnormal findings in 69.3 % of them. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) were identified in 30.6 and 22.7 % of the patients. Ascending aorta and aortic arch atheromatosis was present in 26.1 % of the patients, with complex atheromatosis diagnosed in 14.7 % of them. Cardiac myxomas were uncovered in 2.3 %. Thrombi in the left atrium and in cardiac valves were reported in 3.4 and 2.3 % of the patients, respectively. Based on TEE findings, the therapeutic management would be very likely modified in 9.1 % of the patients. Subgroup analysis revealed no gender disparities on the prevalence of TEE findings and in secondary stroke prevention, while linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of age with the prevalence of PFO, ASA, aorta atheromatosis and complex aorta atheromatosis. TEE examination should be included in the diagnostic work-up of all CS patients, irrespective of age and gender status, since it can reveal potential sources of embolism and has a significant impact for secondary stroke prevention.

  1. Feasibility of real-time 3D echocardiography in weightlessness during parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Caiani, E G; Sugeng, L; Weinert, L; Husson, S; Bailliart, O; Capderou, A; Lang, R M; Vaida, P

    2004-07-01

    Aim of the study was to test the feasibility of transthoracic real-time 3D (Philips) echocardiography (RT3D) during parabolic flight, to allow direct measurement of heart chambers volumes modifications during the parabola. One RT3D dataset corresponding to one cardiac cycle was acquired at each gravity phase (1 Gz, 1.8 Gz, 0 Gz, 1.8 Gz) during breath-hold in 8 unmedicated normal subjects (41 +/- 8 years old) in standing upright position. Preliminary results, obtained by semi-automatically tracing left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) endocardial contours in multiple views (Tomtec), showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction, compared to 1 Gz, of LV and LA volumes with 1.8 Gz, and a significant increase with 0 Gz. Further analysis will focus on the right heart.

  2. Transesophageal Echocardiography and Contrast-TCD in the Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale: Experience with 111 Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsch, Christof; Janben, Gerhard; Berlit, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is increasingly recognized in association with cryptogenic stroke. Using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transcranial Doppler sonography with ultrasonic contrast medium contrast-(TCD), we evaluated the frequency of a PFO as the fundamental condition of paradoxical embolism in 111 patients after cerebral ischemia. There was a right-left shunt in 50 patients (45%) with TEE. In 31 of 40 patients with stroke of unknown etiology, a PFO was the only detectable finding associated with cerebral ischemia. Using TEE as he "gold standard," the sensitivity of contrast-TCD was 91.3%, specificity 93.8%, and the overall accuracy 92.8%. contrast-TCD failed to detect a right-left shunt in four patients, but there were four other patients with negative TEE and positive contrast-TCD. We conclude that contrast-TCD is a highly sensitive method for detecting a right-left shunt. Its advantages are low cost, its ability to detect single contrast-medium embolism, and control of the Valsalva maneuver by observing the decrease of cerebral blood flow. Evidence of PFO in cryptogenic stroke should prompt a search for a subclinical venous thrombosis as the embolic source.

  3. Experience with use of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography to guide closure of atrial septal defects using the amplatzer device.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M I; Balaguru, D; McClure, C; Kline, C H; Radtke, W A K; Shirali, G S

    2002-01-01

    By providing unlimited imaging planes, multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (MTEE) should improve real-time guidance of interventional procedures. The potential advantages of MTEE in this scenario have not been systematically evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with MTEE-guided Amplatzer device closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) MTEE angles used to obtain images for guiding all measurements and maneuvers were recorded. These angles were compared to the range of MTEE angles that are postulated to be available from biplane TEE. Images obtained using MTEE angles from 21 degrees to 70 degrees and from 111 degrees to l59 degrees were defined as only obtainable by MTEE. The MTEE probe was successfully introduced in all (89) patients. Thirteen patients (15%) had multiple defects. Ninety-five devices (5-32 mm in diameter) were deployed. In 66% of patients, balloon sizing and device deployment necessitated imaging planes that are only obtainable by MTEE. All devices were well positioned, with no impingement on inflows or outflows. At follow-up, 79 of 89 (88.7%) patients had no residual ASDs. Each of the remaining 10 patients (11.3%) had a small (<3 mm) residual defect. MTEE played an important role in guiding device closure of ASD, particularly during the phases of balloon sizing and device deployment.

  4. [Contribution of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in the study of mitral valve prostheses].

    PubMed

    Malergue, M C; Illouz, E; Temkine, J; Dibie, A; Folliguet, T; Laborde, F

    1996-01-01

    Many reports have confirmed the value of transoesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of mechanical mitral valve prosthesis dysfunction: new biplane and multiplane probes seem to provide additional information in the assessment of cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to quantify the additional value of these new probes in the assessment of mitral valve prostheses. Seventy-five mitral valve prostheses were assessed with the multiplane probe, 45 normal bileaflet prostheses, 17 with regurgitant dysfunction and 12 with non obstructive thrombi and/or strands, and one with a blocked leaflet. In order to compare the respective values of monoplane, biplane and multiplane probes, the recordings were performed at 0 degrees, 90 degrees and from 0 degrees to 180 degrees in continuous sweep mode through the scanning plane. Globally, with the monoplane assessment, it was only possible to visualise both leaflets simultaneously in 13% of cases. The majority of prostheses was correctly analysed between 60 and 100 degrees. This was of paramount importance for the diagnosis of blockage of one leaflet. With respect to para-prosthetic valve regurgitation, the transverse view allowed visualisation of the lateral and paraseptal annular regions. The addition of a longitudinal view allowed visualisation of anterior and posterior regurgitant jets: the supplementary views provided by the multiplane probe allowed detection of small regurgitant jets in the diagonal planes between the longitudinal and transverse views. The multiplane probe offers the possibility of identifying the precise origin of the jet and helps quantification and peroperative localisation of its position. Small, non-obstructive thrombi and strands are better seen using a multiplane probe, especially when of small size. Therefore, multiplane transoesophageal echocardiography improves the assessment of mitral valve prostheses, the majority of diagnoses being, however, accessible with biplane probes.

  5. Incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in the assessment of aortic atherosclerotic thrombi and ulcers.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Bulur, Serkan; Kalla, Aditi; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Hsiung, Ming C; Uygur, Begum; Alagic, Nermina; Sungur, Aylin; Singh, Satinder; Nanda, Navin C

    2016-08-01

    We present two cases in whom live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) provided incremental value in the assessment of atherosclerotic disease in the aorta. In one patient, it identified additional atherosclerotic ulcers as well as thrombi within them which were missed by two-dimensional (2D) TEE. In both cases, the size of the large mobile atherosclerotic plaque was underestimated by 2DTEE as compared with 3DTEE. Furthermore, 3DTEE provided volume quantification of the thrombi and ulcers which is not possible by 2DTEE. The echocardiographic findings of atherosclerotic plaques were confirmed by computed tomography in one patient and by surgery in the other.

  6. Usefulness of phased-array intracardiac echocardiography for the assessment of left atrial mechanical "stunning" in atrial flutter and comparison with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography(*).

    PubMed

    Morton, Joseph B; Sanders, Prashanthan; Sparks, Paul B; Morgan, John; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2002-10-01

    We compared transesophageal and phased-array intracardiac echocardiography (TEE/ICE) for the 2-dimensional and spectral Doppler assessment of left atrial (LA) mechanical function. TEE is commonly used to assess LA body and LA appendage mechanical function in patients who are undergoing radiofrequency ablation of typical atrial flutter. Fifteen patients underwent TEE and ICE imaging before and after ablation of typical atrial flutter. The following parameters were measured: (1) LA appendage emptying velocity and fractional area change, (2) severity of LA spontaneous echo contrast (graded 0 to 4), (3) maximal inflow velocity of the left and right upper pulmonary veins, and (5) maximal mitral valve E- and A-wave inflow velocities in sinus rhythm. Diagnostic quality imaging was achieved in all patients with TEE and ICE. Comparing TEE and ICE, the following absolute values and linear correlation coefficient (R) were obtained: preablation LA appendage emptying velocity: 0.45 +/- 0.21 versus 0.44 +/- 0.21 m/s (r = 0.95, p = <0.001); postablation LA appendage velocity: 0.33 +/- 0.24 versus 0.34 +/- 0.24 m/s (r = 0.97, p <0.001); LA appendage fractional area change: 35.3 +/- 13.7 versus 35.9 +/- 17.1% (r = 0.81, p <0.001); left upper/right upper pulmonary vein inflow velocity: 0.50 +/- 0.17/0.49 +/- 0.18 versus 0.51 +/- 0.17/0.47 +/- 0.20 m/s (r = 0.93/0.90, p <0.001); mitral valve E/A wave: 0.66 +/- 0.14/0.31 +/- 0.14 versus 0.69 +/- 0.17/0.35 +/- 0.23 (r = 0.84/0.97, p <0.002); LA spontaneous echo contrast (pre- and postablation): 1.1 +/- 1.2/1.3 +/- 1.2 versus 1.2 +/- 1.3/1.4 +/- 1.3 (r = 0.92/0.90, p <0.001). No patients were identified with LA appendage thrombus. Thus, TEE and phased-array ICE provided equivalent imaging data with high statistical correlation. ICE may be an imaging alternative to TEE in the evaluation of a "stunned" left atrium.

  7. Automated Segmentation of the Right Ventricle in 3D Echocardiography: A Kalman Filter State Estimation Approach.

    PubMed

    Bersvendsen, Jorn; Orderud, Fredrik; Massey, Richard John; Fosså, Kristian; Gerard, Olivier; Urheim, Stig; Samset, Eigil

    2016-01-01

    As the right ventricle's (RV) role in cardiovascular diseases is being more widely recognized, interest in RV imaging, function and quantification is growing. However, there are currently few RV quantification methods for 3D echocardiography presented in the literature or commercially available. In this paper we propose an automated RV segmentation method for 3D echocardiographic images. We represent the RV geometry by a Doo-Sabin subdivision surface with deformation modes derived from a training set of manual segmentations. The segmentation is then represented as a state estimation problem and solved with an extended Kalman filter by combining the RV geometry with a motion model and edge detection. Validation was performed by comparing surface-surface distances, volumes and ejection fractions in 17 patients with aortic insufficiency between the proposed method, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and a manual echocardiographic reference. The algorithm was efficient with a mean computation time of 2.0 s. The mean absolute distances between the proposed and manual segmentations were 3.6 ± 0.7 mm. Good agreements of end diastolic volume, end systolic volume and ejection fraction with respect to MRI ( -26±24 mL , -16±26 mL and 0 ± 10%, respectively) and a manual echocardiographic reference (7 ± 30 mL, 13 ± 17 mL and -5±7% , respectively) were observed.

  8. Reconstruction of the descending thoracic aorta by multiview compounding of 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic aortic data sets for improved examination and quantification of atheroma burden.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Maria Chiara; Piazzese, Concetta; Weinert, Lynn; Tsang, Wendy; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro; Lang, Roberto Miguel; Caiani, Enrico Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    A robust and efficient approach to reconstruction of the descending thoracic aorta from contiguous 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) images is proposed. An ad hoc image acquisition protocol was designed to acquire ordered and partially overlapped 3-D TEE data sets, followed by dedicated image processing to align and fuse all acquired data sets. Alignment strategy implemented pairwise rigid registration guided by a priori knowledge, and it was validated using artificially misaligned images. Image fusion was finally performed to enable visualization and analysis of extended field-of-view of the acquired aorta. The application of different fusion techniques was also investigated. The method was applied to a population of 17 consecutive patients. Qualitative and quantitative results supported the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach. In a clinical scenario, its application could allow the quantitative assessment of aortic plaque burden in the descending thoracic aorta from 3-D TEE images. PMID:25684644

  9. Novel System for Real-Time Integration of 3-D Echocardiography and Fluoroscopy for Image-Guided Cardiac Interventions: Preclinical Validation and Clinical Feasibility Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Housden, R. James; Ma, Yingliang; Rajani, Ronak; Gao, Gang; Nijhof, Niels; Cathier, Pascal; Bullens, Roland; Gijsbers, Geert; Parish, Victoria; Kapetanakis, Stamatis; Hancock, Jane; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Cooklin, Michael; Gill, Jaswinder; Thomas, Martyn; O'neill, Mark D.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time imaging is required to guide minimally invasive catheter-based cardiac interventions. While transesophageal echocardiography allows for high-quality visualization of cardiac anatomy, X-ray fluoroscopy provides excellent visualization of devices. We have developed a novel image fusion system that allows real-time integration of 3-D echocardiography and the X-ray fluoroscopy. The system was validated in the following two stages: 1) preclinical to determine function and validate accuracy; and 2) in the clinical setting to assess clinical workflow feasibility and determine overall system accuracy. In the preclinical phase, the system was assessed using both phantom and porcine experimental studies. Median 2-D projection errors of 4.5 and 3.3 mm were found for the phantom and porcine studies, respectively. The clinical phase focused on extending the use of the system to interventions in patients undergoing either atrial fibrillation catheter ablation (CA) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Eleven patients were studied with nine in the CA group and two in the TAVI group. Successful real-time view synchronization was achieved in all cases with a calculated median distance error of 2.2 mm in the CA group and 3.4 mm in the TAVI group. A standard clinical workflow was established using the image fusion system. These pilot data confirm the technical feasibility of accurate real-time echo-fluoroscopic image overlay in clinical practice, which may be a useful adjunct for real-time guidance during interventional cardiac procedures. PMID:27170872

  10. The role of contrast enhanced transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis and in the morphological and functional characterization of acute aortic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Agricola, Eustachio; Slavich, Massimo; Bertoglio, Luca; Fisicaro, Andrea; Oppizzi, Michele; Marone, Enrico; Melissano, Germano; Tufaro, Vincenzo; Margonato, Alberto; Chiesa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of contrast transesophageal echocardiography (cTEE) in the diagnostic characterization of acute aortic syndromes (AAS) [aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer]. We enrolled 66 non-consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of AAS. Standard transesophageal echocardiography and cTEE were performed prior to gated-CT angiography, which has been assumed as reference standard. cTEE was obtained with a single bolus of contrast agent injection. The definitive diagnosis of AAS was made in 48 patients by gated-CT angiography: 22 aortic dissections, 15 intramural hematomas and 11 penetrating aortic ulcers. Standard TEE and cTEE correctly diagnosed AAS in 87 and 100% (P = 0.03) cases respectively. Standard TEE correctly diagnosed aortic dissection in 20/22 (91%) and cTEE in 22/22 (100 %) (P = 0.5) cases. cTEE was superior than standard TEE in the visualization of false lumen entry tear (22/22 vs. 16/22, P = 0.03). Standard TEE correctly diagnosed intramural hematoma in 11/15 and cTEE 15/15 (P = 0.12) cases. Microtears were identified in 3 patients by cTEE an in 1 patient by standard TEE (P = 0.4). The presence of focal contrast enhancement was identified in 4 and 0 patients by cTEE and standard TEE respectively (P = 0.06). Both standard and cTEE correctly diagnosed penetrating aortic ulcer in 11/11 (100%) (P = 1.0) cases. cTEE provides additional value over standard TEE in the diagnosis and in the anatomic and functional characterization of AAS.

  11. "Hyper-response" evaluated by 3D echocardiography after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Rassi, Daniela do Carmo; Nishioka, Silvana Angelina D'orio; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Mathias, Wilson

    2011-06-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy consists of a promising treatment for patients with severe heart failure, but about 30% of patients do not exhibit clinical improvement with this procedure. However, approximately 10% of patients undergoing this therapy may have hyperresponsiveness, and three-dimensional echocardiography can provide an interesting option for the selection and evaluation of such patients. PMID:21789343

  12. [Measurement of left atrial and ventricular volumes in real-time 3D echocardiography. Validation by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; White, R. D.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the left ventricular ejection fraction is important for the evaluation of cardiomyopathy and depends on the measurement of left ventricular volumes. There are no existing conventional echocardiographic means of measuring the true left atrial and ventricular volumes without mathematical approximations. The aim of this study was to test anew real time 3-dimensional echocardiographic system of calculating left atrial and ventricular volumes in 40 patients after in vitro validation. The volumes of the left atrium and ventricle acquired from real time 3-D echocardiography in the apical view, were calculated in 7 sections parallel to the surface of the probe and compared with atrial (10 patients) and ventricular (30 patients) volumes calculated by nuclear magnetic resonance with the simpson method and with volumes of water in balloons placed in a cistern. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation between the real volume of water in the balloons and volumes given in real time 3-dimensional echocardiography (y = 0.94x + 5.5, r = 0.99, p < 0.001, D = -10 +/- 4.5 ml). A good correlation was observed between real time 3-dimensional echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance for the measurement of left atrial and ventricular volumes (y = 0.95x - 10, r = 0.91, p < 0.001, D = -14.8 +/- 19.5 ml and y = 0.87x + 10, r = 0.98, P < 0.001, D = -8.3 +/- 18.7 ml, respectively. The authors conclude that real time three-dimensional echocardiography allows accurate measurement of left heart volumes underlying the clinical potential of this new 3-D method.

  13. Comparison of accuracy of aortic valve area assessment in aortic stenosis by real time three-dimensional echocardiography in biplane mode versus two-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Blot-Souletie, Nathalie; Hébrard, Aurélien; Acar, Philippe; Carrié, Didier; Puel, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    Our aim was to validate the clinical feasibility of assessment of the area of the aortic valve orifice (AVA) by real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in biplane mode by planimetry and to compare it with the echo-Doppler methods more commonly used to evaluate valvular aortic stenosis (AS).RT3DE in biplane mode is a novel technique that allows operators to visualize the aortic valve orifice anatomy in any desired plane orientation. Its usefulness and accuracy have not previously been established. Using this technique, we studied a series of patients with AS and compared the results with those obtained by two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) planimetry and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography using the continuity equation (TTE-CE). RT3DE planimetries in biplane mode were measured by two independent observers. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare these two methods.Forty-one patients with AS were enrolled in the study (15 women, 26 men, mean age 73.5 +/- 8.2 years). RT3DE planimetry was feasible in 92.7%. Average AVA determined by TTE-CE was 0.76 +/- 0.20 cm, by TEE planimetry 0.73 +/- 0.1 cm, and by RT3DE planimetry 0.76 +/- 0.20 cm(2). The average differences in AVA were-0.001 +/- 0.254 cm(2) and 0.03 +/- 0.155 cm(2) (RT3DE/TEE). The correlation coefficient for AVA (RT3DE/TTE-CE) was 0.82 and for AVA (RT3DE/TEE) it was 0.94, P < 0.0001. No significant intra- and interobserver variability was observed. In conclusion, RT3DE in biplane mode provides a feasible and reproducible method for measuring the area of the aortic valve orifice in aortic stenosis.

  14. [Amplatzer® Vascular Plug III, for closing residual mitral paravalvular leak: three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography image].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gómez, Carlos Alberto; García-Montes, José Antonio; Arias-Godínez, Antonio; Zabal-Cerdeira, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Paravalvular leak is a significant complication after surgical valve replacement. Traditionally, redo surgery has been considered the treatment of choice, but is associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increase risk of developing new leaks. Percutaneous treatment of paravalvular leak appears as an attractive alternative. Such treatment has been made possible by the current ability to integrate multiple imaging modalities that have helped to define the anatomy of the defect and planning and guiding the percutaneous closure procedure, thus resulting in better outcomes. The Amplatzer® Vascular Plug III (St. Jude Medical) is the first device specifically designed for percutaneous closure of paravalvular leak with promising results. We present the three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic images of a successful outcome of percutaneous closure of a residual mitral paravalvular leak with an Amplatzer® Vascular Plug III device (St. Jude Medical), after an initial procedure of percutaneous closure with an Amplatzer® duct occluder (St. Jude Medical). PMID:25912709

  15. The advantages of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Aylin; Hsiung, Ming C; Meggo Quiroz, Luis D; Oz, Tuğba Kemaloğlu; Haj Asaad, Ayman; Joshi, Deepak; Dönmez, Cevdet; Güvenç, Tolga S; Nanda, Navin C

    2014-11-01

    Currently, tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (TVIE) is encountered in daily clinical practice more frequently due to the increasing prevalence of illicit intravenous drug use and the implantation of intracardiac devices. In this study, we compared findings from intra-operative live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms (3DTEE) and two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms (2DTEE) of 10 patients who underwent surgery for native tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis. Unlike 2DTEE, 3DTEE allowed en face visualization of the 3 TV leaflets from both, atrial and ventricular aspects, in 9 of the 10 cases. In the remaining patient, in whom 3DTEE could not identify all 3 leaflets en face, the TV was found essentially destroyed at surgery. Using 3DTEE, the number of vegetations was accurately reported when compared with the surgical record. Furthermore, the orientation of each vegetation was the same as noted in the surgical findings. 2DTEE missed the identification of vegetations in 5 patients. The attachment site of vegetations to the TV were also not characterized by 2DTEE in 5 patients. In all 10 cases, 3DTEE characterized the vegetations more accurately with larger dimensions, including those in the azimuthal axis, and volumes. In addition, a perivalvular abscess that lead to surgical intervention was identified by 3DTEE, however, missed by 2DTEE. In conclusion, 3DTEE allows en face visualization of the TV apparatus permitting accurate description of the number and dimensions of vegetations identified by our surgical standard, which ultimately informs patients' prognosis and dictates the timing and planning for surgical intervention. Its use should be in conjunction with 2DTEE when evaluating TVIE.

  16. Feasibility of measuring superior mesenteric artery blood flow during cardiac surgery under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using transesophageal echocardiography: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Naveen G.; Nagaraja, P. S.; Gopal, Divya; Manjunath, V.; Nagesh, K. S.; Manjunatha, N.; Patel, Guru Police; Mishra, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal complications being rare but results in high mortality, commonly due to splanchnic organ hypoperfusion during the perioperative period of cardiac surgery. There are no feasible methods to monitor intraoperative superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF). Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and to measure SMABF using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during cardiac surgery under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methodology: Thirty-five patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery under CPB were enrolled. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), SMABF, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) diameter, superior mesentric artery blood flow over cardiac output (SMA/CO) ratio and arterial blood lactates were recorded at three time intervals. T0: before sternotomy, T1: 30 min after initiation of CPB and T2: after sternal closure. Results: SMA was demonstrated in 32 patients. SMABF, SMA diameter, SMA/CO, MAP and CO decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) between T0 and T1, increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001) between T0 and T2. Lactates increased progressively from T0 to T2. Conclusion: Study shows that there is decrease in SMABF during CPB and returns to baseline after CPB. Hence, it is feasible to measure SMABF using TEE in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under hypothermic CPB. TEE can be a promising tool in detecting and preventing splanchnic hypoperfusion during perioperative period. PMID:27397442

  17. Intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography for guiding direct myocardial gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with refractory angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Esakof, D D; Maysky, M; Losordo, D W; Vale, P R; Lathi, K; Pastore, J O; Symes, J F; Isner, J M

    1999-09-20

    Gene transfer for therapeutic angiogenesis represents a novel treatment for patients with chronic angina refractory to standard medical therapy and not amenable to conventional revascularization. We sought to assess the role of intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (MPTEE) in guiding injection of naked DNA encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of patients with refractory angina. After exposing the LV myocardium via a limited lateral thoracotomy, each of 17 patients in this series received 4 separate injections of VEGF DNA into different myocardial sites. Initial injections in the first patient produced intracavitary microbubbles, indicating injection of DNA into the LV chamber. Subsequently, each injection was preceded by a test injection of agitated saline. The absence of microbubbles while visualizing the LV cavity during the test injection verified that the ensuing injection of DNA would not be inadvertently squandered in the LV chamber itself. Intracavitary LV microbubbles were observed by MPTEE in 13 of 64 (20.3%) saline test injections and in 8 of 16 (50.0%) patients in which saline test injection was used, leading to adjustments in needle position. MPTEE imaging detected a previously unknown large, apical left ventricular thrombus in one patient, thereby preventing inadvertent injection of VEGF DNA through the myocardium into the thrombus. Imaging during and after injection verified no deleterious impact on LV function. We conclude that MPTEE is a useful tool for ensuring that myocardial gene therapy performed by direct needle injection results in gene transfer to the LV myocardium.

  18. Warden repair for superior sinus venosus atrial septal defect and anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in children: Anesthesia and transesophageal echocardiography perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas; Sreedhar, Rupa; Dharan, Baiju S.; Chigurupati, Keerthi; Babu, Saravana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Review of intraoperative anesthetic challenges and the role of transesophageal echocardiography in children with sinus venosus atrial septal defect and partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage undergoing Warden repair. Design: A retrospective observational case series. Methodolgy: Pediatric patients who underwent Warden repair between October 2011-September 2015 were recruited. Their preoperative clinical details, anesthetic techniques, intraoperative TEE findings and postoperative events were recorded from the medical records. The categorical variables and the continuous variables were expressed as number (percentages) and mean ± SD respectively. Results: A total of 35 patients were operated for Warden repair during the study period. Anesthesia was induced with the aim to prevent any fall in pulmonary vascular resistance. The right internal jugular vein was cannulated under ultrasound guidance using a short length cannula to monitor right superior vena cava pressure. Intraoperative TEE revealed the drainage of PAPVC high into RSVC in 22 patients. Persistent LSVC was found in 9 patients. After repair, TEE imaging detected a high gradient at Warden anastomotic site in 5 patients and 3 of them required revision of surgery. Rerouted pulmonary veins required surgical correction in 2 patients in view of obstruction. None of them had pulmonary venous and SVC obstruction in the postoperative period. Conclusion: The primary aim of anesthesia is to avoid any fall in PVR. Right IJV cannulation can be beneficial. The intraoperative TEE can help in delineating the anatomy of lesion and detecting anastomotic site obstruction. PMID:27052072

  19. Atrial Septal Aneurysm and Patent Foramen Ovale as Risk Factors for Cryptogenic Stroke in Patients Less Than 55 Years of Age: A Study using Transesophageal Echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabanes, L.; Mas, J. L.; Cohen, A.; Amarenco, P.; Cabanes, P. A.; Oubary, P.; Chedru, F.; Guerin, F.; Bousser, M. G.; deRecondo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: An association between atrial septal aneurysm and embolic events has been suggested. Atrial septal aneurysm has been shown to be associated with patent foramen ovale and,.in some reports, with mitral valve prolapse. These two latter cardiac disorder; have been identified as potential risk factors for ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the role of atrial septal aneurysm as an independent risk factor for stroke, especially for cryptogenic stroke. Methods: We studied the prevalence of atrial septal aneurysm, patent foramen ovale, and mitral valve prolapse in 100 consecutive patients <55 years of age with ischemic stroke who underwent extensive etiological investigations. We compared these results with those in a control group of 50 consecutive patients. The diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale relied on transesophageal echocardiography with a contrast study and that of mitral valve prolapse, on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that atrial septal aneurysm (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 14.6; P=.01) and patent foramen ovale (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 10; P=.003) but not mitral valve prolapse were significantly associated with the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. The stroke odds of a patient with both atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale were 33.3 times (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 270) the stroke odds of a patient with neither of these cardiac disorders. For a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of >lo-mm excursion, the stroke odds were approximately 8 times the stroke odds of a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of <10 mm. Conclusions: This study shows that atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale are both significantly associated with cryptogenic stroke and that their association has a marked synergistic effect. Atrial septal aneurysms of >lo-mm excursion are

  20. Incremental Value of Live/Real Time Three-Dimensional over Two-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Assessment of Atrial Septal Pouch.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hsiung, Ming C; Meggo-Quiroz, L David; Elguindy, Mostafa; Uygur, Begum; Tandon, Rohit; Guvenc, Tolga; Keser, Nurgul; Vural, Mustafa G; Bulur, Serkan; Chahwala, Jugal R; Abtahi, Firoozeh; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-12-01

    An atrial septal pouch (ASP) results from partial fusion of the septum primum and the septum secundum, and depending on the site of fusion, the pouch can be left-sided (LASP) or right-sided (RASP). LASPs have been described in association with thrombi found in patients admitted with acute strokes, raising awareness of its potential cardioembolic role, especially in those with no other clearly identifiable embolic source. We retrospectively studied 39 patients in whom the presence of an ASP had been identified by three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) and who had a two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiogram (2DTEE) performed during the same clinical encounter. The incremental value provided by 3DTEE over 2DTEE included the detection of six ASPs not found by 2DTEE; the detection of two ASPs in the same subject (in four patients) not identified by 2DTEE; larger ASP measurements of length and height in over 80% of the cases; and measurement of the ASP width (elevational axis) for the calculation of the area of the ASP opening, because of its unique capability to view the pouch en face. In addition, the volume of ASP and of the echogenic masses contained in the ASP (four of 39 patients) could be calculated by 3DTEE, which is a superior parameter of size characterization when compared to individual dimensions. One of these patients who presented with ischemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging had a large (>2 cm) mass in a LASP, with echolucencies similar to those seen in thrombi and associated with clot lysis and resolution. This mass completely disappeared on anticoagulant therapy lending credence that it was most likely a thrombus. There was no history of stroke or any other type of embolic event in the other three patients with masses in ASP. In conclusion, this retrospective study highlights the incremental value of 3DTEE over 2DTEE in the comprehensive assessment and characterization of ASPs, which can aid in the clarification of

  1. 3D perfusion mapping in the intact mouse heart after myocardial infarction using myocardial contrast echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinbo; Yang, Zequan; French, Brent A.; Hossack, John A.

    2005-04-01

    An intact mouse model of surgically-induced myocardial infarction (MI) caused by permanent occlusion of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery was studied. Normal mice with no occlusion were also studied as controls. For each mouse, contrast enhanced ultrasound images of the heart were acquired in parallel cross-sections perpendicular to the sternum at millimeter increments. For accurate 3D reconstruction, ECG gating and a tri-axial adjustable micromanipulator were used for temporal and spatial registration. Ultrasound images at steady-state of blood refilling were color-coded in each slice to show relative perfusion. Myocardial perfusion defects and necrosis were also examined postmortem by staining with Phthalo blue and TTC red dyes. Good correlation (R>0.93) in perfused area size was observed between in vivo measurements and histological staining. A 3D multi-slice model and a 3D rendering of perfusion distribution were created and showed a promising match with postmortem results, lending further credence to its use as a more comprehensive and more reliable tool for in vivo assessment of myocardial perfusion than 2D tomographic analysis.

  2. Comparison of tissue Doppler dynamics with Doppler flow in evaluating left atrial appendage function by transesophageal echocardiography in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Tenekecioğlu, Erhan; Karabulut, Aziz; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Increased blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We aimed to analyze the effect of increased BP onto the function of left atrial appendage (LAA) in early stages of hypertension. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was prospectively performed to assess LAA functions in 120 patients with increased BP, and in 58 normotensive subjects without cardiovascular disease. Patients with increased BP were divided according to Joint National Committee VII (JNC VII) report: prehypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive and stage-2 hypertensive patients. During TEE, LAA late-emptying velocities (LAAEV) were significantly reduced only in stage-2 hypertensives as compared with control group (P < 0.001). In contrast, LAA late-contracting velocity (LAA TDI-D2) was significantly reduced in prehypertensive,stage-1 hypertensive and stage-2 hypertensive patients, when compared with control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). The LAA maximal areas were increased significantly only in stage-2 hypertensive patients when compared with control group (P < 0.05). During TEE, left atrial spontaneous echocardiographic contrast was found in 2 of 36 patients in prehypertension group, in 7 of 40 patients in stage-1 hypertension group, and in 10 of 44 patients in stage-2 hypertension group. Left atrial thrombi were observed in 3 (6.8%) patients of stage-2 hypertension group. In conclusion, in patients with untreated prehypertension and hypertension, elevation of afterload imposed on left atrium involved both left atrium and LAA, resulting in impairment of the LAA function. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) enables the detection of this functional impairment in early stages of hypertension, even in prehypertensive phase, when compared with conventional Doppler flow measurement of the LAA. Even in prehypertensive phase, BP should be decreased to normal levels to prevent the LAA dysfunction. PMID:20345441

  3. 3D Real-Time Echocardiography Combined with Mini Pressure Wire Generate Reliable Pressure-Volume Loops in Small Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Katharina; Dewald, Oliver; Gatzweiler, Eva; Seehase, Matthias; Duerr, Georg Daniel; Dörner, Jonas; Kleppe, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Pressure-volume loops (PVL) provide vital information regarding ventricular performance and pathophysiology in cardiac disease. Unfortunately, acquisition of PVL by conductance technology is not feasible in neonates and small children due to the available human catheter size and resulting invasiveness. The aim of the study was to validate the accuracy of PVL in small hearts using volume data obtained by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and simultaneously acquired pressure data. Methods In 17 piglets (weight range: 3.6–8.0 kg) left ventricular PVL were generated by 3DE and simultaneous recordings of ventricular pressure using a mini pressure wire (PVL3D). PVL3D were compared to conductance catheter measurements (PVLCond) under various hemodynamic conditions (baseline, alpha-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine, beta-adrenoreceptor-blockage using esmolol). In order to validate the accuracy of 3D volumetric data, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in another 8 piglets. Results Correlation between CMR- and 3DE-derived volumes was good (enddiastolic volume: mean bias -0.03ml ±1.34ml). Computation of PVL3D in small hearts was feasible and comparable to results obtained by conductance technology. Bland-Altman analysis showed a low bias between PVL3D and PVLCond. Systolic and diastolic parameters were closely associated (Intraclass-Correlation Coefficient for: systolic myocardial elastance 0.95, arterial elastance 0.93, diastolic relaxation constant tau 0.90, indexed end-diastolic volume 0.98). Hemodynamic changes under different conditions were well detected by both methods (ICC 0.82 to 0.98). Inter- and intra-observer coefficients of variation were below 5% for all parameters. Conclusions PVL3D generated from 3DE combined with mini pressure wire represent a novel, feasible and reliable method to assess different hemodynamic conditions of cardiac function in hearts comparable to neonate and infant size. This

  4. Echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, J. B.; Monaghan, M. J.; Jackson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging echocardiography is an important extension of the clinical examination and will answer most questions in an emergency-for example, whether an enlarged cardiac shadow on the chest radiograph represents ventricular dilatation or an effusion. Doppler ultrasonography is essential for hospitals with an interest in cardiology because it provides direct haemodynamic data that are complementary to imaging. It requires more skill than imaging and may also be time consuming. Colour flow Doppler mapping is speedy and simple to use and aids the interpretation of continuous wave Doppler. It is therefore a natural companion to conventional Doppler, but there would have to be a high clinical load to justify its purchase. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:3143434

  5. Accuracy of a Mitral Valve Segmentation Method Using J-Splines for Real-Time 3D Echocardiography Data

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Andrew W.; Icenogle, David A.; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Rossignac, Jarek; Lerakis, Stamatios; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific models of the heart’s mitral valve (MV) exhibit potential for surgical planning. While advances in 3D echocardiography (3DE) have provided adequate resolution to extract MV leaflet geometry, no study has quantitatively assessed the accuracy of their modeled leaflets versus a ground-truth standard for temporal frames beyond systolic closure or for differing valvular dysfunctions. The accuracy of a 3DE-based segmentation methodology based on J-splines was assessed for porcine MVs with known 4D leaflet coordinates within a pulsatile simulator during closure, peak closure, and opening for a control, prolapsed, and billowing MV model. For all time points, the mean distance error between the segmented models and ground-truth data were 0.40±0.32 mm, 0.52±0.51 mm, and 0.74±0.69 mm for the control, flail, and billowing models. For all models and temporal frames, 95% of the distance errors were below 1.64 mm. When applied to a patient data set, segmentation was able to confirm a regurgitant orifice and post-operative improvements in coaptation. This study provides an experimental platform for assessing the accuracy of an MV segmentation methodology at phases beyond systolic closure and for differing MV dysfunctions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of a MV segmentation methodology for the development of future surgical planning tools. PMID:23460042

  6. Quantification of Shunt Volume Through Ventricular Septal Defect by Real-Time 3-D Color Doppler Echocardiography: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meihua; Ashraf, Muhammad; Tam, Lydia; Streiff, Cole; Kimura, Sumito; Shimada, Eriko; Sahn, David J

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of shunt volume is important for ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The aim of the in vitro study described here was to test the feasibility of using real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography (RT3-D-CDE) to quantify shunt volume through a modeled VSD. Eight porcine heart phantoms with VSDs ranging in diameter from 3 to 25 mm were studied. Each phantom was passively driven at five different stroke volumes from 30 to 70 mL and two stroke rates, 60 and 120 strokes/min. RT3-D-CDE full volumes were obtained at color Doppler volume rates of 15, 20 and 27 volumes/s. Shunt flow derived from RT3-D-CDE was linearly correlated with pump-driven stroke volume (R = 0.982). RT3-D-CDE-derived shunt volumes from three color Doppler flow rate settings and two stroke rate acquisitions did not differ (p > 0.05). The use of RT3-D-CDE to determine shunt volume though VSDs is feasible. Different color volume rates/heart rates under clinically/physiologically relevant range have no effect on VSD 3-D shunt volume determination.

  7. Clinical application of three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Caroline; Lin, Ben A; Sugeng, Lissa

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most valuable diagnostic tools in cardiology. Technological advances in ultrasound, computer and electronics enables three-dimensional (3-D) imaging to be a clinically viable modality which has significant impact on diagnosis, management and interventional procedures. Since the inception of 3D fully-sampled matrix transthoracic and transesophageal technology it has enabled easier acquisition, immediate on-line display, and availability of on-line analysis for the left ventricle, right ventricle and mitral valve. The use of 3D TTE has mainly focused on mitral valve disease, left and right ventricular volume and functional analysis. As structural heart disease procedures become more prevalent, 3D TEE has become a requirement for preparation of the procedure, intra-procedural guidance as well as monitoring for complications and device function. We anticipate that there will be further software development, improvement in image quality and workflow.

  8. A systematic method for using 3D echocardiography to evaluate tricuspid valve insufficiency in hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mart, Christopher Robin; Eckhauser, Aaron Wesley; Murri, Michael; Su, Jason Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), the tricuspid valve (TV) becomes the systemic atrioventricular valve and moderate/severe TV insufficiency (TVI), an adverse risk factor for survival to Fontan, has been reported in up to 35% of patients prior to stage I palliation. Precise echocardiographic identification of the mechanism of TVI cannot be determined by two-dimensional echocardiography. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) can provide significant insight into the mechanisms of TVI. It is the intent of this report to propose a systematic method on how to evaluate and display 3DE images of the TV in HLHS which has not been done previously. TV anatomy, function, and the known mechanisms of insufficiency are reviewed. We defined three regions of the TV (anterior, posterior, septal) that can help define valve “leaflets” that incorporates the many variations of TV anatomy. To determine how the surgeon views the TV, a picture of a pathologic specimen of the TV was placed on a computer screen and rotated until it was oriented as it appears during surgery, the “surgeons view.” We have proposed a systematic method for evaluating and displaying the TV using 3DE which can provide significant insight into the mechanisms causing TVI in HLHS. This has the potential to improve both the surgical approach to repairing the valve and, ultimately, patient outcomes. PMID:25298694

  9. Stress echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    Echocardiography stress test; Stress test - echocardiography; CAD - stress echocardiography; Coronary artery disease - stress echocardiography; Chest pain - stress echocardiography; Angina - stress echocardiography; ...

  10. Left-ventricle segmentation in real-time 3D echocardiography using a hybrid active shape model and optimal graph search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghai; Abiose, Ademola K.; Campbell, Dwayne N.; Sonka, Milan; Martins, James B.; Wahle, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of the left ventricular shape and motion patterns associated with left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is essential for diagnosis and treatment planning in congestive heart failure. Real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) used for LVMD analysis is frequently limited by heavy speckle noise or partially incomplete data, thus a segmentation method utilizing learned global shape knowledge is beneficial. In this study, the endocardial surface of the left ventricle (LV) is segmented using a hybrid approach combining active shape model (ASM) with optimal graph search. The latter is used to achieve landmark refinement in the ASM framework. Optimal graph search translates the 3D segmentation into the detection of a minimum-cost closed set in a graph and can produce a globally optimal result. Various information-gradient, intensity distributions, and regional-property terms-are used to define the costs for the graph search. The developed method was tested on 44 RT3DE datasets acquired from 26 LVMD patients. The segmentation accuracy was assessed by surface positioning error and volume overlap measured for the whole LV as well as 16 standard LV regions. The segmentation produced very good results that were not achievable using ASM or graph search alone.

  11. The Origin of Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Goyal, Abha

    2007-01-01

    The original description of M-mode echocardiography in 1953, by Inge Edler (1911–2001) and his physicist friend Hellmuth Hertz, marked the beginning of a new diagnostic noninvasive technique. Edler used this technique primarily for the preoperative study of mitral stenosis and diagnosis of mitral regurgitation. His work was carried forward by cardiologists all over the world, who developed Doppler, 2-dimensional, contrast, and transesophageal echocardiography. These are now standard in cardiologic examinations. Edler also influenced neurologists and obstetricians at Lund University (Sweden) to use ultrasound in their fields. For his landmark discovery, Edler is recognized as the “Father of Echocardiography.” PMID:18172524

  12. Congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysm: a multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, K Y; St John Sutton, M; Ho, H Y; Ting, C T

    1997-01-01

    Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare congenital anomaly which, if overlooked, may be associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography proved useful in identifying a variety of associated structural heart disease. This study sought to assess the accuracy of the surgical result on the basis of the multiplane transesophageal echocardiography findings and to describe patient demographics and clinical outcome in an Oriental patient cohort. From July 1984 to December 1995, clinical, catheterization, echocardiographic, and surgical results were retrospectively studied in 23 patients with documented sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. Compared with previous reports of Oriental patients, our patient cohort was older (p < 0.025), had more associated aortic, mitral, and tricuspid regurgitation (p < 0.01), but had fewer coexistent ventricular septal defects (p < 0.01), and had more associated coronary artery disease (9%). Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography precisely showed three undiagnosed and/or ambiguous transthoracic echocardiographic studies, and the preoperative transesophageal echocardiography TEE findings were confirmed intraoperatively in the last eight consecutive patients. We concluded that multiplane transesophageal echocardiography provides conclusive information and is the current technique of choice for diagnosis and clinical management of patients with sinus of Valsalva aneurysm; although the natural history of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm remains uncertain, it is likely that the incidence of unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is considerably higher in the elderly than has been previously reported.

  13. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  14. Real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography: an early single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Maini, Brijeshwar

    2015-01-01

    As interventional procedures in structural heart diseases are coming of age, there is a significant lag in the periinterventional imaging development for these procedures to become safe, expedient, accurate, and well tolerated by this patient population. Currently, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), including real-time three-dimensional (RT-3D), has been used for monitoring and guidance for these procedures. Accurate identification of the pathology, its anatomy, and its relationship with the adjoining structures along with spatial resolution is of paramount importance for wire and catheter placement, device deployment, evaluation of the results, and any potential complications. Two-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) has been used extensively for a variety of interventional procedures that undergo conscious sedation of monitored anesthesia. RT-3D ICE has recently become available; we describe our initial experience with this new imaging technology. PMID:25589706

  15. Methemoglobinemia and transesophageal echo.

    PubMed

    Jiminez, Marcelo A; Polena, Sotir; Coplan, Neil L; Patel, Kashyapkumar; Gintautas, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Methemoglobin (MHb) is the oxidized form of Hemoglobin (Hb) containing iron in its ferric (Fe3+) rather than ferrous (Fe2+) state. Under physiologic conditions, diaphorase II accounts for only a small percentage of the red blood cell reducing capacity but can be pharmacologically activated by exogenous cofactors. Methemoglobinemia is an abnormal elevation of MHb levels resulting in impaired oxygen delivery to tissues as well as a left shift of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. We present the case of a 56-year-old female patient who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) prior to elective cardioversion. Prep for TEE included use of Hurricane spray. Twenty min after receipt, the patient's O2 saturation by pulse oximetry dropped from 100% to 86%; heart rate and blood pressure were unchanged. Physical exam revealed pallor, perioralcyanosis and acrocyanosis without tachypnea, respiratory distress, or jugular venous distension. A 100% non-rebreather mask provided no improvement. MHb was suspected and arterial blood gasses were drawn which was dark chocolate in appearance. Methylene Blue at 1 mg/kg over 5 minutes was administered empirically. ABG results were: pH 7.44/ CO2 40/ O2 315/ HCO2 26/ O2 sat 69%; MHb levels were 30.1% confirming the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia. This condition resolved within minutes. Though uncommon, MHb is the most Sported adverse event associated with topical benzocaine use. Untreated, it can lead to significant cardiopulmonary compromise, neurologic sequelae, and even death. Prompt recognition of this potentially life-threatening side-effect is essential in order to provide opportune treatment.

  16. A prospective, randomized, blinded comparison of multiplane and biplane transesophageal echocardiographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Warner, J G; Nomeir, A M; Salim, M; Kitzman, D W

    1996-01-01

    Although multiplane transesophageal echocardiography has become an accepted diagnostic technique, there is a paucity of literature directly comparing the diagnostic yield of multiplane and biplane transesophageal examinations. This study was designed to compare the ability of multiplane and biplane transesophageal echocardiographic techniques to visualize intracardiac structures. Complete multiplane and biplane transesophageal studies were performed on each of 50 patients (100 total studies) referred to the echocardiography laboratory for elective transesophageal echocardiography. The biplane examinations were performed with a multiplane probe with angles only at 0 and 90 degrees. Images of 29 prospectively selected cardiac structures and valvular function parameters were scored as follows: 0 = not visualized, 1 = visualized well enough to identify structure, 2 = diagnostic quality, and 3 = exceptional quality. The scores for the individual structures were combined to identify total structure visualization quality scores for each of the imaging techniques. A separate subjective score was also determined to assess the overall adequacy of each study for addressing the clinical indication. The total structure visualization quality score was significantly higher for multiplane transesophageal echocardiography than for biplane transesophageal echocardiography (49 +/- 7 versus 45 +/- 7; p = 0.0001). Several individual structures were visualized significantly better (p < 0.05) by the multiplane technique, including the left upper pulmonary vein, fossa ovalis, left main coronary artery, and proximal ascending aorta. The subjective score of overall adequacy of the study for addressing the clinical indication showed a strong trend (p < 0.06) in favor of the multiplane technique, with higher scores in 11 of 50 multiplane studies versus three of 50 biplane studies when the two techniques were compared in individual patients. Therefore multiplane transesophageal

  17. Assessment of Left Ventricular Volume and Function Using Real-Time 3D Echocardiography versus Angiocardiography in Children with Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Faten M; Abdel Dayem, Soha M; Ismail, Reem I; Hassan, Hebah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of left ventricular (LV) size and function is one of the important reasons for performing echocardiography. Real time three dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is now available for a precise non-invasive ventricular volumetry. Aim of work was to validate RT3DE as a non-invasive cardiac imaging method for measurement of LV volumes using cardiac angiography as the reference technique. Methods Prospective study on 40 consecutive patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) referred for cardiac catheterization for preoperative assessment. Biplane cineangiography, conventional 2 dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and RT3DE were performed for the patients. A control group of 18 age and sex matched children was included and 2DE and RT3DE were performed for them. Results The mean LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LVEDV index (LVEDVI) measured by RT3DE of patients were lower than controls (p value = 0.004, 0.01, respectively). There was strong correlation between the mean value of the LVEDV and the LVEDVI measured by RT3DE and angiography (r = 0.97, p < 0.001). The mean value of LV ejection fraction measured by RT3DE was lower than that assessed by 2DE (50 ± 6.2%, 65 ± 4.6%, respectively, p value < 0.001) in the studied TOF cases. There was good intra- and inter-observer reliability for all measurements. Conclusion RT3DE is a noninvasive and feasible tool for measurement of LV volumes that strongly correlates with LV volumetry done by angiography in very young infants and children, and further studies needed. PMID:27358704

  18. Real-time cylindrical curvilinear 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Yen, J T; Smith, S W

    2003-07-01

    In patients who are obese or exhibit signs of pulmonary disease, standard transthoracic scanning may yield poor quality cardiac images. For these conditions, two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is established as an essential diagnostic tool. Current techniques in transesophageal scanning, though, are limited by incomplete visualization of cardiac structures in close proximity to the transducer. Thus, we propose a 2D curvilinear array for 3D transesophageal echocardiography in order to widen the field of view and increase visualization close to the transducer face. In this project, a 440 channel 5 MHz two-dimensional array with a 12.6 mm aperture diameter on a flexible interconnect circuit has been molded to a 4 mm radius of curvature. A 75% element yield was achieved during fabrication and an average -6dB bandwidth of 30% was observed in pulse-echo tests. Using this transducer in conjunction with modifications to the beam former delay software and scan converter display software of the our 3D scanner, we obtained cylindrical real-time curvilinear volumetric scans of tissue phantoms, including a field of view of greater than 120 degrees in the curved, azimuth direction and 65 degrees phased array sector scans in the elevation direction. These images were achieved using a stepped subaperture across the cylindrical curvilinear direction of the transducer face and phased array sector scanning in the noncurved plane. In addition, real-time volume rendered images of a tissue mimicking phantom with holes ranging from 1 cm to less than 4 mm have been obtained. 3D color flow Doppler results have also been acquired. This configuration can theoretically achieve volumes displaying 180 degrees by 120 degrees. The transducer is also capable of obtaining images through a curvilinear stepped subaperture in azimuth in conjunction with a rectilinear stepped subaperture in elevation, further increasing the field of view close to the transducer face. Future work

  19. Important advances in technology: echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Nagueh, Sherif F; Quiñones, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiography has evolved over the past 45 years from a simple M-mode tracing to an array of technologies that include two-dimensional imaging, pulsed and continuous wave spectral Doppler, color flow and tissue Doppler, and transesophageal echocardiography. Together, these modalities provide a comprehensive anatomic and functional evaluation of cardiac chambers and valves, pericardium, and ascending and descending aorta. The switch from analog to digital signal processing revolutionized the field of ultrasound, resulting in improved image resolution, smaller instrumentation that allows bedside evaluation and diagnosis of patients, and digital image storage for more accurate quantification and comparison with previous studies. It also opened the door for new advances such as harmonic imaging, automated border detection and quantification, 3-dimensional imaging, and speckle tracking. This article offers an overview of some newer developments in echocardiography and their promising applications.

  20. Live 3D TEE demonstrates and guides the management of prosthetic mitral valve obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Mangeet; Pandya, Utpal; Adlakha, Satjit; Khouri, Samer J

    2011-08-01

    A 43-year-old woman, with a remote history of rheumatic mitral stenosis and a St. Jude prosthetic mitral valve replacement, presented with shortness of breath and palpitations, shortly after a long flight. On admission, atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response was noted in the setting of a long history of noncompliance with her anticoagulation. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated multiple laminated thrombi in the left atrial appendage. Live three-dimensional (3D) TEE confirmed this diagnosis and demonstrated an immobile posterior leaflet of the mitral prosthesis, which had direct implications in her management. She successfully underwent surgery for mitral valve replacement, left atrial appendage ligation, and a Maze procedure on the following day. The multiple thrombi within the atrial appendage were confirmed intraoperatively and pannus formation was determined to be the etiology of the leaflet immobility.

  1. Simulation for transthoracic echocardiography of aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Navin C; Kapur, K K; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Simulation allows interactive transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) learning using a virtual three-dimensional model of the heart and may aid in the acquisition of the cognitive and technical skills needed to perform TTE. The ability to link probe manipulation, cardiac anatomy, and echocardiographic images using a simulator has been shown to be an effective model for training anesthesiology residents in transesophageal echocardiography. A proposed alternative to real-time reality patient-based learning is simulation-based training that allows anesthesiologists to learn complex concepts and procedures, especially for specific structures such as aortic valve. PMID:27397455

  2. Simulation for transthoracic echocardiography of aortic valve

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Navin C.; Kapur, K. K.; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Simulation allows interactive transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) learning using a virtual three-dimensional model of the heart and may aid in the acquisition of the cognitive and technical skills needed to perform TTE. The ability to link probe manipulation, cardiac anatomy, and echocardiographic images using a simulator has been shown to be an effective model for training anesthesiology residents in transesophageal echocardiography. A proposed alternative to real-time reality patient-based learning is simulation-based training that allows anesthesiologists to learn complex concepts and procedures, especially for specific structures such as aortic valve. PMID:27397455

  3. Echocardiography in shock management.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied.In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available. The majority of pathologies found in shocked patients are readily identified using basic level 2D and M-mode echocardiography. A more comprehensive diagnosis can be achieved with advanced levels of competency, for which practice guidelines are also now available. Hemodynamic evaluation and ongoing monitoring are possible with advanced levels of competency, which includes the use of colour Doppler, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging and occasionally the use of more recent technological advances such as 3D or speckled tracking.The four core types of shock-cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and vasoplegic-can readily be identified by echocardiography. Even within each of the main headings contained in the shock classification, a variety of pathologies may be the cause and echocardiography will differentiate which of these is responsible. Increasingly, as a result of more complex and elderly patients, the shock may be multifactorial, such as a combination of cardiogenic and septic shock or hypovolemia and ventricular outflow obstruction.The diagnostic benefit of echocardiography in the shocked patient is obvious. The increasing prevalence of critical care physicians experienced in advanced techniques means echocardiography often supplants the need for more invasive hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in shock. PMID:27543137

  4. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  5. Aortic valve homograft for revision surgery - transesophageal echocardiography considerations

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Arindam; Magoon, Rohan; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Rajashekar, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aortic root surgical anatomy and knowledge of the various homograft implantation techniques is of paramount importance to the attending anesthesiologist for echocardiographic correlation, estimation and accurately predicting aortic annular dimensions for the valve replacement in a case of diseased homograft. PMID:27716714

  6. Simulation of intraoperative visualization of cardiac structures and study of dynamic surgical anatomy with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S L; Cao, Q L; Azevedo, J; Pandian, N G

    1994-03-01

    Most prior efforts of 3-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of echocardiographic images have focused on quantitation of ventricular size and function. The resulting images have been displayed in the wire mesh format. Recently, a method for 3-D transesophageal echocardiography using a computer-controlled probe that acquires parallel tomographic slices has been described. This technique provides dynamic 3-D volume-rendered images of the heart. This study was designed to determine if surgical visualization of intracardiac anatomy could be simulated using this imaging system. Data acquired from 8 patients with congenital and acquired heart disease were analyzed. Real-time 3-D images of the cardiac chambers and valves were obtained. Images of the cardiac pathology including fibrocalcific nodules on the aortic valve, mitral valve endocarditis, rheumatic mitral stenosis, and an ostium secundum atrial septal defect were displayed in 3 dimensions that simulated surgical exposure of these structures. These 3-D representations of cardiac anatomy were in some ways superior to standard intraoperative visualization in that they demonstrated the heart as a dynamic structure, as opposed to the empty, nonbeating heart observed while on cardiopulmonary bypass. In conclusion, 3-D images of cardiac structures as seen by the surgeon intraoperatively can be provided using a computer-driven tomographic transesophageal echocardiographic probe. This imaging system can be potentially useful in the planning and evaluation of cardiac surgery. Technical improvements such as 3-D representation of flow jets, the ability to manipulate images to simulate cardiac surgery, and on-line reconstruction can make this a powerful tool in the future.

  7. Transesophageal echo diagnosis of perioperative unusual transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Hugo Andrés; Montes, Felix Ramón; Amaya, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy, or Takotsubo syndrome, is a widely recognized cardiac pathology with a clinical presentation similar to acute coronary syndrome and related to physical or emotional stress. Perioperatively, it is challenging to identify it given the variety of forms and scenarios in which it can present. We describe a 22-year-old patient with an atypical presentation of Takotsubo syndrome during anesthesia induction, which highlights the usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography for the initial diagnosis. PMID:27716708

  8. Transesophageal color Doppler evaluation of obstructive lesions using the new "Quasar" technology.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Nanda, N C; Gatewood, R P; Cape, E G; Yoganathan, A P

    1995-01-01

    Due to the unavoidable problem of aliasing, color flow signals from high blood flow velocities cannot be measured directly by conventional color Doppler. A new technology termed Quantitative Un-Aliased Speed Algorithm Recognition (Quasar) has been developed to overcome this limitation. Employing this technology, we used transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography to investigate whether the velocities detected by the Quasar would correlate with those obtained by continuous-wave Doppler both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, a 5.0 MHz transesophageal transducer of a Kontron Sigma 44 color Doppler flow system was used. Fourteen different peak velocities calculated and recorded by color Doppler-guided continuous-wave Doppler were randomly selected. In the clinical study, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed using the same transducer 18 adults (13 aortic valve stenosis, 2 aortic and 2 mitral stenosis, 2 hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and 1 mitral valve stenosis). Following each continuous-wave Doppler measurement, the Quasar was activated, and a small Quasar marker was placed in the brightest area of the color flow jet to obtain the maximum mean velocity readout. The maximum mean velocities measured by Quasar closely correlated with maximum peak velocities obtained by color flow guided continuous-wave Doppler in both in vitro (0.53 to 1.65 m/s, r = 0.99) and in vivo studies (1.50 to 6.01 m/s, r = 0.97). We conclude that the new Quasar technology can accurately measure high blood flow velocities during transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography. This technique has the potential of obviating the need for continuous-wave Doppler.

  9. Role of echocardiography in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koki; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of potential embolic source is an important diagnostic step in treating patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Cardiogenic embolism has been estimated to be the causative factor in 15-30% of all cases of ischemic stroke. Cardioembolic strokes are generally severe and recurrence and mortality rate high. Various cardiac disorders including atrial fibrillation, ventricular thrombus, valvular heart disease, cardiac tumors, and structural heart defects can cause cardioembolic stroke. Although the aortic arch is not a cardiac structure, it is usually considered under source of cardiac embolism (cardioaortic source) and is reviewed in this article. Echocardiography (both transthoracic and transesophageal) is a widely used and versatile technique that can provide comprehensive information of thromboembolic risk in patients with stroke. This article reviews potential cardiac sources of stroke and discusses the role of echocardiography in clinical practice. PMID:27256218

  10. Transesophageal Echocardiographic Study of Decompression-Induced Venous Gas Emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Morris, W. P.

    1995-01-01

    Transesophageal echo-cardiography was used to evaluate venous bubbles produced in nine anesthetized dogs following decompression from 2.84 bar after 120 min at pressure. In five dogs a pulsed Doppler cuff probe was placed around the inferior vena cava for bubble grade determination. The transesophageal echo images demonstrated several novel or less defined events. In each case where the pulmonary artery was clearly visualized, the venous bubbles were seen to oscillate back and forth several times, bringing into question the effect of coincidental counting in routine bubble grade analysis using precordial Doppler. A second finding was that in all cases, extensive bubbling occurred in the portal veins with complete extraction by the liver sinusoids, with one exception where a portal-to-hepatic venous anastomosis was observed. Compression of the bowel released copious numbers of bubbles into the portal veins, sometimes more than were released into the inferior vena cava. Finally, large masses of foam were routinely observed in the non-dependent regions of the inferior vena cava that not only delayed the appearance of bubbles in the pulmonary artery but also allowed additional opportunity for further reaction with blood products and for coalescence to occur before reaching the pulmonary microcirculation. These novel observations are discussed in relation to the decompression process.

  11. Depth-resolved registration of transesophageal echo to x-ray fluoroscopy using an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, Charles R.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Slagowski, Jordan M.; Funk, Tobias; Raval, Amish N.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration between standard x-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has recently been proposed. Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system designed for cardiac procedures. This study presents a method for 3D registration of SBDX and TEE images based on the tomosynthesis and 3D tracking capabilities of SBDX. Methods: The registration algorithm utilizes the stack of tomosynthetic planes produced by the SBDX system to estimate the physical 3D coordinates of salient key-points on the TEE probe. The key-points are used to arrive at an initial estimate of the probe pose, which is then refined using a 2D/3D registration method adapted for inverse geometry fluoroscopy. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate probe pose estimation accuracy relative to the ground truth, as defined by a set of coregistered fiducial markers. This experiment was conducted with varying probe poses and levels of signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Additional phantom and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the correspondence of catheter tip positions in TEE and x-ray images following registration of the two modalities. Results: Target registration error (TRE) was used to characterize both pose estimation and registration accuracy. In the study of pose estimation accuracy, successful pose estimates (3D TRE < 5.0 mm) were obtained in 97% of cases when the SDNR was 5.9 or higher in seven out of eight poses. Under these conditions, 3D TRE was 2.32 ± 1.88 mm, and 2D (projection) TRE was 1.61 ± 1.36 mm. Probe localization error along the source-detector axis was 0.87 ± 1.31 mm. For the in vivo experiments, mean 3D TRE ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 mm and mean 2D TRE ranged from 1.1 to 1.6 mm. Anatomy extracted from the echo images appeared well aligned when projected onto the SBDX images. Conclusions: Full 6 DOF image registration between SBDX and TEE is feasible and accurate to within 5 mm. Future studies will focus on

  12. Depth-resolved registration of transesophageal echo to x-ray fluoroscopy using an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Charles R.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Slagowski, Jordan M.; Funk, Tobias; Raval, Amish N.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image registration between standard x-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has recently been proposed. Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system designed for cardiac procedures. This study presents a method for 3D registration of SBDX and TEE images based on the tomosynthesis and 3D tracking capabilities of SBDX. Methods: The registration algorithm utilizes the stack of tomosynthetic planes produced by the SBDX system to estimate the physical 3D coordinates of salient key-points on the TEE probe. The key-points are used to arrive at an initial estimate of the probe pose, which is then refined using a 2D/3D registration method adapted for inverse geometry fluoroscopy. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate probe pose estimation accuracy relative to the ground truth, as defined by a set of coregistered fiducial markers. This experiment was conducted with varying probe poses and levels of signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Additional phantom and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the correspondence of catheter tip positions in TEE and x-ray images following registration of the two modalities. Results: Target registration error (TRE) was used to characterize both pose estimation and registration accuracy. In the study of pose estimation accuracy, successful pose estimates (3D TRE < 5.0 mm) were obtained in 97% of cases when the SDNR was 5.9 or higher in seven out of eight poses. Under these conditions, 3D TRE was 2.32 ± 1.88 mm, and 2D (projection) TRE was 1.61 ± 1.36 mm. Probe localization error along the source-detector axis was 0.87 ± 1.31 mm. For the in vivo experiments, mean 3D TRE ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 mm and mean 2D TRE ranged from 1.1 to 1.6 mm. Anatomy extracted from the echo images appeared well aligned when projected onto the SBDX images. Conclusions: Full 6 DOF image registration between SBDX and TEE is feasible and accurate to within 5 mm. Future studies will focus on

  13. Left Atrial Appendage Closure Guided by Integrated Echocardiography and Fluoroscopy Imaging Reduces Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Jan; Eickholt, Christian; Petersen, Margot; Kehmeier, Eva; Veulemans, Verena; Kelm, Malte; Willems, Stephan; Meyer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure guided by automated real-time integration of 2D-/3D-transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and fluoroscopy imaging results in decreased radiation exposure. Methods and Results In this open-label single-center study LAA closure (AmplatzerTM Cardiac Plug) was performed in 34 consecutive patients (8 women; 73.1±8.5 years) with (n = 17, EN+) or without (n = 17, EN-) integrated echocardiography/fluoroscopy imaging guidance (EchoNavigator® [EN]; Philips Healthcare). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between both groups. Successful LAA closure was documented in all patients. Radiation dose was reduced in the EN+ group about 52% (EN+: 48.5±30.7 vs. EN-: 93.9±64.4 Gy/cm2; p = 0.01). Corresponding to the radiation dose fluoroscopy time was reduced (EN+: 16.7±7 vs. EN-: 24.0±11.4 min; p = 0.035). These advantages were not at the cost of increased procedure time (89.6±28.8 vs. 90.1±30.2 min; p = 0.96) or periprocedural complications. Contrast media amount was comparable between both groups (172.3±92.7 vs. 197.5±127.8 ml; p = 0.53). During short-term follow-up of at least 3 months (mean: 8.1±5.9 months) no device-related events occurred. Conclusions Automated real-time integration of echocardiography and fluoroscopy can be incorporated into procedural work-flow of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure without prolonging procedure time. This approach results in a relevant reduction of radiation exposure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01262508 PMID:26465747

  14. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    PubMed Central

    COLOMBO, CHIARA; TAMBORINI, GLORIA; PEPI, MAURO; ALIMENTO, MARINA; FIORENTINI, CESARE

    2007-01-01

    This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic) and quantitative advantages of this technique. PMID:21977273

  15. Annular sizing using real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography-guided trans-catheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Alejandro; Hamid, Tahir; Kanaganayagam, Gajen; Karunaratne, Devinda; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been established as an alternative therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are unfit for the surgical aortic valve replacements. Pre and periprocedural imaging for the TAVR procedure is the key to procedural success. Currently transesophageal echocardiography (TOE), including real-time three-dimensional (RT-3D) imaging TOE, has been used for peri-interventional monitoring and guidance for TAVR. We describe our initial experience with real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography (RT-3DICE), imaging technology for the use in the TAVR procedure. Methods We used RT-3DICE using an ACUSON SC2000 2.0v (Siemens Medical Solution), and a 10F AcuNav V catheter (Siemens-Acuson, Inc, Mountain View, California, USA) in addition to preoperative multislice CT (MSCT) in total of five patients undergoing TAVR procedure. Results Aortic annulus and sinus of valsalva diameters were measured using RT-3DICE. Aortic valve measurements obtained using RT-3DICE are comparable to those obtained using MSCT with no significant difference in our patients. Conclusions This small study of five patients shows the safe use of RT-3DICE in TAVR Procedure and may help the procedures performed under local anaesthesia without the need for TOE. PMID:27158522

  16. Echocardiography in the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Musat, Dan; Sherrid, Mark V

    2006-12-01

    Echocardiography is the best technique to diagnose, evaluate, follow-up and guide the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Diagnosis of HCM depends on left ventricular wall thickness >/=15 mm. Also noted are mitral valve systolic anterior motion, anteriorly positioned mitral valve leaflet coaptation, anomalous anterior insertion of papillary muscles, and diastolic dysfunction. Resting left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient occurs in 25% of patients and provocable gradients may be demonstrated in more than half of patients. Echocardiography is important for sudden death risk assessment; patients with a wall thickness more than 30 mm have a higher risk of sudden cardiac death, as often as 2%/year. Two thirds of the symptomatic obstructed patients can be successfully managed long term with medical treatment alone (beta-blockers, disopyramide, verapamil) guided by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) response and follow-up. Obstructed patients, who fail medical therapy, are usually offered invasive treatment: surgical septal myectomy, alcohol septal ablation, or DDD pacemaker. Preoperative TTE is a necessary guide for the surgeon in planning the operation. It gives the surgeon precise measurements of septal thickness, mitral valve leaflets length and floppiness and papillary muscle anomalies. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography is a very important tool for evaluating surgical results. Persistent SAM, resting outflow gradient more than 30 mm Hg or more than 50 mmHg with provocation, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation are indications for immediate revision. For patients >40 years old, and also not suitable for surgery because of comorbidities, alcohol septal ablation is viable alternative therapy for relief of obstruction and improvement of symptoms. Echocardiography is a valuable tool to choose the site of ablation (using myocardial contrast echocardiography), as well as for evaluation of results.

  17. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W J; Griffin, B; Thomas, J D

    1995-04-01

    With the additional ability to rotate the image around the axis of the centerline of the sector, multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) improves over single or biplane TEE in ease of use and diagnostic accuracy. This article reviews the anatomic, physiological, and topographic considerations that affect the use of multiplane TEE in evaluation of patients with mitral valve disease. The optimum mitral valve examination includes a true "short-axis" view, obtained by a transverse (zero-degree angle) transgastric image orientation with the probe tip flexed anteriorly, and several "long-axis" views, obtained from various rotations of the basilar multiplane TEE image planes. This provides a useful and accurate means to determine the mechanism of mitral regurgitation, which is useful in planning and timing, determining the likelihood, and predicting the surgical techniques that will be required for mitral valve repair. The postcardiopulmonary bypass (postpump) TEE examination in a patient with mitral regurgitation is a second important component of the process of repair, to determine the presence and severity of residual mitral regurgitation, and identify any complications of surgery. Of 1,550 mitral repair operations studied with postpump echocardiography at our hospital since 1987, a total of 105 (7%) have had second pump runs. Multiplane TEE is also useful to pinpoint the exact site of periprosthetic regurgitation around a mitral prosthesis, enabling direct surgical closure in some cases. Understanding special technical features of multiplane TEE is an important component for optimum utilization of this powerful diagnostic modality.

  18. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsusaka, Katsuhiko; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2000-08-01

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging equipment for diagnosis requires much time to reconstruct 3D images or fix the view point for observing the 3D image. Thus, it is inconvenient for cardiac diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic 3D echocardiography system. The system produces 3D images in real-time and permits changes in view point. This system consists of ultrasound diagnostic equipment, a digitizer and a computer. B-mode images are projected to a virtual 3D space by referring to the position of the probe of the ultrasound diagnosis equipment. The position is obtained by the digitizer to which the ultrasound probe is attached. The 3D cardiac image is constructed from B-mode images obtained simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. To obtain the same moment of heartbeat in the cardiac cycle, this system uses the electrocardiography derived from the diagnosis equipment. The 3D images, which show various scenes of the stage of heartbeat action, are displayed sequentially. The doctor can observe 3D images cut in any plane by pushing a button of the digitizer and zooming with the keyboard. We evaluated our prototype system by observation of a mitral valve in motion.

  19. The flail mitral valve: echocardiographic findings by precordial and transesophageal imaging and Doppler color flow mapping.

    PubMed

    Himelman, R B; Kusumoto, F; Oken, K; Lee, E; Cahalan, M K; Shah, P M; Schiller, N B

    1991-01-01

    To determine the echocardiographic and Doppler characteristics of mitral regurgitation associated with a flail mitral valve, precordial and transesophageal echocardiography with pulsed wave and Doppler color flow mapping was performed in 17 patients with a flail mitral valve leaflet due to ruptured chordae tendineae (Group I) and 22 patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation due to other causes (Group II). Echocardiograms were performed before or during cardiac surgery; cardiac catheterization was also performed in 28 patients (72%). Mitral valve disease was confirmed at cardiac surgery in all patients. By echocardiography, the presence of a flail mitral valve leaflet was defined by the presence of abnormal mitral leaflet coaptation or ruptured chordae. Using these criteria, transesophageal imaging showed a trend toward greater sensitivity and specificity than precordial imaging in the diagnosis of flail mitral valve leaflet. By Doppler color flow mapping, a flail mitral valve leaflet was also characterized by an eccentric, peripheral, circular mitral regurgitant jet that closely adhered to the walls of the left atrium. The direction of flow of the eccentric jet in the left atrium distinguished a flail anterior from a flail posterior leaflet. By transesophageal echocardiography with Doppler color flow mapping, the ratio of mitral regurgitant jet arc length to radius of curvature was significantly higher in Group I than Group II patients (5.0 +/- 2.3 versus 0.7 +/- 0.6, p less than 0.001); all of the Group I patients and none of the Group II patients had a ratio greater than 2.5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Intracardiac echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Bruce, C J; Friedman, P A

    2002-10-01

    This article describes currently available intracardiac ultrasound (ICE) technology contrasting it with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) highlighting their differences. Clinical applications in the electrophysiologic and cardiac catheterization laboratory are discussed and current limitations addressed. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is possible because lower frequency transducers (in contrast to higher frequency IVUS devices) have been miniaturized and mounted onto catheters capable of percutaneous insertion into the heart. These lower frequency transducers are capable of enhanced tissue penetration, permitting high-resolution 2D "whole heart" imaging. Also, with the introduction of the newest phased array transducer, Doppler hemodynamic data in addition to high resolution imaging can also be obtained. ICE facilitates electrophysiologic procedures by guiding transseptal catheterization, enabling endocardial anatomy visualization and targeting of arrhythmogenic substrate, ensuring optimal ablation electrode/tissue contact and promptly diagnosing procedural complications. Promising non-electrophysiologic applications include guidance of percutaneous closure of septal defects, percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty and complex cardiac biopsy. Current limitations include monoplanar imaging, narrow field of view, and relatively large size of the catheter. Intra-cardiac imaging is now a clinical tool and has the potential to play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. Further refinement and miniaturization of these transducers, through continued technological progress, will make way for primary operator controlled, integrated ultrasound-guided interventional devices.

  1. Intracardiac echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Bruce, C J; Friedman, P A

    2001-12-01

    This article describes currently available intracardiac ultrasound (ICE) technology contrasting it with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), highlighting their differences. General and specific clinical applications, limitations and future developments of ICE are addressed. ICE is possible because lower frequency transducers (in contrast to higher frequency IVUS devices) have been miniaturized and mounted onto catheters capable of percutaneous insertion into the heart. Since the recent availability of a steerable, 5.5--10MHz phased-array catheter with full Doppler capability, these lower frequency transducers are not only capable of enhanced penetration, permitting high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) imaging but can also provide haemodynamic data. ICE facilitates electrophysiologic procedures by guiding trans-septal catheterization, enabling endocardial anatomy visualization, ensuring ablation electrode/tissue contact and promptly diagnosing procedural complications. Promising non-electrophysiologic applications include guidance of percutaneous closure of septal defects, percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty and complex cardiac biopsy. Current limitations include monoplanar imaging and narrow field of view. Expanded diagnostic techniques such as tissue Doppler, multiplane, three dimensional (3D) and multimodality imaging represent future refinements. ICE is now a clinical tool. With the introduction of the newest phased-array transducer, with full Doppler capability, ICE has the potential to play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. Further refinement and miniaturization hold the key to primary operator controlled, integrated ultrasound-guided interventional devices.

  2. A unique case of "double-orifice aortic valve"-comprehensive assessment by 2-, 3-dimensional, and color Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Stirrup, James E; Cowburn, Peter J; Pousios, Dimitrios; Ohri, Sunil K; Shah, Benoy N

    2016-09-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a powerful imaging tool for the comprehensive assessment of valvular structure and function. TEE may be of added benefit when anatomy is difficult to delineate accurately by transthoracic echocardiography. In this article, we present 2-, 3-dimensional, and color Doppler TEE images from a male patient with aortic stenosis. A highly unusual and complex pattern of valvular calcification created a functionally "double-orifice" valve. Such an abnormality may have implications for the accuracy of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography, which assumes a single orifice valve in native aortic valves. PMID:27677645

  3. An alternative transseptal intracardiac echocardiography strategy to guide left atrial appendage closure: the first described case.

    PubMed

    Fassini, Gaetano; Dello Russo, Antonio; Conti, Sergio; Tondo, Claudio

    2014-11-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the standard imaging technique to guide device implantation for left atrial appendage (LAA) closure. Unfortunately, TEE was contraindicated in this patient due to the high risk of variceal hemorrhage. Critical information about the exact anatomic characteristics of the LAA can be obtained using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). However, standard right-side views do not allow a complete visualization of the LAA: in particular, a reliable left circumflex coronary artery short axis view, relevant for device positioning, is not always achievable. Transseptal views of the LAA with ICE might be used in planning an appropriate intervention strategy for patients who are not suitable for TEE imaging.

  4. Efficacy of anticoagulation in resolving left atrial and left atrial appendage thrombi: A transesophageal echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaber, W. A.; Prior, D. L.; Thamilarasan, M.; Grimm, R. A.; Thomas, J. D.; Klein, A. L.; Asher, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for evaluation of the left atrium and the left atrial appendage (LAA) for the presence of thrombi. Anticoagulation is conventionally used for patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent embolization of atrial thrombi. The mechanism of benefit and effectiveness of thrombi resolution with anticoagulation is not well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a TEE database of 9058 consecutive studies performed between January 1996 and November 1998 to identify all patients with thrombi reported in the left atrium and/or LAA. One hundred seventy-four patients with thrombi in the left atrial cavity (LAC) and LAA were identified (1.9% of transesophageal studies performed). The incidence of LAA thrombi was 6.6 times higher than LAC thrombi (151 vs 23, respectively). Almost all LAC thrombi were visualized on transthoracic echocardiography (90.5%). Mitral valve pathology was associated with LAC location of thrombi (P <.0001), whereas atrial fibrillation or flutter was present in most patients with LAA location of thrombi. Anticoagulation of 47 +/- 18 days was associated with thrombus resolution in 80.1% of the patients on follow-up TEE. Further anticoagulation resulted in limited additional benefit. CONCLUSIONS: LAC thrombi are rare and are usually associated with mitral valve pathology. Transthoracic echocardiography is effective in identifying these thrombi. LAA thrombi occur predominantly in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter. Short-term anticoagulation achieves a high rate of resolution of LAA and LAC thrombi but does not obviate the need for follow-up TEE.

  5. Transesophageal echocardiographic guidance for percutaneous closure of aortic pseudoaneurysm using a type II Amplatzer vascular plug: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangmin Maria; Sung, Kiick; Kang, I-Seok; Min, Jeong Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Jiyeon; Park, Jin Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Aortic pseudoaneurysm after cardiac surgery is a rare entity, but it is potentially fatal due to its clinical course along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. Instead of open surgical repair, percutaneous procedures have been introduced as other options for managing an aortic pseudoaneurysm. In this case report, we describe transesophageal echocardiography guidance for successful percutaneous closure of an aortic pseudoaneurysm located in the left ventricular outflow tract by using a type II Amplatzer vascular plug in a patient in whom open surgical repair was not recommended. PMID:27482320

  6. The important but underappreciated transgastric right ventricular inflow view for transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac implantable device infections.

    PubMed

    Allred, Clint; Crandall, Mark; Auseon, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Device infection is a potential complication of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. We report a case of a 40-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, status post biventricular implantable cardiac defilbrillator placement on continuous home dobutamine, who presented with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a 2.4 cm vegetation near the right ventricular (RV) apex that was only seen in the transgastric RV inflow view. This case demonstrates an atypical distal location for a vegetation and illustrates the importance of obtaining multiple views, including the transgastric RV inflow view, when evaluating for device wire vegetations.

  7. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  8. Analysis of a vibrating interventional device to improve 3-D colormark tracking.

    PubMed

    Fronheiser, Matthew P; Smith, Stephen W

    2007-08-01

    Ultrasound guidance of interventional devices during minimally invasive surgical procedures has been investigated by many researchers. Previously, we extended the methods used by the Colormark tracking system to several interventional devices using a real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. These results showed that we needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of the tracking. In this paper, we describe an analytical model to predict the transverse vibrations along the length of an atrial septal puncture needle to enable design improvements of the tracking system. We assume the needle can be modeled as a hollow bar with a circular cross section with a fixed proximal end and a free distal end that is suspended vertically to ignore gravity effects. The initial results show an ability to predict the natural nodes and antinodes along the needle using the characteristic equation for free vibrations. Simulations show that applying a forcing function to the device at a natural antinode yields an order of magnitude larger vibration than when driving the device at a node. Pulsed wave spectral Doppler data was acquired along the distal portion of the needle in a water tank using a 2-D matrix array transesophageal echocardiography probe. This data was compared to simulations of forced vibrations from the model. These initial results suggest that the model is a good first order approximation of the vibrating device in a water tank. It is our belief that knowing the location of the natural nodes and antinodes will improve our ability to drive the device to ensure the vibrations at the proximal end will reach the tip of the device, which in turn should improve our ability to track the device in vivo. PMID:17703675

  9. [Morpho-Functional Changes of Thoracic Aorta in Atherosclerosis: Multiplane Transesophageal Ultrasound Study

    PubMed

    Vrublevskiĭ, A. V.; Boshchenko, A. A.; Karpov, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate possibilities of multiplane transesophageal ultrasound for assessment of localization and structure of atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta as well as relationship between changes of elastic-tonic properties, processes of aortic wall remodeling, stage of aortic atheromatosis, and coronary atherosclerosis. MATERIAL: Patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis of thoracic aorta (n=120), healthy volunteers (n=11, all men, mean age 51-/+8 years). METHODS: Multiplane transesophageal ultrasound with subsequent calculation of parameters of elasticity and stiffness. The classification of C. Pitsavos et al. (1997) was used for grading aortic atheromatosis. RESULTS. Atherosclerotic plaques were found in 109 patients (91%) and 69 patients (58%) had pronounced (stage 3-5) atheromatosis of thoracic aorta. The plaques were most frequently (87%) localized in descending aorta. Calcinated hyperdense plaques, soft plaques with low density, soft plaques with heterogeneous density prevailed in ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of thoracic atherosclerosis as predictor of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary vessels were 90 and 65%, respectively. Pronounced diffuse atherosclerosis of thoracic aorta decreased its elastic-tonic properties as evidenced by significant lowering of parameters of elasticity and increase of stiffness index. This process was associated with remodeling of thoracic aorta (progressive passive dilatation, thickening of its wall and lowering of amplitude of systolic excursion). Atheromatosis stage correlated inversely with systolic excursion and parameters of elasticity and directly with stiffness index, intima-media thickness, systolic and diastolic diameters of the aorta. There was also a direct correlation between stage of aortic atheromatosis and age and total score of coronary artery involvement. CONCLUSION: Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography is a

  10. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  11. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  12. The search for endocarditis in patients with candidemia: a systematic recommendation for echocardiography? A prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cruz, A; Cruz Menárguez, M; Muñoz, P; Pedromingo, M; Peláez, T; Solís, J; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Bouza, E

    2015-08-01

    Most current guidelines do not recommend systematic screening with echocardiography in patients with candidemia, as Candida infective endocarditis (CIE) is considered an uncommon disease. During the study period, we recommended echocardiography systematically to all candidemic patients that did not have contraindications and accepted to participate in the study. We intended to assess the incidence of unrecognized CIE in adult patients with candidemia. Our institution is a tertiary teaching hospital in which we follow all patients with candidemia. From January 2007 to October 2012, echocardiography was systematically recommended to suitable candidates. We recorded 263 cases of candidemia in adult patients. Echocardiography was not performed in 76 of these patients for the following reasons: patients had died when blood cultures became positive (17), patients were critically or terminally ill (38), or the patient or physician refused the procedure (21). The remaining 187 patients constitute the basis of this report. CIE was diagnosed in 11 cases (4.2 % of the whole candidemic population and 5.9 % of the population with echocardiographic study). The results of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) suggested infective endocarditis (IE) in 5/172 patients (2.9 %), and the result of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was positive in 10/87 (11.5 %). Among 11 confirmed cases of CIE, the disease was clinically unsuspected in three patients. At least 4.2 % of all candidemic patients have CIE. CIE is frequently clinically unsuspected and echocardiography is required to demonstrate a high proportion of cases.

  13. Initial Experience With a Miniaturized Multiplane Transesophageal Probe in Small Infants Undergoing Cardiac Operations

    PubMed Central

    Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Shirali, Girish S.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Bradley, Scott M.; Atz, Andrew M.; Cohen, Meryl S.; Graham, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has been reluctance to use intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in small infants. We assessed the utility and safety of a new miniaturized multiplane micro-TEE probe in small infants undergoing cardiac operations. Description Hemodynamic and ventilation variables were prospectively recorded before and after micro-TEE insertion and removal in infants weighing 5 kg or less undergoing cardiac operations. Evaluation The study included 42 patients with a mean weight of 3.6 ± 0.9 kg (range, 1.7 to 5 kg). All probe insertions were successful. There were no complications or clinically significant changes in hemodynamic or ventilation variables. Information provided by TEE resulted in surgical revision in 6 of the 42 patients. Conclusions The micro-TEE provides high quality, useful diagnostic images without hemodynamic or ventilation compromise in small infants undergoing cardiac operations. This advance is important with the growing trend towards complete repair of complex structural heart disease in small infants. PMID:20494062

  14. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  15. Three-dimensional echocardiography of the mitral valve: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Maffessanti, Francesco; Mirea, Oana; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional echocardiography has markedly improved our understanding of normal and pathologic mitral valve (MV) mechanics. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) data on the mitral valve could have a clinical impact on diagnosis, patient referral, surgical strategies, annuloplasty ring design and evaluation of the immediate and long-term surgical outcome. This review covers the contribution of 3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of MV disease, its role in selecting and monitoring surgical procedures, and in the assessment of surgical outcomes. Moreover, advantages of this technique versus the standard 2D modality, as well as future applications of advanced analysis techniques, will be reviewed. PMID:23686753

  16. Role of biplane and biplane echocardiographically guided 3-dimensional echocardiography during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Pellikka, Patricia A; McCully, Robert B; Oh, Jae K; Kukuzke, Joyce A; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy

    2006-09-01

    Image acquisition time and wall-motion score of conventional 2-dimensional (2D) dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) were compared with those of biplane and 3-dimensional (3D) DSE in 50 patients (age 67 +/- 13 years) with regular rhythms during clinically indicated DSE. Commercially available systems were used for the study. We used a conventional transducer for 2D and a matrix-array transducer (x4 or x3-1) for two biplane (60- and 120-degree) images and one 3D full-volume image. Image quality was scored as 1 = good; 2 = adequate; and 3 = inadequate. Segmental wall-motion scores for each method were analyzed in blinded fashion. Acquisition times of biplane (9.3 +/- 2.8 seconds) and biplane-guided 3D (additional 2.6 +/- 1.0 seconds) echocardiography were significantly shorter than those of conventional 2D DSE (60.0 +/- 26.7 seconds) (P < .001). Image quality was adequate or good in 94% for biplane and 96% for 3D echocardiography. Agreement of segmental wall-motion score was present in 87.6% of segments for 2D versus biplane and 85.9% for 2D versus 3D at baseline and in 88.0% for 2D versus biplane and 87.4% for 2D versus 3D at peak stress. Acquisition of biplane or biplane-guided 3D volumetric data during DSE with use of a new matrix-array transducer was feasible and shortened image acquisition time without affecting the diagnostic yield compared with conventional 2D imaging.

  17. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  18. Principles of echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, H

    1977-06-01

    Echocardiography is basically a diagnostic procedure whereby images of the heart are produced using ultrasound. It can be considered a natural means of sensing one's environment in that this basic technic is used by several animals as sonar. The manner in which the images are created is in many ways similar to light. With the standard M-mode examination one obtains a one-dimensional view of the heart whereby distance is plotted against time on a strip chart recorder. Cross-sectional or two-dimensional echocardiography plots distance against distance, and one more accurately recreates a spatially oriented heart on either movie film or videotape. All the availability information thus far indicates that echocardiography offers very little, if any, hazard to the patient.

  19. Multiple capture locations for 3D ultrasound-guided robotic retrieval of moving bodies from a beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienphrapa, Paul; Ramachandran, Bharat; Elhawary, Haytham; Taylor, Russell H.; Popovic, Aleksandra

    2012-02-01

    Free moving bodies in the heart pose a serious health risk as they may be released in the arteries causing blood flow disruption. These bodies may be the result of various medical conditions and trauma. The conventional approach to removing these objects involves open surgery with sternotomy, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, and a wide resection of the heart muscle. We advocate a minimally invasive surgical approach using a flexible robotic end effector guided by 3D transesophageal echocardiography. In a phantom study, we track a moving body in a beating heart using a modified normalized cross-correlation method, with mean RMS errors of 2.3 mm. We previously found the foreign body motion to be fast and abrupt, rendering infeasible a retrieval method based on direct tracking. We proposed a strategy based on guiding a robot to the most spatially probable location of the fragment and securing it upon its reentry to said location. To improve efficacy in the context of a robotic retrieval system, we extend this approach by exploring multiple candidate capture locations. Salient locations are identified based on spatial probability, dwell time, and visit frequency; secondary locations are also examined. Aggregate results indicate that the location of highest spatial probability (50% occupancy) is distinct from the longest-dwelled location (0.84 seconds). Such metrics are vital in informing the design of a retrieval system and capture strategies, and they can be computed intraoperatively to select the best capture location based on constraints such as workspace, time, and device manipulability. Given the complex nature of fragment motion, the ability to analyze multiple capture locations is a desirable capability in an interventional system.

  20. American Society of Echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow ... 2016 · Executive Theme · Genesis Framework by StudioPress · WordPress · Log in Membership ▼ Member Portal Log In Join ASE ...

  1. Mitral valve anatomy and function: new insights from three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Muraru, Denisa; Cattarina, Maria; Boccalini, Francesca; Dal Lin, Carlo; Peluso, Diletta; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Bellu, Roberto; Sarais, Cristiano; Xhyheri, Borejda; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P

    2013-02-01

    Integrating volumetric rendering with motion in real-time, three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is the most suitable imaging technique for assessing heart valves. Today, the rapidly advancing 3D technology allows us to perform a virtual 'dissection' of the heart intra vitam and to discover unprecedented, realistic views of cardiac valves in just a few minutes. The mitral valve is the cardiac structure easiest to visualize by transthoracic or transoesophageal approach. Three-dimensional echocardiography is able to display the non-planar valve leaflets and annulus, the complex subvalvular apparatus and their spatial relationships with the surrounding structures. The complementary use of 3D colour flow adds data about valve integrity and allows the quantitation of valvular diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that 3D echocardiography is emerging as the reference technique to assess mitral valve morphology and function and guide valvular procedures of mounting complexity. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current clinical applications of 3D echocardiography for assessing mitral valves and to stress the incremental benefits of 3D echocardiography over conventional two-dimensional echocardiography.

  2. A lethal tension pneumothorax during minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery: Can transesophageal echocardiography pick it?

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Dharmesh Radheshyam; Nambala, Sathyaki Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is establishing itself as the standard of care across the world. MICS CABG is currently performed in only a few centers. Hemodynamics disturbances are peculiar during MICS CABG due to space constraints. We report a 70-year-old man who underwent MICS CABG who developed tension pneumothorax during revascularization that was diagnosed in a novel way. PMID:27716712

  3. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  4. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. The potential role and limitations of echocardiography in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Cianchi, Giovanni; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Batacchi, Stefano; Peris, Adriano; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-04-01

    Bedside use of Doppler echocardiography is being featured as a promising, clinically useful tool in assessing the pulmonary circulation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present review is aimed at summarizing the available evidence obtained with echocardiography on right ventricle (RV) function and pulmonary circulation in ARDS and to highlight the potential of this technique in clinical practice (only articles in English language were considered). According to the available evidence on echocardiographic findings, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) echocardiography (transthoracic and transesophageal) has a growing role in the management ARDS patients mainly because of the strict interactions between the lung (and ventilation) and the RV and pulmonary circulation; (b) there may be a continuum of alterations in RV size and function and pulmonary circulation which may end in the development of acute cor pulmonale, probably paralleling ARDS disease severity; and (c) the detection of acute cor pulmonale should prompt intensivists to tailor their ventilatory strategy to the individual patient depending on the echocardiography findings. Bearing in mind the clinical role and growing importance of echocardiography in ARDS and the available evidence on this topic, we present a flow chart including the parameters to be measured and the timing of echo exams in ARDS patients. Despite the important progress that echocardiography has gained in the evaluation of patients with ARDS, several open questions remain and echocardiography still appears to be underused in these patients. A more systematic use of echocardiography (mainly through shared protocols) in ARDS could help intensivists to tailor the optimal treatment in individual patients as well as highlighting the limits and potential of this methodology in patients with ALI. PMID:26660667

  7. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  8. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  9. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  10. Training in critical care echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography is useful for the diagnosis and management of hemodynamic failure in the intensive care unit so that competence in some elements of echocardiography is a core skill of the critical care specialist. An important issue is how to provide training to intensivists so that they are competent in the field. This article will review issues related to training in critical care echocardiography. PMID:21906268

  11. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  12. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  13. Natural orifice transesophageal endoscopic surgery: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Pinto, João; Ferreira, Aníbal; Rolanda, Carla; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is performing surgery avoiding skin incisions. Theoretical advantages of NOTES include decreased postoperative pain, reduction/elimination of general anesthesia, improved cosmetic outcomes, elimination of skin incision-related complications such as wound infections and hernias, and increased overall patient satisfaction. Although various forms of port creation to accomplish thoracic NOTES procedures have been proposed, transesophageal NOTES has been shown to be the most reliable one. The evolution of endoscopic submucosal transesophageal access resulted in the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), which had a fast transition to clinical practice. The authors present a review of the current state of the art concerning transesophageal NOTES, looking at its potential for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions as well as the hurdles yet to be overcome. PMID:22567228

  14. Natural Orifice Transesophageal Endoscopic Surgery: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Pinto, João; Ferreira, Aníbal; Rolanda, Carla; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is performing surgery avoiding skin incisions. Theoretical advantages of NOTES include decreased postoperative pain, reduction/elimination of general anesthesia, improved cosmetic outcomes, elimination of skin incision-related complications such as wound infections and hernias, and increased overall patient satisfaction. Although various forms of port creation to accomplish thoracic NOTES procedures have been proposed, transesophageal NOTES has been shown to be the most reliable one. The evolution of endoscopic submucosal transesophageal access resulted in the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), which had a fast transition to clinical practice. The authors present a review of the current state of the art concerning transesophageal NOTES, looking at its potential for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions as well as the hurdles yet to be overcome. PMID:22567228

  15. Peripheral venous contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Seward, J B; Tajik, A J; Hagler, D J; Ritter, D G

    1977-02-01

    Contrast echocardiography is the technique of injecting various echo-producing agents into the bloodstream and, with standard echocardiographic techniques, observing the blood flow patterns as revealed by the resulting cloud of echoes. These techniques have only recently been utilized to evaluate various cardiac defects. Two physical properties of these agents characterize their usefulness: (1) clouds of echoes can be observed downstream as well as at the injection site, and (2) the echo-producing quality of these agents is completely lost with a single transit through either the pulmonary or the systemic capillary bed. Thus, detection of resultant echoes in both the venous and the arterial blood pool is indicative of abnormal shunting. In 60 patients with a spectrum of cardiac defects and a wide range in age of presentation, studies were made of (1) the feasibility of performing contrast echocardiography with superficial peripheral venous injections, and (2) the clinical usefulness of this relatively noninvasive technique in detecting and localizing intracardiac right ot left shunting. Most superficial peripheral veins could be utilized, and the resultant contrast echograms were reproducible and similar in quality to those obtained more central (caval) injections. Right to left shunts could be localized in the atrial, ventricular or intrapulmonary level. Characteristic flow patterns were also recognized for tricuspid atresia and common ventricle.

  16. [Echocardiography in infirmary].

    PubMed

    Heredia Guerrero, Ericka Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the 1st death cause worldwide in the beginning of the third millennium. Due to its high incidence and fatal complications the study of ischaemic cardiopathy had great importance. Echocardiography is an image diagnostic technique, based on the use of ultrasound, applied in the evaluation and recognition of cardiovascular diseases. It is non invasive, harmless, accessible, easy to made and quick to interpret, safe and cheaper than others imaging techniques, its continuous development has allow its use in all cardiology fields. An area where the nursing staff begin their participation in the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chavez" is the Echocardiography Department where the nurse professional profile must embrace knowledge in different areas, with an active participation in the echocardiographic studies and protocols, optimizing the patient's quality of attention with the use of Nursing Attention Process based in the theory of Dorothea Orem with the aim of standardize and improve the patient's quality of attention along with the interdisciplinary team. PMID:18938734

  17. Detailed Transthoracic and Transesophageal Echocardiographic Analysis of Mitral Leaflets in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Ghulam Ali, Sarah; Fusini, Laura; Tamborini, Gloria; Muratori, Manuela; Gripari, Paola; Mapelli, Massimo; Zanobini, Marco; Alamanni, Francesco; Pepi, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    A recent histological study of resected scallop-P2 in mitral valve (MV) prolapse, showed that chordae tendinae may be missing or hidden in superimposed fibrous tissue of the leaflets, contributing to their thickening. This may have relevant clinical implication because detailed analysis of MV leaflets has a central role in the evaluation of patients undergoing repair. The aim of this study was to analyze MV leaflets focusing on thickness of prolapsing segments and the presence of chordal rupture (CR). We enrolled 246 patients (age 63 ± 13 years, 72 men) with isolated P2 prolapse and also 50 age-matched patients with normal MV anatomy as control group. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were retrospectively analyzed to quantify the length and the proximal and distal thickness of both anterior (A2) and posterior (P2) MV scallops. Measurements were performed at end diastole in the standard TTE and TEE views. TTE and TEE measurements were feasible in all cases. Echocardiographically 176 patients had CR (group A), 45 had no rupture (group B), and 25 had an uncertain diagnosis (group C). All pathological groups showed thickening and elongation of involved leaflets versus normal, whereas no differences in leaflets characteristics were found among MV groups. Most patients undergoing MV repair had CR with thickening of the prolapsed segment. These findings are in agreement with recent histological studies showing superimposed fibrous tissue on MV leaflets partially including ruptured chordae. This may also explain that in cases without ruptured chordae, thickness of the leaflets is markedly increased (hidden chordae?). In conclusion, detailed analysis of MV apparatus may further improve knowledge of these patients and may influence surgical timing. PMID:27184171

  18. The Evolutionary Development of Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Echocardiography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which provides information on cardiac morphology, function, and hemodynamics. It is the most frequently used cardiovascular diagnostic test only after electrocardiography. In less than five decades, the evolution in this technique has made it the basic part of cardiovascular medicine. Herein, the evolution of various forms of echocardiography is briefly described. PMID:23390327

  19. Comparison of transesophageal Doppler methods with angiography for evaluation of the severity of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Flachskampf, F A; Frieske, R; Engelhard, B; Grenner, H; Frielingsdorf, J; Beck, F; Reineke, T; Thomas, J D; Hanrath, P

    1998-09-01

    Doppler evaluation of mitral regurgitation remains difficult; thus, a head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of Doppler methods was undertaken. Fifty patients with native mitral regurgitation underwent multiplane transesophageal echocardiography within 5 days of catheterization. Angiographic grade of mitral regurgitation and, in 20 patients with grade II-IV regurgitation, invasively determined regurgitant stroke volume were compared with color Doppler area, regurgitant jet diameter, ratio of systolic to diastolic peak pulmonary venous flow velocities, and (based on the proximal convergence zone) maximal regurgitant flow rate and regurgitant orifice area. Rank correlation coefficients of angiographic grade with Doppler parameters were 0.61 for color jet area, -0.61 for pulmonary venous flow velocity ratio, 0.69 for color jet diameter, 0.79 for maximal regurgitant flow rate, and 0.78 for regurgitant orifice area (all P < .01). Convergence zone-based parameters also correlated best (r=0.73) with invasively determined regurgitant stroke volume. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis confirmed higher diagnostic accuracy for proximal jet width and proximal convergence zone parameters than for color jet area or pulmonary venous flow velocity ratio. Proximal convergence zone parameters and proximal color jet diameter best distinguished severe from mild forms of mitral regurgitation. PMID:9758380

  20. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  2. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Imaging Artifacts in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Le, Huong T; Hangiandreou, Nicholas; Timmerman, Robert; Rice, Mark J; Smith, W Brit; Deitte, Lori; Janelle, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Artifacts are frequently encountered during echocardiographic examinations. An understanding of the physics and underlying assumptions of ultrasound processing involved with image generation is important for accurate interpretation of 2D grayscale, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler, and 3D artifacts and their clinical implications.

  4. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine.

  5. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine. PMID:26465262

  6. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  9. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  12. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  13. Echocardiography: frontier imaging in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Steeds, R P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in echocardiography that have maintained this technology at the forefront of day-to-day imaging in clinical cardiology. The primary reason for most requests for imaging in cardiovascular medicine is to assess left ventricular structure and function. As our understanding of left ventricular mechanics has become more intricate, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking modalities have been developed that deliver greater insights into diagnosis of cardiomyopathy and earlier warning of ventricular dysfunction. Increased accuracy has been achieved with the dissemination of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography, which has also acquired a central role in the pre-operative assessment of patients prior to reparative valvular surgery. The use of contrast has broadened the indications for transthoracic echocardiography and has increased the accuracy of stress echocardiography, while reducing the number of patients who cannot be scanned because of a limited acoustic window. Finally, echocardiography will be seen in the future not only as a diagnostic tool in those affected by cardiovascular disease but also as a method for prediction of risk and perhaps activation of targeted treatment. PMID:22723531

  14. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  15. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  16. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  17. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. Current Clinical Applications of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: When the Technique Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Surkova, Elena; Muraru, Denisa; Aruta, Patrizia; Romeo, Gabriella; Bidviene, Jurate; Cherata, Diana; Badano, Luigi P

    2016-11-01

    Advances in ultrasound, computer, and electronics technology have permitted three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) to become a clinically viable imaging modality, with significant impact on patient diagnosis, management, and outcome. Thanks to the inception of a fully sampled matrix transducer for transthoracic and transesophageal probes, 3DE now offers much faster and easier data acquisition, immediate display of anatomy, and the possibility of online quantitative analysis of cardiac chambers and heart valves. The clinical use of transthoracic 3DE has been primarily focused, albeit not exclusively, on the assessment of cardiac chamber volumes and function. Transesophageal 3DE has been applied mostly for assessing heart valve anatomy and function. The advantages of using 3DE to measure cardiac chamber volumes derive from the lack of geometric assumptions about their shape and the avoidance of the apical view foreshortening, which are the main shortcomings of volume calculations from two-dimensional echocardiographic views. Moreover, 3DE offers a unique realistic en face display of heart valves, congenital defects, and surrounding structures allowing a better appreciation of the dynamic functional anatomy of cardiac abnormalities in vivo. Offline quantitation of 3DE data sets has made significant contributions to our mechanistic understanding of normal and diseased heart valves, as well as of their alterations induced by surgical or interventional procedures. As reparative cardiac surgery and transcatheter procedures become more and more popular for treating structural heart disease, transesophageal 3DE has expanded its role as the premier technique for procedure planning, intra-procedural guidance, as well as for checking device function and potential complications after the procedure.

  1. Current Clinical Applications of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: When the Technique Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Surkova, Elena; Muraru, Denisa; Aruta, Patrizia; Romeo, Gabriella; Bidviene, Jurate; Cherata, Diana; Badano, Luigi P

    2016-11-01

    Advances in ultrasound, computer, and electronics technology have permitted three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) to become a clinically viable imaging modality, with significant impact on patient diagnosis, management, and outcome. Thanks to the inception of a fully sampled matrix transducer for transthoracic and transesophageal probes, 3DE now offers much faster and easier data acquisition, immediate display of anatomy, and the possibility of online quantitative analysis of cardiac chambers and heart valves. The clinical use of transthoracic 3DE has been primarily focused, albeit not exclusively, on the assessment of cardiac chamber volumes and function. Transesophageal 3DE has been applied mostly for assessing heart valve anatomy and function. The advantages of using 3DE to measure cardiac chamber volumes derive from the lack of geometric assumptions about their shape and the avoidance of the apical view foreshortening, which are the main shortcomings of volume calculations from two-dimensional echocardiographic views. Moreover, 3DE offers a unique realistic en face display of heart valves, congenital defects, and surrounding structures allowing a better appreciation of the dynamic functional anatomy of cardiac abnormalities in vivo. Offline quantitation of 3DE data sets has made significant contributions to our mechanistic understanding of normal and diseased heart valves, as well as of their alterations induced by surgical or interventional procedures. As reparative cardiac surgery and transcatheter procedures become more and more popular for treating structural heart disease, transesophageal 3DE has expanded its role as the premier technique for procedure planning, intra-procedural guidance, as well as for checking device function and potential complications after the procedure. PMID:27628295

  2. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  3. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic acquisition of ascending aortic flow velocities: A comparison with established techniques.

    PubMed

    Harris, S N; Luther, M A; Perrino, A C

    1999-09-01

    Acquisition of ascending aortic flow velocities with monoplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) have been problematic because of limitations of available imaging planes and alignment of the Doppler beam with aortic flow. The rotatable imaging array of multiplane TEE (Multi TEE) may provide improved alignment with ascending aortic blood flow. The purpose of this study was to establish the validity of maximal aortic flow velocities (VMax) and velocity time integrals (VTI) obtained by a Multi TEE continuous wave Doppler technique by comparison with those obtained by established echocardiographic techniques, suprasternal Doppler (SSD), and monoplane TEE (Mono TEE). Forty-five patients scheduled for elective surgery were prospectively studied. Multi TEE-obtained VMax and VTI were significantly greater (P <.05), 120 +/- 28.9 cm/s and 25.8 +/- 7 cm, than those obtained by the SSD method, 100.2 +/- 28.6 cm/s and 19.8 +/- 6.8 cm, respectively. Bias analysis revealed that Multi TEE better assessed VMax (mean difference -19.7, SD of the difference of 28 cm/s) and VTI (mean difference -5.9, SD of the difference of 6.4 cm) than the SSD method. Multi TEE exhibited values for VMax 10% or greater than those obtained by SSD in 18 (48. 6%) of 37 patients, and Multi TEE was 10% or greater than SSD in 23 (67%) of 37 patients for VTI determination. Values obtained by Multi TEE and Mono TEE showed close agreement. Multi TEE provides a favorable alignment for continuous wave Doppler interrogation of aortic flow and compared favorably to established techniques. This technique expands the utility of TEE to evaluate aortic valvular function and cardiac performance.

  4. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  5. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  6. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  7. Speeding up 3D speckle tracking using PatchMatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zontak, Maria; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Echocardiography provides valuable information to diagnose heart dysfunction. A typical exam records several minutes of real-time cardiac images. To enable complete analysis of 3D cardiac strains, 4-D (3-D+t) echocardiography is used. This results in a huge dataset and requires effective automated analysis. Ultrasound speckle tracking is an effective method for tissue motion analysis. It involves correlation of a 3D kernel (block) around a voxel with kernels in later frames. The search region is usually confined to a local neighborhood, due to biomechanical and computational constraints. For high strains and moderate frame-rates, however, this search region will remain large, leading to a considerable computational burden. Moreover, speckle decorrelation (due to high strains) leads to errors in tracking. To solve this, spatial motion coherency between adjacent voxels should be imposed, e.g., by averaging their correlation functions.1 This requires storing correlation functions for neighboring voxels, thus increasing memory demands. In this work, we propose an efficient search using PatchMatch, 2 a powerful method to find correspondences between images. Here we adopt PatchMatch for 3D volumes and radio-frequency signals. As opposed to an exact search, PatchMatch performs random sampling of the search region and propagates successive matches among neighboring voxels. We show that: 1) Inherently smooth offset propagation in PatchMatch contributes to spatial motion coherence without any additional processing or memory demand. 2) For typical scenarios, PatchMatch is at least 20 times faster than the exact search, while maintaining comparable tracking accuracy.

  8. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  9. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  10. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate

    PubMed Central

    Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303

  11. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  12. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  13. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  14. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  15. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  16. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  17. Initial clinical experience of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in patients with ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; White, R. D.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Flamm, S. D.; Wong, J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The geometry of the left ventricle in patients with cardiomyopathy is often sub-optimal for 2-dimensional ultrasound when assessing left ventricular (LV) function and localized abnormalities such as a ventricular aneurysm. The aim of this study was to report the initial experience of real-time 3-D echocardiography for evaluating patients with cardiomyopathy. A total of 34 patients were evaluated with the real-time 3D method in the operating room (n = 15) and in the echocardiographic laboratory (n = 19). Thirteen of 28 patients with cardiomyopathy and 6 other subjects with normal LV function were evaluated by both real-time 3-D echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining LV volumes and ejection fractions for comparison. There were close relations and agreements for LV volumes (r = 0.98, p <0.0001, mean difference = -15 +/- 81 ml) and ejection fractions (r = 0.97, p <0.0001, mean difference = 0.001 +/- 0.04) between the real-time 3D method and MRI when 3 cardiomyopathy cases with marked LV dilatation (LV end-diastolic volume >450 ml by MRI) were excluded. In these 3 patients, 3D echocardiography significantly underestimated the LV volumes due to difficulties with imaging the entire LV in a 60 degrees x 60 degrees pyramidal volume. The new real-time 3D echocardiography is feasible in patients with cardiomyopathy and may provide a faster and lower cost alternative to MRI for evaluating cardiac function in patients.

  18. [Transesophageal electrophysiologic study: utility in the diagnosis of syncope].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo Ottolenghi, F

    2001-01-01

    Neurocardiogenic and arrhythmic syncope are very common and may be found in many patients in Emergency Departments or admitted to hospitals. Technologic advances now allow etiologic diagnosis to be determined but the importance of a detailed clinical history and physical examination can not be overemphasized in the evaluation of syncope, thereby to avoid some costly or invasive procedures. The recent introduction of the head-up tilt test alone or in combination with electrophysiologic studies, has significantly improved our ability to diagnose the etiology of syncope in many cases. Suspicion of an arrhythmic cause of syncope does not always require an invasive electrophysiologic study since the transesophageal electrophysiologic study is useful and provides a high diagnostic yield in the evaluation of non ventricular arrhythmic syncope, such as in the sick sinus syndrome, atrio-ventricular block or in supraventricular tachycardia and for the study of atrial stability. The transesophageal electrophysiologic study is an inexpensive non invasive procedure which does not require complex hospitalary installations. PMID:11535186

  19. Echocardiography in the flight program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.; Mulvagh, Sharon L.

    1991-01-01

    Observations on American and Soviet astronauts have documented the association of changes in cardiovascular function during orthostasis with space flight. A basic understanding of the cardiovascular changes occurring in astronauts requires the determination of cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance as a minimum. In 1982, we selected ultrasound echocardiography as our means of acquiring this information. Ultrasound offers a quick, non-invasive and accurate means of determining stroke volume which, when combined with the blood pressure and heart rate measurements of the stand test, allows calculation of changes in peripheral vascular resistance, the body's major response to orthostatic stress. The history of echocardiography in the Space Shuttle Program is discussed and the results are briefly presented.

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  1. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  2. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  3. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  4. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  5. Three-dimensional echocardiography in the evaluation of global and regional function in patients with recent myocardial infarction: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Thorstensen, Anders; Dalen, Håvard; Hala, Pavel; Kiss, Gabriel; D'hooge, Jan; Torp, Hans; Støylen, Asbjørn; Amundsen, Brage

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to compare three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in the evaluation of patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI), using late-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LE-MRI) as a reference method. Echocardiography and LE-MRI were performed approximately 1 month after first-time MI in 58 patients. Echocardiography was also performed on 35 healthy controls. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction by 3D echocardiography (3D-LVEF), 3D wall-motion score (WMS), 2D-WMS, 3D speckle tracking-based longitudinal, circumferential, transmural and area strain, and 2D speckle tracking-based longitudinal strain (LS) were measured. The global correlations to infarct size by LE-MRI were significantly higher (P < 0.03) for 3D-WMS and 2D-WMS compared with 3D-LVEF and the 4 different measurements of 3D strain, and 2D global longitudinal strain (GLS) was more closely correlated to LE-MRI than 3D GLS (P < 0.03). The segmental correlations to infarct size by LE-MRI were also significantly higher (P < 0.04) for 3D-WMS, 2D-WMS, and 2D LS compared with the other indices. Three-dimensional WMS showed a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 72% for identification of LV infarct size >12%, and a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 95% for identification of segments with transmural infarct extension. Three-dimensional WMS and 2D gray-scale echocardiography showed the strongest correlations to LE-MRI. The tested 3D strain method suffers from low temporal and spatial resolution in 3D acquisitions and added diagnostic value could not be proven.

  6. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  7. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  8. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  9. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  10. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  11. Atrial Myxoma Presenting as Myocardial Infarction Diagnosed by Echocardiography, Managed Endoscopically with Robot-Assisted Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Simmons, Charles; Ellison, Douglas; Hemp, James; Chung, Kiyon

    2016-01-01

    Atrial myxomatous embolization into the coronary arteries is a rare event. Management of large myxomas is usually via surgical resection involving a median sternotomy. Echocardiography is not a routine part of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) management. Here, we present the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man with a history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia who presented to the emergency department with an NSTEMI. Transthoracic echocardiogram and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a large and highly mobile atrial mass, traversing through the mitral valve orifice during diastole. Coronary angiography revealed a focal 60% lesion in the right coronary artery and no other significant obstructive coronary artery disease, suggesting that the cause of his presentation was tumor embolization into the coronary circulation. The patient underwent robot-assisted endoscopic resection of his atrial mass and was discharged in stable condition on postoperative day 2. Pathology revealed atrial myxoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atrial myxoma presenting with an NSTEMI and managed with a robot-assisted endoscopic approach. This case also highlights the importance of routine early echocardiography in patients presenting with NSTEMI. PMID:27014518

  12. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  13. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  14. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  15. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  16. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  17. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  18. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  19. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  20. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  1. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  2. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  3. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  4. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  7. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  8. Speckle tracking echocardiography - Quo Vadis?

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Although echocardiography is a noninvasive means of visualizing the heart, quantitative and reproducible assessment of myocardial motion remains to be established. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) emerged in the early 1990 s as a tool to measure tissue motion velocity. For the purpose of analyzing regional myocardial motion quantitatively, the myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) across the myocardial wall was first introduced by using TDI. MVG is mathematically equal to strain rate. Initially, strain was derived as the time integral of the TDI-derived strain rate, but it revealed substantial errors of measurement, which basically arose from the confusion of Eulerian coordinates with Lagrangian coordinates in fluid dynamics. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has subsequently emerged as a technique that analyzes motion by tracking "speckles" on echocardiograms based on Lagrangian coordinates. Although STE-derived strain is a robust parameter of myocardial deformation, the stress-strain relationship has often been overlooked in the assessment of myocardial function. We should consider (1) blood pressure, (2) left ventricular size, and (3) left ventricular wall thickness, as well as strain. Practical means of normalizing strain by stress should be pursued in the quantitative assessment of myocardial function. Consideration of stress-strain relationships is mandatory when interpreting STE-derived strain. PMID:25766514

  9. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  10. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  11. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  12. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  13. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  14. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  15. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  16. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  17. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  18. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  19. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  20. Transesophageal NOTES--a critical analysis of relevant problems.

    PubMed

    Grund, Karl E; Lehmann, Thorsten G

    2010-10-01

    The transesophageal access route has not become a principal topic in the discussion about NOTES up to now. Analyzing the problems in this new field of surgery, however, the transesophageal route shows high relevance. Here, all possibilities, limitations, and problems of NOTES become obvious. This paper contains a critical analysis of the literature published to date (nine full papers, five abstracts). Nearly all publications represent experimental studies in living pigs. In most cases a submucosal tunnel technique is performed as access route to mediastinum, pleural cavity, and heart. Interventions and operations include simple mediastinoscopies as well as epicardial operations after exposition of the heart. For access and manipulation, conventional flexible endoscopes and instruments are used. Clips, T-bars, or a combination of both achieve the closure. Some studies rely on spontaneous closure of the incision without any suturing or approximation. In such experimental settings, the following results are presented: Access is achieved in 90% of cases, the aim of the operation is met in 92%, technical success in closure is achieved in 90%, healing of incision assessed as good in two of five studies, satisfactory in three of five studies. Mortality, ranging from 6 to 25%, and complication rates were (surprisingly) high. It has to be stressed that analyzing these papers published to date, no adequate attention is paid to basic facts and problems of general and thoracic surgery (e.g. different forms, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of pneumothorax or differentiated forms of ventilation). Relevant differences in the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and mediastinum between humans and pigs should additionally be taken into account to choose optimal experimental parameters when transferring results to human settings. Moreover, requirements regarding sterility and hygiene in a structure like the mediastinum, which is at high risk from the point of view of infection

  1. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  2. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  3. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  4. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  5. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  8. The echocardiography of replacement heart valves

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is a practical description of how replacement valves are assessed using echocardiography. Normal transthoracic appearances including normal variants are described. The problem of differentiating normal function, patient–prosthesis mismatch and pathological obstruction in aortic replacement valves with high gradients is discussed. Obstruction and abnormal regurgitation is described for valves in the aortic, mitral and right-sided positions and when to use echocardiography in suspected infective endocarditis. The roles of transoesophageal and stress echocardiography are described and finally when other imaging techniques may be useful. PMID:27600454

  9. Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Schiller, N B; Shah, P M; Crawford, M; DeMaria, A; Devereux, R; Feigenbaum, H; Gutgesell, H; Reichek, N; Sahn, D; Schnittger, I

    1989-01-01

    We have presented recommendations for the optimum acquisition of quantitative two-dimensional data in the current echocardiographic environment. It is likely that advances in imaging may enhance or supplement these approaches. For example, three-dimensional reconstruction methods may greatly augment the accuracy of volume determination if they become more efficient. The development of three-dimensional methods will depend in turn on vastly improved transthoracic resolution similar to that now obtainable by transesophageal echocardiography. Better resolution will also make the use of more direct methods of measuring myocardial mass practical. For example, if the epicardium were well resolved in the long-axis apical views, the myocardial shell volume could be measured directly by the biplane method of discs rather than extrapolating myocardial thickness from a single short-axis view. At present, it is our opinion that current technology justifies the clinical use of the quantitative two-dimensional methods described in this article. When technically feasible, and if resources permit, we recommend the routine reporting of left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic volume, mass, and wall motion score. PMID:2698218

  10. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  12. Temporal enhancement of two-dimensional color doppler echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentjev, Alexey B.; Settlemier, Scott H.; Perrin, Douglas P.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Shturts, Igor V.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is widely used for assessing blood flow inside the heart and blood vessels. Currently, frame acquisition time for this method varies from tens to hundreds of milliseconds, depending on Doppler sector parameters. This leads to low frame rates of resulting video sequences equal to tens of Hz, which is insufficient for some diagnostic purposes, especially in pediatrics. In this paper, we present a new approach for reconstruction of 2D color Doppler cardiac images, which results in the frame rate being increased to hundreds of Hz. This approach relies on a modified method of frame reordering originally applied to real-time 3D echocardiography. There are no previous publications describing application of this method to 2D Color Doppler data. The approach has been tested on several in-vivo cardiac 2D color Doppler datasets with approximate duration of 30 sec and native frame rate of 15 Hz. The resulting image sequences had equivalent frame rates to 500Hz.

  13. A practical approach to exercise echocardiography: immediate postexercise echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Berberich, S N; Zager, J R; Plotnick, G D; Fisher, M L

    1984-02-01

    Echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end-systolic dimension and fractional shortening obtained in the supine position before and immediately after maximal upright exercise were evaluated in 11 normal volunteers, 35 patients with coronary artery disease and 17 patients without coronary artery disease. The time course of recovery from acute exercise-induced changes in echocardiographic dimensions was analyzed using serial postexercise recordings from normal subjects. An exercise-induced decrease in end-systolic dimension (greater than or equal to 3 mm) and increase in fractional shortening (greater than or equal to 5%) persisted for 3 minutes or longer in the immediate postexercise period in each of the normal volunteers. With these criteria to separate normal from abnormal responses, abnormal responses were observed in 16 (94%) of 17 patients with coronary artery disease and in only 2 (6%) of 35 patients without coronary artery disease. Immediate postexercise echocardiography appears to be a practical and potentially valuable adjunct in the detection of coronary artery disease.

  14. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  15. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  16. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  17. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  18. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  1. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  2. Echocardiography in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a common problem in children with Down syndrome (DS). Echocardiography plays an important role in the detection of both structural and functional abnormalities in this group of patients. Fetal echocardiography can help in the early recognition of DS by detecting soft markers of DS, but its main role is to define the exact nature of the suspected cardiac problem in the fetus. Postnatal echocardiography is mandatory in the first month of life for all neonates with DS. It is also indicated before any cardiac surgery and for serial follow-up after cardiac surgery. In this article, we discuss the types and mechanism of cardiac abnormalities in DS children and the role of both fetal and postnatal echocardiography in the detection of these abnormalities. PMID:25254173

  3. Bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; de Lara, Tais Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990’s. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560

  4. Bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; Lara, Tais Rodrigues de

    2015-01-01

    The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990's. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560

  5. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  6. FPGA-based real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Dandekar, Omkar S.; Shekhar, Raj

    2005-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging, especially the emerging real-time version of it, is particularly valuable in medical applications such as echocardiography, obstetrics and surgical navigation. A known problem with ultrasound images is their high level of speckle noise. Anisotropic diffusion filtering has been shown to be effective in enhancing the visual quality of 3D ultrasound images and as preprocessing prior to advanced image processing. However, due to its arithmetic complexity and the sheer size of 3D ultrasound images, it is not possible to perform online, real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering using standard software implementations. We present an FPGA-based architecture that allows performing anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D images at acquisition rates, thus enabling the use of this filtering technique in real-time applications, such as visualization, registration and volume rendering.

  7. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  8. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  9. Transoesophageal echocardiography during liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    De Pietri, Lesley; Mocchegiani, Federico; Leuzzi, Chiara; Montalti, Roberto; Vivarelli, Marco; Agnoletti, Vanni

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has become the standard of care for patients with end stage liver disease. The allocation of organs, which prioritizes the sickest patients, has made the management of liver transplant candidates more complex both as regards their comorbidities and their higher risk of perioperative complications. Patients undergoing LT frequently display considerable physiological changes during the procedures as a result of both the disease process and the surgery. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), which visualizes dynamic cardiac function and overall contractility, has become essential for perioperative LT management and can optimize the anaesthetic management of these highly complex patients. Moreover, TEE can provide useful information on volume status and the adequacy of therapeutic interventions and can diagnose early intraoperative complications, such as the embolization of large vessels or development of pulmonary hypertension. In this review, directed at clinicians who manage TEE during LT, we show why the procedure merits a place in challenging anaesthetic environment and how it can provide essential information in the perioperative management of compromised patients undergoing this very complex surgical procedure. PMID:26483865

  10. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  11. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  12. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  13. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  14. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Garcia, Mario J; Haines, David E; Lai, Wyman W; Manning, Warren J; Patel, Ayan R; Picard, Michael H; Polk, Donna M; Ragosta, Michael; Parker Ward, R; Weiner, Rory B

    2011-03-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), in partnership with the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where echocardiography is frequently considered. This document combines and updates the original transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2007 (1) and the original stress echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2008 (2). This revision reflects new clinical data, reflects changes in test utilization patterns,and clarifies echocardiography use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria.The indications (clinical scenarios)were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of the original appropriate use criteria (AUC).The 202 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9,to designate appropriate use(median 7 to 9), uncertain use(median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Ninety-seven indications were rated as appropriate, 34 were rated as uncertain, and 71 were rated as inappropriate. In general,the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when there is a change in clinical status or when the results of the echocardiogram are anticipated to change patient management were rated appropriate. Routine testing when there was no change in clinical status or when results of testing were unlikely to modify management were more likely to be inappropriate than appropriate/uncertain.The AUC for echocardiography have the potential to impact physician decision making,healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore,recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research.

  15. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Garcia, Mario J; Haines, David E; Lai, Wyman W; Manning, Warren J; Patel, Ayan R; Picard, Michael H; Polk, Donna M; Ragosta, Michael; Parker Ward, R; Weiner, Rory B

    2011-03-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), in partnership with the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where echocardiography is frequently considered. This document combines and updates the original transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2007 (1) and the original stress echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2008 (2). This revision reflects new clinical data, reflects changes in test utilization patterns,and clarifies echocardiography use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria.The indications (clinical scenarios)were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of the original appropriate use criteria (AUC).The 202 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9,to designate appropriate use(median 7 to 9), uncertain use(median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Ninety-seven indications were rated as appropriate, 34 were rated as uncertain, and 71 were rated as inappropriate. In general,the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when there is a change in clinical status or when the results of the echocardiogram are anticipated to change patient management were rated appropriate. Routine testing when there was no change in clinical status or when results of testing were unlikely to modify management were more likely to be inappropriate than appropriate/uncertain.The AUC for echocardiography have the potential to impact physician decision making,healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore,recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research. PMID

  16. Comparison of transesophageal echocardiographic and scintigraphic estimates of left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and ejection fraction in patients following coronary artery bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanowicz, J.H.; Shaaban, M.J.; Cohen, N.H.; Cahalan, M.K.; Botvinick, E.H.; Chatterjee, K.; Schiller, N.B.; Dae, M.W.; Matthay, M.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become a commonly used monitor of left ventricular (LV) function and filling during cardiac surgery. Its use is based on the assumption that changes in LV short-axis ID reflect changes in LV volume. To study the ability of TEE to estimate LV volume and ejection immediately following CABG, 10 patients were studied using blood pool scintigraphy, TEE, and thermodilution cardiac output (CO). A single TEE short-axis cross-sectional image of the LV at the midpapillary muscle level was used for area analysis. Between 1 and 5 h postoperatively, simultaneous data sets (scintigraphy, TEE, and CO) were obtained three to five times in each patient. End-diastolic (EDa) and end-systolic (ESa) areas were measured by light pen. Ejection fraction area (EFa) was calculated (EFa = (EDa - ESa)/EDa). When EFa was compared with EF by scintigraphy, correlation was good (r = 0.82 SEE = 0.07). EDa was taken as an indicator of LV volume and compared with LVEDVI which was derived from EF by scintigraphy and CO. Correlation between EDa and LVEDVI was fair (r = 0.74 SEE = 3.75). The authors conclude that immediately following CABG, a single cross-sectional TEE image provides a reasonable estimate of EF but not LVEDVI.

  17. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  18. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  19. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  20. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  1. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  2. Echocardiography in the evaluation of athletes

    PubMed Central

    Montserrat, Silvia; Vidal, Bàrbara; Sitges, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is currently a widely available imaging technique that can provide useful data in the field of sports cardiology particularly in two areas: pre-participation screening and analysis of the cardiac adaptation induced by exercise. The application of pre-participation screening and especially, the type and number of used diagnostic tests remains controversial. Echocardiography has shown though, higher sensitivity and specificity as compared to the ECG, following a protocol adapted to athletes focused on ruling out the causes of sudden death and the most common disorders in this population. It is still a subject of controversy the actual cost of adding it, but depending on the type of sport, echocardiography might be cost-effective if added in the first line of examination. Regarding the evaluation of cardiac adaptation to training in athletes,  echocardiography has proved to be useful in the differential diagnosis of diseases that can cause sudden death, analysing both the left ventricle (hypertrophy cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, left ventricle non compaction) and the right ventricle (arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy). The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge and the clinical practical implications of it on the field of echocardiography when applied in sport cardiology areas. PMID:26236468

  3. 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Echocardiography Guidelines for Training and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Burwash, Ian G; Basmadjian, Arsene; Bewick, David; Choy, Jonathan B; Cujec, Bibiana; Jassal, Davinder S; MacKenzie, Scott; Nair, Parvathy; Rudski, Lawrence G; Yu, Eric; Tam, James W

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for the provision of echocardiography in Canada were jointly developed and published by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography in 2005. Since their publication, recognition of the importance of echocardiography to patient care has increased, along with the use of focused, point-of-care echocardiography by physicians of diverse clinical backgrounds and variable training. New guidelines for physician training and maintenance of competence in adult echocardiography were required to ensure that physicians providing either focused, point-of-care echocardiography or comprehensive echocardiography are appropriately trained and proficient in their use of echocardiography. In addition, revision of the guidelines was required to address technological advances and the desire to standardize echocardiography training across the country to facilitate the national recognition of a physician's expertise in echocardiography. This paper summarizes the new Guidelines for Physician Training and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Echocardiography, which are considerably more comprehensive than earlier guidelines and address many important issues not previously covered. These guidelines provide a blueprint for physician training despite different clinical backgrounds and help standardize physician training and training programs across the country. Adherence to the guidelines will ensure that physicians providing echocardiography have acquired sufficient expertise required for their specific practice. The document will also provide a framework for other national societies to standardize their training programs in echocardiography and will provide a benchmark by which competency in adult echocardiography may be measured.

  4. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  5. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  6. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  8. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  9. From hand-rotated multiplane transesophageal to fast-rotating parasternal probes for cardiac imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bom, Nicolaas; Lancee, Charles T.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Anton F. W.; Roelandt, J. R.

    1999-06-01

    Trans-Esophageal Echocardiographic probes were introduced around 1982. The development ranges over the years from single plane, phased array transducers at low frequency to today's multiplane probes with a large number of elements. Further miniaturization and higher frequencies allow paediatric applications. Recent development includes a probe with 48 elements at 7 MHz with a shaft diameter of only 5 mm.

  10. Stress echocardiography: methods, indications and results

    PubMed Central

    Baur, L.H.B.

    2002-01-01

    Stress echocardiography has become an important clinical tool to detect cardiac ischaemia and viability in addition to single photon emission tomography. Stress echocardiography has a high positive and negative predictive value, is less expensive than the nuclear methods and has no radiation exposure. It can easily be used in an emergency room and coronary care unit. Because of its feasibility, low cost and high diagnostic accuracy, it will become a very important technique in every hospital and will soon be a real alternative to the more time-consuming and expensive nuclear techniques. The current article gives a review of the methods of stress echocardiography. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696080

  11. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  12. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  13. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  14. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  15. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  16. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  17. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  18. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  19. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  20. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  1. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  2. Stress echocardiography expert consensus statement: European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) (a registered branch of the ESC).

    PubMed

    Sicari, Rosa; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Evangelista, Arturo; Kasprzak, Jaroslav; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Poldermans, Don; Voigt, Jen-Uwe; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2008-07-01

    Stress echocardiography is the combination of 2D echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress. The diagnostic end point for the detection of myocardial ischemia is the induction of a transient worsening in regional function during stress. Stress echocardiography provides similar diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as radionuclide stress perfusion imaging, but at a substantially lower cost, without environmental impact, and with no biohazards for the patient and the physician. Among different stresses of comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, semisupine exercise is the most used, dobutamine the best test for viability, and dipyridamole the safest and simplest pharmacological stress and the most suitable for combined wall motion coronary flow reserve assessment. The additional clinical benefit of myocardial perfusion contrast echocardiography and myocardial velocity imaging has been inconsistent to date, whereas the potential of adding - coronary flow reserve evaluation of left anterior descending coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography adds another potentially important dimension to stress echocardiography. New emerging fields of application taking advantage from the versatility of the technique are Doppler stress echo in valvular heart disease and in dilated cardiomyopathy. In spite of its dependence upon operator's training, stress echocardiography is today the best (most cost-effective and risk-effective) possible imaging choice to achieve the still elusive target of sustainable cardiac imaging in the field of noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  3. Stress echocardiography expert consensus statement: European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) (a registered branch of the ESC).

    PubMed

    Sicari, Rosa; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Evangelista, Arturo; Kasprzak, Jaroslav; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Poldermans, Don; Voigt, Jen-Uwe; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2008-07-01

    Stress echocardiography is the combination of 2D echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress. The diagnostic end point for the detection of myocardial ischemia is the induction of a transient worsening in regional function during stress. Stress echocardiography provides similar diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as radionuclide stress perfusion imaging, but at a substantially lower cost, without environmental impact, and with no biohazards for the patient and the physician. Among different stresses of comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, semisupine exercise is the most used, dobutamine the best test for viability, and dipyridamole the safest and simplest pharmacological stress and the most suitable for combined wall motion coronary flow reserve assessment. The additional clinical benefit of myocardial perfusion contrast echocardiography and myocardial velocity imaging has been inconsistent to date, whereas the potential of adding - coronary flow reserve evaluation of left anterior descending coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography adds another potentially important dimension to stress echocardiography. New emerging fields of application taking advantage from the versatility of the technique are Doppler stress echo in valvular heart disease and in dilated cardiomyopathy. In spite of its dependence upon operator's training, stress echocardiography is today the best (most cost-effective and risk-effective) possible imaging choice to achieve the still elusive target of sustainable cardiac imaging in the field of noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. PMID:18579481

  4. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  5. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  6. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  7. Cardiac shear-wave elastography using a transesophageal transducer: application to the mapping of thermal lesions in ultrasound transesophageal cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Wojciech; Bessière, Francis; Colas, Elodie Constanciel; N'Djin, W Apoutou; Tanter, Mickaël; Lafon, Cyril; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-10-21

    Heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia can be treated by catheter-based thermal ablation. However, clinically available systems based on radio-frequency or cryothermal ablation suffer from limited energy penetration and the lack of lesion's extent monitoring. An ultrasound-guided transesophageal device has recently successfully been used to perform High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in targeted regions of the heart in vivo. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a dual therapy and imaging approach on the same transesophageal device. We demonstrate in vivo that quantitative cardiac shear-wave elastography (SWE) can be performed with the device and we show on ex vivo samples that transesophageal SWE can map the extent of the HIFU lesions. First, SWE was validated with the transesophageal endoscope in one sheep in vivo. The stiffness of normal atrial and ventricular tissues has been assessed during the cardiac cycle (n = 11) and mapped (n = 7). Second, HIFU ablation has been performed with the therapy-imaging transesophageal device in ex vivo chicken breast samples (n  =  3), then atrial (left, n = 2) and ventricular (left n = 1, right n = 1) porcine heart tissues. SWE provided stiffness maps of the tissues before and after ablation. Areas of the lesions were obtained by tissue color change with gross pathology and compared to SWE. During the cardiac cycle stiffness varied from 0.5   ±   0.1 kPa to 6.0   ±   0.3 kPa in the atrium and from 1.3   ±   0.3 kPa to 13.5   ±   9.1 kPa in the ventricles. The thermal lesions were visible on all SWE maps performed after ablation. Shear modulus of the ablated zones increased to 16.3   ±   5.5 kPa (versus 4.4   ±   1.6 kPa before ablation) in the chicken breast, to 30.3   ±   10.3 kPa (versus 12.2   ±   4.3 kPa) in the atria and to 73.8

  8. Cardiac shear-wave elastography using a transesophageal transducer: application to the mapping of thermal lesions in ultrasound transesophageal cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Wojciech; Bessière, Francis; Colas, Elodie Constanciel; N'Djin, W Apoutou; Tanter, Mickaël; Lafon, Cyril; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-10-21

    Heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia can be treated by catheter-based thermal ablation. However, clinically available systems based on radio-frequency or cryothermal ablation suffer from limited energy penetration and the lack of lesion's extent monitoring. An ultrasound-guided transesophageal device has recently successfully been used to perform High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in targeted regions of the heart in vivo. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a dual therapy and imaging approach on the same transesophageal device. We demonstrate in vivo that quantitative cardiac shear-wave elastography (SWE) can be performed with the device and we show on ex vivo samples that transesophageal SWE can map the extent of the HIFU lesions. First, SWE was validated with the transesophageal endoscope in one sheep in vivo. The stiffness of normal atrial and ventricular tissues has been assessed during the cardiac cycle (n = 11) and mapped (n = 7). Second, HIFU ablation has been performed with the therapy-imaging transesophageal device in ex vivo chicken breast samples (n  =  3), then atrial (left, n = 2) and ventricular (left n = 1, right n = 1) porcine heart tissues. SWE provided stiffness maps of the tissues before and after ablation. Areas of the lesions were obtained by tissue color change with gross pathology and compared to SWE. During the cardiac cycle stiffness varied from 0.5   ±   0.1 kPa to 6.0   ±   0.3 kPa in the atrium and from 1.3   ±   0.3 kPa to 13.5   ±   9.1 kPa in the ventricles. The thermal lesions were visible on all SWE maps performed after ablation. Shear modulus of the ablated zones increased to 16.3   ±   5.5 kPa (versus 4.4   ±   1.6 kPa before ablation) in the chicken breast, to 30.3   ±   10.3 kPa (versus 12.2   ±   4.3 kPa) in the atria and to 73.8

  9. Cardiac shear-wave elastography using a transesophageal transducer: application to the mapping of thermal lesions in ultrasound transesophageal cardiac ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecinski, Wojciech; Bessière, Francis; Constanciel Colas, Elodie; Apoutou N'Djin, W.; Tanter, Mickaël; Lafon, Cyril; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    Heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia can be treated by catheter-based thermal ablation. However, clinically available systems based on radio-frequency or cryothermal ablation suffer from limited energy penetration and the lack of lesion’s extent monitoring. An ultrasound-guided transesophageal device has recently successfully been used to perform High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in targeted regions of the heart in vivo. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a dual therapy and imaging approach on the same transesophageal device. We demonstrate in vivo that quantitative cardiac shear-wave elastography (SWE) can be performed with the device and we show on ex vivo samples that transesophageal SWE can map the extent of the HIFU lesions. First, SWE was validated with the transesophageal endoscope in one sheep in vivo. The stiffness of normal atrial and ventricular tissues has been assessed during the cardiac cycle (n=11 ) and mapped (n= 7 ). Second, HIFU ablation has been performed with the therapy-imaging transesophageal device in ex vivo chicken breast samples (n  =  3), then atrial (left, n= 2 ) and ventricular (left n=1 , right n=1 ) porcine heart tissues. SWE provided stiffness maps of the tissues before and after ablation. Areas of the lesions were obtained by tissue color change with gross pathology and compared to SWE. During the cardiac cycle stiffness varied from 0.5   ±   0.1 kPa to 6.0   ±   0.3 kPa in the atrium and from 1.3   ±   0.3 kPa to 13.5   ±   9.1 kPa in the ventricles. The thermal lesions were visible on all SWE maps performed after ablation. Shear modulus of the ablated zones increased to 16.3   ±   5.5 kPa (versus 4.4   ±   1.6 kPa before ablation) in the chicken breast, to 30.3   ±   10.3 kPa (versus 12.2   ±   4.3 kPa) in the atria and to 73.8   ±   13

  10. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  11. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  12. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  13. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  16. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  17. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  19. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  20. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  1. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  2. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  11. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  12. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  13. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  14. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  15. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  16. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  17. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  18. Recent advances in echocardiography for valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of patients with valvular heart disease. Echocardiographic advancements may have particular impact on the assessment and management of patients with valvular heart disease. This review will summarize the current literature on advancements, such as three-dimensional echocardiography, strain imaging, intracardiac echocardiography, and fusion imaging, in this patient population. PMID:26594349

  19. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  20. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  1. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  2. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  3. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  4. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  5. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  6. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  7. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  8. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  9. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  10. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  11. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  12. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  13. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  14. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  15. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  16. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  17. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  18. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  19. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  20. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  1. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  2. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  3. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  4. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  5. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  6. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  7. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  8. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  9. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  10. Assessment of Mitral Valve Adaptation with Gated Cardiac Computed Tomography: Validation with Three-Dimensional Echocardiography and Mechanistic Insight to Functional Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Jonathan; Thai, Wai-Ee; Wai, Bryan; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Levine, Robert A.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitral valve (MV) enlargement is a compensatory mechanism capable of preventing functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) in dilated ventricles. Total leaflet area and its relation with closure area measured by 3D-echocardiography have been related to FMR. Whether these parameters can be assessed with other imaging modalities is not known. Our objectives are to compare cardiac CT-based measurements of MV leaflets with 3D-echocardiography and determine the relationship of these metrics to the presence of FMR. Methods and Results We used two cohorts of patients who had cardiac CT to measure MV total leaflet, closure and annulus areas. In cohort 1 (26 patients), we validated these CT metrics to 3D-echocardiography. In cohort 2 (66 patients), we assessed the relation of MV size with the presence of FMR in three populations: heart failure with FMR, heart failure without FMR, and normal controls. Cardiac CT and 3D-echocardiography produced similar results for total leaflet (R2=0.97), closure (R2=0.89) and annulus areas (R2=0.84). MV size was largest in heart failure without FMR compared with controls and FMR patients (9.1±1.7 vs 7.5±1.0 vs 8.1±0.9 cm2/m2, p<0.01). FMR patients had reduced ratios of total leaflet:closure areas and total leaflet:annulus areas when compared to patients without FMR (p<0.01). Conclusions MV size measured by CT is comparable to 3D-echocardiography. MV enlargement in cardiomyopathy suggests leaflet adaptation. Patients with FMR have inadequate adaptation as reflected by decreased ratios of leaflet area and areas determined by ventricle size (annulus and closure areas). These measurements provide additional insight into the mechanism of FMR. PMID:23873402

  11. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  12. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  13. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  14. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  15. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  16. The Utility of 3D Left Atrial Volume and Mitral Flow Velocities as Guides for Acute Volume Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Claudia M; Rose, David D; Fleming, Neal W

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is the foundation of cardiac function assessment. Because of difficulties and risks associated with its direct measurement, correlates of LVEDP derived by pulmonary artery (PA) catheterization or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are commonly adopted. TEE has the advantage of being less invasive; however TEE-based estimation of LVEDP using correlates such as left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) has technical difficulties that limit its clinical usefulness. Using intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a controlled hemorrhagic model, we examined various mitral flow parameters and three-dimensional reconstructions of left atrial volume as surrogates of LVEDP. Our results demonstrate that peak E wave velocity and left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) correlated with known changes in intravascular volume associated with ANH. Although left atrial volumetric analysis was done offline in our study, recent advances in echocardiographic software may allow for continuous display and real-time calculation of LAEDV. Along with the ease and reproducibility of acquiring Doppler images of flow across the mitral valve, these two correlates of LVEDP may justify a more widespread use of TEE to optimize intraoperative fluid management. The clinical applicability of peak E wave velocity and LAEDV still needs to be validated during uncontrolled resuscitation.

  17. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  18. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  19. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  20. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  1. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  2. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  3. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  4. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  5. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  6. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  7. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  8. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  9. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  10. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  11. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  12. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  13. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  14. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  15. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  16. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  17. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  18. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  19. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  20. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  1. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  2. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  3. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  4. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  5. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  6. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  7. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  8. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  9. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  10. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  11. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  12. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  13. Exercise echocardiography for structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Izumo, Masaki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of transcatheter structural heart intervention, the term "structural heart disease" has been widely used in the field of cardiology. Structural heart disease refers to congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. In structural heart disease, valvular heart disease is frequently identified in the elderly. Of note, the number of patients who suffer from aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) is increasing in developed countries because of the aging of the populations. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement and percutaneous mitral valve repair has been widely used for AS and MR, individually. Echocardiography is the gold standard modality for initial diagnosis and subsequent evaluation of AS and MR, although the difficulties in assessing patients with these diseases still remain. Here, we review the clinical usefulness and prognostic impact of exercise echocardiography on structural heart disease, particularly on AS and MR.

  14. Echocardiography in a Patient on Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ankush

    2015-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary interactions or effects of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation (MV) were first documented in the year 1733. Stephen Hales showed that the blood pressure of healthy individual fell during spontaneous inspiration and he later went on to discover the ventilator. A year later Kussmaul described pulsus paradoxus (inspiratory absence of radial pulse) in patients with tubercular pericarditis. Echocardiography can help to diagnose a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases and can guide therapeutic decisions in patients on mechanical ventilation. PMID:26731826

  15. Spatial watermarking of 3D triangle meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayre, Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is obvious that watermarking has become of great interest in protecting audio, videos, and still pictures, few work has been done considering 3D meshes. We propose a new method for watermarking 3D triangle meshes. This method embeds the watermark as triangles deformations. The list of watermarked triangles is obtained through a similar way to the one used in the TSPS (Triangle Strip Peeling Sequence) method. Unlike TSPS, our method is automatic and more secure. We also show that it is reversible.

  16. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  17. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  18. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  19. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  20. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  1. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  2. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  3. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  4. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  5. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  6. Pitfall in Echocardiography: infective endocarditis or valvular strand? Case report.

    PubMed

    Zampi, Giordano; Pergolini, Amedeo; Pergolin, Amedeo; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Alessi, Claudio; Sommariva, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    Lambl's excrescences are thin filiform mobile processes with thin attachment at valvular closure lines. In this case report we describe the transesophageal views of Lambl's excrescences; our case is meant to serve as a classic example of this commonly misinterpreted lesion.

  7. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  8. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  9. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  10. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  11. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  12. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  13. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  14. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  15. Invertible authentication for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Benedens, Oliver

    2003-06-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. Based on the introduced media independent protocol schemes for invertible data authentication in references 2, 4 and 5 we discuss the design of a new 3D invertible labeling technique to ensure and require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. Furthermore the protocol steps in the other papers to ensure that the original data can only be reproduced with a secret key is adopted for 3D meshes. The goal is to show how the existing protocol can be used for 3D meshes to provide solutions for authentication watermarking. In our design concept and evaluation we see that due to the nature of 3D meshes the invertible function are different from the image and audio concepts to achieve invertibility to guaranty reversibility of the original. Therefore we introduce a concept for distortion free invertibility and a concept for adjustable minimum distortion invertibility.

  16. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  17. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  18. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  19. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  20. Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.

  1. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  2. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  3. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  4. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  5. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  6. Evolution of Archaea in 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Tankosic, Dragana; Sheldon, Rob

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of all groups of Archaea performed in two-dimensions have demonstrated a specific distribution of Archaean species as a function of pH/temperature, temperature/salinity and pH/salinity. Work presented here is an extension of this analysis with a three dimensional (3D) modeling in logarithmic scale. As it was shown in 2D representation, the "Rules of the Diagonal" have been expressed even more clearly in 3D modeling. In this article, we used a 3D Mesh modeling to show the range of distribution of each separate group of Archaea as a function of pH, temperature, and salinity. Visible overlap and links between different groups indicate a direction of evolution in Archaea. The major direction in ancestral life (vector of evolution) has been indicated: from high temperature, acidic, and low-salinity system towards low temperature, alkaline and high salinity systems. Specifics of the geometrical coordinates and distribution of separate groups of Archaea in 3 D scale were analyzed with a mathematical description of the functions. Based on the obtained data, a new model for the origin and evolution of life on Earth is proposed. The geometry of this model is described by a hyperboloid of one sheet. Conclusions of this research are consistent with previous results derived from the two-dimensional diagrams. This approach is suggested as a new method for analyzing any biological group in accordance to its environmental parameters.

  7. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  8. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-03-24

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  9. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasound in fetal echocardiography: an up-to-date overview.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, B M E; van Vugt, J M G; Haak, M C

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most commonly overlooked lesions in prenatal screening programs. Real-time two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) is the conventionally used tool for fetal echocardiography. Although continuous improvements in the hardware and post-processing software have resulted in a good image quality even in late first trimester, 2DUS still has its limitations. Four-dimensional ultrasound with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) is an automated volume acquisition, recording a single three-dimensional (3D) volume throughout a complete cardiac cycle, which results in a four-dimensional (4D) volume. STIC has the potential to increase the detection rate of CHD. The aim of this study is to provide a practical overview of the possibilities and (dis)advantages of STIC. A review of literature and evaluation of the current status and clinical value of 3D/4D ultrasound in prenatal screening and diagnosis of congenital heart disease are presented.

  10. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  11. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  12. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  13. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  14. 3D microscopy for microfabrication quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; De Jean, Paul D.

    2015-03-01

    A novel stereo microscope adapter, the SweptVue, has been developed to rapidly perform quantitative 3D microscopy for cost-effective microfabrication quality control. The SweptVue adapter uses the left and right stereo channels of an Olympus SZX7 stereo microscope for sample illumination and detection, respectively. By adjusting the temporal synchronization between the illumination lines projected from a Texas Instruments DLP LightCrafter and the rolling shutter on a Point Grey Flea3 CMOS camera, micrometer-scale depth features can be easily and rapidly measured at up to 5 μm resolution on a variety of microfabricated samples. In this study, the build performance of an industrial-grade Stratasys Object 300 Connex 3D printer was examined. Ten identical parts were 3D printed with a lateral and depth resolution of 42 μm and 30 μm, respectively, using both a rigid and flexible Stratasys PolyJet material. Surface elevation precision and accuracy was examined over multiple regions of interest on plateau and hemispherical surfaces. In general, the dimensions of the examined features were reproducible across the parts built using both materials. However, significant systemic lateral and height build errors were discovered, such as: decreased heights when approaching the edges of plateaus, inaccurate height steps, and poor tolerances on channel width. For 3D printed parts to be used in functional applications requiring micro-scale tolerances, they need to conform to specification. Despite appearing identical, our 3D printed parts were found to have a variety of defects that the SweptVue adapter quickly revealed.

  15. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  16. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  17. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  18. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  19. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  20. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.