Viscous Incompressible Flow Computations for 3-D Steady and Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelidis, Dionysios; Chawdhary, Saurabh; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-11-01
A novel numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined fully unstructured Cartesian grids in domains with arbitrarily complex immersed boundaries. Owing to the utilization of the fractional step method on an unstructured Cartesian hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout, flux mismatch and pressure discontinuity issues are avoided and the divergence free constraint is inherently satisfied to machine zero. Auxiliary/hanging nodes are used to facilitate the discretization of the governing equations. The second-order accuracy of the solver is ensured by using multi-dimension Lagrange interpolation operators and appropriate differencing schemes at the interface of regions with different levels of refinement. The sharp interface immersed boundary method is augmented with local near-boundary refinement to handle arbitrarily complex boundaries. The discrete momentum equation is solved with the matrix free Newton-Krylov method and the Krylov-subspace method is employed to solve the Poisson equation. The second-order accuracy of the proposed method on unstructured Cartesian grids is demonstrated by solving the Poisson equation with a known analytical solution. A number of three-dimensional laminar flow simulations of increasing complexity illustrate the ability of the method to handle flows across a range of Reynolds numbers and flow regimes. Laminar steady and unsteady flows past a sphere and the oblique vortex shedding from a circular cylinder mounted between two end walls demonstrate the accuracy, the efficiency and the smooth transition of scales and coherent structures across refinement levels. Large-eddy simulation (LES) past a miniature wind turbine rotor, parameterized using the actuator line approach, indicates the ability of the fully unstructured solver to simulate complex turbulent flows. Finally, a geometry resolving LES of turbulent flow past a complete hydrokinetic turbine illustrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2007-08-01
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow
Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-01-01
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [1]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow through a mechanical, bileaflet heart valve mounted in a model straight aorta with an anatomical-like triple sinus. PMID:19194533
A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Louis H.
1993-01-01
There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. We satisfy the first of these requirements with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of our algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. We discuss features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator--we have found a multigrid method for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.
Multigrid Computations of 3-D Incompressible Internal and External Viscous Rotating Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheng, Chunhua; Taylor, Lafayette K.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Jiang, Min-Yee; Whitfield, David L.
1996-01-01
This report presents multigrid methods for solving the 3-D incompressible viscous rotating flows in a NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor and a marine propeller 4119. Numerical formulations are given in both the rotating reference frame and the absolute frame. Comparisons are made for the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness between the steady-state scheme and the time-accurate scheme for simulating viscous rotating flows for complex internal and external flow applications. Prospects for further increase in efficiency and accuracy of unsteady time-accurate computations are discussed.
Slat Cove Unsteadiness Effect of 3D Flow Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2006-01-01
Previous studies have indicated that 2D, time accurate computations based on a pseudo-laminar zonal model of the slat cove region (within the framework of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations) are inadequate for predicting the full unsteady dynamics of the slat cove flow field. Even though such computations could capture the large-scale, unsteady vorticity structures in the slat cove region without requiring any external forcing, the simulated vortices were excessively strong and the recirculation zone was unduly energetic in comparison with the PIV measurements for a generic high-lift configuration. To resolve this discrepancy and to help enable physics based predictions of slat aeroacoustics, the present paper is focused on 3D simulations of the slat cove flow over a computational domain of limited spanwise extent. Maintaining the pseudo-laminar approach, current results indicate that accounting for the three-dimensionality of flow fluctuations leads to considerable improvement in the accuracy of the unsteady, nearfield solution. Analysis of simulation data points to the likely significance of turbulent fluctuations near the reattachment region toward the generation of broadband slat noise. The computed acoustic characteristics (in terms of the frequency spectrum and spatial distribution) within short distances from the slat resemble the previously reported, subscale measurements of slat noise.
Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George
2008-11-01
High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.
A comparison of two incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for unsteady internal flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan
1993-01-01
A comparative study of two different incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for solving an unsteady, incompressible, internal flow problem is performed. The first algorithm uses an artificial compressibility method coupled with upwind differencing and a line relaxation scheme. The second algorithm uses a fractional step method with a staggered grid, finite volume approach. Unsteady, viscous, incompressible, internal flow through a channel with a constriction is computed using the first algorithm. A grid resolution study and parameter studies on the artificial compressibility coefficient and the maximum allowable residual of the continuity equation are performed. The periodicity of the solution is examined and several periodic data sets are generated using the first algorithm. These computational results are compared with previously published results computed using the second algorithm and experimental data.
INS3D: An incompressible Navier-Stokes code in generalized three-dimensional coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.
1987-01-01
The operation of the INS3D code, which computes steady-state solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, is described. The flow solver utilizes a pseudocompressibility approach combined with an approximate factorization scheme. This manual describes key operating features to orient new users. This includes the organization of the code, description of the input parameters, description of each subroutine, and sample problems. Details for more extended operations, including possible code modifications, are given in the appendix.
Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.
2009-01-01
Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.
Unsteady three-dimensional incompressible flow interaction in multiple-blade-row turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busby, Judy Ann
Marine propulsors operate in an inherently unsteady flowfield. To design a propulsor that meets the conditions imposed by hydrodynamic and hydroacoustic requirements, knowledge of component interactions and unsteady flow patterns throughout the propulsor is essential. At the present time, the effect of the unsteady flow on the performance of the propulsor is not thoroughly understood. The goal of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with measurements and analytic methods to provide some insight into the physics associated with unsteady propulsor flows. The unsteady, incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) code developed at Mississippi State University has been extended for use in analyzing the unsteady flow interaction between blade rows in relative motion. The approach used to model the dynamic interface between the blade rows is the localized grid distortion technique of Janus. The spatial and temporal discretizations result in third order spatial accuracy and second order (implicit) temporal accuracy. To validate the dynamic grid capabilities, computed results for the unsteady flow around a two-dimensional hydrofoil undergoing a high, reduced-frequency gust loading are compared with measured data. The unsteady gusts are generated by a pair of oscillating foils (flappers) upstream of the hydrofoil. A dynamic grid is used around the oscillating foils. The results from a parametric study indicate that 500 time steps per flapper period with three subiterations at each time step are sufficient to capture the time-accurate behavior of both the inviscid and viscous flow fields. The algorithm is then used to compute the unsteady flow through a three-dimensional, high Reynolds number pump consisting of 13 stator blades and 7 rotor blades. A detailed analysis of the primary, secondary and unsteady flow effects is presented along with an investigation of the effects of sub-iterations on the time-accuracy on the solution. The unsteady
Least-squares finite element solution of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, Tsung-Liang; Povinelli, Louis A.
1992-01-01
Although significant progress has been made in the finite element solution of incompressible viscous flow problems. Development of more efficient methods is still needed before large-scale computation of 3D problems becomes feasible. This paper presents such a development. The most popular finite element method for the solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the classic Galerkin mixed method based on the velocity-pressure formulation. The mixed method requires the use of different elements to interpolate the velocity and the pressure in order to satisfy the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi (LBB) condition for the existence of the solution. On the other hand, due to the lack of symmetry and positive definiteness of the linear equations arising from the mixed method, iterative methods for the solution of linear systems have been hard to come by. Therefore, direct Gaussian elimination has been considered the only viable method for solving the systems. But, for three-dimensional problems, the computer resources required by a direct method become prohibitively large. In order to overcome these difficulties, a least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) has been developed. This method is based on the first-order velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation. In this paper the LSFEM is extended for the solution of three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in the following first-order quasi-linear velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation.
User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics
McMaster, W H
1982-05-07
The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Cauchy's almost forgotten Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equation for 3D incompressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel; Villone, Barbara
2014-09-01
Two prized papers, one by Augustin Cauchy in 1815, presented to the French Academy and the other by Hermann Hankel in 1861, presented to Göttingen University, contain major discoveries on vorticity dynamics whose impact is now quickly increasing. Cauchy found a Lagrangian formulation of 3D ideal incompressible flow in terms of three invariants that generalize to three dimensions the now well-known law of conservation of vorticity along fluid particle trajectories for two-dimensional flow. This has very recently been used to prove analyticity in time of fluid particle trajectories for 3D incompressible Euler flow and can be extended to compressible flow, in particular to cosmological dark matter. Hankel showed that Cauchy's formulation gives a very simple Lagrangian derivation of the Helmholtz vorticity-flux invariants and, in the middle of the proof, derived an intermediate result which is the conservation of the circulation of the velocity around a closed contour moving with the fluid. This circulation theorem was to be rediscovered independently by William Thomson (Kelvin) in 1869. Cauchy's invariants were only occasionally cited in the 19th century - besides Hankel, foremost by George Stokes and Maurice Lévy - and even less so in the 20th until they were rediscovered via Emmy Noether's theorem in the late 1960, but reattributed to Cauchy only at the end of the 20th century by Russian scientists.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
Unsteady symmetry-plane boundary layer and 3-D unsteady separation. Part 1: High incidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K. C.; Fan, Z. Q.
1982-01-01
The symmetry-plane laminar boundary layer of an impulsively-started ellipsoid of revolution at high incidence is solved to shed light on some basic characteristics of three dimensional, unsteady flows. The governing equations are formally similar to those for the 3-dimensional, steady case, so the same method of solution and computer programs previously developed were employed in the present work. The most important result obtained is concerned with the meridional skin friction c(fu). The zero-c(fu) point (at which c(fu) vanishes) does not, as expected, move forward as time increases, instead it remains over the rear body. As t approaches infinity, it jumps to the front nose. This implies that there is no flow separation over the symmetry-plane at finite times. In the meanwhile, it is argued that separation must occur on two sides of the body. This situation leads us to propose a new unsteady separation sequence, i.e. an open type separation prevails at earlier times, while a closed type of separation occurs only at the steady-state condition. This sequence presents a sharp contrast to the conventional notion of unsteady separation which consists of a series of closed separations only. Furthermore, this sequence with the time as the parameter is found to be similar to that for previously-studied steady flows with varying incidences.
A least-squares finite element method for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Hou, Lin-Jun; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations, and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system. An additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. The flow in a half of 3D cubic cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 52 x 25 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Gortler-like vortices are observed at Re = 1,000.
Application of the ASP3D Computer Program to Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2006-01-01
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Rogers, Stuart E.
2002-01-01
This paper reviews recent progress made in incompressible Navier-Stokes simulation procedures and their application to problems of engineering interest. Discussions are focused on the methods designed for complex geometry applications in three dimensions, and thus are limited to primitive variable formulation. A summary of efforts in flow solver development is given followed by numerical studies of a few example problems of current interest. Both steady and unsteady solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Solvers discussed here are based on a structured-grid approach using either a finite -difference or a finite-volume frame work. As a grand-challenge application of these solvers, an unsteady turbopump flow simulation procedure has been developed which utilizes high performance computing platforms. In the paper, the progress toward the complete simulation capability of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of two parallel computing algorithms that have been implemented in the INS3D code. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotorstator interaction was obtained using overact grid techniques. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on SCSI Origin 3000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. The same procedure has been extended to the development of NASA-DeBakey Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) that is based on an axial blood pump. Computational, and clinical analysis of this device are presented.
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.
2015-01-01
At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.
Simulation of a 3D unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straka, Petr
2012-04-01
The contribution deals with a numerical simulation of an unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage. The solution is performed using an in-house numerical code developed in the Aeronautical and Test Institute, Plc. in Prague. The numerical code is based on a finite volume discretization of governing equations (Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations) and a two-equations turbulence model. The temporal integration is based on the implicit second-order backward Euler formula, which is realized through the iteration process in dual time. The proposed numerical method is used for solution of the 3D, unsteady, viscous turbulent flow of a perfect gas in the axial turbine stage. The flow path consists of an input nozzle, stator blade-wheel, rotor blade-wheel, a shroud-seal gap and a diffuser. Attention is paid to the influence of a secondary flow structures, such as generated vortices and flow in shroud-seal gap.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1997-01-01
The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.
Introduction of the ASP3D Computer Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2005-01-01
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.
Simultaneous 3D Strain and Flow Fields Measurement of a Model Artery under Unsteady Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Mostafa; Sheng, Jian
2011-11-01
Fluid-Structure Interaction imposes challenges in both aero-elasticity and biomedical studies. A simultaneous solid deformation and fluid flow measurement technique based on digital in-line holographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) has been developed. It allows us to measure concurrently 3D strain field of a deforming structure and the unsteady flow near it. To facilitate the measurement, both wall and flow are seeded with tracer particles distinguished by size. The motion of these tracers provides the 3D deformation of the wall and the 3D velocity distribution of the flow separately. A fully index matched facility including transparent artery and NaI solution is constructed to enable observations near the wall or through the complex geometry. An arterial model with the inner diameter of 9.5 mm and the thickness of 0.9 mm is manufactured from the cross-linked transparent PDMS at the mixing ratio of 1:10 and doped with mono-dispersed 19 μm polystyrene particles. A cinematic holographic PTV system is used to trace the 3D particle motion in the model and flow simultaneously. Preliminary study is performed within a sample volume of 15 × 15 × 75 mm with the spatial resolution of 7.4 μm in lateral and 10 μm in depth. Uncertainty and accuracy analysis will be reported. NSF Grant No: CBET-0844647.
A fast Poisson solver for unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the half-staggered grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golub, G. H.; Huang, L. C.; Simon, H.; Tang, W. -P.
1995-01-01
In this paper, a fast Poisson solver for unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with finite difference methods on the non-uniform, half-staggered grid is presented. To achieve this, new algorithms for diagonalizing a semi-definite pair are developed. Our fast solver can also be extended to the three dimensional case. The motivation and related issues in using this second kind of staggered grid are also discussed. Numerical testing has indicated the effectiveness of this algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrer, Esteban; Willden, Richard H. J.
2012-08-01
We present the development of a sliding mesh capability for an unsteady high order (order ⩾ 3) h/p Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A high order sliding mesh method is developed and implemented for flow simulation with relative rotational motion of an inner mesh with respect to an outer static mesh, through the use of curved boundary elements and mixed triangular-quadrilateral meshes. A second order stiffly stable method is used to discretise in time the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Spatial discretisation is provided by the Symmetric Interior Penalty Galerkin formulation with modal basis functions in the x-y plane, allowing hanging nodes and sliding meshes without the requirement to use mortar type techniques. Spatial discretisation in the z-direction is provided by a purely spectral method that uses Fourier series and allows computation of spanwise periodic three-dimensional flows. The developed solver is shown to provide high order solutions, second order in time convergence rates and spectral convergence when solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on meshes where fixed and rotating elements coexist. In addition, an exact implementation of the no-slip boundary condition is included for curved edges; circular arcs and NACA 4-digit airfoils, where analytic expressions for the geometry are used to compute the required metrics. The solver capabilities are tested for a number of two dimensional problems governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on static and rotating meshes: the Taylor vortex problem, a static and rotating symmetric NACA0015 airfoil and flows through three bladed cross-flow turbines. In addition, three dimensional flow solutions are demonstrated for a three bladed cross-flow turbine and a circular cylinder shadowed by a pitching NACA0012 airfoil.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osawa, Yasuo
New powerful parallel computational tools are developed for 3D simulation of unsteady wake flows with complex geometries and fluid-structure interactions. The base method for flow simulation is a finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element formulation is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) techniques. These stabilization techniques facilitate simulation of flows with high Reynolds numbers, and allow us to use equal-order interpolation functions for velocity and pressure without generating numerical oscillations. A multi-domain computational method is developed to simulate wake flow both in the near and far downstream. The formulations lead to coupled nonlinear equation systems which are solved, at every time step, with the Newton-Raphson method. The overall formulation and solution techniques are implemented on parallel platforms such as the CRAY T3E and SGI PowerChallenge. Two phases of vortex shedding for flow past a cylinder is simulated to verify the accuracy of this method. The Enhanced-Discretization Interface Capturing Technique (EDICT) is utilized to simulate wake flow accurately. Fluid-structure coupling solution method based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation is applied to simulate a parachute behavior in the unsteady wake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerolymos, G. A.
2013-02-01
This note reviews the widely used phased-lagged [Erdos, J. L., E. Alzner, and W. McNally. 1977. AIAA Journal 15: 1559-68.] approach and corresponding chorochronic interface relations [Gerolymos G. A., G. J. Michon, and J. Neubauer. 2002. Journal of Propulsion and Power 18: 1139-52.] and explores its potential extension to the approximate unsteady throughflow analysis of multistage turbomachinery. The basic relations pertaining to the binary blade-row interaction case, for which chorochronic periodicity is exact in a phase-averaged rans framework, are briefly formulated, and selected computational examples illustrate the application of the method. Then, the filtered chorochronic interface is defined as the unsteady counterpart of the well-known mixing-plane concept. This interface takes into account only those tθ-waves which are compatible with the interaction of the immediately upstream and downstream blade-rows. The concept, which is similar to the decomposition-and-superposition method [Li, H. D., and L. He. 2005. ASME J ournal of Turbomachinery 127: 589-98.], is illustrated by 3-D computations of a ½-stage transonic compressor.
Unsteady diffusional screening in 3D pulmonary acinar structures: from infancy to adulthood.
Hofemeier, Philipp; Shachar-Berman, Lihi; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué
2016-07-26
Diffusional screening in the lungs is a physical phenomenon where the specific topological arrangement of alveolated airways of the respiratory region leads to a depletion, or 'screening', of oxygen molecules with increasing acinar generation. Here, we revisit diffusional screening phenomena in anatomically-inspired pulmonary acinar models under realistic breathing maneuvers. By modelling 3D bifurcating alveolated airways capturing both convection and diffusion, unsteady oxygen transport is investigated under cyclic breathing motion. To evaluate screening characteristics in the developing lungs during growth, four representative stages of lung development were chosen (i.e. 3 months, 1 year and 9 months, 3 years and adulthood) that capture distinct morphological acinar changes spanning alveolarization phases to isotropic alveolar growth. Numerical simulations unveil the dramatic changes in O2 transport occurring during lung development, where young infants exhibit highest acinar efficiencies that rapidly converge with age to predictions at adulthood. With increased ventilatory effort, transient dynamics of oxygen transport is fundamentally altered compared to tidal breathing and emphasizes the augmented role of convection. Resolving the complex convective acinar flow patterns in 3D acinar trees allows for the first time a spatially-localized and time-resolved characterization of oxygen transport in the pulmonary acinus, from infancy to adulthood.
Preconditioned upwind methods to solve 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liu, C. H.
1990-01-01
A computational method for calculating low-speed viscous flowfields is developed. The method uses the implicit upwind-relaxation finite-difference algorithm with a nonsingular eigensystem to solve the preconditioned, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates. The technique of local time stepping is incorporated to accelerate the rate of convergence to a steady-state solution. An extensive study of optimizing the preconditioned system is carried out for two viscous flow problems. Computed results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental data.
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-04-01
We develop an overset-curvilinear immersed boundary (overset-CURVIB) method in a general non-inertial frame of reference to simulate a wide range of challenging biological flow problems. The method incorporates overset-curvilinear grids to efficiently handle multi-connected geometries and increase the resolution locally near immersed boundaries. Complex bodies undergoing arbitrarily large deformations may be embedded within the overset-curvilinear background grid and treated as sharp interfaces using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2007). The incompressible flow equations are formulated in a general non-inertial frame of reference to enhance the overall versatility and efficiency of the numerical approach. Efficient search algorithms to identify areas requiring blanking, donor cells, and interpolation coefficients for constructing the boundary conditions at grid interfaces of the overset grid are developed and implemented using efficient parallel computing communication strategies to transfer information among sub-domains. The governing equations are discretized using a second-order accurate finite-volume approach and integrated in time via an efficient fractional-step method. Various strategies for ensuring globally conservative interpolation at grid interfaces suitable for incompressible flow fractional step methods are implemented and evaluated. The method is verified and validated against experimental data, and its capabilities are demonstrated by simulating the flow past multiple aquatic swimmers and the systolic flow in an anatomic left ventricle with a mechanical heart valve implanted in the aortic position.
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-01-01
We develop an overset-curvilinear immersed boundary (overset-CURVIB) method in a general non-inertial frame of reference to simulate a wide range of challenging biological flow problems. The method incorporates overset-curvilinear grids to efficiently handle multi-connected geometries and increase the resolution locally near immersed boundaries. Complex bodies undergoing arbitrarily large deformations may be embedded within the overset-curvilinear background grid and treated as sharp interfaces using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2007). The incompressible flow equations are formulated in a general non-inertial frame of reference to enhance the overall versatility and efficiency of the numerical approach. Efficient search algorithms to identify areas requiring blanking, donor cells, and interpolation coefficients for constructing the boundary conditions at grid interfaces of the overset grid are developed and implemented using efficient parallel computing communication strategies to transfer information among sub-domains. The governing equations are discretized using a second-order accurate finite-volume approach and integrated in time via an efficient fractional-step method. Various strategies for ensuring globally conservative interpolation at grid interfaces suitable for incompressible flow fractional step methods are implemented and evaluated. The method is verified and validated against experimental data, and its capabilities are demonstrated by simulating the flow past multiple aquatic swimmers and the systolic flow in an anatomic left ventricle with a mechanical heart valve implanted in the aortic position. PMID:23833331
Code verification for unsteady 3-D fluid-solid interaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kintak Raymond; Étienne, Stéphane; Hay, Alexander; Pelletier, Dominique
2015-12-01
This paper describes a procedure to synthesize Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of an important class of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems whose behaviors can be modeled as rigid body vibrations in incompressible fluids. We refer this class of FSI problems as Fluid-Solid Interaction problems, which can be found in many practical engineering applications. The methodology can be utilized to develop Manufactured Solutions for both 2-D and 3-D cases. We demonstrate the procedure with our numerical code. We present details of the formulation and methodology. We also provide the reasonings behind our proposed approach. Results from grid and time step refinement studies confirm the verification of our solver and demonstrate the versatility of the simple synthesis procedure. In addition, the results also demonstrate that the modified decoupled approach to verify flow problems with high-order time-stepping schemes can be employed equally well to verify code for multi-physics problems (here, those of the Fluid-Solid Interaction) when the numerical discretization is based on the Method of Lines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hong; Li, Peng; Li, Yulong
2016-02-01
This paper describes the calculation method for unsteady state conditions in the secondary air systems in gas turbines. The 1D-3D-Structure coupled method was applied. A 1D code was used to model the standard components that have typical geometric characteristics. Their flow and heat transfer were described by empirical correlations based on experimental data or CFD calculations. A 3D code was used to model the non-standard components that cannot be described by typical geometric languages, while a finite element analysis was carried out to compute the structural deformation and heat conduction at certain important positions. These codes were coupled through their interfaces. Thus, the changes in heat transfer and structure and their interactions caused by exterior disturbances can be reflected. The results of the coupling method in an unsteady state showed an apparent deviation from the existing data, while the results in the steady state were highly consistent with the existing data. The difference in the results in the unsteady state was caused primarily by structural deformation that cannot be predicted by the 1D method. Thus, in order to obtain the unsteady state performance of a secondary air system more accurately and efficiently, the 1D-3D-Structure coupled method should be used.
Towards A Fast High-Order Method for Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations using FR/CPR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2014-11-01
A high-order compact spectral difference method for solving the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids is currently being developed. This method employs the gGA correction of Huynh, and falls under the class of methods now refered to as Flux Reconstruction/Correction Procedure via Reconstruction. This method and the artificial compressibility method are integrated along with a dual time-integration scheme to model unsteady incompressible viscous flows. A lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme and a backward Euler scheme are used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time and physical time, respectively. We demonstrate order of accuracy with steady Taylor-Couette flow at Re = 10. We further validate the solver with steady flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at Re = 1850 and unsteady flow past a circle at Re = 100. The implicit time-integration scheme for the pseudo time derivative term is proved efficient and effective for the classical artificial compressibility treatment to achieve the divergence-free condition of the continuity equation. We greatly acknowledge financial support from The George Washington University under the Presidential Merit Fellowship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Cuili; Zhang, Ting
2015-09-01
In this article, we consider the global well-posedness to the 3-D incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with a class of large velocity. More precisely, assuming a 0 ∈ B˙ q , 1 /3 q ( R 3 ) and u 0 = ( u0 h , u0 3 ) ∈ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) for p, q ∈ (1, 6) with sup ( /1 p , /1 q ) ≤ /1 3 + inf ( /1 p , /1 q ) , we prove that if C a↑0↑ B˙q1/3 q α (↑u0 3↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p/μ + 1 ) ≤ 1 , /C μ (↑u0 h↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p + ↑u03↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p 1 - α ↑u0h↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p α) ≤ 1 , then the system has a unique global solution a ∈ C ˜ ( [ 0 , ∞ ) ; B˙ q , 1 /3 q ( R 3 ) ) , u ∈ C ˜ ( [ 0 , ∞ ) ; B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) ) ∩ L 1 ( R + ; B˙ p , 1 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) ) . It improves the recent result of M. Paicu and P. Zhang [J. Funct. Anal. 262, 3556-3584 (2012)], where the exponent form of the initial smallness condition is replaced by a polynomial form.
Unsteady separation experiments on 2-D airfoils, 3-D wings, and model helicopter rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Carta, Franklin O.
1992-01-01
Information on unsteady separation and dynamic stall is being obtained from two experimental programs that have been underway at United Technologies Research Center since 1984. The first program is designed to obtain detailed surface pressure and boundary layer condition information during high amplitude pitching oscillations of a large (17.3 in. chord) model wing in a wind tunnel. The second program involves the construction and testing of a pressure-instrumented model helicopter rotor. This presentation describes some of the results of these experiments, and in particular compares the detailed dynamic stall inception information obtained from the oscillating wing with the unsteady separation and reverse flow results measured on the retreating blade side of the model rotor during wind tunnel testing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatanaka, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kawahara, M.
A novel FEM scheme that is based on the fractional-step method for solving time-dependent, incompressible viscous flow is presented and employed in the solution of a free-surface flow. The equations are given in indicial notation, as well as in the summation convention for repeated indices. The numerical results obtained exhibit good stability without the specification of Neumann conditions, and are compared in tabular form with the solutions given by Laitone's (1960) approximation. The method is also applicable to problems with artificial, open boundaries.
Exact variational principle for 3-D unsteady heat conduction with second sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gaolian
2006-12-01
The exact variational formulation of the extended unsteady heat conduction equation with finite propagation speed (the 2nd sound speed) of hyperbolic type is derived herein via a systematic and natural way. Moreover, the boundary-and the physically acceptable initial-value conditions are accommodated in the variational principle by a novel method suggested just recently. In this way a perfect justification of the variational theory of transient heat conduction and a rigorous theoretical basis for the finite element analysis of heat conduction are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, H. L.; Nath, R.; Singh, R. P.
1987-01-01
An analytical study is performed to examine the heat transfer characteristics on the flow of a viscous, incompressible rarefied gas in a parallel plate channel under the action of transverse magnetic field when (1) suction velocity normal to the plate is constant, (2) the second plate oscillates in time about a constant nonzero mean, (3) fluid is subjected to a constant heat source of absorption type. Approximate solutions for velocity, temperature, phase, and amplitude of skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are evaluated. Mean temperature profiles, phase and amplitude of rate of heat transfer at both plates are discussed graphically followed by a quantitative discussion. Mean rate of heat transfer is tabulated.
TEMPEST/N33.5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Package For Incompressible, 3D, Time Dependent Pro
Trent, Dr.D.S.; Eyler, Dr.L.L.
1991-04-01
TEMPESTN33.5 provides numerical solutions to general incompressible flow problems with coupled heat transfer in fluids and solids. Turbulence is created with a k-e model and gas, liquid or solid constituents may be included with the bulk flow. Problems may be modeled in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. Limitations include incompressible flow, Boussinesq approximation, and passive constituents. No direct steady state solution is available; steady state is obtained as the limit of a transient.
Lift force time delays on 2D and 3D wings in unsteady flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, David; Colling, Jesse; Quach, Vien; Colonius, Tim; Tadmor, Gilead
2008-11-01
Active flow control (AFC) used for enhancing the maneuverability of wings is usually applied during conditions of steady external flow. However, when the external flow is unsteady or the wing is maneuvering, then at least two time delays become important; namely, the time delay of the lift to changes in external flow, τf, and the time delay to changes in AFC actuation, τa. These time delays were measured in wind tunnel experiments using two- and three-dimensional wings in an oscillating freestream and with variable duty cycle actuation. Dimensionless freestream oscillation frequencies from k = 0.01 to k = 0.2 with amplitudes of 5 percent of the mean speed were used to characterize the system. As a demonstration of the important role of the two time constants, AFC is used to damp lift force oscillations occurring in an unsteady freestream using a feed forward control system. The instantaneous velocity provides input to a control algorithm which adjusts the duty cycle of the AFC actuator to suppress lift fluctuations.
Texture-based visualization of unsteady 3D flow by real-time advection and volumetric illumination.
Weiskopf, Daniel; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Ertl, Thomas
2007-01-01
This paper presents an interactive technique for the dense texture-based visualization of unsteady 3D flow, taking into account issues of computational efficiency and visual perception. High efficiency is achieved by a 3D graphics processing unit (GPU)-based texture advection mechanism that implements logical 3D grid structures by physical memory in the form of 2D textures. This approach results in fast read and write access to physical memory, independent of GPU architecture. Slice-based direct volume rendering is used for the final display. We investigate two alternative methods for the volumetric illumination of the result of texture advection: First, gradient-based illumination that employs a real-time computation of gradients, and, second, line-based lighting based on illumination in codimension 2. In addition to the Phong model, perception-guided rendering methods are considered, such as cool/warm shading, halo rendering, or color-based depth cueing. The problems of clutter and occlusion are addressed by supporting a volumetric importance function that enhances features of the flow and reduces visual complexity in less interesting regions. GPU implementation aspects, performance measurements, and a discussion of results are included to demonstrate our visualization approach.
Recent Enhancements to USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Chung, James J.
2004-01-01
The NASA USM3D unstructured flow solver is undergoing extensions to address dynamic flow problems in support of NASA and NAVAIR efforts to study the applicability of Computational Fluid Dynamics tools for the prediction of aircraft stability and control characteristics. The initial extensions reported herein include two second-order time stepping schemes, Detached-Eddy Simulation, and grid motion. This paper reports the initial code verification and validation assessment of the dynamic flow capabilities of USM3D. The cases considered are the classic inviscid shock-tube problem, low Reynolds number wake shedding from a NACA 0012 airfoil, high Reynolds number DES-based wake shedding from a 4-to-1 length-to-diameter cylinder, and forced pitch oscillation of a NACA 0012 airfoil with inviscid and turbulent flow.
A Computational Model for Suspended Large Rigid Bodies in 3D Unsteady Viscous Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Feng
1999-11-01
A 3D numerical model for computing large rigid objects suspended in fluid flow has been developed. Rather than calculating the surface pressure upon the solid body, we evaluate the net force and torque based on a volume force formulation. The total effective force is obtained by summing up the forces at the Eulerian grids occupied by the rigid body. The effects of the moving bodies are coupled to the fluid flow by imposing the velocity field of the bodies to the fluid. A Poisson equation is used to compute the pressure over the whole domain. The objects are identified by color functions and calculated by the PPM scheme and a tangent function transformation which scales the transition region of the computed interface to a compact thickness. The model is then implemented on a parallel computer of distributed memory and validated with Stokes and low Reynolds number flows.
Unsteady Analysis of Inlet-Compressor Acoustic Interactions Using Coupled 3-D and 1-D CFD Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suresh, A.; Cole, G. L.
2000-01-01
It is well known that the dynamic response of a mixed compression supersonic inlet is very sensitive to the boundary condition imposed at the subsonic exit (engine face) of the inlet. In previous work, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) inlet code (NPARC) was coupled at the engine face to a 3-D turbomachinery code (ADPAC) simulating an isolated rotor and the coupled simulation used to study the unsteady response of the inlet. The main problem with this approach is that the high fidelity turbomachinery simulation becomes prohibitively expensive as more stages are included in the simulation. In this paper, an alternative approach is explored, wherein the inlet code is coupled to a lesser fidelity 1-D transient compressor code (DYNTECC) which simulates the whole compressor. The specific application chosen for this evaluation is the collapsing bump experiment performed at the University of Cincinnati, wherein reflections of a large-amplitude acoustic pulse from a compressor were measured. The metrics for comparison are the pulse strength (time integral of the pulse amplitude) and wave form (shape). When the compressor is modeled by stage characteristics the computed strength is about ten percent greater than that for the experiment, but the wave shapes are in poor agreement. An alternate approach that uses a fixed rise in duct total pressure and temperature (so-called 'lossy' duct) to simulate a compressor gives good pulse shapes but the strength is about 30 percent low.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-06-01
We report development of a high-order compact flux reconstruction method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit dual time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ Chorin's classic artificial compressibility formulation with dual time stepping to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time stepping scheme using both steady and unsteady incompressible flow problems. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. This compact high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids.
A survey of grid-free methods for the simulation of 3-D incompressible flows in bounded domains
Gharakhani, A.
1997-09-01
The state-of-the-art in Lagrangian methods for the grid-free simulation of three-dimensional, incompressible, high Reynolds number, internal and/or external flows is surveyed. Specifically, vortex and velicity (or impulse) element methods are introduced. The relative merits of various available techniques and the outstanding challenges in simulating the processes of convection and diffusion, as well as in satisfying the wall boundary conditions are discussed individually. Issues regarding the stretch and solenoidality of vorticity are also discussed. A potentially successful algorithm for simulating the flow around a parachute is proposed as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabhakar Reddy, B.
2016-02-01
In this paper, a numerical solution of mass transfer effects on an unsteady free convection flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous dissipative fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate under the influence of a uniform magnetic field considered normal to the plate has been obtained. The non-dimensional governing equations for this investigation are solved numerically by using the Ritz finite element method. The effects of flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are presented through the graphs and numerical data for the skin-friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in tables and then discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attia, H. A.
2007-04-01
It has come to the attention of the Institute of Physics that this article should not have been submitted for publication owing to its plagiarism of an earlier paper (Hossain A, Hossain M A and Wilson M 2001 Unsteady flow of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in presence of transverse magnetic field and heat transfer Int. J. Therm. Sci. 40 11-20). Therefore this article has been retracted by the Institute of Physics and by the author, Hazem Ali Attia.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.
1994-01-01
INS3D computes steady-state solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The INS3D approach utilizes pseudo-compressibility combined with an approximate factorization scheme. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been verified on problems such as flow through a channel, flow over a backwardfacing step and flow over a circular cylinder. Three dimensional cases include flow over an ogive cylinder, flow through a rectangular duct, wind tunnel inlet flow, cylinder-wall juncture flow and flow through multiple posts mounted between two plates. INS3D uses a pseudo-compressibility approach in which a time derivative of pressure is added to the continuity equation, which together with the momentum equations form a set of four equations with pressure and velocity as the dependent variables. The equations' coordinates are transformed for general three dimensional applications. The equations are advanced in time by the implicit, non-iterative, approximately-factored, finite-difference scheme of Beam and Warming. The numerical stability of the scheme depends on the use of higher-order smoothing terms to damp out higher-frequency oscillations caused by second-order central differencing. The artificial compressibility introduces pressure (sound) waves of finite speed (whereas the speed of sound would be infinite in an incompressible fluid). As the solution converges, these pressure waves die out, causing the derivation of pressure with respect to time to approach zero. Thus, continuity is satisfied for the incompressible fluid in the steady state. Computational efficiency is achieved using a diagonal algorithm. A block tri-diagonal option is also available. When a steady-state solution is reached, the modified continuity equation will satisfy the divergence-free velocity field condition. INS3D is capable of handling several different types of boundaries encountered in numerical simulations, including solid-surface, inflow and outflow, and far
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2015-11-01
This paper reports development of a high-order compact method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ the classical artificial compressibility treatment, where dual time stepping is needed to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time-stepping scheme. Three-dimensional results computed on many processing elements will be presented. The high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. Financial support provided under the GW Presidential Merit Fellowship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Xiaohui; Cao, Yuanwei; Zhao, Yong
2016-06-01
In this paper, an unstructured mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) incompressible flow solver is developed to investigate the aerodynamics of insect hovering flight. The proposed finite-volume ALE Navier-Stokes solver is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) with a high-resolution method of characteristics-based scheme on unstructured grids. The present ALE model is validated and assessed through flow passing over an oscillating cylinder. Good agreements with experimental results and other numerical solutions are obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and the capability of the present model. The lift generation mechanisms of 2D wing in hovering motion, including wake capture, delayed stall, rapid pitch, as well as clap and fling are then studied and illustrated using the current ALE model. Moreover, the optimized angular amplitude in symmetry model, 45°, is firstly reported in details using averaged lift and the energy power method. Besides, the lift generation of complete cyclic clap and fling motion, which is simulated by few researchers using the ALE method due to large deformation, is studied and clarified for the first time. The present ALE model is found to be a useful tool to investigate lift force generation mechanism for insect wing flight.
On the nonlinear stability of the unsteady, viscous flow of an incompressible fluid in a curved pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shortis, Trudi A.; Hall, Philip
1995-01-01
The stability of the flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid through a pipe of circular cross-section curved about a central axis is investigated in a weakly nonlinear regime. A sinusoidal pressure gradient with zero mean is imposed, acting along the pipe. A WKBJ perturbation solution is constructed, taking into account the need for an inner solution in the vicinity of the outer bend, which is obtained by identifying the saddle point of the Taylor number in the complex plane of the cross-sectional angle co-ordinate. The equation governing the nonlinear evolution of the leading order vortex amplitude is thus determined. The stability analysis of this flow to periodic disturbances leads to a partial differential system dependent on three variables, and since the differential operators in this system are periodic in time, Floquet theory may be applied to reduce this system to a coupled infinite system of ordinary differential equations, together with homogeneous uncoupled boundary conditions. The eigenvalues of this system are calculated numerically to predict a critical Taylor number consistent with the analysis of Papageorgiou. A discussion of how nonlinear effects alter the linear stability analysis is also given, and the nature of the instability determined.
Unsteady Analysis of Particle Transport and Deposition in the Human Lung: A Hybrid 3D/0D Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haworth, Daniel C.; Kunz, Robert F.; Leemhuis, Laura S.; Banks, Syreeta S.; Kriete, Andres
2003-11-01
Three-dimensional CFD meshes including up the sixteenth generation of branching in a human tracheo-bronchial tree have been generated from surface data extracted using novel high-resolution bio-medical imaging and rendering methods. A zero-dimensional model for the deeper generations has been coupled with the three-dimensional model at each of the truncated branches. The 0D model imposes a time-varying volume to simulate realistic breathing cycles; it also includes a simple model for particle deposition. The resulting hybrid 3D/0D model has been exercised to compute the transport and deposition rates of particles of different sizes through full breathing cycles. Results are compared to earlier steady-flow CFD results, to results obtained using one-dimensional functional models of the human lung, and to experimental and modeling results for idealized branching-duct configurations. The aim of the research is to develop a virtual human respiratory system that can be used to address issues in pulmonary health in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Dandan; Ou, Yaobin
2016-08-01
In this paper, we prove the incompressible limit of all-time strong solutions to the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Here the velocity field and temperature satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition and convective boundary condition, respectively. The uniform estimates in both the Mach number {ɛin(0,overline{ɛ}]} and time {tin[0,∞)} are established by deriving a differential inequality with decay property, where {overline{ɛ} in(0,1]} is a constant. Based on these uniform estimates, the global solution of full compressible Navier-Stokes equations with "well-prepared" initial conditions converges to the one of isentropic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations as the Mach number goes to zero.
Supercomputing Aspects for Simulating Incompressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kris, Cetin C.
2000-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to support the design of liquid rocket systems for the Advanced Space Transportation System. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to rely on liquid rocket engines, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the engine components is an important task. One of the major problems in the liquid rocket engine is to understand fluid dynamics of fuel and oxidizer flows from the fuel tank to plume. Understanding the flow through the entire turbo-pump geometry through numerical simulation will be of significant value toward design. One of the milestones of this effort is to develop, apply and demonstrate the capability and accuracy of 3D CFD methods as efficient design analysis tools on high performance computer platforms. The development of the Message Passage Interface (MPI) and Multi Level Parallel (MLP) versions of the INS3D code is currently underway. The serial version of INS3D code is a multidimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on overset grid technology, INS3D-MPI is based on the explicit massage-passing interface across processors and is primarily suited for distributed memory systems. INS3D-MLP is based on multi-level parallel method and is suitable for distributed-shared memory systems. For the entire turbo-pump simulations, moving boundary capability and efficient time-accurate integration methods are built in the flow solver, To handle the geometric complexity and moving boundary problems, an overset grid scheme is incorporated with the solver so that new connectivity data will be obtained at each time step. The Chimera overlapped grid scheme allows subdomains move relative to each other, and provides a great flexibility when the boundary movement creates large displacements. Two numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are outlined for obtaining time-accurate solutions of the incompressible Navier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin
1995-01-01
Development of an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure was performed for the analysis of a liquid rocket engine pump components and for the mechanical heart assist devices. The solution procedure for the propulsion systems is applicable to incompressible Navier-Stokes flows in a steadily rotating frame of reference for any general complex configurations. The computer codes were tested on different complex configurations such as liquid rocket engine inducer and impellers. As a spin-off technology from the turbopump component simulations, the flow analysis for an axial heart pump was conducted. The baseline Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) design was improved by adding an inducer geometry by adapting from the liquid rocket engine pump. The time-accurate mode of the incompressible Navier-Stokes code was validated with flapping foil experiment by using different domain decomposition methods. In the flapping foil experiment, two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high-frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions for a downstream larger stationary foil. Fairly good agreement was obtained between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures. Incompressible Navier-Stokes code (INS3D) has been extended for heat transfer applications. The temperature equation was written for both forced and natural convection phenomena. Flow in a square duct case was used for the validation of the code in both natural and forced convection.
Computation of viscous incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
1989-01-01
Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.
High Fidelity Simulations of Unsteady Flow through Turbopumps and Flowliners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeff
2006-01-01
High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter LH2 feedline flowliner. Computations were performed on the Columbia platform which is a 10,240-processor supercluster consisting of 20 Altix nodes with 512 processor each. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.
Progress in Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations Using Overset Grid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on unsteady flow simulations for the Second Generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) baseline turbopump. Three impeller rotations were simulated by using a 34.3 million grid points model. MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelism and MLP shared memory parallelism has been implemented and benchmarked in INS3D, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. For RLV turbopump simulations a speed up of more than 30 times has been obtained. Moving boundary capability is obtained by using the DCF module. Scripting capability from CAD geometry to solution is developed. Unsteady flow simulations for advanced consortium impeller/diffuser by using a 39 million grid points model are currently underway. 1.2 impeller rotations are completed. The fluid/structure coupling is initiated.
Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1977-01-01
Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.
Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces
1992-02-01
NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less
Paik, Joongcheol; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Sale, Michael J
2005-06-01
A numerical method is developed for carrying out unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and detached-eddy simulations (DESs) in complex 3D geometries. The method is applied to simulate incompressible swirling flow in a typical hydroturbine draft tube, which consists of a strongly curved 90 degree elbow and two piers. The governing equations are solved with a second-order-accurate, finite-volume, dual-time-stepping artificial compressibility approach for a Reynolds number of 1.1 million on a mesh with 1.8 million nodes. The geometrical complexities of the draft tube are handled using domain decomposition with overset (chimera) grids. Numerical simulations show that unsteady statistical turbulence models can capture very complex 3D flow phenomena dominated by geometry-induced, large-scale instabilities and unsteady coherent structures such as the onset of vortex breakdown and the formation of the unsteady rope vortex downstream of the turbine runner. Both URANS and DES appear to yield the general shape and magnitude of mean velocity profiles in reasonable agreement with measurements. Significant discrepancies among the DES and URANS predictions of the turbulence statistics are also observed in the straight downstream diffuser.
High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey
2005-01-01
High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.
A Finite-Time Thermodynamics of Unsteady Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Bernd R.; Schlegel, Michael; Ahlborn, Boye; Mutschke, Gerd; Morzyński, Marek; Comte, Pierre; Tadmor, Gilead
2008-06-01
Turbulent fluid has often been conceptualized as a transient thermodynamic phase. Here, a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) formalism is proposed to compute mean flow and fluctuation levels of unsteady incompressible flows. The proposed formalism builds upon the Galerkin model framework, which simplifies a continuum 3D fluid motion into a finite-dimensional phase-space dynamics and, subsequently, into a thermodynamics energy problem. The Galerkin model consists of a velocity field expansion in terms of flow configuration dependent modes and of a dynamical system describing the temporal evolution of the mode coefficients. Each mode is treated as one thermodynamic degree of freedom, characterized by an energy level. The dynamical system approaches local thermal equilibrium (LTE) where each mode has the same energy if it is governed only by internal (triadic) mode interactions. However, in the generic case of unsteady flows, the full system approaches only partial LTE with unequal energy levels due to strongly mode-dependent external interactions. The FTT model is first illustrated by a traveling wave governed by a 1D Burgers equation. It is then applied to two flow benchmarks: the relatively simple laminar vortex shedding, which is dominated by two eigenmodes, and the homogeneous shear turbulence, which has been modeled with 1459 modes.
Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.
1982-01-01
Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.
Computation of incompressible viscous flows through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Rogers, Stuart; Kwak, Dochan; Chang, I.-DEE
1991-01-01
The extension of computational fluid dynamics techniques to artificial heart flow simulations is illustrated. Unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in 3-D generalized curvilinear coordinates are solved iteratively at each physical time step until the incompressibility condition is satisfied. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The efficiency and robustness of the time accurate formulation of the algorithm are tested by computing the flow through model geometries. A channel flow with a moving indentation is computed and validated with experimental measurements and other numerical solutions. In order to handle the geometric complexity and the moving boundary problems, a zonal method and an overlapping grid embedding scheme are used, respectively. Steady state solutions for the flow through a tilting disk heart valve was compared against experimental measurements. Good agreement was obtained. The flow computation during the valve opening and closing is carried out to illustrate the moving boundary capability.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics
Nixon, D.
1989-01-01
Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.
3D simulation and analytical model of chemical heating during silicon wet etching in microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.
2016-02-01
We investigate chemical heating of a Silicon-on-Glass (SOG) chip during a highly exothermic reaction of silicon etching in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in a microchannel of 100-micron width inside a 1x1 cm SOG chip. Two modeling approaches have been developed, implemented and compared. (1) A detailed 3D model is based on unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, heat and mass transfer equations of a laminar flow of viscous incompressible fluid in microchannel, coupled to the heat transfer equation in the solid chip. 3D simulation results predicted temperature distributions for different KOH flow rates and silicon etching areas. Microchannels of a small diameter do not heat the chip due to the insufficient chemical heating of the cold fluid, whereas large-area etching (large channel diameter and/or length) leads to local overheating that may have negative effects on the device performance and durability. (2) A simplified analytical model solves a thermal balance equation describing the heating by chemical reactions inside the microchannel and energy loss by free convection of air around the chip. Analytical results compare well with the 3D simulations of a single straight microchannel, therefore the analytical model is suitable for quick estimation of process parameters. For complex microstructures, this simplified approach may be used as the first approximation.
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.
A New Unsteady Model for Dense Cloud Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet
2005-01-01
Contents include the following: Background on thermal effects in cavitation. Physical properties of hydrogen. Multi-phase cavitation with thermal effect. Solution procedure. Cavitation model overview. Cavitation source terms. New cavitation model. Source term for bubble growth. One equation les model. Unsteady ogive simulations: liquid nitrogen. Unsteady incompressible flow in a pipe. Time averaged cavity length for NACA15 flowfield.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletinckx, D.
2011-09-01
The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.
Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centin, Kiris C.; Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
The objective of the current effort is two-fold: 1) to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine; and 2) to provide high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis capability to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicle. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to involve liquid propulsion system, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the turbopump components is an important task. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flow are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. Unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available, at least, for real-world engineering applications. Present effort is an attempt to provide this capability so that developers of the vehicle will be able to extract such information as transient flow phenomena for start up, impact of non-uniform inflow, system vibration and impact on the structure. Those quantities are not readily available from simplified design tools. In this presentation, the progress being made toward complete turbo-pump simulation capability for a liquid rocket engine is reported. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbopump, which contains 106 zones with 34.5 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented.
3d-3d correspondence revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-01
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
3d-3d correspondence revisited
Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-21
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.
1994-01-01
Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulien Ohlmann, Odile
2013-02-01
Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?
Incompressible viscous flow in tubes with occlusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Huaxiong
Viscous, incompressible flow in tubes with partial occlusion is investigated using numerical and experimental procedures. The study is related to the problem of atherosclerosis, one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system. One of the computational difficulties in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the lack of pressure or vorticity boundary conditions. A finite difference approach, referred to as the interior constraint (IC) method, is proposed to resolve this difficulty. As a general numerical method, it is formulated for both the stream function-vorticity and primitive (physical) variable formulations. The procedure is explained using a one dimensional model with extensive numerical tests presented for two dimensional cases, including flow in a driven cavity and flow over a backward facing step. Results are obtained with second-order accuracy. Next, the IC method is applied to flow in a tube with an occlusion, which is used as the model for blood flow in stenosed arteries in the study of the pathology of atherosclerosis. Numerical results are obtained for both steady and pulsatile flows. Results are compared with those of SIMPLE, one of the commercially available numerical algorithms. The pulsatile flow study revealed several interesting new features. It suggested that the high shear stress is not likely to initiate atherosclerosis lesions. The recirculation region, which is a prominent feature of the unsteady flow, is more likely to cause the initiation and development of the disease. Experimental measurements for steady flow complement the numerical study and show qualitative agreement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hastings, S. K.
2002-01-01
Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)
Numerical Solution of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations Using a Fractional-Step Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan
1999-01-01
A fractional step method for the solution of steady and unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is outlined. The method is based on a finite volume formulation and uses the pressure in the cell center and the mass fluxes across the faces of each cell as dependent variables. Implicit treatment of convective and viscous terms in the momentum equations enables the numerical stability restrictions to be relaxed. The linearization error in the implicit solution of momentum equations is reduced by using three subiterations in order to achieve second order temporal accuracy for time-accurate calculations. In spatial discretizations of the momentum equations, a high-order (3rd and 5th) flux-difference splitting for the convective terms and a second-order central difference for the viscous terms are used. The resulting algebraic equations are solved with a line-relaxation scheme which allows the use of large time step. A four color ZEBRA scheme is employed after the line-relaxation procedure in the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. This procedure is applied to a Couette flow problem using a distorted computational grid to show that the method minimizes grid effects. Additional benchmark cases include the unsteady laminar flow over a circular cylinder for Reynolds Numbers of 200, and a 3-D, steady, turbulent wingtip vortex wake propagation study. The solution algorithm does a very good job in resolving the vortex core when 5th-order upwind differencing and a modified production term in the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model are used with adequate grid resolution.
Incompressible viscous flow simulations of the NFAC wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Champney, Joelle Milene
1986-01-01
The capabilities of an existing 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, INS3D, are extended and improved to solve turbulent flows through the incorporation of zero- and two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation model equations are solved in their high Reynolds number form and utilize wall functions in the treatment of solid wall boundary conditions. The implicit approximate factorization scheme is modified to improve the stability of the two-equation solver. Applications to the 3-D viscous flow inside the 80 by 120 feet open return wind tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) are discussed and described.
Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics
1992-02-13
NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less
Simulation of a Synthetic Jet in Quiescent Air Using TLNS3D Flow Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Turkel, Eli
2007-01-01
Although the actuator geometry is highly three-dimensional, the outer flowfield is nominally two-dimensional because of the high aspect ratio of the rectangular slot. For the present study, this configuration is modeled as a two-dimensional problem. A multi-block structured grid available at the CFDVAL2004 website is used as a baseline grid. The periodic motion of the diaphragm is simulated by specifying a sinusoidal velocity at the diaphragm surface with a frequency of 450 Hz, corresponding to the experimental setup. The amplitude is chosen so that the maximum Mach number at the jet exit is approximately 0.1, to replicate the experimental conditions. At the solid walls zero slip, zero injection, adiabatic temperature and zero pressure gradient conditions are imposed. In the external region, symmetry conditions are imposed on the side (vertical) boundaries and far-field conditions are imposed on the top boundary. A nominal free-stream Mach number of 0.001 is imposed in the free stream to simulate incompressible flow conditions in the TLNS3D code, which solves compressible flow equations. The code was run in unsteady (URANS) mode until the periodicity was established. The time-mean quantities were obtained by running the code for at least another 15 periods and averaging the flow quantities over these periods. The phase-locked average of flow quantities were assumed to be coincident with their values during the last full time period.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.
1977-01-01
A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.
Conservative properties of finite difference schemes for incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morinishi, Youhei
1995-01-01
The purpose of this research is to construct accurate finite difference schemes for incompressible unsteady flow simulations such as LES (large-eddy simulation) or DNS (direct numerical simulation). In this report, conservation properties of the continuity, momentum, and kinetic energy equations for incompressible flow are specified as analytical requirements for a proper set of discretized equations. Existing finite difference schemes in staggered grid systems are checked for satisfaction of the requirements. Proper higher order accurate finite difference schemes in a staggered grid system are then proposed. Plane channel flow is simulated using the proposed fourth order accurate finite difference scheme and the results compared with those of the second order accurate Harlow and Welch algorithm.
A multilevel approximate projections for incompressible flow calculations
Howell, L.H.
1994-12-31
An adaptive-mesh projection algorithm for unsteady, variable-density, incompressible flow at high Reynolds number has been developed in the Applied Mathematics Group at LLNL. A grid-based refinement scheme combines the theoretical efficiencies of adaptive methods with the computational advantages of uniform grids, while a second-order Godunov method provides a robust and accurate treatment of advection in the presence of discontinuities without excessive dissipation. This paper focuses on the work of the present author concerning the approximate projection itself, which involves the numerical inversion of the operator {del} {center_dot} (1/{rho}){del} on various subsets of the adaptive grid hierarchy.
Spectral element methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maday, Yvon; Patera, Anthony T.
1989-01-01
Spectral element methods are high-order weighted-residual techniques for partial differential equations that combine the geometric flexibility of finite element techniques with the rapid convergence rate of spectral schemes. The theoretical foundations and numerical implementation of spectral element methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are presented, considering the construction and analysis of optimal-order spectral element discretizations for elliptic and saddle (Stokes) problems, as well as the efficient solution of the resulting discrete equations by rapidly convergent tensor-product-based iterative procedures. Several examples of spectral element simulation of moderate Reynolds number unsteady flow in complex geometry are presented.
Unsteady Laminar CFD Simulation of Undulatory Rainbow Trout Swimming Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flanagan, Patrick; Hotchkiss, Rollin; Stock, David
2004-11-01
The propulsion mechanism of an undulatory swimming 10 cm rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) is studied using a laminar 2-D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes computational model with a moving adaptive mesh (Fluent 6.1). The wake mechanism is dominated by a reverse von Karman vortex street and compares well to previous experimental data. Thrust and drag forces are quantified and the equilibrium condition is satisfied within 5%. A method is developed to calculate hydrodynamic power using work, which results in a swimming efficiency of 62%. An investigation of the boundary layer shows incipient separation and highly unsteady velocity profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Mark
2015-01-01
Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Gregory F.
2009-05-01
This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2010-01-01
The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782–1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken’s acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plaut, J. J.
1993-08-01
Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.
Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )
1991-11-01
This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.
On the unsteady inviscid force on cylinders and spheres in subcritical compressible flow.
Parmar, M; Haselbacher, A; Balachandar, S
2008-06-28
The unsteady inviscid force on cylinders and spheres in subcritical compressible flow is investigated. In the limit of incompressible flow, the unsteady inviscid force on a cylinder or sphere is the so-called added-mass force that is proportional to the product of the mass displaced by the body and the instantaneous acceleration. In compressible flow, the finite acoustic propagation speed means that the unsteady inviscid force arising from an instantaneously applied constant acceleration develops gradually and reaches steady values only for non-dimensional times c(infinity)t/R approximately >10, where c(infinity) is the freestream speed of sound and R is the radius of the cylinder or sphere. In this limit, an effective added-mass coefficient may be defined. The main conclusion of our study is that the freestream Mach number has a pronounced effect on both the peak value of the unsteady force and the effective added-mass coefficient. At a freestream Mach number of 0.5, the effective added-mass coefficient is about twice as large as the incompressible value for the sphere. Coupled with an impulsive acceleration, the unsteady inviscid force in compressible flow can be more than four times larger than that predicted from incompressible theory. Furthermore, the effect of the ratio of specific heats on the unsteady force becomes more pronounced as the Mach number increases. PMID:18348968
Predicting Unsteady Aeroelastic Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strganac, Thomas W.; Mook, Dean T.
1990-01-01
New method for predicting subsonic flutter, static deflections, and aeroelastic divergence developed. Unsteady aerodynamic loads determined by unsteady-vortex-lattice method. Accounts for aspect ratio and angle of attack. Equations for motion of wing and flow field solved iteratively and simultaneously. Used to predict transient responses to initial disturbances, and to predict steady-state static and oscillatory responses. Potential application for research in such unsteady structural/flow interactions as those in windmills, turbines, and compressors.
CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry
2011-01-01
We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.
Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor
2010-01-01
We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif
2008-04-01
In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.
Regularity criterion for the 3D Hall-magneto-hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Mimi
2016-07-01
This paper studies the regularity problem for the 3D incompressible resistive viscous Hall-magneto-hydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) system. The Kolmogorov 41 phenomenological theory of turbulence [14] predicts that there exists a critical wavenumber above which the high frequency part is dominated by the dissipation term in the fluid equation. Inspired by this idea, we apply an approach of splitting the wavenumber combined with an estimate of the energy flux to obtain a new regularity criterion. The regularity condition presented here is weaker than conditions in the existing criteria (Prodi-Serrin type criteria) for the 3D Hall-MHD system.
Unsteady Shear Disturbances Within a Two Dimensional Stratified Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1992-01-01
The origin and evolution of shear disturbances within a stratified, inviscid, incompressible flow are investigated numerically by a Clebsch/Weber decomposition based scheme. In contrast to homogeneous flows, within which vorticity can be redistributed but not generated, the presence of a density stratification can render an otherwise irrotational flow vortical. In this work, a kinematic decomposition of the unsteady Euler equations separates the unsteady velocity field into rotational and irrotational components. The subsequent evolution of these components is used to study the influence various velocity disturbances have on both stratified and homogeneous flows. In particular, the flow within a two-dimensional channel is used to investigate the evolution of rotational disturbances, generated or convected, downstream from an unsteady inflow condition. Contrasting simulations of both stratified and homogeneous flows are used to distinguish between redistributed inflow vorticity and that which is generated by a density stratification.
Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-07-01
We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-Gi
2016-01-01
A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.
Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.
On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.
The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.
The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces
Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K.
1995-09-01
A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.
Incorporating unsteady flow-effects in flamelet-generated manifolds
Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.
2008-10-15
Detailed simulations are performed for a series of steady and unsteady nonpremixed flames. A specific type of unsteady flamelet simulations are considered, i.e., flamelets subjected to (temporally) varying strain-rates. It is observed that the unsteady flame trajectories move closely along a 2D manifold describing the set of steady diffusion flames in composition space. Using the 2D manifold, unsteady simulations are performed. It is shown that there is a phase shift in the species mass fractions between the detailed simulations and the 2D FGM simulations. This phase shift can be avoided when an additional controlling variable is used. Using unsteady flamelet simulations, a 3D manifold is generated, which is parameterized using three controlling variables. Furthermore, this 3D FGM accurately predicts a broad range of the strain-rate parameters: the mean strain-rate, the applied amplitude, and the frequency of the sinusoidally varying strain-rate. Finally, it is shown that the aforementioned phase shift between the detailed simulations and the 3D FGM simulations disappears. (author)
Visualization of unsteady computational fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haimes, Robert
1995-01-01
The current computing environment that most researchers are using for the calculation of 3D unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) results is a super-computer class machine. The Massively Parallel Processors (MPP's) such as the 160 node IBM SP2 at NAS and clusters of workstations acting as a single MPP (like NAS's SGI Power-Challenge array) provide the required computation bandwidth for CFD calculations of transient problems. Work is in progress on a set of software tools designed specifically to address visualizing 3D unsteady CFD results in these super-computer-like environments. The visualization is concurrently executed with the CFD solver. The parallel version of Visual3, pV3 required splitting up the unsteady visualization task to allow execution across a network of workstation(s) and compute servers. In this computing model, the network is almost always the bottleneck so much of the effort involved techniques to reduce the size of the data transferred between machines.
PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as
PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P. G.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as
PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as
PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as
Self-similarity in incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent
2015-12-01
The self-similarity conditions of the 3-dimensional (3D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. It is found that the scaling exponents of length dimensions in i = 1, 2, 3 coordinates in 3-dimensions are not arbitrary but equal for the self-similarity of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is also shown that the self-similarity in this particular flow process can be achieved in different time and space scales when the viscosity of the fluid is also scaled in addition to other flow variables. In other words, the self-similarity of Navier-Stokes equations is achievable under different fluid environments in the same or different gravity conditions. Self-similarity criteria due to initial and boundary conditions are also presented. Utilizing the proposed self-similarity conditions of the 3D hydrodynamic flow process, the value of a flow variable at a specified time and space can be scaled to a corresponding value in a self-similar domain at the corresponding time and space. PMID:26723165
Visualization of unsteady computational fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haimes, Robert
1994-01-01
A brief summary of the computer environment used for calculating three dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) results is presented. This environment requires a super computer as well as massively parallel processors (MPP's) and clusters of workstations acting as a single MPP (by concurrently working on the same task) provide the required computational bandwidth for CFD calculations of transient problems. The cluster of reduced instruction set computers (RISC) is a recent advent based on the low cost and high performance that workstation vendors provide. The cluster, with the proper software can act as a multiple instruction/multiple data (MIMD) machine. A new set of software tools is being designed specifically to address visualizing 3D unsteady CFD results in these environments. Three user's manuals for the parallel version of Visual3, pV3, revision 1.00 make up the bulk of this report.
PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex
PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex
Unsteady Flow in Stenotic Blood Vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Devi Williamson, Shobha; Berger, Stanley A.; Saloner, David
2003-11-01
Recent studies show that many heart attacks and strokes occur from sudden rupture of partially occluding atherosclerotic plaque rather than total vessel occlusion. Our goal is to understand how the mechanical forces induced by blood flow on specific plaque deposits makes them vulnerable to rupture. Models of severely stenotic carotid bifurcations are created from MR images and grids generated for the flow domains. The three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in finite-volume form are solved numerically using physiological boundary conditions. During systole a high velocity jet forms at the stenotic throat in one of the branches, and a long recirculation zone is observed downstream of the plaque. During diastole the flow is more stagnant. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady with chaotic streamlines. Whereas flow in healthy arteries is laminar, irregular geometries and sharp changes in vessel diameter of a severely stenotic artery significantly disrupt the flow, with consequences for shear and normal wall stresses at the wall, and important implications for plaque stability. Supported by NIH Grant HL61823
PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers
PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown via 3-D Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, T. H.; Mege, P.; Morchoisne, Y.
1990-06-01
The long term goal is the modeling of vortex breakdown that occurs in some aerodynamic configurations at high angle of attack, (i.e., fighters with highly swept delta wings or missiles). A numerical simulation was made based on solving the 3-D Euler equations for an usteady incompressible flow. Preliminary results were obtained using a pressure-velocity formulation with periodic boundary conditions, the Euler equations being discretized by 2nd order finite difference schemes. The continuation to this work by implementing more realistic boundary conditions and 4th order finite difference discretization schemes are presented.
PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex
PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers
PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers
PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-04-14
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Unal, A.
1986-01-01
Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.
Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. I - Unsteady flow concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1988-01-01
Advanced military aircraft 'supermaneuverability' requirements entail the sustained operation of airfoils at stalled flow conditions. The present work addresses the effects of separated flow on vehicle dynamics; an analytic method is presented which employs static experimental data to predict the separated flow effect on incompressible unsteady aerodynamics. The key parameters in the analytic relationship between steady and nonsteady aerodynamics are the time-lag before a change of flow conditions can affect the separation-induced aerodynamic loads, the accelerated flow effect, and the moving wall effect.
Unsteady flow motions in the supraglottal region during phonation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Haoxiang; Dai, Hu
2008-11-01
The highly unsteady flow motions in the larynx are not only responsible for producing the fundamental frequency tone in phonation, but also have a significant contribution to the broadband noise in the human voice. In this work, the laryngeal flow is modeled either as an incompressible pulsatile jet confined in a two-dimensional channel, or a pressure-driven flow modulated by a pair of viscoelastic vocal folds through the flow--structure interaction. The flow in the supraglottal region is found to be dominated by large-scale vortices whose unsteady motions significantly deflect the glottal jet. In the flow--structure interaction, a hybrid model based on the immersed-boundary method is developed to simulate the flow-induced vocal fold vibration, which involves a three-dimensional vocal fold prototype and a two-dimensional viscous flow. Both the flow behavior and the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.
None
2016-07-12
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
2013-10-30
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
2013-10-01
Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.
[3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].
Zoller, W G; Liess, H
1994-06-01
Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, J. R.
2004-02-01
The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.
1990-01-01
PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.
Unassisted 3D camera calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.
2012-03-01
With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.
Status of CFDLIB performance tests on the T3D
Padial, N.T.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Kothe, D.B.
1994-11-01
CFDLIB is a collection of two- and three-dimensional computer codes for problems in computational fluid dynamics. The library handles a wide range of flow regimes both single and multiphase, from fully incompressible to hypersonic, chemically reacting or inert materials. The method uses the Implicity Continuous-fluid Eulerian scheme (ICE) which becomes essentially identical to the Marker and Cell (MAC) method in the incompressible limit. The method, a Finite-Volume scheme, with cell-centered state variables, utilizes an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) split computational cycle in the sense that the mesh is allowed to move in an arbitrary fashion. In addition, CFDLIB employs a multiblock data structure that proved extremely convenient for implementation on parallel computers. CFDLIB is now available in sequential or parallel environments, is written in standard FORTRAN 77, and is highly portable. Results are given for a selection of specialized applications that illustrate the kind of problems of interest to CFDLIB users. Finally, initial results are given for performance studies comparing the Cray Y-MP, T3D, and an IBM workstation cluster. For certain problems, a Y-MP-equivalent real solution time is achieved with less than eight processors on the T3D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.
2016-05-01
When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee-Elkin, Forest
2008-04-01
Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.
Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.
1994-10-01
In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serson, D.; Meneghini, J. R.; Sherwin, S. J.
2016-07-01
This paper presents methods of including coordinate transformations into the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using the velocity-correction scheme, which is commonly used in the numerical solution of unsteady incompressible flows. This is important when the transformation leads to symmetries that allow the use of more efficient numerical techniques, like employing a Fourier expansion to discretize a homogeneous direction. Two different approaches are presented: in the first approach all the influence of the mapping is treated explicitly, while in the second the mapping terms related to convection are treated explicitly, with the pressure and viscous terms treated implicitly. Through numerical results, we demonstrate how these methods maintain the accuracy of the underlying high-order method, and further apply the discretisation strategy to problems where mixed Fourier-spectral/hp element discretisations can be applied, thereby extending the usefulness of this discretisation technique.
Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin
1992-01-01
A finite-difference, three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. In this work, the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady-state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two. Included in the appendix is a paper on incompressible viscous flow through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries. Time-accurate calculations, such as impeller and diffusor interaction, will be reported in future work.
Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2015-03-01
We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.
Computational Challenges of Viscous Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Kim, Chang Sung
2004-01-01
Over the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discipline. Although incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to the rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low-speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient CFD took become increasingly important in fluid engineering for incompressible and low-speed flow. This paper reviews some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discusses some of the current challenges faced in computing incompressible flows.
Numerical simulation of steady and unsteady flow for generalized Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keslerová, Radka; Trdlička, David; Řezníček, Hynek
2016-08-01
This work presents the numerical solution of laminar incompressible viscous flow in a three dimensional branching channel with circle cross section for generalized Newtonian fluids. The governing system of equations is based on the system of balance laws for mass and momentum. Numerical solution is based on cetral finite volume method using explicit Runge- Kutta time integration. In the case of unsteady computation artificial compressibility method is considered.
Numerical solution of the two-dimensional time-dependent incompressible Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitfield, David L.; Taylor, Lafayette K.
1994-01-01
A numerical method is presented for solving the artificial compressibility form of the 2D time-dependent incompressible Euler equations. The approach is based on using an approximate Riemann solver for the cell face numerical flux of a finite volume discretization. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and presented for all boundaries and in-flow out-flow situations. The system of algebraic equations is solved using the discretized Newton-relaxation (DNR) implicit method. Numerical results are presented for both steady and unsteady flow.
Fischer, P.F.
1996-12-31
Efficient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in complex domains is dependent upon the availability of fast solvers for sparse linear systems. For unsteady incompressible flows, the pressure operator is the leading contributor to stiffness, as the characteristic propagation speed is infinite. In the context of operator splitting formulations, it is the pressure solve which is the most computationally challenging, despite its elliptic origins. We seek to improve existing spectral element iterative methods for the pressure solve in order to overcome the slow convergence frequently observed in the presence of highly refined grids or high-aspect ratio elements.
LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2004-01-01
Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.
2014-08-01
In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers
Unsteady wandering magnetic field lines, turbulence and laboratory flux ropes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, D.; Pulliam, D.; Lazarian, A.
2011-12-01
We describe earth bound laboratory experiment investigations of patchy, unsteady, bursty, patchy magnetic field structures that are unifying features of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in helio, space and astro physics. Macroscopic field lines occupy cross sectional areas, fill up three dimensional (3D) volumes as flux tubes. They contain mass with Newtonian dynamics that follow magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations of motion. Flux rope geometry can be ubiquitous in laminar reconnection sheet geometries that are themselves unstable to formation of secondary "islands" that in 3D are really flux ropes. Flux ropes are ubiquitous structures on the sun and the rest of the heliosphere. Understanding the dynamics of flux ropes and their mutual interactions offers the key to many important astrophysical phenomena, including magnetic reconnection and turbulence. We describe laboratory investigations on RSX, where 3D interaction of flux ropes can be studied in great detail. We use experimental probes inside the the flux ropes to measure the magnetic and electric fields, current density, density, temperatures, pressure, and electrostatic and vector plasma potentials. Macroscopic magnetic field lines, unsteady wandering characteristics, and dynamic objects with structure down to the dissipation scale length can be traced from data sets in a 3D volume. Computational approaches are finally able to tackle simple 3D systems and we sketch some intriguing simulation results that are consistent with 3D extensions of typical 2D cartoons for magnetic reconnection and turbulence.
Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak
2004-01-01
High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel
YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic
2012-03-01
Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.
Remote 3D Medical Consultation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.
Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.
Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert
2016-03-14
The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2004-04-05
This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.
1996-01-01
Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less
Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.
3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim
2015-01-01
As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…
MODELING STRATEGIES FOR UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOWS IN THE LOWER PLENUM OF THE VHTR
Richard W. Johnson
2006-09-01
Validation simulations are presented for turbulent flow in a staggered tube bank, geometry similar to that in the lower plenum of a block very high temperature reactor. Steady 2D RANS predictions are compared to unsteady 2D RANS results and experiment. The unsteady calculations account for the fact that nonturbulent fluctuations (due to vortex-shedding) are present in the flow. The unsteady computations are shown to predict the mean variables and the total shear stress quite well. Previous workers have presented results that indicated that 3D simulations were necessary to obtain reasonable results. Best practices are based on requirements for the ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering.
Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Fermi, E.; von Neumann, J.
1955-11-01
A discussion is presented in simplified form of the problem of the growth of an initial ripple on the surface of an incompressible liquid in the presence of an acceleration, g, directed from the outside into the liquid. The model is that of a heavy liquid occupying at t = 0 the half space above the plane z = 0, and a rectangular wave profile is assumed. The theory is found to represent correctly one feature of experimental results, namely the fact that the half wave of the heavy liquid into the vacuum becomes rapidly narrower while the half wave pushing into the heavy liquid becomes more and more blunt. The theory fails to account for the experimental results according to which the front of the wave pushing into the heavy liquid moves with constant velocity. The case of instability at the boundary of 2 fluids of different densities is also explored. Similar results are obtained except that the acceleration of the heavy liquid into the light liquid is reduced.
Successes and Challenges of Incompressible Flow Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2003-01-01
During the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of CFD discipline. Even though incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient, CFD tools become indispensable in fluid engineering for incompressible and low speed flow. This paper is intended to review some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discuss some of the current challenges.
TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code
Mason, W.E.
1992-03-04
TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.
Stability Analysis of Large-Scale Incompressible Flow Calculations on Massively Parallel Computers
LEHOUCQ,RICHARD B.; ROMERO,LOUIS; SALINGER,ANDREW G.
1999-10-25
A set of linear and nonlinear stability analysis tools have been developed to analyze steady state incompressible flows in 3D geometries. The algorithms have been implemented to be scalable to hundreds of parallel processors. The linear stability of steady state flows are determined by calculating the rightmost eigenvalues of the associated generalize eigenvalue problem. Nonlinear stability is studied by bifurcation analysis techniques. The boundaries between desirable and undesirable operating conditions are determined for buoyant flow in the rotating disk CVD reactor.
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows: Symmetry approach
Cicogna, G.; Pegoraro, F.
2015-02-15
We identify and discuss a family of azimuthally symmetric, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with poloidal and toroidal flows in terms of solutions of the Generalized Grad Shafranov (GGS) equation. These solutions are derived by exploiting the incompressibility assumption, in order to rewrite the GGS equation in terms of a different dependent variable, and the continuous Lie symmetry properties of the resulting equation and, in particular, a special type of “weak” symmetries.
Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.
1989-01-01
The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.
Forensic 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.
2000-05-01
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
3D Printable Graphene Composite.
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-08
In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction
LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.
1999-10-12
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.
2013-01-01
Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.
3D light scanning macrography.
Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D
2001-08-01
The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078
An Edge-Based Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations on Polygonal Meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Richard W.
2001-05-01
A pressure-based method is presented for discretizing the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using hybrid unstructured meshes. The edge-based data structure and assembly procedure adopted lead naturally to a strictly conservative discretization, which is valid for meshes composed of n-sided polygons. Particular attention is given to the construction of a pressure-velocity coupling procedure which is supported by edge data, resulting in a relatively simple numerical method that is consistent with the boundary and initial conditions required by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Edge formulas are presented for assembling the momentum equations, which are based on an upwind-biased linear reconstruction of the velocity field. Similar formulas are presented for assembling the pressure equation. The method is demonstrated to be second-order accurate in space and time for two Navier-Stokes problems admitting an exact solution. Results for several other well-known problems are also presented, including lid-driven cavity flow, impulsively started cylinder flow, and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. Although the method is by construction minimalist, it is shown to be accurate and robust for the problems considered.
Towards a segregated time spectral solution method for incompressible viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabine, Baumbach
2016-06-01
Considering the growth of interest in understanding flow phenomena in rotational machines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool to reach this goal. Especially unsteady simulations are becoming a focus of interest. Nevertheless, unsteady simulations require huge computational times and ressources, thus it is necessary to investigate other methods to find more appropriate approaches to model time-periodic cases. For time-periodic flows the time spectral method (TSM) presents an interesting alternative to the regular time marching solvers. The TSM is well-known for computation of compressible time-periodic flows, but applications to incompressible cases are limited. This paper presents an extension of the TSM to incompressible flows. While there have been previous implementations using pressure correction method with an explicit treatment of time coupling, here an implicit treatment is chosen. To increase efficiency and employ a more robust coupling of the individual time instances the momentum equations are solved in block-coupled fashion. The pressure correction term is solved segregatedly. To consider cases with dynamic mesh motion an arbitrary lagrange Euler (ALE) formulation is also used in the solver. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated using a basic 2D aerodynamic test case and the results are compared to traditional time-stepping approaches.
[Real time 3D echocardiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.
[Real time 3D echocardiography].
Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D
2001-07-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )
1993-11-30
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)
2013-10-01
The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less
Potentially singular solutions of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations
Luo, Guo; Hou, Thomas Y.
2014-01-01
The question of finite-time blowup of the 3D incompressible Euler equations is numerically investigated in a periodic cylinder with solid boundaries. Using rotational symmetry, the equations are discretized in the (2D) meridian plane on an adaptive (moving) mesh and is integrated in time with adaptively chosen time steps. The vorticity is observed to develop a ring-singularity on the solid boundary with a growth proportional to ∼(ts − t)−2.46, where ts ∼ 0.0035056 is the estimated singularity time. A local analysis also suggests the existence of a self-similar blowup. The simulations stop at τ2 = 0.003505 at which time the vorticity amplifies by more than (3 × 108)-fold and the maximum mesh resolution exceeds (3 × 1012)2. The vorticity vector is observed to maintain four significant digits throughout the computations. PMID:25157172
Potentially singular solutions of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations.
Luo, Guo; Hou, Thomas Y
2014-09-01
The question of finite-time blowup of the 3D incompressible Euler equations is numerically investigated in a periodic cylinder with solid boundaries. Using rotational symmetry, the equations are discretized in the (2D) meridian plane on an adaptive (moving) mesh and is integrated in time with adaptively chosen time steps. The vorticity is observed to develop a ring-singularity on the solid boundary with a growth proportional to ∼(ts - t)(-2.46), where ts ∼ 0.0035056 is the estimated singularity time. A local analysis also suggests the existence of a self-similar blowup. The simulations stop at τ(2) = 0.003505 at which time the vorticity amplifies by more than (3 × 10(8))-fold and the maximum mesh resolution exceeds (3 × 10(12))(2). The vorticity vector is observed to maintain four significant digits throughout the computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.
2002-12-01
Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated
Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Kenwright, David
2003-01-01
Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.
Direct pore-level modeling of incompressible fluid flow in porous media
Ovaysi, Saeed; Piri, Mohammad
2010-09-20
We present a dynamic particle-based model for direct pore-level modeling of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution micro-CT images of rock samples. It is based on moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability for flow in porous media problems. Using the micro-CT image of a rock sample, the entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is discretized into particles. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are then solved for each particle using the MPS summations. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. An algorithm to split and merge fluid particles is also introduced. To handle the computational load, we present a parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters. The accuracy of the model is validated against the analytical, numerical, and experimental data available in the literature. The validated model is then used to simulate both unsteady- and steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid directly in a representative elementary volume (REV) size micro-CT image of a naturally-occurring sandstone with 3.398 {mu}m resolution. We analyze the quality and consistency of the predicted flow behavior and calculate absolute permeability using the steady-state flow rate.
Interactive 3D Mars Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Mark W.
2012-01-01
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric
2009-11-01
In this talk, we focus on unsteady effects relevant to the fluid-based locomotion of micro-organisms. First, we consider transient effects in locomotion arising from the inertia of both the swimmer and the surrounding fluid. We discuss and derive the relevant time scales governing transient effects in low Reynolds number swimming, and illustrate them using the prototypical problem of a 2D swimmer starting from rest. Second, we address geometrical unsteadiness resulting from the finite-size of the swimmer. We solve numerically for the swimming kinematics of active (internally-forced) filaments, as models for eukaryotic flagella, and discuss the resulting unsteadiness of the cell body.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
Love, Lonnie
2015-01-09
ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.
Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise
2012-01-01
The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.
Computer simulation on reconstruction of 3-D flame temperature distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Y.; Yung, K. L.; Wu, Z.; Li, T.
To measure non-symmetric unsteady three dimensional temperature distribution in flame by simple, economic, fast and accurate means, and to apply a priori information to the measurement both sufficiently and efficiently, we conducted computer simulations. Simulation results proved that finite series-expansion reconstruction method is more suitable for measurement of temperature distribution in flame than transform method which is widely used in medical scanning and nondestructive testing. By comparing errors of simulations with different numbers of views, different domain shapes, different numbers of projections per view, different angles of views and different grid shapes, etc., we find that circle domain, triangular grid and sufficient number of projections per view, can improve the accuracy in the reconstruction of 3-D temperature distribution with limited views. With six views, errors caused by reconstruction computation are reduced, they are smaller than those caused by measurement. Therefore, a comparatively better means of measuring 3-D temperature distribution in flame with limited projection views by emission tomography is achieved. Experimental results also showed that the method we used was appropriate for measurement of 3-D temperature distribution with limited number of views [1].
3D acoustic atmospheric tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony
2014-10-01
This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi
2009-05-01
3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.
3D medical thermography device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadam, Peyman
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3D Printable Graphene Composite
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
3D Printable Graphene Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller
2004-09-01
The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data
Stability limits of unsteady open capillary channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Klatte, J.?Rg; Dreyer, Michael E.
This paper is concerned with steady and unsteady flow rate limitations in open capillary channels under low-gravity conditions. Capillary channels are widely used in Space technology for liquid transportation and positioning, e.g. in fuel tanks and life support systems. The channel observed in this work consists of two parallel plates bounded by free liquid surfaces along the open sides. The capillary forces of the free surfaces prevent leaking of the liquid and gas ingestion into the flow.In the case of steady stable flow the capillary pressure balances the differential pressure between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Increasing the flow rate in small steps causes a decrease of the liquid pressure. A maximum steady flow rate is achieved when the flow rate exceeds a certain limit leading to a collapse of the free surfaces due to the choking effect. In the case of unsteady flow additional dynamic effects take place due to flow rate transition and liquid acceleration. The maximum flow rate is smaller than in the case of steady flow. On the other hand, the choking effect does not necessarily cause surface collapse and stable temporarily choked flow is possible under certain circumstances.To determine the limiting volumetric flow rate and stable flow dynamic properties, a new stability theory for both steady and unsteady flow is introduced. Subcritical and supercritical (choked) flow regimes are defined. Stability criteria are formulated for each flow type. The steady (subcritical) criterion corresponds to the speed index defined by the limiting longitudinal small-amplitude wave speed, similar to the Mach number. The unsteady (supercritical) criterion for choked flow is defined by a new characteristic number, the dynamic index. It is based on pressure balances and reaches unity at the stability limit.The unsteady model based on the Bernoulli equation and the mass balance equation is solved numerically for perfectly wetting incompressible
Unsteady turbulent boundary layer analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.
1973-01-01
The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.
Analytical prediction of the unsteady lift on a rotor caused by downstream struts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, A. C., III; Ng, W. F.
1987-01-01
A two-dimensional, inviscid, incompressible procedure is presented for predicting the unsteady lift on turbomachinery blades caused by the upstream potential disturbance of downstream flow obstructions. Using the Douglas-Neumann singularity superposition potential flow computer program to model the downstream flow obstructions, classical equations of thin airfoil theory are then employed, to compute the unsteady lift on the upstream rotor blades. The method is applied to a particular geometry which consists of a rotor, a downstream stator, and downstream struts which support the engine casing. Very good agreement between the Douglas-Neumann program and experimental measurements was obtained for the downstream stator-strut flow field. The calculations for the unsteady lift due to the struts were in good agreement with the experiments in showing that the unsteady lift due to the struts decays exponentially with increased axial separation of the rotor and the struts. An application of the method showed that for a given axial spacing between the rotor and the strut, strut-induced unsteady lift is a very weak function of the axial or circumferential position of the stator.
Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.
2013-02-01
So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680
Ray A. Berry; Richard C. Martineau
2007-04-01
The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods – the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the f ully compressible limit. The PCICE method’s behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the f ully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow.
Unsteady flow and dynamic response analyses for helicopter rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.
1979-01-01
Research is presented on helicopter rotor blade vibration and on two and three dimensional analyses of unsteady incompressible viscous flow past oscillating helicopter rotor blades. A summary is presented of the two international research collaborations which resulted from the NASA project: the collaboration under the auspices of NATO between the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of Brussels, Belgium and the Aerodynamics Research Establishment in Goettingen, West Germany, and the collaboration under the auspices of the National Science Foundation between UWM and the University of Hamburg and the Ship Research Establishment in Hamburg, West Germany. A summary is given of the benefits from the NASA project to UWM, the College of Engineering and Applied Science, and the participants on the project.
Pressure distribution in unsteady sink and source flows.
Voropayev, S I
2015-05-01
Basic flow generated in a viscous incompressible fluid by a "point" sink (source) of mass is revised. In practice, such flow can be modeled by sucking (pushing) fluid from a thin tube with a small porous sphere at one end. Intuitively, by sucking (pushing) fluid, one creates low (high) pressure near the origin and a positive (negative) radial pressure gradient drives the fluid to (from) the origin. A simple analysis, however, shows that the pressure distribution for both steady flows is the same. Then a question arises: How does the fluid "know" in what direction to flow? To explain this "paradox" an unsteady flow is considered and the pressure terms responsible for the flow direction are derived. PMID:26066255
Unsteady non-Newtonian hydrodynamics in granular gases.
Astillero, Antonio; Santos, Andrés
2012-02-01
The temporal evolution of a dilute granular gas, both in a compressible flow (uniform longitudinal flow) and in an incompressible flow (uniform shear flow), is investigated by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the Boltzmann equation. Emphasis is laid on the identification of a first "kinetic" stage (where the physical properties are strongly dependent on the initial state) subsequently followed by an unsteady "hydrodynamic" stage (where the momentum fluxes are well-defined non-Newtonian functions of the rate of strain). The simulation data are seen to support this two-stage scenario. Furthermore, the rheological functions obtained from simulation are well described by an approximate analytical solution of a model kinetic equation. PMID:22463197
Sinclair, Michael B
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.
3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.
2010-12-01
Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal
Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes
Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.
2010-01-01
Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines
Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.
2000-04-01
The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konan, N. A.; Neau, H.; Simonin, O.; Dupoizat, M.; Le Geaziou, T.
This paper investigates Eulerian simulation approach of uranium hexafluoride production in fluidized bed pilot. Mass transfer is modeled by using the shrinking particle model. The model successfully predicts expected amount of uranium hexafluoride. As heat transfers with wall are neglected, temperature increases within the reactor and there is no gradient in wall-normal direction of reactor. External diffusion model of reactive gas around particle is developed. Effect of fluorine diffusion within nitrogen is found to be negligible under the simulation conditions. Moreover, inter-particle radiative heat transfer between particles of dense phase in the bed is investigated in the frame of Rosseland approximation.
A stochastic aerodynamic model for stationary blades in unsteady 3D wind fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fluck, Manuel; Crawford, Curran
2016-09-01
Dynamic loads play an important roll in the design of wind turbines, but establishing the life-time aerodynamic loads (e.g. extreme and fatigue loads) is a computationally expensive task. Conventional (deterministic) methods to analyze long term loads, which rely on the repeated analysis of multiple different wind samples, are usually too expensive to be included in optimization routines. We present a new stochastic approach, which solves the aerodynamic system equations (Lagrangian vortex model) in the stochastic space, and thus arrive directly at a stochastic description of the coupled loads along a turbine blade. This new approach removes the requirement of analyzing multiple different realizations. Instead, long term loads can be extracted from a single stochastic solution, a procedure that is obviously significantly faster. Despite the reduced analysis time, results obtained from the stochastic approach match deterministic result well for a simple test-case (a stationary blade). In future work, the stochastic method will be extended to rotating blades, thus opening up new avenues to include long term loads into turbine optimization.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-21
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third
NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design
Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D
2008-11-05
We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.
Cardiac deformation recovery via incompressible transformation decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skrinjar, Oskar; Bistoque, Arnaud
2005-04-01
This paper presents a method for automated deformation recovery of the left and right ventricular wall from a time sequence of anatomical images of the heart. The deformation is recovered within the heart wall, i.e. it is not limited only to the epicardium and endocardium. Most of the suggested methods either ignore or approximately model incompressibility of the heart wall. This physical property of the cardiac muscle is mathematically guaranteed to be satisfied by the proposed method. A scheme for decomposition of a complex incompressible geometric transformation into simpler components and its application to cardiac deformation recovery is presented. A general case as well as an application specific solution is discussed. Furthermore, the manipulation of the constructed incompressible transformations, including the computation of the inverse transformation, is computationally inexpensive. The presented method is mathematically guaranteed to generate incompressible transformations which are experimentally shown to be a very good approximation of actual cardiac deformations. The transformation representation has a relatively small number of parameters which leads to a fast deformation recovery. The approach was tested on six sequences of two-dimensional short-axis cardiac MR images. The cardiac deformation was recovered with an average error of 1.1 pixel. The method is directly extendable to three dimensions and to the entire heart.
Equilibria with incompressible flows from symmetry analysis
Kuiroukidis, Ap E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr; Throumoulopoulos, G. N. E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr
2015-08-15
We identify and study new nonlinear axisymmetric equilibria with incompressible flow of arbitrary direction satisfying a generalized Grad Shafranov equation by extending the symmetry analysis presented by Cicogna and Pegoraro [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022520 (2015)]. In particular, we construct a typical tokamak D-shaped equilibrium with peaked toroidal current density, monotonically varying safety factor, and sheared electric field.
The Hamiltonian description of incompressible fluid ellipsoids
Morrison, P.J. Lebovitz, Norman R.; Biello, Joseph A.
2009-08-15
We construct the noncanonical Poisson bracket associated with the phase space of first order moments of the velocity field and quadratic moments of the density of a fluid with a free-boundary, constrained by the condition of incompressibility. Two methods are used to obtain the bracket, both based on Dirac's procedure for incorporating constraints. First, the Poisson bracket of moments of the unconstrained Euler equations is used to construct a Dirac bracket, with Casimir invariants corresponding to volume preservation and incompressibility. Second, the Dirac procedure is applied directly to the continuum, noncanonical Poisson bracket that describes the compressible Euler equations, and the moment reduction is applied to this bracket. When the Hamiltonian can be expressed exactly in terms of these moments, a closure is achieved and the resulting finite-dimensional Hamiltonian system provides exact solutions of Euler's equations. This is shown to be the case for the classical, incompressible Riemann ellipsoids, which have velocities that vary linearly with position and have constant density within an ellipsoidal boundary. The incompressible, noncanonical Poisson bracket differs from its counterpart for the compressible case in that it is not of Lie-Poisson form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermanns, Maria
The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.
Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle
2010-08-01
In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.
2013-03-01
Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Chao; Wu, Yulin; Mei, Zuyan
1991-06-01
A finite difference method for computing 3D incompressible laminar and turbulent boundary layers is presented. The curvilinear semiorthogonal coordinate system is used to express the 3D boundary layer equations. Reynolds stresses are assumed zero for the laminar boundary layer. For the turbulent boundary layer, the Reynolds stresses are expressed through an algebraic turbulence model taking into account nonisotropic eddy viscosity based on the Cebeci-Smith turbulence model and Rotta's turbulent stress formulas. The numerical solution method is described and carried out for a 3D boundary layer of a wing. The results are in good agreement with measured data. The method and its program have high accuracy, require less computer storage, are computationally fast and flexible in use.
Higher-Order Compact Schemes for Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Robert V.; Demuren, Ayodeji O.; Carpenter, Mark
1998-01-01
A higher order accurate numerical procedure has been developed for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for 2D or 3D fluid flow problems. It is based on low-storage Runge-Kutta schemes for temporal discretization and fourth and sixth order compact finite-difference schemes for spatial discretization. The particular difficulty of satisfying the divergence-free velocity field required in incompressible fluid flow is resolved by solving a Poisson equation for pressure. It is demonstrated that for consistent global accuracy, it is necessary to employ the same order of accuracy in the discretization of the Poisson equation. Special care is also required to achieve the formal temporal accuracy of the Runge-Kutta schemes. The accuracy of the present procedure is demonstrated by application to several pertinent benchmark problems.
Unsteady transonic flow in cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1984-01-01
There is a need for methods to predict the unsteady air loads associated with flutter of turbomachinery blading at transonic speeds. The results of such an analysis in which the steady relative flow approaching a cascade of thin airfoils is assumed to be transonic, irrotational, and isentropic is presented. The blades in the cascade are allowed to undergo a small amplitude harmonic oscillation which generates a small unsteady flow superimposed on the existing steady flow. The blades are assumed to oscillate with a prescribed motion of constant amplitude and interblade phase angle. The equations of motion are obtained by linearizing about a uniform flow the inviscid nonheat conducting continuity and momentum equations. The resulting equations are solved by employing the Weiner Hopf technique. The solution yields the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the cascade at Mach number equal to 1. Making use of an unsteady transonic similarity law, these results are compared with the results obtained from linear unsteady subsonic and supersonic cascade theories. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, solidity, stagger angle, and position of pitching axis on the flutter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.
The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.
The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.
2009-04-01
Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.
The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen
1992-01-01
In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.
3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
Prediction of unsteady airloads for oblique blade-gust interaction in compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, S.; Widnall, S. E.
1974-01-01
The techniques of Galilean-Lorentz transformation and matched asymptotic expansions are used to simplify the procedure of calculating the lift and pressure distribution induced on an infinite-span thin wing interacting with an oblique sinusoidal gust in subsonic flow. This technique requires that the product of the flow Mach number and the reduced frequency be small. Under this condition, the inner region of the transformed space behaves as an incompressible flow, so that existing incompressible flow theories can be used as a basis to construct closed-form solutions for the airload induced on the wing. This approach is an extension of the GASP approximation developed by Amiet and Sears (1970). Results are obtained for both the magnitude and the phase of the unsteady lift due to interaction with gust. These results are compared with available numerical results. Some discrepancies are noted and discussed.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.
2012-07-01
It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, Rob
2008-02-01
This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.
Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.
2006-01-01
Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…
Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi
2016-01-01
With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
Unsteady swimming of small organisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyan; Ardekani, Arezoo
2012-11-01
Small planktonic organisms ubiquitously display unsteady or impulsive motion to attack a prey or escape a predator in natural environments. Despite this, the role of unsteady hydrodynamic forces such as history and added mass forces on the low Reynolds number propulsion of small organisms is poorly understood. In this paper, we derive the fundamental equation of motion for an organism swimming by the means of surface distortion in a nonuniform flow at a low Reynolds number regime. We show that the history and added mass forces, that where traditionally neglected in the literature for small swimming organisms, cannot be neglected as the Stokes number increases above unity. For example, these unsteady inertial forces are of the same order as quasi-steady Stokes forces for Paramecium. Finally, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. This work is supported by NSF grant CBET-1066545.
Parallel Simulation of Unsteady Turbulent Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
1996-01-01
within each LES grid cell. Finite-rate kinetics can be included without any closure and this approach actually provides a means to predict the turbulent rates and the turbulent flame speed. The subgrid combustion model requires resolution of the local time scales associated with small-scale mixing, molecular diffusion and chemical kinetics and, therefore, within each grid cell, a significant amount of computations must be carried out before the large-scale (LES resolved) effects are incorporated. Therefore, this approach is uniquely suited for parallel processing and has been implemented on various systems such as: Intel Paragon, IBM SP-2, Cray T3D and SGI Power Challenge (PC) using the system independent Message Passing Interface (MPI) compiler. In this paper, timing data on these machines is reported along with some characteristic results.
3-D Perspective Pasadena, California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Awad, Faiz G; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi
2014-01-01
In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830
Awad, Faiz G.; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi
2014-01-01
In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830
Unsteady MHD Thin Film Flow of an Oldroyd-B Fluid over an Oscillating Inclined Belt
Gul, Taza; Islam, Saeed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khalid, Asma; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan
2015-01-01
This paper studies the unsteady magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) thin film flow of an incompressible Oldroyd-B fluid over an oscillating inclined belt making a certain angle with the horizontal. The problem is modeled in terms of non-linear partial differential equations with some physical initial and boundary conditions. This problem is solved for the exact analytic solutions using two efficient techniques namely the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) and Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). Both of these solutions are presented graphically and compared. This comparison is also shown in tabular form. An excellent agreement is observed. The effects of various physical parameters on velocity have also been studied graphically. PMID:26147287
Turbulence Model Sensitivity and Scour Gap Effect of Unsteady Flow around Pipe: A CFD Study
Ali, Abbod; Sharma, R. K.; Ganesan, P.
2014-01-01
A numerical investigation of incompressible and transient flow around circular pipe has been carried out at different five gap phases. Flow equations such as Navier-Stokes and continuity equations have been solved using finite volume method. Unsteady horizontal velocity and kinetic energy square root profiles are plotted using different turbulence models and their sensitivity is checked against published experimental results. Flow parameters such as horizontal velocity under pipe, pressure coefficient, wall shear stress, drag coefficient, and lift coefficient are studied and presented graphically to investigate the flow behavior around an immovable pipe and scoured bed. PMID:25136666
Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handy Turner, Tara
2010-02-01
From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.
Spectral element-Fourier method for unsteady conjugate heat transfer in complex geometry flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amon, Cristina H.
1995-04-01
A spectral-element Fourier method (SEFM) is presented for the direct numerical simulation of forced convective heat transfer and conjugate conduction/convection in transitional internal flows in complex geometries. The SEFM is employed for the spatial discretization of the unsteady, incompressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The resulting discrete equations are solved by a semi-implicit method in time treating explicitly the convection operator and implicitly the remaining pressure and viscous contributions. This methodology is illustrated by performing direct numerical simulations to investigate forced convective heat transfer in supercritical self-sustained oscillatory flows and conjugate effects in multimaterial domains. Highly unsteady flows in complex geometries are considered, including modified channels with periodic inhomogeneities such as spanwise rectangular and triangular grooves encountered in electronic equipment and compact heat exchangers.
Wake-induced unsteady stagnation-region heat-transfer measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Magari, P. J.; Lagraff, L. E.
1992-01-01
Results of an experimental investigation of wake-induced unsteady heat transfer in the stagnation region of a cylinder are presented. A quasi-steady representation of the stator/rotor interaction in a gas turbine using two stationary cylinders in crossflow is created. Time-averaged and time-resolved heat-transfer results are obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers at two Mach numbers: one incompressible and one transonic. The augmentation of the heat transfer in the stagnation region due to wake unsteadiness is documented by comparison with isolated cylinder tests. The time-averaged heat-transfer rate at the stagnation line, expressed in terms of the Frossling number, is found to reach a maximum independent of the Reynolds number. The power spectra and cross correlation of the heat-transfer signals in the stagnation region reveal the importance of large vortical structures shed from the upstream wake generator.
Riemke, Richard Allan
2002-09-01
The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.
3D laptop for defense applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David
2012-06-01
Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.
Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence Model in FUN3D and CFL3D Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2015-01-01
The implementation of the k-kL turbulence model using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL model is a two-equation turbulence model based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation models. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the model as implemented in the CFD codes Fun3D and CFL3D. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence model.
A fully vectorized numerical solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, N.
1983-01-01
A vectorizable algorithm is presented for the implicit finite difference solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations solved are in two dimension and non-conservative primitive variable form. A two-layer algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model is used to incorporate the effects of turbulence. Two momentum equations and a Poisson pressure equation, which is obtained by taking the divergence of the momentum equations and satisfying the continuity equation, are solved simultaneously at each time step. An elliptic grid generation approach is used to generate a boundary conforming coordinate system about an airfoil. The governing equations are expressed in terms of the curvilinear coordinates and are solved on a uniform rectangular computational domain. A checkerboard SOR, which can effectively utilize the computer architectural concept of vector processing, is used for iterative solution of the governing equations.
Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.
NACHOS2. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics
Gartling, D.K.
1992-02-21
NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems in which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.
Scaling the Incompressible Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability
Cotrell, D; Cook, A
2007-01-09
We derive a scaling relation for Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of incompressible fluids. The relation is tested using both numerical simulations and experimental data. We obtain collapse of growth rates for a wide range of initial conditions by using vorticity and velocity scales associated with the interfacial perturbations and the acceleration impulse. A curve fit to the collapsed growth rates yields a fairly universal model for the mixing layer thickness versus time.
High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2001-01-01
The objective of the First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (June 12-14, 2001) is to bring together industry and academia (and government) to nurture the next generation in computational mechanics. The objective of the current talk, 'High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows', is to discuss some of the current issues in large scale computing for mission-oriented tasks.
3D MRI-based multicomponent FSI models for atherosclerotic plaques.
Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Sicard, Gregorio A; Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Yuan, Chun
2004-07-01
A three-dimensional (3D) MRI-based computational model with multicomponent plaque structure and fluid-structure interactions (FSI) is introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human atherosclerotic plaques and identify critical flow and stress/strain conditions which may be related to plaque rupture. Three-dimensional geometry of a human carotid plaque was reconstructed from 3D MR images and computational mesh was generated using Visualization Toolkit. Both the artery wall and the plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible, and homogeneous. The flow was assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved by ADINA, a well-tested finite element package. Results from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D models, based on ex vivo MRI and histological images (HI), with different component sizes and plaque cap thickness, under different pressure and axial stretch conditions, were obtained and compared. Our results indicate that large lipid pools and thin plaque caps are associated with both extreme maximum (stretch) and minimum (compression when negative) stress/strain levels. Large cyclic stress/strain variations in the plaque under pulsating pressure were observed which may lead to artery fatigue and possible plaque rupture. Large-scale patient studies are needed to validate the computational findings for possible plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture predictions. PMID:15298432
Interface waves in almost incompressible elastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virta, Kristoffer; Kreiss, Gunilla
2015-12-01
We study the problem of two elastic half-planes in contact and the Stoneley interface wave that may exist at the interface between two different elastic materials, emphasis being put on the case when the half-planes are almost incompressible. We show that numerical simulations involving interface waves require an unexpectedly high number of grid points per wavelength as the materials become more incompressible. Let λ, μ, ρ and λ‧, μ‧, ρ‧ be the Lamé parameters and densities of the first and second half-plane, respectively. A theoretical study shows that if K is a real constant, λ‧ = Kλ, μ‧ = Kμ, ρ‧ = Kρ and μ → 0, then for an accurate solution the required number of grid points per wavelength scales as (μ / λ) - 1 / p, where p is the order of accuracy of the numerical method. This requirement becomes very restrictive close to the incompressible limit μ ≪ λ, especially for lower order methods i.e., a small p. The theoretical findings are supported by numerical experiments that illustrate the demanding resolution requirement as well as the superiority of higher order methods. The scaling is also seen to hold for a more general choice of Lamé parameters. Numerical experiments when one of the half-planes is a vacuum are also presented, where the higher resolution requirement is illustrated in a numerical solution of Lamb's problem.
Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.
Saye, Robert
2016-06-01
Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567
Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics
Saye, Robert
2016-01-01
Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of “gauge freedom” to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567
Coupled energetic models for incompressible nematic elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubiano, Andrea C.
We investigate, through methods in the Calculus of Variations, mathematical energetic models for incompressible nematic elastomers. These models are based on the coupling between the neo-classical energy density, developed by Bladon, Warner and Terentjev as an extension of the rubber elasticity theory, with the classical energy density from the Landau-de Gennes theory for uniaxial nematic liquid crystals. A unit-length molecular director of the nematic elastomer and an incompressible deformation are the unknown functions, minimizers of the coupled energy. In contrast to previous mathematical work in this field, the molecular director is not assumed to be constant throughout the domain. After establishing a suitable generalized energetic model for working in Sobolev spaces, we prove lower semi-continuity of the energy. Considering generalized shear deformations motivated by physical experiments on thin film domains, we show the existence of minimizers, and keeping the restriction of incompressibility on the deformation and unit length of the director, we derive weak Euler Lagrange equations satisfied by the minimizers. Additionally, we consider the reduction of the model to a 2-dimensional one and deduce existence results for non-convex energy densities involving terms related to the constraint of volume's preservation . In this case we also find weak Euler-Lagrange equations and prove a partial regularity result.
LINFLUX-AE: A Turbomachinery Aeroelastic Code Based on a 3-D Linearized Euler Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Trudell, J. J.; Mehmed, O.; Stefko, G. L.
2004-01-01
This report describes the development and validation of LINFLUX-AE, a turbomachinery aeroelastic code based on the linearized unsteady 3-D Euler solver, LINFLUX. A helical fan with flat plate geometry is selected as the test case for numerical validation. The steady solution required by LINFLUX is obtained from the nonlinear Euler/Navier Stokes solver TURBO-AE. The report briefly describes the salient features of LINFLUX and the details of the aeroelastic extension. The aeroelastic formulation is based on a modal approach. An eigenvalue formulation is used for flutter analysis. The unsteady aerodynamic forces required for flutter are obtained by running LINFLUX for each mode, interblade phase angle and frequency of interest. The unsteady aerodynamic forces for forced response analysis are obtained from LINFLUX for the prescribed excitation, interblade phase angle, and frequency. The forced response amplitude is calculated from the modal summation of the generalized displacements. The unsteady pressures, work done per cycle, eigenvalues and forced response amplitudes obtained from LINFLUX are compared with those obtained from LINSUB, TURBO-AE, ASTROP2, and ANSYS.
3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team
Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).
Automatic 3D video format detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier
2011-03-01
Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.
Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.
1998-02-01
RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.
Introduction to unsteady flow in turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greitzer, E. M.
In this lecture some of the fluid dynamic phenomena that are associated with unsteady flow in turbomachines will be examined. It will be seen that there are several different sources of this unsteadiness, and that which of these is most important will depend on which aspect of the overall performance of the turbomachine is being examined. This discussion is intended to be an introduction to the subject and to provide an appreciation for the basic fluid mechanic concepts, rather than to be an exhaustive review. The topics to be covered are: (1) the Inherent Unsteadiness of Turbomachinery Flows; (2) Sources of Flow Unsteadiness in Turbomachines; and (3) Introductory Discussion of Unsteady Viscous Flows.
Identification of whistling ability of a single hole orifice from an incompressible flow simulation
Lacombe, Romain; Moussou, Pierre
2012-07-01
Pure tone noise from orifices in pipe result from vortex shedding with lock-in. Acoustic amplification at the orifice is coupled to resonant condition to create self-sustained oscillations. One key feature of this phenomenon is hence the ability of an orifice to amplify acoustic waves in a given range of frequencies. Here a numerical investigation of the linear response of an orifice is undertaken, with the support of experimental data for validation. The study deals with a sharp edge orifice. Its diameter equals to 0.015 m and its thickness to 0.005 m. The pipe diameter is 0.030 m. An air flow with a Mach number 0.026 and a Reynolds number 18000 in the main pipe is present. At such a low Mach number; the fluid behavior can reasonably be described as locally incompressible. The incompressible Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved with the help of a finite volume fluid mechanics software. The orifice is submitted to an average flow velocity, with superimposed small harmonic perturbations. The harmonic response of the orifice is the difference between the upstream and downstream pressures, and a straightforward calculation brings out the acoustic impedance of the orifice. Comparison with experiments shows that the main physical features of the whistling phenomenon are reasonably reproduced. (authors)
Multitasking the INS3D-LU code on the Cray Y-MP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fatoohi, Rod; Yoon, Seokkwan
1991-01-01
This paper presents the results of multitasking the INS3D-LU code on eight processors. The code is a full Navier-Stokes solver for incompressible fluid in three dimensional generalized coordinates using a lower-upper symmetric-Gauss-Seidel implicit scheme. This code has been fully vectorized on oblique planes of sweep and parallelized using autotasking with some directives and minor modifications. The timing results for five grid sizes are presented and analyzed. The code has achieved a processing rate of over one Gflops.
On a particular solution to the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for liquids with cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinowitch, Alexander S.
2016-08-01
The 3D Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous liquids are examined. In the axially symmetric case, they are represented in the form of three nonlinear partial differential equations. These equations are studied and their particular solution is found. In it, the velocity components are sinusoidal in the direction of their axis of symmetry. As to the pressure, it can reach a sufficiently small value at which the phenomenon of cavitation takes place in a liquid. The found solution describes some flows of viscous liquids outside vapor-filled regions in them.
Time-Dependent Simulation of Incompressible Flow in a Turbopump Using Overset Grid Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
This paper reports the progress being made towards complete unsteady turbopump simulation capability by using overset grid systems. A computational model of a turbo-pump impeller is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the MPI, hybrid MPI/Open-MP, and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Unsteady computations for a turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.3 Million grid points, are performed on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. The approach taken for these simulations, and the performance of the parallel versions of the code are presented.
A study of local anisotropy in globally isotropic incompressible MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milano, L. J.; Dmitruk, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.
2000-10-01
It is a well known fact that in presence of a DC applied field, MHD turbulence develops spectral anisotropy from an isotropic initial condition [1]. Typically, the reduced spectrum is steeper in the direction of the magnetic field than it is in any transverse direction. Theoretical insight into the origin of this effect has been derived from simulations in which there is a uniform DC magnetic field, but suggestions of a similar anisotropy is seen in various laboratory devices and also in the solar wind [2,3]. One might expect that a DC field is not essential, and it is the local mean field that is responsible. Here we investigate the occurence of local anisotropy in 3 dimensional MHD, i.e. we search for a local version of the spectral anisotropy effect. We perform 3D MHD pseudo-spectral incompressible relaxation simulations, and compute structure functions accumulated according to whether the separation is parallel to, or transverse to, the local magnetic field. Preliminary results show that correlations decay slower in the locally averaged magnetic field direction. [1] J. Shebalin, W. Matthaeus and D. Montgomery, J. Plasma Phys. 29, 525 (1983) [2] W.H. Matthaeus, M.L. Goldsteon and D.A. Roberts, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20 673 (1990) [3] J. Armstrong, W. Coles, M. Kojima and B. Rickett, Ap. J. 358, 685 (1990)
Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can
2014-03-01
3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.
Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2012-03-01
Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.
Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.
2014-08-01
The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.
[3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].
Schlegel, W
1991-10-01
3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.
FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koenig, Patti
2005-01-01
FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.
A quasi-3D viscous-inviscid interaction code: Q3UIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, N. R.; Sørensen, J. N.; Shen, W. Z.
2014-12-01
A computational model for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine airfoils under rotation and subjected to steady and unsteady motions developed in [1] is presented herein. The model is based on a viscous-inviscid interaction technique using strong coupling between the viscous and inviscid parts. The rotational effects generated by centrifugal and Coriolis forces are introduced in Q3UIC via the streamwise and spanwise integral boundary layer momentum equations. A special inviscid version of the code has been developed to cope with massive separation. To check the ability of the code wind turbine airfoils in steady and unsteady conditions for a large range of angles of attack are considered here. Further, the new quasi-3D code Q3UIC is used to perform a parametric study of a wind turbine airfoil under rotation confined to its boundary layer.
3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger
2013-04-01
In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.
3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.
Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu
2015-12-01
This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments.
3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.
Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu
2015-12-01
This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments. PMID:26363844
ICEd-ALE Treatment of 3-D Fluid Flow.
1999-09-13
Version: 00 SALE3D calculates three-dimensional fluid flow at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitudemore » results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a three-dimensional network of arbitrarily shaped, six-sided deformable cells, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
An aerial 3D printing test mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy
2016-05-01
This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.
Wing flutter boundary prediction using an unsteady Euler aerodynamic method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.
1993-01-01
Modifications to an existing three-dimensional, implicit, upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code (CFL3D Version 2.1) for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications, which were previously added to CFL3D Version 1.0, include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the government flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 degree swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.
Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Dan
2010-01-01
From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norbury, Keith
2012-01-01
It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…
3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.
2015-01-01
The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…
Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold
2015-01-01
In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…
3D elastic control for mobile devices.
Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal
2008-01-01
To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.
Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken
2016-01-01
Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…
3D Printing of Molecular Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur
2016-01-01
Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…
A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool
Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun
1999-02-09
This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.
Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…
Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2012-01-01
Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang-Wei; Liu, Bao-Jie; Lu, Li-Peng
2012-04-01
The average-passage equation system (APES) provides a rigorous mathematical framework for accounting for the unsteady blade row interaction through multistage compressors in steady state environment by introducing deterministic correlations (DC) that need to be modeled to close the equation system. The primary purpose of this study is to provide insight into the DC characteristics and the influence of DC on the time-averaged flow field of the APES. In Part 1 of this two-part paper, firstly a 3D viscous unsteady and time-averaging flow CFD solver is developed to investigate the APES technique. Then steady and unsteady simulations are conducted in a transonic compressor stage. The results from both simulations are compared to highlight the significance of the unsteady interactions. Furthermore, the distribution characteristics of DC are studied and the DC at the rotor/stator interface are compared with their spatial correlations (SC). Lastly, steady and time-averaging (employing APES with DC) simulations for the downstream stator alone are conducted employing DC derived from the unsteady results. The results from steady and time-averaging simulations are compared with the time-averaged unsteady results. The comparisons demonstrate that the simulation employing APES with DC can reproduce the time-averaged field and the 3D viscous time-averaging flow solver is validated.
Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wuu, Cheng-Shie
2015-01-01
Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.
Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors
Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.
2012-06-06
Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
Lazerson, Samuel
2014-04-14
With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. Jane
2000-03-01
The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.
Multigrid Approach to Incompressible Viscous Cavity Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional incompressible viscous driven-cavity flows are computed for Reynolds numbers on the range 100-20,000 using a loosely coupled, implicit, second-order centrally-different scheme. Mesh sequencing and three-level V-cycle multigrid error smoothing are incorporated into the symmetric Gauss-Seidel time-integration algorithm. Parametrics on the numerical parameters are performed, achieving reductions in solution times by more than 60 percent with the full multigrid approach. Details of the circulation patterns are investigated in cavities of 2-to-1, 1-to-1, and 1-to-2 depth to width ratios.
3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-01-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
The psychology of the 3D experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew
2013-03-01
With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.
Low-cost 3D rangefinder system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang
1998-06-01
Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.
3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nellutla, Shravya
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.
Physics of Forced Unsteady Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, Lawrence W. (Editor)
1992-01-01
This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in April 1990. This workshop was jointly organized by NASA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Army Research Office (ARO), and was directed toward improved understanding of the physical processes that cause unsteady separation to occur. The proceedings contain the written contributions for the workshop, and include selected viewgraphs used in the various presentations.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
Stabilization procedures for near-wall full Reynolds stress closures in complex 3-D CFD simulations
Kunz, R.F.; Siebert, B.W.
1996-06-01
Near-wall full Reynolds stress models (FRSMs) were implemented in an implicit, incompressible full Navier-Stokes algorithm. The method was applied to flow in a 3-D duct with significant curvature induced secondary motions as well as 2-D and 3-D turbine cascade flows. FRSM computation of such flows, provides several numerical challenges germane to the very highly clustered near-wall meshes required, and to the incorporation of FRSMs themselves. Several stabilization procedures have been deployed within the scheme, which enable convergent solutions to large scale flow simulations of engineering interest. This paper summarizes the numerical strategies employed. it is shown that near-wall FRSM convergence rates commensurate with those of two-equation models are obtained.
Unsteady blade pressure measurements for the SR-7A propeller at cruise conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heidelberg, L. J.; Nallasamy, M.
1990-01-01
The unsteady blade surface pressures were measured on the SR-7A propeller. The freestream Mach no., inflow angle, and advance ratio were varied while measurements were made at nine blade stations. At a freestream Mach no. of 0.8, the data in terms of unsteady pressure coefficient vs. azimuth angle are compared to an unsteady 3-D Euler solution, yielding very encouraging results. The code predicts the shape (phase) of the waveform very well, while the magnitude is over-predicted in many cases. At tunnel Mach nos. below 0.6, an unusually large response on the suction surface at 0.15 chord and 0.88 radius was observed. The behavior of this response suggests the presence of a leading edge vortex. The midchord measuring stations on the suction surface exhibit a response that leads the forcing function while most other locations show a phase lag.
Advanced in Visualization of 3D Time-Dependent CFD Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lane, David A.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Numerical simulations of complex 3D time-dependent (unsteady) flows are becoming increasingly feasible because of the progress in computing systems. Unfortunately, many existing flow visualization systems were developed for time-independent (steady) solutions and do not adequately depict solutions from unsteady flow simulations. Furthermore, most systems only handle one time step of the solutions individually and do not consider the time-dependent nature of the solutions. For example, instantaneous streamlines are computed by tracking the particles using one time step of the solution. However, for streaklines and timelines, particles need to be tracked through all time steps. Streaklines can reveal quite different information about the flow than those revealed by instantaneous streamlines. Comparisons of instantaneous streamlines with dynamic streaklines are shown. For a complex 3D flow simulation, it is common to generate a grid system with several millions of grid points and to have tens of thousands of time steps. The disk requirement for storing the flow data can easily be tens of gigabytes. Visualizing solutions of this magnitude is a challenging problem with today's computer hardware technology. Even interactive visualization of one time step of the flow data can be a problem for some existing flow visualization systems because of the size of the grid. Current approaches for visualizing complex 3D time-dependent CFD solutions are described. The flow visualization system developed at NASA Ames Research Center to compute time-dependent particle traces from unsteady CFD solutions is described. The system computes particle traces (streaklines) by integrating through the time steps. This system has been used by several NASA scientists to visualize their CFD time-dependent solutions. The flow visualization capabilities of this system are described, and visualization results are shown.
Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.
Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J
2015-01-01
While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
3D facial expression modeling for recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.
2005-03-01
Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.
Digital relief generation from 3D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian
2016-09-01
It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.
NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.
2012-10-01
Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.
Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.
Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J
2015-01-01
While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233
Perception of detail in 3D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald
2009-01-01
A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.
3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.
Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony
2014-08-01
Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879
Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist
Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.
2015-01-01
While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233
Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, Norman A.
2012-12-01
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2015-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2015-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2014-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2015-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2014-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL
Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler
2005-11-01
A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less
A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.
Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.
2015-04-23
A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.
FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.
2016-09-01
FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.
3D packaging for integrated circuit systems
Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.
1996-11-01
A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.
Investigations in massive 3D gravity
Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley
2011-05-15
Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.
An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D
Krasnykh, Anatoly
2003-07-29
An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.
Validation of US3D for Capsule Aerodynamics using 05-CA Wind Tunnel Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwing, Alan
2012-01-01
RANS is ill-suited for analysis of these problems. For transonic and supersonic cases, US3D shows fairly good agreement using DES across all cases. Separation prediction and resulting backshell pressure are problems across all portions of this analysis. This becomes more of an issue at lower Mach numbers: .Stagnation pressures not as large - wake and backshell are more significant .Errors on shoulder act on a large area - small discrepancies manifest as large changes Subsonic comparisons are mixed with regard to integrated loads and merit more attention. Dominant unsteady behavior (wake shedding) resolved well, though.
JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs
Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles
2016-01-01
Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417
XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.
Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp
2013-01-01
Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080
Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.
2016-01-01
Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…
This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...
3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.
Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun
2016-03-01
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561
3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset
Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun
2015-01-01
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561
Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D
This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...
An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi
This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.
3D-printed bioanalytical devices.
Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F
2016-07-15
While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.
Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D
This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...
3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha
This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...
Palacios field: A 3-D case history
McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.
1994-12-31
In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.
3D-printed bioanalytical devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.
2016-07-01
While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.
3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda
The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.
2013-01-01
Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.
3D Printing for Tissue Engineering
Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying
2016-01-01
Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728
3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.
Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun
2016-03-01
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.
3D-printed bioanalytical devices.
Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F
2016-07-15
While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897
Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging
Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.
1994-11-15
3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.
3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula
This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...
Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse
NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...
Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D
Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David
2011-01-01
Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197
AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR COMPLEX INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS
An immersed boundary method for time-dependant, three- dimensional, incompressible flows is presented in this paper. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using a low-diffusion flux splitting method for the inviscid fluxes and a second order central differenc...
3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerwien, N.
2014-11-01
In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.
Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.
Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K
2003-07-01
Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.
Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.
2016-06-01
Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.
Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin
2005-03-01
Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.
Effects of 3D PIV post-processing on impulse and force analysis in vortical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra
2014-11-01
Vortical flows measured using 3D PIV techniques are fundamentally filtered versions of physical phenomena, with velocity information lost below the length and time scales of the measurement system. In the context of propulsive vortices, such as those generated during biological locomotion, these factors, combined with experimental noise and error, can lead to inaccuracies in analysis of the vortex momentum and net thrust. As a result, while 3D velocity measurements remove many of the assumptions required to analyze planar PIV data, they should not be considered absolute physical quantities. Our work focuses on post-processing for 3D PIV data sets to enable the extraction of accurate, quantitative 3D force measurements for unsteady vortical propulsion. In this study, we compare utilizing measurement signal processing techniques, orthogonal decomposition, and identification of coherent structures to measure the impulse of a canonical vortex ring generated by a mechanical piston. In particular, we consider the ability of these methods to confront the influences of limited spatial resolution and arbitrary geometries, and make recommendations for a general procedure for propulsion analysis from 3D PIV data, regardless of which PIV technique is used to obtain the velocity fields.
Incompressible limit of solutions of multidimensional steady compressible Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gui-Qiang G.; Huang, Feimin; Wang, Tian-Yi; Xiang, Wei
2016-06-01
A compactness framework is formulated for the incompressible limit of approximate solutions with weak uniform bounds with respect to the adiabatic exponent for the steady Euler equations for compressible fluids in any dimension. One of our main observations is that the compactness can be achieved by using only natural weak estimates for the mass conservation and the vorticity. Another observation is that the incompressibility of the limit for the homentropic Euler flow is directly from the continuity equation, while the incompressibility of the limit for the full Euler flow is from a combination of all the Euler equations. As direct applications of the compactness framework, we establish two incompressible limit theorems for multidimensional steady Euler flows through infinitely long nozzles, which lead to two new existence theorems for the corresponding problems for multidimensional steady incompressible Euler equations.
Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.
Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L
2015-06-01
Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.
CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.
2013-01-01
Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.
Progress in computational unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obayashi, Shigeru
1993-01-01
After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteady aerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.
Optimal time step for incompressible SPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Violeau, Damien; Leroy, Agnès
2015-05-01
A classical incompressible algorithm for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) is analyzed in terms of critical time step for numerical stability. For this purpose, a theoretical linear stability analysis is conducted for unbounded homogeneous flows, leading to an analytical formula for the maximum CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) number as a function of the Fourier number. This gives the maximum time step as a function of the fluid viscosity, the flow velocity scale and the SPH discretization size (kernel standard deviation). Importantly, the maximum CFL number at large Reynolds number appears twice smaller than with the traditional Weakly Compressible (WCSPH) approach. As a consequence, the optimal time step for ISPH is only five times larger than with WCSPH. The theory agrees very well with numerical data for two usual kernels in a 2-D periodic flow. On the other hand, numerical experiments in a plane Poiseuille flow show that the theory overestimates the maximum allowed time step for small Reynolds numbers.
Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.
Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian
2015-10-01
We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.
Efficient solution of turbulent incompressible separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelassi, Vittorio; Martelli, Francesco
A computational method for incompressible separated flows based on two-dimensional approximate factorization is presented. Turbulence effects are accounted for by low-Reynolds number forms of the k-epsilon model. Mass conservation is enforced by the artificial compressibility method. Decoupling and coupling of the equations of motions with the turbulence model equations are investigated. Testing of the coupled solver showed no improvement in convergence or accuracy in comparison to the classical decoupled approach. The solver was then applied to several large-recirculation flows using a modified version of the low-Reynolds-number form of the k-epsilon model proposed by Chien and a two-layer version of the k-epsilon model introduced by Rodi. Both versions gave fast convergence rates and good agreement with experiments.
Turning waves and breakdown for incompressible flows
Castro, Angel; Córdoba, Diego; Fefferman, Charles L.; Gancedo, Francisco; López-Fernández, María
2011-01-01
We consider the evolution of an interface generated between two immiscible, incompressible, and irrotational fluids. Specifically we study the Muskat and water wave problems. We show that starting with a family of initial data given by (α,f0(α)), the interface reaches a regime in finite time in which is no longer a graph. Therefore there exists a time t∗ where the solution of the free boundary problem parameterized as (α,f(α,t)) blows up: ‖∂αf‖L∞(t∗) = ∞. In particular, for the Muskat problem, this result allows us to reach an unstable regime, for which the Rayleigh–Taylor condition changes sign and the solution breaks down.
Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.
Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian
2015-10-01
We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ. PMID:26551811
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic surface waves - Nonlinear aspects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollweg, Joseph V.
1987-01-01
The nonlinear properties of MHD surface waves in the solar atmosphere are investigated analytically, assuming that the fluid is incompressible and that the waves are confined to a single surface, with semiinfinite regions on both sides. The governing equations are derived in detail, and qualitative results are presented in a graph. For propagating waves, second-order terms in the wave amplitude are found to lead to wave steepening at leading or trailing edges, the steepening rate becoming very large as the threshold for the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is approached. Second-order effects on standing waves include crest and trough sharpening (increasing with time), a current independent of distance on the surface but decreasing exponentially with distance from the surface, and pressure-field fluctuations of infinite extent. It is suggested that these effects could account for a large fraction of solar-atmosphere heating.
Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D.; Schmidt, Sebastian
2015-10-01
We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.
Self assembled structures for 3D integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Madhav
Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of
PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alter, Stephen
2010-01-01
The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.
A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla
2016-01-01
Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.
Application of FUN3D Solver for Aeroacoustics Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2011-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed for a nose landing gear configuration corresponding to the experimental tests conducted in the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A widely used unstructured grid code, FUN3D, is examined for solving the unsteady flow field associated with this configuration. A series of successively finer unstructured grids has been generated to assess the effect of grid refinement. Solutions have been obtained on purely tetrahedral grids as well as mixed element grids using hybrid RANS/LES turbulence models. The agreement of FUN3D solutions with experimental data on the same size mesh is better on mixed element grids compared to pure tetrahedral grids, and in general improves with grid refinement.
Gust Acoustics Computation with a Space-Time CE/SE Parallel 3D Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, X. Y.; Himansu, A.; Chang, S. C.; Jorgenson, P. C. E.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The benchmark Problem 2 in Category 3 of the Third Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) Workshop is solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This problem concerns the unsteady response of an isolated finite-span swept flat-plate airfoil bounded by two parallel walls to an incident gust. The acoustic field generated by the interaction of the gust with the flat-plate airfoil is computed by solving the 3D (three-dimensional) Euler equations in the time domain using a parallel version of a 3D CE/SE solver. The effect of the gust orientation on the far-field directivity is studied. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with analytical solutions, showing a reasonable agreement.
An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.
A 3-D aerodynamic method for the analysis of isolated horizontal-axis wind turbines
Ammara, I.; Masson, C.; Paraschivoiu, I.
1997-12-31
In most existing performance-analysis methods, wind turbines are considered isolated so that interference effects caused by other rotors or by the site topography are neglected. The main objective of this paper is to propose a practical 3-D method suitable for the study of these effects, in order to optimize the arrangement and the positioning of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) in a wind farm. In the proposed methodology, the flow field around isolated HAWTs is predicted by solving the 3-D, time-averaged, steady-state, incompressible, Navier-Stokes equations in which the turbines are represented by distributions of momentum sources. The resulting governing equations are solved using a Control-Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM). The fundamental aspects related to the development of a practical 3-D method are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on some of the challenges that arose during its implementation. The current implementation is limited to the analysis of isolated HAWTs. Preliminary results have indicated that, the proposed 3-D method reaches the same level of accuracy, in terms of performance predictions, that the previously developed 2-D axisymmetric model and the well-known momentum-strip theory, while still using reasonable computers resources. It can be considered as a useful tool for the design of HAWTs. Its main advantages, however, are its intrinsic capacity to predict the details of the flow in the wake, and its capabilities of modelling arbitrary wind-turbine arrangements and including ground effects.
RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures
Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar
2015-08-24
In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less
RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures
Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar
2015-08-24
In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.
RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures
Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar
2015-01-01
To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547
ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh
2010-01-01
Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received
Visualization of Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haimes, Robert
1997-01-01
The current compute environment that most researchers are using for the calculation of 3D unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) results is a super-computer class machine. The Massively Parallel Processors (MPP's) such as the 160 node IBM SP2 at NAS and clusters of workstations acting as a single MPP (like NAS's SGI Power-Challenge array and the J90 cluster) provide the required computation bandwidth for CFD calculations of transient problems. If we follow the traditional computational analysis steps for CFD (and we wish to construct an interactive visualizer) we need to be aware of the following: (1) Disk space requirements. A single snap-shot must contain at least the values (primitive variables) stored at the appropriate locations within the mesh. For most simple 3D Euler solvers that means 5 floating point words. Navier-Stokes solutions with turbulence models may contain 7 state-variables. (2) Disk speed vs. Computational speeds. The time required to read the complete solution of a saved time frame from disk is now longer than the compute time for a set number of iterations from an explicit solver. Depending, on the hardware and solver an iteration of an implicit code may also take less time than reading the solution from disk. If one examines the performance improvements in the last decade or two, it is easy to see that depending on disk performance (vs. CPU improvement) may not be the best method for enhancing interactivity. (3) Cluster and Parallel Machine I/O problems. Disk access time is much worse within current parallel machines and cluster of workstations that are acting in concert to solve a single problem. In this case we are not trying to read the volume of data, but are running the solver and the solver outputs the solution. These traditional network interfaces must be used for the file system. (4) Numerics of particle traces. Most visualization tools can work upon a single snap shot of the data but some visualization tools for transient
Turner, D.
1983-08-01
The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)
The importance of 3D dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Daniel
2015-01-01
Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.
3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia
2015-11-01
3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.
Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation
Graf, Norman A.
2011-01-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.
3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.
Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir
2008-01-01
Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662
3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.
Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho
2016-01-01
Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.
Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package
2009-01-29
This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less
Full-color holographic 3D printer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio
2003-05-01
A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.
DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments
Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.
2000-04-21
DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.
2014-09-01
With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.
Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge
2016-07-01
While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458
Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team
Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.
3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.
Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho
2016-01-01
Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184
Zuppinger, Christian
2016-07-01
This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.
Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi
2015-05-01
We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.
Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation
Graf, Norman A.
2011-01-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less
3D optical measuring technologies and systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chugui, Yuri V.
2005-02-01
The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.
Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk
2015-11-01
In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.
Unsteady flow and heat transfer in a channel with a built-in tandem of rectangular cylinders
Valencia, A.
1996-05-10
The incompressible unsteady flow past a channel with a pair of cylinders of rectangular cross section, placed in tandem normal to the flow, is investigated by numerical simulation. The objective is to evaluate the effect of cylinder separation distance, S/H, on the flow behavior and heat transfer on the channel walls, over a range of Reynolds numbers. Above a critical Reynolds number, these flows bifurcate to a time-periodic self-sustained oscillatory state. The results reveal for S/H = 2.0 three distinct flow patterns: steady flow (Re = 200), time-periodic oscillatory state (400 {le} Re {le} 800), and quasi-periodic oscillatory flow (Re = 1,000). For S/H < 2.0 the intercylinder flow consists of a pair of steady counterrotating eddies that do not exchange fluid with the surrounding and unsteady eddies. Eddy shedding is observed only for the downstream cylinder for Re > 600.
3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.
3D differential phase contrast microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura
2016-03-01
We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.
The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.
Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.
3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.
Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri
2016-01-01
We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.
Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine
Wagner, J.S.
1987-04-01
A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.
Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer
Ott, Ryan
2014-02-13
To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.
3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve
Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri
2016-01-01
We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809
Structured light field 3D imaging.
Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z
2016-09-01
In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639
3D-printed microfluidic devices.
Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas
2016-06-20
Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.
3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.
Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri
2016-01-01
We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809
3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B
1994-04-07
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.
3D holoscopic video imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher
2012-03-01
Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.
3D face analysis for demographic biometrics
Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing
2015-01-01
Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.
3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer
1992-02-01
TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer
Ott, Ryan
2016-07-12
To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.
Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.
Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa
2016-03-15
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.
3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen
2016-03-01
It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.
3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.
2014-02-01
We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.
Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.
Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa
2016-03-15
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332
Aeroacoustic Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear in an Open Jet Facility Using FUN3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida s open-jet acoustic facility known as UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver, FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions compare favorably with the measured data. Unsteady flowfield data obtained from the FUN3D code are used as input to a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the sound pressure levels at microphones placed in the farfield. Significant improvement in predicted noise levels is obtained when the flowfield data from the open jet UFAFF simulations is used as compared to the case using flowfield data from the closed-wall BART configuration.
Spatial watermarking of 3D triangle meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cayre, Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.
2001-12-01
Although it is obvious that watermarking has become of great interest in protecting audio, videos, and still pictures, few work has been done considering 3D meshes. We propose a new method for watermarking 3D triangle meshes. This method embeds the watermark as triangles deformations. The list of watermarked triangles is obtained through a similar way to the one used in the TSPS (Triangle Strip Peeling Sequence) method. Unlike TSPS, our method is automatic and more secure. We also show that it is reversible.
Acquisition and applications of 3D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena
2007-08-01
The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.
Superplastic forming using NIKE3D
Puso, M.
1996-12-04
The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.
The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel
2014-05-01
In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.
3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold
2014-05-01
Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river
3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.
Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław
2016-04-15
A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335
Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu
2015-05-01
We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.
Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.
Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A
2014-02-01
3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392
Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.
Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A
2014-02-01
3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.
2013-05-01
EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its
Wing flutter boundary prediction using unsteady Euler aerodynamic method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.
1993-01-01
Modifications to an existing 3D implicit upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the governing flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 deg swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.
A Three-Dimensional Unsteady CFD Model of Compressor Stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.
2006-01-01
A three-dimensional unsteady CFD code called CSTALL has been developed and used to investigate compressor stability. The code solved the Euler equations through the entire annulus and all blade rows. Blade row turning, losses, and deviation were modeled using body force terms which required input data at stations between blade rows. The input data was calculated using a separate Navier-Stokes turbomachinery analysis code run at one operating point near stall, and was scaled to other operating points using overall characteristic maps. No information about the stalled characteristic was used. CSTALL was run in a 2-D throughflow mode for very fast calculations of operating maps and estimation of stall points. Calculated pressure ratio characteristics for NASA stage 35 agreed well with experimental data, and results with inlet radial distortion showed the expected loss of range. CSTALL was also run in a 3-D mode to investigate inlet circumferential distortion. Calculated operating maps for stage 35 with 120 degree distortion screens showed a loss in range and pressure rise. Unsteady calculations showed rotating stall with two part-span stall cells. The paper describes the body force formulation in detail, examines the computed results, and concludes with observations about the code.
Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape
Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.
2015-01-01
The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages
Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio
2013-05-01
With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.
1999-01-01
Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parikesit, Gea O. F.
2014-01-01
Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…
Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yue, Jianping
2008-01-01
In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…
Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki
2013-01-01
This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…
3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels
Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael
2015-01-01
This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217
GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester
This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...
Invertible authentication for 3D meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittmann, Jana; Benedens, Oliver
2003-06-01
Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. Based on the introduced media independent protocol schemes for invertible data authentication in references 2, 4 and 5 we discuss the design of a new 3D invertible labeling technique to ensure and require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. Furthermore the protocol steps in the other papers to ensure that the original data can only be reproduced with a secret key is adopted for 3D meshes. The goal is to show how the existing protocol can be used for 3D meshes to provide solutions for authentication watermarking. In our design concept and evaluation we see that due to the nature of 3D meshes the invertible function are different from the image and audio concepts to achieve invertibility to guaranty reversibility of the original. Therefore we introduce a concept for distortion free invertibility and a concept for adjustable minimum distortion invertibility.
Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guidi, G.
2013-04-01
Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.
[3D virtual endoscopy of heart].
Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun
2012-10-01
In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444
3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.
2012-01-01
We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.
3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels
Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael
2015-01-01
This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.
Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.
Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I
2007-01-01
This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.
A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.
2004-01-01
In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…
Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.
2013-01-01
The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.
NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D
NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna
2010-01-01
Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…
Evolution of Archaea in 3D modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikuta, Elena V.; Tankosic, Dragana; Sheldon, Rob
2012-11-01
The analysis of all groups of Archaea performed in two-dimensions have demonstrated a specific distribution of Archaean species as a function of pH/temperature, temperature/salinity and pH/salinity. Work presented here is an extension of this analysis with a three dimensional (3D) modeling in logarithmic scale. As it was shown in 2D representation, the "Rules of the Diagonal" have been expressed even more clearly in 3D modeling. In this article, we used a 3D Mesh modeling to show the range of distribution of each separate group of Archaea as a function of pH, temperature, and salinity. Visible overlap and links between different groups indicate a direction of evolution in Archaea. The major direction in ancestral life (vector of evolution) has been indicated: from high temperature, acidic, and low-salinity system towards low temperature, alkaline and high salinity systems. Specifics of the geometrical coordinates and distribution of separate groups of Archaea in 3 D scale were analyzed with a mathematical description of the functions. Based on the obtained data, a new model for the origin and evolution of life on Earth is proposed. The geometry of this model is described by a hyperboloid of one sheet. Conclusions of this research are consistent with previous results derived from the two-dimensional diagrams. This approach is suggested as a new method for analyzing any biological group in accordance to its environmental parameters.
Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benacka, Jan
2013-01-01
The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…
3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.
Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael
2015-03-24
This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali
2009-01-01
Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
Experimental study of transonic buffet phenomenon on a 3D swept wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dandois, Julien
2016-01-01
The objective of this paper is to analyze the 3D buffet phenomenon which appears on a swept wing at a high Mach number and/or high angle of attack. This aerodynamic instability induces strong wall pressure fluctuations and as such limits aircraft envelope. Consequently, it is interesting to understand this phenomenon in order to not only improve aircraft performance but also to provide more flexibility during the design phase. Results from two wind tunnel tests on a 3D half wing-body configuration are presented for several freestream Mach numbers (0.78-0.86) and Reynolds numbers (2.83 × 106-8.49 × 106, based on the aerodynamic mean chord). The buffet phenomenon is characterized using steady and unsteady wall pressure measurements. By opposition to the 2D buffet which exhibits rather a well marked peak in the pressure spectra, the 3D buffet is characterized by a broadband bump at a much higher Strouhal number (between 4 and 7 times higher). It is also observed that two different instabilities coexist on the suction side of the wing: the 3D buffet phenomenon (with Strouhal numbers ranging between 0.2 and 0.6) and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (with Strouhal numbers ranging between 1 and 4). Each phenomenon has a different Strouhal number but also different convection velocities and propagation directions.
Gallo, Diego; Gülan, Utku; Di Stefano, Antonietta; Ponzini, Raffaele; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Morbiducci, Umberto
2014-09-22
Parallel to the massive use of image-based computational hemodynamics to study the complex flow establishing in the human aorta, the need for suitable experimental techniques and ad hoc cases for the validation and benchmarking of numerical codes has grown more and more. Here we present a study where the 3D pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic phantom of human ascending aorta is investigated both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study uses 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to characterize the flow field in vitro, while finite volume method is applied to numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the same domain, under the same conditions. Our findings show that there is an excellent agreement between computational and measured flow fields during the forward flow phase, while the agreement is poorer during the reverse flow phase. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that 3D PTV is very suitable for a detailed study of complex unsteady flows as in aorta and for validating computational models of aortic hemodynamics. In a future step, it will be possible to take advantage from the ability of 3D PTV to evaluate velocity fluctuations and, for this reason, to gain further knowledge on the process of transition to turbulence occurring in the thoracic aorta.
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
Unsteady Flows in Axial Turbomachines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marble, F. E.; Rannie, W. D.
1957-01-01
Of the various unsteady flows that occur in axial turbomachines certain asymmetric disturbances, of wave length large in comparison with blade spacing, have become understood to a certain extent. These disturbances divide themselves into two categories: self-induced oscillations and force disturbances. A special type of propagating stall appears as a self-induced disturbance; an asymmetric velocity profile introduced at the compressor inlet constitutes a forced disturbance. Both phenomena have been treated from a unified theoretical point of view in which the asymmetric disturbances are linearized and the blade characteristics are assumed quasi-steady. Experimental results are in essential agreement with this theory wherever the limitations of the theory are satisfied. For the self-induced disturbances and the more interesting examples of the forced disturbances, the dominant blade characteristic is the dependence of total pressure loss, rather than the turning angle, upon the local blade inlet angle.
3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.
Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C
2015-08-12
The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472
Parallel CARLOS-3D code development
Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.
1996-02-01
CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.
3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations
Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa
2003-02-10
The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.
Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto
2016-04-01
The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.
3D microscopy for microfabrication quality control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muller, Matthew S.; De Jean, Paul D.
2015-03-01
A novel stereo microscope adapter, the SweptVue, has been developed to rapidly perform quantitative 3D microscopy for cost-effective microfabrication quality control. The SweptVue adapter uses the left and right stereo channels of an Olympus SZX7 stereo microscope for sample illumination and detection, respectively. By adjusting the temporal synchronization between the illumination lines projected from a Texas Instruments DLP LightCrafter and the rolling shutter on a Point Grey Flea3 CMOS camera, micrometer-scale depth features can be easily and rapidly measured at up to 5 μm resolution on a variety of microfabricated samples. In this study, the build performance of an industrial-grade Stratasys Object 300 Connex 3D printer was examined. Ten identical parts were 3D printed with a lateral and depth resolution of 42 μm and 30 μm, respectively, using both a rigid and flexible Stratasys PolyJet material. Surface elevation precision and accuracy was examined over multiple regions of interest on plateau and hemispherical surfaces. In general, the dimensions of the examined features were reproducible across the parts built using both materials. However, significant systemic lateral and height build errors were discovered, such as: decreased heights when approaching the edges of plateaus, inaccurate height steps, and poor tolerances on channel width. For 3D printed parts to be used in functional applications requiring micro-scale tolerances, they need to conform to specification. Despite appearing identical, our 3D printed parts were found to have a variety of defects that the SweptVue adapter quickly revealed.
3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules
Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.
2015-01-01
The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472
3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.
Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C
2015-08-12
The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.
Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe
2015-07-15
X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.
R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server
Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles
2015-01-01
The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960
Robust preconditioners for incompressible MHD models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yicong; Hu, Kaibo; Hu, Xiaozhe; Xu, Jinchao
2016-07-01
In this paper, we develop two classes of robust preconditioners for the structure-preserving discretization of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system. By studying the well-posedness of the discrete system, we design block preconditioners for them and carry out rigorous analysis on their performance. We prove that such preconditioners are robust with respect to most physical and discretization parameters. In our proof, we improve the existing estimates of the block triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems by removing the scaling parameters, which are usually difficult to choose in practice. This new technique is applicable not only to the MHD system, but also to other problems. Moreover, we prove that Krylov iterative methods with our preconditioners preserve the divergence-free condition exactly, which complements the structure-preserving discretization. Another feature is that we can directly generalize this technique to other discretizations of the MHD system. We also present preliminary numerical results to support the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed preconditioners.
3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D
Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.
2012-07-01
As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)
The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vet, S. J.
2016-01-01
An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.
3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.
Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu
2016-04-01
Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648
SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model
O'Hirok, William
1999-01-01
SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.
Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bäck, A.
2015-01-01
Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT