3D unstructured-mesh radiation transport codes
Morel, J.
1997-12-31
Three unstructured-mesh radiation transport codes are currently being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first code is ATTILA, which uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh in conjunction with standard Sn (discrete-ordinates) angular discretization, standard multigroup energy discretization, and linear-discontinuous spatial differencing. ATTILA solves the standard first-order form of the transport equation using source iteration in conjunction with diffusion-synthetic acceleration of the within-group source iterations. DANTE is designed to run primarily on workstations. The second code is DANTE, which uses a hybrid finite-element mesh consisting of arbitrary combinations of hexahedra, wedges, pyramids, and tetrahedra. DANTE solves several second-order self-adjoint forms of the transport equation including the even-parity equation, the odd-parity equation, and a new equation called the self-adjoint angular flux equation. DANTE also offers three angular discretization options: $S{_}n$ (discrete-ordinates), $P{_}n$ (spherical harmonics), and $SP{_}n$ (simplified spherical harmonics). DANTE is designed to run primarily on massively parallel message-passing machines, such as the ASCI-Blue machines at LANL and LLNL. The third code is PERICLES, which uses the same hybrid finite-element mesh as DANTE, but solves the standard first-order form of the transport equation rather than a second-order self-adjoint form. DANTE uses a standard $S{_}n$ discretization in angle in conjunction with trilinear-discontinuous spatial differencing, and diffusion-synthetic acceleration of the within-group source iterations. PERICLES was initially designed to run on workstations, but a version for massively parallel message-passing machines will be built. The three codes will be described in detail and computational results will be presented.
The 3-D unstructured mesh generation using local transformations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: 3D combinatorial edge swapping; 3D incremental triangulation via local transformations; a new approach to multigrid for unstructured meshes; surface mesh generation using local transforms; volume triangulations; viscous mesh generation; and future directions.
3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro
Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J.
1995-07-01
The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.
M3D Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven MHD Mode with Unstructured Mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, G. Y.; Park, W.; Strauss, H. R.
2001-10-01
The energetic particle-driven MHD modes are studied using a multi-level extended MHD code M3D(W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)). In a Extended-MHD model, the plasma is divided into the bulk part and the energetic particle component. The bulk plasma is treated as either a single fluid or two fluids. The energetic particles are described by gyrokinetic particles following the self-consistent electromagnetic field. The model is self-consistent, including nonlinear effects of hot particles on the MHD dynamics and the nonlinear MHD mode coupling. Previously we had shown the results of nonlinear saturation of TAEfootnote G.Y. Fu and W. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1594 (1995), energetic particle stabilization of an internal kink and excitation of fishbone^2, and nonlinear saturation of fishbone in circular tokamaks (G.Y. Fu et al, 2000 Sherwood Meeting, Paper 2C2.). In this work, we extend the simulations to general geometry using unstructured mesh(H.R. Strauss and W. Park, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2676 (1998). We also use a gyrofluid model for fishbone in order to study the role of MHD nonlinearity in saturation near the marginal stability. Results of applications to tokamaks and spherical tokamaks will be presented.
Large-scale Parallel Unstructured Mesh Computations for 3D High-lift Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Pirzadeh, S.
1999-01-01
A complete "geometry to drag-polar" analysis capability for the three-dimensional high-lift configurations is described. The approach is based on the use of unstructured meshes in order to enable rapid turnaround for complicated geometries that arise in high-lift configurations. Special attention is devoted to creating a capability for enabling analyses on highly resolved grids. Unstructured meshes of several million vertices are initially generated on a work-station, and subsequently refined on a supercomputer. The flow is solved on these refined meshes on large parallel computers using an unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm. Good prediction of lift and drag throughout the range of incidences is demonstrated on a transport take-off configuration using up to 24.7 million grid points. The feasibility of using this approach in a production environment on existing parallel machines is demonstrated, as well as the scalability of the solver on machines using up to 1450 processors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gansen, A.; Hachemi, M. El; Belouettar, S.; Hassan, O.; Morgan, K.
2016-09-01
The standard Yee algorithm is widely used in computational electromagnetics because of its simplicity and divergence free nature. A generalization of the classical Yee scheme to 3D unstructured meshes is adopted, based on the use of a Delaunay primal mesh and its high quality Voronoi dual. This allows the problem of accuracy losses, which are normally associated with the use of the standard Yee scheme and a staircased representation of curved material interfaces, to be circumvented. The 3D dual mesh leapfrog-scheme which is presented has the ability to model both electric and magnetic anisotropic lossy materials. This approach enables the modelling of problems, of current practical interest, involving structured composites and metamaterials.
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Longcope, D.W.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-12-31
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.
McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M.; Morel, J.E.
1997-06-01
A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.
Multigrid techniques for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1995-01-01
An overview of current multigrid techniques for unstructured meshes is given. The basic principles of the multigrid approach are first outlined. Application of these principles to unstructured mesh problems is then described, illustrating various different approaches, and giving examples of practical applications. Advanced multigrid topics, such as the use of algebraic multigrid methods, and the combination of multigrid techniques with adaptive meshing strategies are dealt with in subsequent sections. These represent current areas of research, and the unresolved issues are discussed. The presentation is organized in an educational manner, for readers familiar with computational fluid dynamics, wishing to learn more about current unstructured mesh techniques.
Unstructured mesh generation and adaptivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1995-01-01
An overview of current unstructured mesh generation and adaptivity techniques is given. Basic building blocks taken from the field of computational geometry are first described. Various practical mesh generation techniques based on these algorithms are then constructed and illustrated with examples. Issues of adaptive meshing and stretched mesh generation for anisotropic problems are treated in subsequent sections. The presentation is organized in an education manner, for readers familiar with computational fluid dynamics, wishing to learn more about current unstructured mesh techniques.
The Tera Multithreaded Architecture and Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bokhari, Shahid H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1998-01-01
The Tera Multithreaded Architecture (MTA) is a new parallel supercomputer currently being installed at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC). This machine has an architecture quite different from contemporary parallel machines. The computational processor is a custom design and the machine uses hardware to support very fine grained multithreading. The main memory is shared, hardware randomized and flat. These features make the machine highly suited to the execution of unstructured mesh problems, which are difficult to parallelize on other architectures. We report the results of a study carried out during July-August 1998 to evaluate the execution of EUL3D, a code that solves the Euler equations on an unstructured mesh, on the 2 processor Tera MTA at SDSC. Our investigation shows that parallelization of an unstructured code is extremely easy on the Tera. We were able to get an existing parallel code (designed for a shared memory machine), running on the Tera by changing only the compiler directives. Furthermore, a serial version of this code was compiled to run in parallel on the Tera by judicious use of directives to invoke the "full/empty" tag bits of the machine to obtain synchronization. This version achieves 212 and 406 Mflop/s on one and two processors respectively, and requires no attention to partitioning or placement of data issues that would be of paramount importance in other parallel architectures.
Implicit solvers for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1991-01-01
Implicit methods were developed and tested for unstructured mesh computations. The approximate system which arises from the Newton linearization of the nonlinear evolution operator is solved by using the preconditioned GMRES (Generalized Minimum Residual) technique. Three different preconditioners were studied, namely, the incomplete LU factorization (ILU), block diagonal factorization, and the symmetric successive over relaxation (SSOR). The preconditioners were optimized to have good vectorization properties. SSOR and ILU were also studied as iterative schemes. The various methods are compared over a wide range of problems. Ordering of the unknowns, which affects the convergence of these sparse matrix iterative methods, is also studied. Results are presented for inviscid and turbulent viscous calculations on single and multielement airfoil configurations using globally and adaptively generated meshes.
Implicit solvers for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1991-01-01
Implicit methods for unstructured mesh computations are developed and tested. The approximate system which arises from the Newton-linearization of the nonlinear evolution operator is solved by using the preconditioned generalized minimum residual technique. These different preconditioners are investigated: the incomplete LU factorization (ILU), block diagonal factorization, and the symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR). The preconditioners have been optimized to have good vectorization properties. The various methods are compared over a wide range of problems. Ordering of the unknowns, which affects the convergence of these sparse matrix iterative methods, is also investigated. Results are presented for inviscid and turbulent viscous calculations on single and multielement airfoil configurations using globally and adaptively generated meshes.
Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1992-01-01
The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.
Verification of Unstructured Mesh Capabilities in MCNP6 for Reactor Physics Problems
Burke, Timothy P.; Martz, Roger L.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Martin, William R.
2012-08-22
New unstructured mesh capabilities in MCNP6 (developmental version during summer 2012) show potential for conducting multi-physics analyses by coupling MCNP to a finite element solver such as Abaqus/CAE[2]. Before these new capabilities can be utilized, the ability of MCNP to accurately estimate eigenvalues and pin powers using an unstructured mesh must first be verified. Previous work to verify the unstructured mesh capabilities in MCNP was accomplished using the Godiva sphere [1], and this work attempts to build on that. To accomplish this, a criticality benchmark and a fuel assembly benchmark were used for calculations in MCNP using both the Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) native to MCNP and the unstructured mesh geometry generated using Abaqus/CAE. The Big Ten criticality benchmark [3] was modeled due to its geometry being similar to that of a reactor fuel pin. The C5G7 3-D Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Benchmark [4] was modeled to test the unstructured mesh capabilities on a reactor-type problem.
Stochastic regularization operators on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordi, Claudio; Doetsch, Joseph; Günther, Thomas; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Robertsson, Johan
2016-04-01
Most geophysical inverse problems require the solution of underdetermined systems of equations. In order to solve such inverse problems, appropriate regularization is required. Ideally, this regularization includes information on the expected model variability and spatial correlation. Based on geostatistical covariance functions, which can be adapted to the specific situation, stochastic regularization can be used to add auxiliary constraints to the given inverse problem. Stochastic regularization operators have been successfully applied to geophysical inverse problems formulated on regular grids. Here, we demonstrate the calculation of stochastic regularization operators for unstructured meshes. Unstructured meshes are advantageous with regards to incorporating arbitrary topography, undulating geological interfaces and complex acquisition geometries into the inversion. However, compared to regular grids, unstructured meshes have variable cell sizes, complicating the calculation of stochastic operators. The stochastic operators proposed here are based on a 2D exponential correlation function, allowing to predefine spatial correlation lengths. The regularization thus acts over an imposed correlation length rather than only taking into account neighbouring cells as in regular smoothing constraints. Correlation over a spatial length partly removes the effects of variable cell sizes of unstructured meshes on the regularization. Synthetic models having large-scale interfaces as well as small-scale stochastic variations are used to analyse the performance and behaviour of the stochastic regularization operators. The resulting inverted models obtained with stochastic regularization are compare against the results of standard regularization approaches (damping and smoothing). Besides using stochastic operators for regularization, we plan to incorporate the footprint of the stochastic operator in further applications such as the calculation of the cross-gradient functions
Numerical simulation of H2/air detonation using unstructured mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Togashi, Fumiya; Löhner, Rainald; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki
2009-06-01
To explore the capability of unstructured mesh to simulate detonation wave propagation phenomena, numerical simulation of H2/air detonation using unstructured mesh was conducted. The unstructured mesh has several adv- antages such as easy mesh adaptation and flexibility to the complicated configurations. To examine the resolution dependency of the unstructured mesh, several simulations varying the mesh size were conducted and compared with a computed result using a structured mesh. The results show that the unstructured mesh solution captures the detailed structure of detonation wave, as well as the structured mesh solution. To capture the detailed detonation cell structure, the unstructured mesh simulations required at least twice, ideally 5times the resolution of structured mesh solution.
On Convergence Acceleration Techniques for Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1998-01-01
A discussion of convergence acceleration techniques as they relate to computational fluid dynamics problems on unstructured meshes is given. Rather than providing a detailed description of particular methods, the various different building blocks of current solution techniques are discussed and examples of solution strategies using one or several of these ideas are given. Issues relating to unstructured grid CFD problems are given additional consideration, including suitability of algorithms to current hardware trends, memory and cpu tradeoffs, treatment of non-linearities, and the development of efficient strategies for handling anisotropy-induced stiffness. The outlook for future potential improvements is also discussed.
Hypersonic Flow Computations on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibb, K. L.; Riley, C. J.; Peraire, J.
1997-01-01
A method for computing inviscid hypersonic flow over complex configurations using unstructured meshes is presented. The unstructured grid solver uses an edge{based finite{volume formulation. Fluxes are computed using a flux vector splitting scheme that is capable of representing constant enthalpy solutions. Second{order accuracy in smooth flow regions is obtained by linearly reconstructing the solution, and stability near discontinuities is maintained by locally forcing the scheme to reduce to first-order accuracy. The implementation of the algorithm to parallel computers is described. Computations using the proposed method are presented for a sphere-cone configuration at Mach numbers of 5.25 and 10.6, and a complex hypersonic re-entry vehicle at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 9.8. Results are compared to experimental data and computations made with established structured grid methods. The use of the solver as a screening tool for rapid aerodynamic assessment of proposed vehicles is described.
Fluidity: A New Adaptive, Unstructured Mesh Geodynamics Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, D. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Piggott, M. D.; Le Voci, G.; Collins, G. S.
2010-05-01
heterogeneities in mantle convection models. Incorporation of a suite of geodynamic benchmarks into the automated test-bed. These recent advances, which all work in combination with the parallel mesh-optimization technology, enable Fluidity to simulate geodynamical flows accurately and efficiently. Initial results will be presented from: (i) a range of 2-D and 3-D thermal convection benchmarks; kinematic and dynamic subduction zone simulations; (iii) Comparisons between model predictions and laboratory experiments of plume dynamics. These results all clearly demonstrate the benefits of adaptive, unstructured meshes for geodynamical flows.
A large-scale wave-current coupled module with wave diffraction effect on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Zhang, NingChuan
2014-07-01
Based on the extended mild-slope equation, a large-scale wave module is developed. By combining the eikonal equation and the modified wave action equation, the wave model can account for diffraction in most situations such as in the lee of islands and breakwaters, and using unstructured meshes provides great flexibility for modelling the wave in the complex geomorphology of barriers and islands, also allowing for refinement of the grid resolution within computationally important domains. The numerical implementation of the module is based on the explicit second-order upwind finite-volume schemes in geographic space, the Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) algorithm in frequency space and the implicit Crank-Nicolson method in directional space. The three-dimensional hydrodynamic module is then modified to couple with the wave model, where the wave readily provides the depth-dependent radiation stress and the wave-induced turbulence coefficient for the current fields, and the wave propagation takes into account the current-induced advection, refraction and diffraction of wave energy and the effect of water level. The applicability of the proposed model to calculate Snell's Law, wave transformation over the breakwaters and the elliptic shoal, wave propagation over the rip current field and the undertow on a sloping beach is evaluated. Numerical results show that the present model makes better predictions of the near-shore wave propagation and complex three-dimensional (3D) near-shore circulation driven by the waves, considering analytical solutions and experimental values.
FORCE schemes on unstructured meshes I: Conservative hyperbolic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toro, Eleuterio F.; Hidalgo, Arturo; Dumbser, Michael
2009-05-01
This paper is about the construction of numerical fluxes of the centred type for one-step schemes in conservative form for solving general systems of conservation laws in multiple space dimensions on structured and unstructured meshes. The work is a multi-dimensional extension of the one-dimensional FORCE flux and is closely related to the work of Nessyahu-Tadmor and Arminjon. The resulting basic flux is first-order accurate and monotone; it is then extended to arbitrary order of accuracy in space and time on unstructured meshes in the framework of finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods. The performance of the schemes is assessed on a suite of test problems for the multi-dimensional Euler and Magnetohydrodynamics equations on unstructured meshes.
Soundproof simulations of stratospheric gravity waves on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolarkiewicz, P.; Szmelter, J.
2012-04-01
An edge-based unstructured-mesh semi-implicit model is presented that integrates nonhydrostatic soundproof equations, inclusive of anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems of partial differential equations. The model numerics employ nonoscillatory forward-in-time MPDATA methods [Smolarkiewicz, 2006, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 50, 1123-1144] using finite-volume spatial discretization and unstructured meshes with arbitrarily shaped cells. Implicit treatment of gravity waves benefits both accuracy and stability of the model. The unstructured-mesh solutions are compared to equivalent structured-grid results for intricate, multiscale internal-wave phenomenon of a non-Boussinesq amplification and breaking of deep stratospheric gravity waves. The departures of the anelastic and pseudo-incompressible results are quantified in reference to a recent asymptotic theory [Achatz et al., 2010, J. Fluid Mech., 663, 120-147].
The design and application of upwind schemes on unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Jespersen, Dennis C.
1989-01-01
Solution and mesh generation algorithms for solving the Euler equations on unstructured meshes consisting of triangle and quadrilateral control volumes are presented. Cell-centered and mesh-vertex upwind finite-volume schemes are developed which utilize multi-dimensional monotone linear reconstruction procedures. These algorithms differ from existing algorithms (even on structured meshes). Numerical results in two dimensions are presented.
AN ALGORITHM FOR PARALLEL SN SWEEPS ON UNSTRUCTURED MESHES
S. D. PAUTZ
2000-12-01
We develop a new algorithm for performing parallel S{sub n} sweeps on unstructured meshes. The algorithm uses a low-complexity list ordering heuristic to determine a sweep ordering on any partitioned mesh. For typical problems and with ''normal'' mesh partitionings we have observed nearly linear speedups on up to 126 processors. This is an important and desirable result, since although analyses of structured meshes indicate that parallel sweeps will not scale with normal partitioning approaches, we do not observe any severe asymptotic degradation in the parallel efficiency with modest ({le}100) levels of parallelism. This work is a fundamental step in the development of parallel S{sub n} methods.
AN ALGORITHM FOR PARALLEL SN SWEEPS ON UNSTRUCTURED MESHES
S. D. PAUTZ
2001-03-01
We develop a new algorithm for performing parallel S{sub n} sweeps on unstructured meshes. The algorithm uses a low-complexity list ordering heuristic to determine a sweep ordering on any partitioned mesh. For typical problems and with ''normal'' mesh partitionings we have observed nearly linear speedups on up to 126 processors. This is an important and desirable result, since although analyses of structured meshes indicate that parallel sweeps will not scale with normal partitioning approaches, we do not observe any severe asymptotic degradation in the parallel efficiency with modest ({le} 100) levels of parallelism. This work is a fundamental step in the development of parallel S{sub n} methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carré, G.; Del Pino, S.; Després, B.; Labourasse, E.
2009-08-01
We describe a cell-centered Godunov scheme for Lagrangian gas dynamics on general unstructured meshes in arbitrary dimension. The construction of the scheme is based upon the definition of some geometric vectors which are defined on a moving mesh. The finite volume solver is node based and compatible with the mesh displacement. We also discuss boundary conditions. Numerical results on basic 3D tests problems show the efficiency of this approach. We also consider a quasi-incompressible test problem for which our nodal solver gives very good results if compared with other Godunov solvers. We briefly discuss the compatibility with ALE and/or AMR techniques at the end of this work. We detail the coefficients of the isoparametric element in the appendix.
Rotor Airloads Prediction Using Unstructured Meshes and Loose CFD/CSD Coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.
2008-01-01
The FUN3D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids has been modified to allow prediction of trimmed rotorcraft airloads. The trim of the rotorcraft and the aeroelastic deformation of the rotor blades are accounted for via loose coupling with the CAMRAD II rotorcraft computational structural dynamics code. The set of codes is used to analyze the HART-II Baseline, Minimum Noise and Minimum Vibration test conditions. The loose coupling approach is found to be stable and convergent for the cases considered. Comparison of the resulting airloads and structural deformations with experimentally measured data is presented. The effect of grid resolution and temporal accuracy is examined. Rotorcraft airloads prediction presents a very substantial challenge for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Not only must the unsteady nature of the flow be accurately modeled, but since most rotorcraft blades are not structurally stiff, an accurate simulation must account for the blade structural dynamics. In addition, trim of the rotorcraft to desired thrust and moment targets depends on both aerodynamic loads and structural deformation, and vice versa. Further, interaction of the fuselage with the rotor flow field can be important, so that relative motion between the blades and the fuselage must be accommodated. Thus a complete simulation requires coupled aerodynamics, structures and trim, with the ability to model geometrically complex configurations. NASA has recently initiated a Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) Project under the overall Fundamental Aeronautics Program. Within the context of SRW are efforts aimed at furthering the state of the art of high-fidelity rotorcraft flow simulations, using both structured and unstructured meshes. Structured-mesh solvers have an advantage in computation speed, but even though remarkably complex configurations may be accommodated using the overset grid approach, generation of complex structured-mesh systems can require
Parallel performance optimizations on unstructured mesh-based simulations
Sarje, Abhinav; Song, Sukhyun; Jacobsen, Douglas; Huck, Kevin; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey; Malony, Allen; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid
2015-06-01
This paper addresses two key parallelization challenges the unstructured mesh-based ocean modeling code, MPAS-Ocean, which uses a mesh based on Voronoi tessellations: (1) load imbalance across processes, and (2) unstructured data access patterns, that inhibit intra- and inter-node performance. Our work analyzes the load imbalance due to naive partitioning of the mesh, and develops methods to generate mesh partitioning with better load balance and reduced communication. Furthermore, we present methods that minimize both inter- and intranode data movement and maximize data reuse. Our techniques include predictive ordering of data elements for higher cache efficiency, as well as communication reduction approaches. We present detailed performance data when running on thousands of cores using the Cray XC30 supercomputer and show that our optimization strategies can exceed the original performance by over 2×. Additionally, many of these solutions can be broadly applied to a wide variety of unstructured grid-based computations.
Euler Flow Computations on Non-Matching Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gumaste, Udayan
1999-01-01
Advanced fluid solvers to predict aerodynamic performance-coupled treatment of multiple fields are described. The interaction between the fluid and structural components in the bladed regions of the engine is investigated with respect to known blade failures caused by either flutter or forced vibrations. Methods are developed to describe aeroelastic phenomena for internal flows in turbomachinery by accounting for the increased geometric complexity, mutual interaction between adjacent structural components and presence of thermal and geometric loading. The computer code developed solves the full three dimensional aeroelastic problem of-stage. The results obtained show that flow computations can be performed on non-matching finite-volume unstructured meshes with second order spatial accuracy.
Robust and efficient overset grid assembly for partitioned unstructured meshes
Roget, Beatrice Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan
2014-03-01
This paper presents a method to perform efficient and automated Overset Grid Assembly (OGA) on a system of overlapping unstructured meshes in a parallel computing environment where all meshes are partitioned into multiple mesh-blocks and processed on multiple cores. The main task of the overset grid assembler is to identify, in parallel, among all points in the overlapping mesh system, at which points the flow solution should be computed (field points), interpolated (receptor points), or ignored (hole points). Point containment search or donor search, an algorithm to efficiently determine the cell that contains a given point, is the core procedure necessary for accomplishing this task. Donor search is particularly challenging for partitioned unstructured meshes because of the complex irregular boundaries that are often created during partitioning. Another challenge arises because of the large variation in the type of mesh-block overlap and the resulting large load imbalance on multiple processors. Desirable traits for the grid assembly method are efficiency (requiring only a small fraction of the solver time), robustness (correct identification of all point types), and full automation (no user input required other than the mesh system). Additionally, the method should be scalable, which is an important challenge due to the inherent load imbalance. This paper describes a fully-automated grid assembly method, which can use two different donor search algorithms. One is based on the use of auxiliary grids and Exact Inverse Maps (EIM), and the other is based on the use of Alternating Digital Trees (ADT). The EIM method is demonstrated to be more efficient than the ADT method, while retaining robustness. An adaptive load re-balance algorithm is also designed and implemented, which considerably improves the scalability of the method.
Advanced Geologic Modeling Using CAD and Unstructured Meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikova, Y.; Jacquemyn, C.; Osman, H.; Gorman, G.; Hampson, G.; Jackson, M.
2015-12-01
Capturing complex, multiscale geologic heterogeneity in subsurface flow models is challenging. Surface-based modeling (SBM) offers an alternative approach to conventional grid-based methods. In SBM, all geologic features that impact the distribution of material properties, such as porosity and permeability, are modeled as volumes bounded by surfaces. Within these volumes, termed geologic domains, the material properties are constant. A typical model contains numerous such domains. The surfaces have parametric, grid-free representation which, in principle, allows for unlimited complexity, since no resolution is implied at the stage of modeling and features of any scale can be included. We demonstrate a method to create stochastic, surface-based models using computer aided design (CAD) and efficiently discretise them for flow simulation. The surfaces are represented using non-uniform, rational B-splines (NURBS), and processed in a CAD environment employing Boolean operations. We show examples of fluvial channels, fracture networks and scour events. Cartesian-like grids are not able to capture the complex geometries in these models without using excessively large numbers of grid blocks. Unstructured meshes can more efficiently approximate the geometries. However, high aspect ratio features and varying curvatures present challenges for algorithms to produce quality, unstructured meshes without excessive user interaction. We contribute an automated integrated workflow that processes the input geometry created in the CAD environment, creates the final model, and discretises it with a quality tetrahedral mesh. For computational efficiency, we use a geometry-adaptive mesh that distributes the element density and size in accordance with the geometrical complexity of the model. We show examples of finite-element flow simulations of the resulting geologic models. The new approach has broad application in modeling subsurface flow.
Unstructured Mesh Methods for the Simulation of Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, Jaime; Bibb, K. L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report describes the research work undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The aim of this research is to identify effective algorithms and methodologies for the efficient and routine solution of hypersonic viscous flows about re-entry vehicles. For over ten years we have received support from NASA to develop unstructured mesh methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics. As a result of this effort a methodology based on the use, of unstructured adapted meshes of tetrahedra and finite volume flow solvers has been developed. A number of gridding algorithms flow solvers, and adaptive strategies have been proposed. The most successful algorithms developed from the basis of the unstructured mesh system FELISA. The FELISA system has been extensively for the analysis of transonic and hypersonic flows about complete vehicle configurations. The system is highly automatic and allows for the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations starting from CAD data. The code has been parallelized and utilizes efficient solution algorithms. For hypersonic flows, a version of the, code which incorporates real gas effects, has been produced. One of the latest developments before the start of this grant was to extend the system to include viscous effects. This required the development of viscous generators, capable of generating the anisotropic grids required to represent boundary layers, and viscous flow solvers. In figures I and 2, we show some sample hypersonic viscous computations using the developed viscous generators and solvers. Although these initial results were encouraging, it became apparent that in order to develop a fully functional capability for viscous flows, several advances in gridding, solution accuracy, robustness and efficiency were required. As part of this research we have developed: 1) automatic meshing techniques and the corresponding computer codes have been delivered to NASA and implemented into the GridEx system, 2) a finite
Numerical study of Taylor bubbles with adaptive unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry
2014-11-01
The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube. This type of bubble flow regime often occurs in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, including oil-and-gas production, chemical and nuclear reactors, and heat exchangers. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of Taylor bubbles rising in a vertical pipe filled with oils of extremely high viscosity (mimicking the ``heavy oils'' found in the oil-and-gas industry). A modelling and simulation framework is presented here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rise and reduce the computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control-volume and finite-element formulation, a ``volume of fluid''-type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of Taylor bubbles are presented to show the capability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Parallel performance optimizations on unstructured mesh-based simulations
Sarje, Abhinav; Song, Sukhyun; Jacobsen, Douglas; Huck, Kevin; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey; Malony, Allen; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid
2015-06-01
This paper addresses two key parallelization challenges the unstructured mesh-based ocean modeling code, MPAS-Ocean, which uses a mesh based on Voronoi tessellations: (1) load imbalance across processes, and (2) unstructured data access patterns, that inhibit intra- and inter-node performance. Our work analyzes the load imbalance due to naive partitioning of the mesh, and develops methods to generate mesh partitioning with better load balance and reduced communication. Furthermore, we present methods that minimize both inter- and intranode data movement and maximize data reuse. Our techniques include predictive ordering of data elements for higher cache efficiency, as well as communication reduction approaches.more » We present detailed performance data when running on thousands of cores using the Cray XC30 supercomputer and show that our optimization strategies can exceed the original performance by over 2×. Additionally, many of these solutions can be broadly applied to a wide variety of unstructured grid-based computations.« less
Out-of-Core Streamline Visualization on Large Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ueng, Shyh-Kuang; Sikorski, K.; Ma, Kwan-Liu
1997-01-01
It's advantageous for computational scientists to have the capability to perform interactive visualization on their desktop workstations. For data on large unstructured meshes, this capability is not generally available. In particular, particle tracing on unstructured grids can result in a high percentage of non-contiguous memory accesses and therefore may perform very poorly with virtual memory paging schemes. The alternative of visualizing a lower resolution of the data degrades the original high-resolution calculations. This paper presents an out-of-core approach for interactive streamline construction on large unstructured tetrahedral meshes containing millions of elements. The out-of-core algorithm uses an octree to partition and restructure the raw data into subsets stored into disk files for fast data retrieval. A memory management policy tailored to the streamline calculations is used such that during the streamline construction only a very small amount of data are brought into the main memory on demand. By carefully scheduling computation and data fetching, the overhead of reading data from the disk is significantly reduced and good memory performance results. This out-of-core algorithm makes possible interactive streamline visualization of large unstructured-grid data sets on a single mid-range workstation with relatively low main-memory capacity: 5-20 megabytes. Our test results also show that this approach is much more efficient than relying on virtual memory and operating system's paging algorithms.
An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine (u)
Ferenbaugh, Charles R
2010-12-14
Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. SPU memory management strategies such as data preloading cannot be applied to the irregular memory storage patterns of unstructured meshes; and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.
An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine
Ferenbaugh, Charles R
2010-01-01
Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. The most common SPU memory management strategies cannot be applied to the irregular memory access patterns of unstructured meshes, and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongxu; Jiao, Xiangmin
2016-06-01
ENO (Essentially Non-Oscillatory) and WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) schemes are widely used high-order schemes for solving partial differential equations (PDEs), especially hyperbolic conservation laws with piecewise smooth solutions. For structured meshes, these techniques can achieve high order accuracy for smooth functions while being non-oscillatory near discontinuities. For unstructured meshes, which are needed for complex geometries, similar schemes are required but they are much more challenging. We propose a new family of non-oscillatory schemes, called WLS-ENO, in the context of solving hyperbolic conservation laws using finite-volume methods over unstructured meshes. WLS-ENO is derived based on Taylor series expansion and solved using a weighted least squares formulation. Unlike other non-oscillatory schemes, the WLS-ENO does not require constructing sub-stencils, and hence it provides a more flexible framework and is less sensitive to mesh quality. We present rigorous analysis of the accuracy and stability of WLS-ENO, and present numerical results in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D for a number of benchmark problems, and also report some comparisons against WENO.
Simulation of all-scale atmospheric dynamics on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Xiao, Feng
2016-10-01
The advance of massively parallel computing in the nineteen nineties and beyond encouraged finer grid intervals in numerical weather-prediction models. This has improved resolution of weather systems and enhanced the accuracy of forecasts, while setting the trend for development of unified all-scale atmospheric models. This paper first outlines the historical background to a wide range of numerical methods advanced in the process. Next, the trend is illustrated with a technical review of a versatile nonoscillatory forward-in-time finite-volume (NFTFV) approach, proven effective in simulations of atmospheric flows from small-scale dynamics to global circulations and climate. The outlined approach exploits the synergy of two specific ingredients: the MPDATA methods for the simulation of fluid flows based on the sign-preserving properties of upstream differencing; and the flexible finite-volume median-dual unstructured-mesh discretisation of the spatial differential operators comprising PDEs of atmospheric dynamics. The paper consolidates the concepts leading to a family of generalised nonhydrostatic NFTFV flow solvers that include soundproof PDEs of incompressible Boussinesq, anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems, common in large-eddy simulation of small- and meso-scale dynamics, as well as all-scale compressible Euler equations. Such a framework naturally extends predictive skills of large-eddy simulation to the global atmosphere, providing a bottom-up alternative to the reverse approach pursued in the weather-prediction models. Theoretical considerations are substantiated by calculations attesting to the versatility and efficacy of the NFTFV approach. Some prospective developments are also discussed.
Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.
2015-12-01
Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.
WENO schemes on arbitrary unstructured meshes for laminar, transitional and turbulent flows
Tsoutsanis, Panagiotis Antoniadis, Antonios Foivos Drikakis, Dimitris
2014-01-01
This paper presents the development and implementation of weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for viscous flows on arbitrary unstructured grids. WENO schemes up to fifth-order accurate have been implemented in conjunction with hybrid and non-hybrid unstructured grids. The schemes are investigated with reference to numerical and experimental results for the Taylor–Green vortex, as well as for laminar and turbulent flows around a sphere, and the turbulent shock-wave boundary layer interaction flow problem. The results show that the accuracy of the schemes depends on the arbitrariness of shape and orientation of the unstructured mesh elements, as well as the compactness of directional stencils. The WENO schemes provide a more accurate numerical framework compared to second-order and third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) methods, however, the fifth-order version of the schemes is computationally too expensive to make the schemes practically usable. On the other hand, the third-order variant offers an excellent numerical framework in terms of accuracy and computational cost compared to the fifth-order WENO and second-order TVD schemes. Parallelisation of the CFD code (henceforth labelled as UCNS3D), where the schemes have been implemented, shows that the present methods offer very good scalable performance.
Adaptive unstructured meshing for thermal stress analysis of built-up structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechaumphai, Pramote
1992-01-01
An adaptive unstructured meshing technique for mechanical and thermal stress analysis of built-up structures has been developed. A triangular membrane finite element and a new plate bending element are evaluated on a panel with a circular cutout and a frame stiffened panel. The adaptive unstructured meshing technique, without a priori knowledge of the solution to the problem, generates clustered elements only where needed. An improved solution accuracy is obtained at a reduced problem size and analysis computational time as compared to the results produced by the standard finite element procedure.
On essentially non-oscillatory schemes on unstructured meshes: Analysis and implementation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abgrall, R.
1992-01-01
A few years ago, the class of Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic equations and systems was constructed. Since then, some extensions have been made to multidimensional simulations of compressible flows, mainly in the context of very regular structured meshes. In this paper, we first recall and improve the results of an earlier paper about non-oscillatory reconstruction on unstructured meshes, emphasizing the effective calculation of the reconstruction. Then we describe a class of numerical schemes on unstructured meshes and give some applications for its third order version. This demonstrates that a higher order of accuracy is indeed obtained, even on very irregular meshes.
The Treatment of Reacting Surfaces for Finite-Volume Schemes on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazumder, Sandip; Lowry, Samuel A.
2001-11-01
A rigorous and robust numerical procedure to treat surface reaction boundary conditions for finite-volume schemes in unstructured meshes is presented. The procedure is applicable to arbitrary cell topologies and multistep finite-rate surface reactions of arbitrary complexity. The accuracy of the numerical procedure has been verified by systematically comparing solutions obtained using unstructured meshes with perfectly orthogonal meshes for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries. Validation results presented for gallium arsenide growth in a full-scale commercial metal organic-chemical vapor-deposition reactor, exhibit excellent match with experimental data.
Euler and Navier-Stokes computations for two-dimensional geometries using unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1990-01-01
A general purpose unstructured mesh solver for steady-state two-dimensional inviscid and viscous flows is described. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are enhanced by the simultaneous use of adaptive meshing and an unstructured multigrid technique. A method for generating highly stretched triangulations in regions of viscous flow is outlined, and a procedure for implementing an algebraic turbulence model on unstructured meshes is described. Results are shown for external and internal inviscid flows and for turbulent viscous flow over a multi-element airfoil configuration.
A comparison of gradient estimation methods for volume rendering on unstructured meshes.
Correa, Carlos D; Hero, Robert; Ma, Kwan-Liu
2011-03-01
This paper presents a study of gradient estimation methods for rendering unstructured-mesh volume data. Gradient estimation is necessary for rendering shaded isosurfaces and specular highlights, which provide important cues for shape and depth. Gradient estimation has been widely studied and deployed for regular-grid volume data to achieve local illumination effects, but has been, otherwise, for unstructured-mesh data. As a result, most of the unstructured-mesh volume visualizations made so far were unlit. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of gradient estimation methods for unstructured meshes with respect to their cost and performance. Through a number of benchmarks, we discuss the effects of mesh quality and scalar function complexity in the accuracy of the reconstruction, and their impact in lighting-enabled volume rendering. Based on our study, we also propose two heuristic improvements to the gradient reconstruction process. The first heuristic improves the rendering quality with a hybrid algorithm that combines the results of the multiple reconstruction methods, based on the properties of a given mesh. The second heuristic improves the efficiency of its GPU implementation, by restricting the computation of the gradient on a fixed-size local neighborhood. PMID:21233515
3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshak, Alexander; Davis, Anthony
Developments in three-dimensional cloud radiation over the past few decades are assessed and distilled into this contributed volume. Chapters are authored by subject-matter experts who address a broad audience of graduate students, researchers, and anyone interested in cloud-radiation processes in the solar and infrared spectral regions. After two introductory chapters and a section on the fundamental physics and computational techniques, the volume extensively treats two main application areas: the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, which is an essential aspect of climate modeling; and remote observation of clouds, especially with the advanced sensors on current and future satellite missions. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_1j826l_41z_6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.
2015-10-01
Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes are a widely applied group of monotonicity-preserving advection differencing schemes for partial differential equations in numerical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics. These schemes are typically designed for one-dimensional problems or multidimensional problems on structured equidistant quadrilateral meshes. Practical applications, however, often involve complex geometries that cannot be represented by Cartesian meshes and, therefore, necessitate the application of unstructured meshes, which require a more sophisticated discretisation to account for their additional topological complexity. In principle, TVD schemes are applicable to unstructured meshes, however, not all the data required for TVD differencing is readily available on unstructured meshes, and the solution suffers from considerable numerical diffusion as a result of mesh skewness. In this article we analyse TVD differencing on unstructured three-dimensional meshes, focusing on the non-linearity of TVD differencing and the extrapolation of the virtual upwind node. Furthermore, we propose a novel monotonicity-preserving correction method for TVD schemes that significantly reduces numerical diffusion caused by mesh skewness. The presented numerical experiments demonstrate the importance of accounting for the non-linearity introduced by TVD differencing and of imposing carefully chosen limits on the extrapolated virtual upwind node, as well as the efficacy of the proposed method to correct mesh skewness.
Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion
Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.
2000-07-27
Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.
Manem, V S K; Kohandel, M; Komarova, N L; Sivaloganathan, S
2014-05-21
In this work we discuss a spatial evolutionary model for a heterogeneous cancer cell population. We consider the gain-of-function mutations that not only change the fitness potential of the mutant phenotypes against normal background cells but may also increase the relative motility of the mutant cells. The spatial modeling is implemented as a stochastic evolutionary system on a structured grid (a lattice, with random neighborhoods, which is not necessarily bi-directional) or on a two-dimensional unstructured mesh, i.e. a bi-directional graph with random numbers of neighbors. We present a computational approach to investigate the fixation probability of mutants in these spatial models. Additionally, we examine the effect of the migration potential on the spatial dynamics of mutants on unstructured meshes. Our results suggest that the probability of fixation is negatively correlated with the width of the distribution of the neighborhood size. Also, the fixation probability increases given a migration potential for mutants. We find that the fixation probability (of advantaged, disadvantaged and neutral mutants) on unstructured meshes is relatively smaller than the corresponding results on regular grids. More importantly, in the case of neutral mutants the introduction of a migration potential has a critical effect on the fixation probability and increases this by orders of magnitude. Further, we examine the effect of boundaries and as intuitively expected, the fixation probability is smaller on the boundary of regular grids when compared to its value in the bulk. Based on these computational results, we speculate on possible better therapeutic strategies that may delay tumor progression to some extent. PMID:24462897
Ismagilov, Timur Z.
2015-02-01
This paper presents a second order finite volume scheme for numerical solution of Maxwell's equations with discontinuous dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability on unstructured meshes. The scheme is based on Godunov scheme and employs approaches of Van Leer and Lax–Wendroff to increase the order of approximation. To keep the second order of approximation near dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability discontinuities a novel technique for gradient calculation and limitation is applied near discontinuities. Results of test computations for problems with linear and curvilinear discontinuities confirm second order of approximation. The scheme was applied to modelling propagation of electromagnetic waves inside photonic crystal waveguides with a bend.
Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.
Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A
2000-05-23
The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. PMID:10811874
Fast methods for the eikonal and related Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes
Sethian, J.A.; Vladimirsky, A.
1999-12-01
The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in R{sup n} and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.
Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A
2000-05-23
The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.
SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model
O'Hirok, William
1999-01-01
SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.
Multiphase flow modelling of explosive volcanic eruptions using adaptive unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Christian T.; Collins, Gareth S.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Kramer, Stephan C.
2014-05-01
Explosive volcanic eruptions generate highly energetic plumes of hot gas and ash particles that produce diagnostic deposits and pose an extreme environmental hazard. The formation, dispersion and collapse of these volcanic plumes are complex multiscale processes that are extremely challenging to simulate numerically. Accurate description of particle and droplet aggregation, movement and settling requires a model capable of capturing the dynamics on a range of scales (from cm to km) and a model that can correctly describe the important multiphase interactions that take place. However, even the most advanced models of eruption dynamics to date are restricted by the fixed mesh-based approaches that they employ. The research presented herein describes the development of a compressible multiphase flow model within Fluidity, a combined finite element / control volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. Fluidity adopts a state-of-the-art adaptive unstructured mesh-based approach to discretise the domain and focus numerical resolution only in areas important to the dynamics, while decreasing resolution where it is not needed as a simulation progresses. This allows the accurate but economical representation of the flow dynamics throughout time, and potentially allows large multi-scale problems to become tractable in complex 3D domains. The multiphase flow model is verified with the method of manufactured solutions, and validated by simulating published gas-solid shock tube experiments and comparing the numerical results against pressure gauge data. The application of the model considers an idealised 7 km by 7 km domain in which the violent eruption of hot gas and volcanic ash high into the atmosphere is simulated. Although the simulations do not correspond to a particular eruption case study, the key flow features observed in a typical explosive eruption event are successfully captured. These include a shock wave resulting
FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.
2015-02-01
Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.
Earth As An Unstructured Mesh and Its Recovery from Seismic Waveform Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Hoop, M. V.
2015-12-01
We consider multi-scale representations of Earth's interior from thepoint of view of their possible recovery from multi- andhigh-frequency seismic waveform data. These representations areintrinsically connected to (geologic, tectonic) structures, that is,geometric parametrizations of Earth's interior. Indeed, we address theconstruction and recovery of such parametrizations using localiterative methods with appropriately designed data misfits andguaranteed convergence. The geometric parametrizations containinterior boundaries (defining, for example, faults, salt bodies,tectonic blocks, slabs) which can, in principle, be obtained fromsuccessive segmentation. We make use of unstructured meshes. For the adaptation and recovery of an unstructured mesh we introducean energy functional which is derived from the Hausdorff distance. Viaan augmented Lagrangian method, we incorporate the mentioned datamisfit. The recovery is constrained by shape optimization of theinterior boundaries, and is reminiscent of Hausdorff warping. We useelastic deformation via finite elements as a regularization whilefollowing a two-step procedure. The first step is an update determinedby the energy functional; in the second step, we modify the outcome ofthe first step where necessary to ensure that the new mesh isregular. This modification entails an array of techniques includingtopology correction involving interior boundary contacting andbreakup, edge warping and edge removal. We implement this as afeed-back mechanism from volume to interior boundary meshesoptimization. We invoke and apply a criterion of mesh quality controlfor coarsening, and for dynamical local multi-scale refinement. Wepresent a novel (fluid-solid) numerical framework based on theDiscontinuous Galerkin method.
Topographic accuracy assessment of bare earth lidar-derived unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilskie, Matthew V.; Hagen, Scott C.
2013-02-01
This study is focused on the integration of bare earth lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) data into unstructured (triangular) finite element meshes and the implications on simulating storm surge inundation using a shallow water equations model. A methodology is developed to compute root mean square error (RMSE) and the 95th percentile of vertical elevation errors using four different interpolation methods (linear, inverse distance weighted, natural neighbor, and cell averaging) to resample bare earth lidar and lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) onto unstructured meshes at different resolutions. The results are consolidated into a table of optimal interpolation methods that minimize the vertical elevation error of an unstructured mesh for a given mesh node density. The cell area averaging method performed most accurate when DEM grid cells within 0.25 times the ratio of local element size and DEM cell size were averaged. The methodology is applied to simulate inundation extent and maximum water levels in southern Mississippi due to Hurricane Katrina, which illustrates that local changes in topography such as adjusting element size and interpolation method drastically alter simulated storm surge locally and non-locally. The methods and results presented have utility and implications to any modeling application that uses bare earth lidar.
Revisiting the Least-squares Procedure for Gradient Reconstruction on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Thomas, James L. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The accuracy of the least-squares technique for gradient reconstruction on unstructured meshes is examined. While least-squares techniques produce accurate results on arbitrary isotropic unstructured meshes, serious difficulties exist for highly stretched meshes in the presence of surface curvature. In these situations, gradients are typically under-estimated by up to an order of magnitude. For vertex-based discretizations on triangular and quadrilateral meshes, and cell-centered discretizations on quadrilateral meshes, accuracy can be recovered using an inverse distance weighting in the least-squares construction. For cell-centered discretizations on triangles, both the unweighted and weighted least-squares constructions fail to provide suitable gradient estimates for highly stretched curved meshes. Good overall flow solution accuracy can be retained in spite of poor gradient estimates, due to the presence of flow alignment in exactly the same regions where the poor gradient accuracy is observed. However, the use of entropy fixes has the potential for generating large but subtle discretization errors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Barth, Timothy J.
1989-01-01
The application of Newton iteration to inviscid and viscous airfoil calculations on unstructured meshes is examined. A cell-centered finite volume scheme is employed on an unstructured mesh consisting of triangles. Roe's flux difference splitting scheme is used to compute the inviscid fluxes. Higher order accuracy is achieved by an interpolation procedure that makes use of auxiliary gradients. The efficient solution of the sparse linear system of equations which arises upon linearization in time is addressed. Results are presented for inviscid and viscous test cases. The complications which arise due to the introduction of nonlinear limiters are addressed.
Multi-scale tsunami simulation using unstructured meshes on a high-performance computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Y.; Roberts, S. G.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.
2012-12-01
Simulations play a significant role in tsunami disaster mitigation. For instance, tsunami hazards on a coastal region caused by scenario earthquakes are assessed through simulations of propagation from the source region to the coastline and the inundation process into urban regions. Tsunami propagation and inundation simulations are generally based on shallow water models with structured grids, for example, the TSUNAMI model at Tohoku University and the MOST model at NOAA. However, a tsunami is an inherently multi-scale phenomenon which has a horizontal scale of several tens or hundreds of kilometers in its generation stage and the scale of meters in the inundation stage. To deal with such multi-scale feature of tsunamis, the so-called nesting procedure is often used in which high resolution grids are nested in low resolution grids. In this case, the coupling of grids with different resolutions needs to be done carefully, or it causes an error. A more natural way to deal with such multi-scale features is to employ unstructured meshes that provide geometric flexibility and multi-scale resolution capabilities. Indeed, several prior studies showed their effectivity in tsunami simulations. When such unstructured mesh modeling is conducted on a current world-class supercomputer, such as the K computer in Japan, a very wide range of scales can be accurately and efficiently simulated using a single mesh and without nesting. In this study, we employ ANUGA which is a parallel code being developed at the Australian National University (ANU) and Geoscience Australia (GA). ANUGA uses the finite volume method to solve the shallow water equations and enables use of an unstructured mesh and tsunami inundation simulations with wetting / drying boundaries. We apply the present approach to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake which had a large-scale focal area of 200 km x 450 km and caused a devastating tsunami. The maximum run-up height of about 40 m was observed on the Sanriku coast
A Robust and Scalable Software Library for Parallel Adaptive Refinement on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lou, John Z.; Norton, Charles D.; Cwik, Thomas A.
1999-01-01
The design and implementation of Pyramid, a software library for performing parallel adaptive mesh refinement (PAMR) on unstructured meshes, is described. This software library can be easily used in a variety of unstructured parallel computational applications, including parallel finite element, parallel finite volume, and parallel visualization applications using triangular or tetrahedral meshes. The library contains a suite of well-designed and efficiently implemented modules that perform operations in a typical PAMR process. Among these are mesh quality control during successive parallel adaptive refinement (typically guided by a local-error estimator), parallel load-balancing, and parallel mesh partitioning using the ParMeTiS partitioner. The Pyramid library is implemented in Fortran 90 with an interface to the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) library, supporting code efficiency, modularity, and portability. An EM waveguide filter application, adaptively refined using the Pyramid library, is illustrated.
A three dimensional multigrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional unstructured mesh Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver is described. Turbulence is simulated using a single field-equation model. Computational overheads are minimized through the use of a single edge-based data-structure, and efficient multigrid solution technique, and the use of multi-tasking on shared memory multi-processors. The accuracy and efficiency of the code are evaluated by computing two-dimensional flows in three dimensions and comparing with results from a previously validated two-dimensional code which employs the same solution algorithm. The feasibility of computing three-dimensional flows on grids of several million points in less than two hours of wall clock time is demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.
2014-01-01
A survey of gradient reconstruction methods for cell-centered data on unstructured meshes is conducted within the scope of accuracy assessment. Formal order of accuracy, as well as error magnitudes for each of the studied methods, are evaluated on a complex mesh of various cell types through consecutive local scaling of an analytical test function. The tests highlighted several gradient operator choices that can consistently achieve 1st order accuracy regardless of cell type and shape. The tests further offered error comparisons for given cell types, leading to the observation that the "ideal" gradient operator choice is not universal. Practical implications of the results are explored via CFD solutions of a 2D inviscid standing vortex, portraying the discretization error properties. A relatively naive, yet largely unexplored, approach of local curvilinear stencil transformation exhibited surprisingly favorable properties
Parallel Finite Element Electron-Photon Transport Analysis on 2-D Unstructured Mesh
Drumm, C.R.
1999-01-01
A computer code has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann transport equation on an unstructured mesh of triangles, from a Pro/E model. An arbitriwy arrangement of distinct material regions is allowed. Energy dependence is handled by solving over an arbitrary number of discrete energy groups. Angular de- pendence is treated by Legendre-polynomial expansion of the particle cross sections and a discrete ordinates treatment of the particle fluence. The resulting linear system is solved in parallel with a preconditioned conjugate-gradients method. The solution method is unique, in that the space-angle dependence is solved si- multaneously, eliminating the need for the usual inner iterations. Electron cross sections are obtained from a Goudsrnit-Saunderson modifed version of the CEPXS code. A one-dimensional version of the code has also been develop@ for testing and development purposes.
Multigrid solution of compressible turbulent flow on unstructured meshes using a two-equation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Martinelli, L.
1991-01-01
The system of equations consisting of the full Navier-Stokes equations and two turbulence equations was solved for in the steady state using a multigrid strategy on unstructured meshes. The flow equations and turbulence equations are solved in a loosely coupled manner. The flow equations are advanced in time using a multistage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme with a stability bound local time step, while the turbulence equations are advanced in a point-implicit scheme with a time step which guarantees stability and positively. Low Reynolds number modifications to the original two equation model are incorporated in a manner which results in well behaved equations for arbitrarily small wall distances. A variety of aerodynamic flows are solved for, initializing all quantities with uniform freestream values, and resulting in rapid and uniform convergence rates for the flow and turbulence equations.
Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.
An unstructured-mesh atmospheric model for nonhydrostatic dynamics: Towards optimal mesh resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szmelter, Joanna; Zhang, Zhao; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2015-08-01
The paper advances the limited-area anelastic model (Smolarkiewicz et al. (2013) [45]) for investigation of nonhydrostatic dynamics in mesoscale atmospheric flows. New developments include the extension to a tetrahedral-based median-dual option for unstructured meshes and a static mesh adaptivity technique using an error indicator based on inherent properties of the Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA). The model employs semi-implicit nonoscillatory forward-in-time integrators for soundproof PDEs, built on MPDATA and a robust non-symmetric Krylov-subspace elliptic solver. Finite-volume spatial discretisation adopts an edge-based data structure. Simulations of stratified orographic flows and the associated gravity-wave phenomena in media with uniform and variable dispersive properties verify the advancement and demonstrate the potential of heterogeneous anisotropic discretisation with large variation in spatial resolution for study of complex stratified flows that can be computationally unattainable with regular grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelties, C.; Käser, M.
2010-12-01
We will present recent developments concerning the extensions of the ADER-DG method to solve three dimensional dynamic rupture problems on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The simulation of earthquake rupture dynamics and seismic wave propagation using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in 2D was recently presented by J. de la Puente et al. (2009). A considerable feature of this study regarding spontaneous rupture problems was the combination of the DG scheme and a time integration method using Arbitrarily high-order DERivatives (ADER) to provide high accuracy in space and time with the discretization on unstructured meshes. In the resulting discrete velocity-stress formulation of the elastic wave equations variables are naturally discontinuous at the interfaces between elements. The so-called Riemann problem can then be solved to obtain well defined values of the variables at the discontinuity itself. This is in particular valid for the fault at which a certain friction law has to be evaluated. Hence, the fault’s geometry is honored by the computational mesh. This way, complex fault planes can be modeled adequately with small elements while fast mesh coarsening is possible with increasing distance from the fault. Due to the strict locality of the scheme using only direct neighbor communication, excellent parallel behavior can be observed. A further advantage of the scheme is that it avoids spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping or filtering of synthetic seismograms. In order to test the accuracy of the ADER-DG method the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) benchmark for spontaneous rupture simulations was employed. Reference: J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, and M. Käser (2009), Dynamic rupture modeling on unstructured meshes using a discontinuous Galerkin method, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 114, B10302, doi:10.1029/2008JB006271
Development of an Unstructured Mesh Code for Flows About Complete Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, Jaime; Gupta, K. K. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report describes the research work undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under NASA Research Grant NAG4-157. The aim of this research is to identify effective algorithms and methodologies for the efficient and routine solution of flow simulations about complete vehicle configurations. For over ten years we have received support from NASA to develop unstructured mesh methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics. As a result of this effort a methodology based on the use of unstructured adapted meshes of tetrahedra and finite volume flow solvers has been developed. A number of gridding algorithms, flow solvers, and adaptive strategies have been proposed. The most successful algorithms developed from the basis of the unstructured mesh system FELISA. The FELISA system has been extensively for the analysis of transonic and hypersonic flows about complete vehicle configurations. The system is highly automatic and allows for the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations starting from CAD data. The code has been parallelized and utilizes efficient solution algorithms. For hypersonic flows, a version of the code which incorporates real gas effects, has been produced. The FELISA system is also a component of the STARS aeroservoelastic system developed at NASA Dryden. One of the latest developments before the start of this grant was to extend the system to include viscous effects. This required the development of viscous generators, capable of generating the anisotropic grids required to represent boundary layers, and viscous flow solvers. We show some sample hypersonic viscous computations using the developed viscous generators and solvers. Although this initial results were encouraging it became apparent that in order to develop a fully functional capability for viscous flows, several advances in solution accuracy, robustness and efficiency were required. In this grant we set out to investigate some novel methodologies that could lead to the
Parallel CFD Algorithms for Aerodynamical Flow Solvers on Unstructured Meshes. Parts 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) has requested my participation in the lecture series entitled Parallel Computing in Computational Fluid Dynamics to be held at the von Karman Institute in Brussels, Belgium on May 15-19, 1995. In addition, a request has been made from the US Coordinator for AGARD at the Pentagon for NASA Ames to hold a repetition of the lecture series on October 16-20, 1995. I have been asked to be a local coordinator for the Ames event. All AGARD lecture series events have attendance limited to NATO allied countries. A brief of the lecture series is provided in the attached enclosure. Specifically, I have been asked to give two lectures of approximately 75 minutes each on the subject of parallel solution techniques for the fluid flow equations on unstructured meshes. The title of my lectures is "Parallel CFD Algorithms for Aerodynamical Flow Solvers on Unstructured Meshes" (Parts I-II). The contents of these lectures will be largely review in nature and will draw upon previously published work in this area. Topics of my lectures will include: (1) Mesh partitioning algorithms. Recursive techniques based on coordinate bisection, Cuthill-McKee level structures, and spectral bisection. (2) Newton's method for large scale CFD problems. Size and complexity estimates for Newton's method, modifications for insuring global convergence. (3) Techniques for constructing the Jacobian matrix. Analytic and numerical techniques for Jacobian matrix-vector products, constructing the transposed matrix, extensions to optimization and homotopy theories. (4) Iterative solution algorithms. Practical experience with GIVIRES and BICG-STAB matrix solvers. (5) Parallel matrix preconditioning. Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization, domain-decomposed ILU, approximate Schur complement strategies.
Cloud Property Retrieval and 3D Radiative Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cahalan, Robert F.
2003-01-01
Cloud thickness and photon mean-free-path together determine the scale of "radiative smoothing" of cloud fluxes and radiances. This scale is observed as a change in the spatial spectrum of cloud radiances, and also as the "halo size" seen by off beam lidar such as THOR and WAIL. Such of beam lidar returns are now being used to retrieve cloud layer thickness and vertical scattering extinction profile. We illustrate with recent measurements taken at the Oklahoma ARM site, comparing these to the-dependent 3D simulations. These and other measurements sensitive to 3D transfer in clouds, coupled with Monte Carlo and other 3D transfer methods, are providing a better understanding of the dependence of radiation on cloud inhomogeneity, and to suggest new retrieval algorithms appropriate for inhomogeneous clouds. The international "Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes" or I3RC, program is coordinating and evaluating the variety of 3D radiative transfer methods now available, and to make them more widely available. Information is on the Web at: http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Input consists of selected cloud fields derived from data sources such as radar, microwave and satellite, and from models involved in the GEWEX Cloud Systems Studies. Output is selected radiative quantities that characterize the large-scale properties of the fields of radiative fluxes and heating. Several example cloud fields will be used to illustrate. I3RC is currently implementing an "open source" 3d code capable of solving the baseline cases. Maintenance of this effort is one of the goals of a new 3DRT Working Group under the International Radiation Commission. It is hoped that the 3DRT WG will include active participation by land and ocean modelers as well, such as 3D vegetation modelers participating in RAMI.
Terrain-driven unstructured mesh development through semi-automatic vertical feature extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilskie, Matthew V.; Coggin, David; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.
2015-12-01
A semi-automated vertical feature terrain extraction algorithm is described and applied to a two-dimensional, depth-integrated, shallow water equation inundation model. The extracted features describe what are commonly sub-mesh scale elevation details (ridge and valleys), which may be ignored in standard practice because adequate mesh resolution cannot be afforded. The extraction algorithm is semi-automated, requires minimal human intervention, and is reproducible. A lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of coastal Mississippi and Alabama serves as the source data for the vertical feature extraction. Unstructured mesh nodes and element edges are aligned to the vertical features and an interpolation algorithm aimed at minimizing topographic elevation error assigns elevations to mesh nodes via the DEM. The end result is a mesh that accurately represents the bare earth surface as derived from lidar with element resolution in the floodplain ranging from 15 m to 200 m. To examine the influence of the inclusion of vertical features on overland flooding, two additional meshes were developed, one without crest elevations of the features and another with vertical features withheld. All three meshes were incorporated into a SWAN+ADCIRC model simulation of Hurricane Katrina. Each of the three models resulted in similar validation statistics when compared to observed time-series water levels at gages and post-storm collected high water marks. Simulated water level peaks yielded an R2 of 0.97 and upper and lower 95% confidence interval of ∼ ± 0.60 m. From the validation at the gages and HWM locations, it was not clear which of the three model experiments performed best in terms of accuracy. Examination of inundation extent among the three model results were compared to debris lines derived from NOAA post-event aerial imagery, and the mesh including vertical features showed higher accuracy. The comparison of model results to debris lines demonstrates that additional
3D volume visualization in remote radiation treatment planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, David Y.; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Mun, Seong K.; Rogers, James E.; Tohme, Walid G.; Carlson, Wayne E.; May, Stephen; Yagel, Roni
1996-03-01
This paper reports a novel applications of 3D visualization in an ARPA-funded remote radiation treatment planning (RTP) experiment, utilizing supercomputer 3D volumetric modeling power and NASA ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) communication bandwidths at the Ka-band range. The objective of radiation treatment is to deliver a tumorcidal dose of radiation to a tumor volume while minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. High performance graphics computers are required to allow physicians to view a 3D anatomy, specify proposed radiation beams, and evaluate the dose distribution around the tumor. Supercomputing power is needed to compute and even optimize dose distribution according to pre-specified requirements. High speed communications offer possibilities for sharing scarce and expensive computing resources (e.g., hardware, software, personnel, etc.) as well as medical expertise for 3D treatment planning among hospitals. This paper provides initial technical insights into the feasibility of such resource sharing. The overall deployment of the RTP experiment, visualization procedures, and parallel volume rendering in support of remote interactive 3D volume visualization will be described.
Finite volume TVD formulation of lattice Boltzmann simulation on unstructured mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Dhiraj V.; Lakshmisha, K. N.
2009-08-01
A numerical scheme is presented for accurate simulation of fluid flow using the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) on unstructured mesh. A finite volume approach is adopted to discretize the LBE on a cell-centered, arbitrary shaped, triangular tessellation. The formulation includes a formal, second order discretization using a Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme for the terms representing advection of the distribution function in physical space, due to microscopic particle motion. The advantage of the LBE approach is exploited by implementing the scheme in a new computer code to run on a parallel computing system. Performance of the new formulation is systematically investigated by simulating four benchmark flows of increasing complexity, namely (1) flow in a plane channel, (2) unsteady Couette flow, (3) flow caused by a moving lid over a 2D square cavity and (4) flow over a circular cylinder. For each of these flows, the present scheme is validated with the results from Navier-Stokes computations as well as lattice Boltzmann simulations on regular mesh. It is shown that the scheme is robust and accurate for the different test problems studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.
2002-01-01
The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.
Failure of Anisotropic Unstructured Mesh Adaption Based on Multidimensional Residual Minimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.
2003-01-01
An automated anisotropic unstructured mesh adaptation strategy is proposed, implemented, and assessed for the discretization of viscous flows. The adaption criteria is based upon the minimization of the residual fluctuations of a multidimensional upwind viscous flow solver. For scalar advection, this adaption strategy has been shown to use fewer grid points than gradient based adaption, naturally aligning mesh edges with discontinuities and characteristic lines. The adaption utilizes a compact stencil and is local in scope, with four fundamental operations: point insertion, point deletion, edge swapping, and nodal displacement. Evaluation of the solution-adaptive strategy is performed for a two-dimensional blunt body laminar wind tunnel case at Mach 10. The results demonstrate that the strategy suffers from a lack of robustness, particularly with regard to alignment of the bow shock in the vicinity of the stagnation streamline. In general, constraining the adaption to such a degree as to maintain robustness results in negligible improvement to the solution. Because the present method fails to consistently or significantly improve the flow solution, it is rejected in favor of simple uniform mesh refinement.
Least-squares finite-element scheme for the lattice Boltzmann method on an unstructured mesh.
Li, Yusong; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Basu, P K
2005-10-01
A numerical model of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) utilizing least-squares finite-element method in space and the Crank-Nicolson method in time is developed. This method is able to solve fluid flow in domains that contain complex or irregular geometric boundaries by using the flexibility and numerical stability of a finite-element method, while employing accurate least-squares optimization. Fourth-order accuracy in space and second-order accuracy in time are derived for a pure advection equation on a uniform mesh; while high stability is implied from a von Neumann linearized stability analysis. Implemented on unstructured mesh through an innovative element-by-element approach, the proposed method requires fewer grid points and less memory compared to traditional LBM. Accurate numerical results are presented through two-dimensional incompressible Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and flow past a circular cylinder. Finally, the proposed method is applied to estimate the permeability of a randomly generated porous media, which further demonstrates its inherent geometric flexibility. PMID:16383571
Unstructured-mesh modeling of the Congo river-to-sea continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bars, Yoann Le; Vallaeys, Valentin; Deleersnijder, Éric; Hanert, Emmanuel; Carrere, Loren; Channelière, Claire
2016-04-01
With the second largest outflow in the world and one of the widest hydrological basins, the Congo River is of a major importance both locally and globally. However, relatively few studies have been conducted on its hydrology, as compared to other great rivers such as the Amazon, Nile, Yangtze, or Mississippi. The goal of this study is therefore to help fill this gap and provide the first high-resolution simulation of the Congo river-estuary-coastal sea continuum. To this end, we are using a discontinuous-Galerkin finite element marine model that solves the two-dimensional depth-averaged shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh. To ensure a smooth transition from river to coastal sea, we have considered a model that encompasses both hydrological and coastal ocean processes. An important difficulty in setting up this model was to find data to parameterize and validate it, as it is a rather remote and understudied area. Therefore, an important effort in this study has been to establish a methodology to take advantage of all the data sources available including nautical charts that had to be digitalized. The model surface elevation has then been validated with respect to an altimetric database. Model results suggest the existence of gyres in the vicinity of the river mouth that have never been documented before. The effect of those gyres on the Congo River dynamics has been further investigated by simulating the transport of Lagrangian particles and computing the water age.
Li, Jian; Li, Danxun; Wang, Xingkui
2012-01-01
The Xiangxi River is one of the main tributaries in the Three Gorges reservoir, with the shortest distance to the Three Gorges Project Dam. Severe and frequent algal bloom events have occurred frequently in the Xiangxi River in recent years. Therefore, the current study develops a three-dimensional unstructured-mesh model to investigate the dynamic process of algal bloom. The developed model comprises three modules, namely, hydrodynamics, nutrient cycles, and phytoplankton ecological dynamics. A number of factors, including hydrodynamic condition, nutrient concentration, temperature, and light illumination, that would affect the evolution of phytoplankton were considered. Moreover, the wave equation was used to solve the free surface fluctuations and vertical Z-coordinates with adjustable layered thicknesses. These values, in turn, are suitable for solving the algal bloom problems that occurred in the river style reservoir that has a complex boundary and dramatically changing hydrodynamic conditions. The comparisons between the modeling results and field data of years 2007 and 2008 indicate that the developed model is capable of simulating the algal bloom process in the Xiangxi River with reasonable accuracy. However, hydrodynamic force and external pollution loads affect the concentrations of nutrients, which, along with the underwater light intensity, could consequently affect phytoplankton evolution. Thus, flow velocity cannot be ignored in the analysis of river algal bloom. Based on the modeling results, building an impounding reservoir and increasing the releasing discharge at appropriate times are effective ways for controlling algal bloom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Steven; Sahni, Onkar; RPI Team
2015-11-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) provide high fidelity in which the large-scale turbulent structures are resolved while their interactions with the subgrid scales are modeled. In a Smagorinsky-based LES approach, the unresolved stresses are modeled using an eddy viscosity which in-turn involves a model parameter that is unknown a priori and varies in space and time for complex problems. Therefore, dynamic procedures are employed to determine this parameter where averaging is applied to make the procedure robust. When applicable, spatial averaging is applied across homogeneous directions. However, for complex flows the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model employing averaging over pathlines becomes attractive. In contrast to the dynamic Smagorinsky model, variational multiscale (VMS) models have also been developed for LES. In this study, we investigate dynamic mixed models for LES based on the combinations of the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model and the residual-based VMS (RBVMS) approach to study complex, inhomogeneous turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. Applications range from flow through a channel to flow over an airfoil at a moderate angle of attack. Experimental and DNS data are used to make comparisons.
Li, Jian; Li, Danxun; Wang, Xingkui
2012-01-01
The Xiangxi River is one of the main tributaries in the Three Gorges reservoir, with the shortest distance to the Three Gorges Project Dam. Severe and frequent algal bloom events have occurred frequently in the Xiangxi River in recent years. Therefore, the current study develops a three-dimensional unstructured-mesh model to investigate the dynamic process of algal bloom. The developed model comprises three modules, namely, hydrodynamics, nutrient cycles, and phytoplankton ecological dynamics. A number of factors, including hydrodynamic condition, nutrient concentration, temperature, and light illumination, that would affect the evolution of phytoplankton were considered. Moreover, the wave equation was used to solve the free surface fluctuations and vertical Z-coordinates with adjustable layered thicknesses. These values, in turn, are suitable for solving the algal bloom problems that occurred in the river style reservoir that has a complex boundary and dramatically changing hydrodynamic conditions. The comparisons between the modeling results and field data of years 2007 and 2008 indicate that the developed model is capable of simulating the algal bloom process in the Xiangxi River with reasonable accuracy. However, hydrodynamic force and external pollution loads affect the concentrations of nutrients, which, along with the underwater light intensity, could consequently affect phytoplankton evolution. Thus, flow velocity cannot be ignored in the analysis of river algal bloom. Based on the modeling results, building an impounding reservoir and increasing the releasing discharge at appropriate times are effective ways for controlling algal bloom. PMID:23520863
Lekien, Francois; Ross, Shane D
2010-03-01
We generalize the concepts of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) and Lagrangian coherent structures to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The methods are illustrated for convection cells on cylinders and Mobius strips, as well as for the splitting of the Antarctic polar vortex in the spherical stratosphere and a related point vortex model. We modify the FTLE computational method and accommodate unstructured meshes of triangles and tetrahedra to fit manifolds of arbitrary shape, as well as to facilitate dynamic refinement of the FTLE mesh.
3D Data assimilation in the radiation belts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shprits, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.; Subbotin, D.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Daae, M.; Turner, D. L.
2013-05-01
Significant progress has been made in recent years in application of the data assimilation tools to the radiation belt research. Previous studies concentrated on the analysis of radial profiles of phase space density using multi-satellite measurements and radial transport models. In this study we present analysis of the 3D phase space density using the VERB-3D code blended with CRRES observations by means of operator-splitting Kalman filtering. Assimilation electron fluxes at various energies and pitch-angles into the model allows us to utilize a vast amount of data including information on pitch-angle distributions and radial energy spectra. 3D data assimilation of the radiation belts allows us to differentiate between various acceleration and loss mechanisms. We present reanalysis of the radiation belts and find tell-tale signatures of various physical processes. 3D data assimilative VERB code with RBSP , THEMIS, and GOES data will significantly improve our capabilities in forecasting and now casting radiation belts' hazard.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Liang; Xu, Kun
2016-08-01
In this paper, for the first time a third-order compact gas-kinetic scheme is proposed on unstructured meshes for the compressible viscous flow computations. The possibility to design such a third-order compact scheme is due to the high-order gas evolution model, where a time-dependent gas distribution function at cell interface not only provides the fluxes across a cell interface, but also presents a time accurate solution for flow variables at cell interface. As a result, both cell averaged and cell interface flow variables can be used for the initial data reconstruction at the beginning of next time step. A weighted least-square procedure has been used for the initial reconstruction. Therefore, a compact third-order gas-kinetic scheme with the involvement of neighboring cells only can be developed on unstructured meshes. In comparison with other conventional high-order schemes, the current method avoids the Gaussian point integration for numerical fluxes along a cell interface and the multi-stage Runge-Kutta method for temporal accuracy. The third-order compact scheme is numerically stable under CFL condition CFL ≈ 0.5. Due to its multidimensional gas-kinetic formulation and the coupling of inviscid and viscous terms, even with unstructured meshes, the boundary layer solution and vortex structure can be accurately captured by the current scheme. At the same time, the compact scheme can capture strong shocks as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael
2015-10-01
Several advances have been reported in the recent literature on divergence-free finite volume schemes for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Almost all of these advances are restricted to structured meshes. To retain full geometric versatility, however, it is also very important to make analogous advances in divergence-free schemes for MHD on unstructured meshes. Such schemes utilize a staggered Yee-type mesh, where all hydrodynamic quantities (mass, momentum and energy density) are cell-centered, while the magnetic fields are face-centered and the electric fields, which are so useful for the time update of the magnetic field, are centered at the edges. Three important advances are brought together in this paper in order to make it possible to have high order accurate finite volume schemes for the MHD equations on unstructured meshes. First, it is shown that a divergence-free WENO reconstruction of the magnetic field can be developed for unstructured meshes in two and three space dimensions using a classical cell-centered WENO algorithm, without the need to do a WENO reconstruction for the magnetic field on the faces. This is achieved via a novel constrained L2-projection operator that is used in each time step as a postprocessor of the cell-centered WENO reconstruction so that the magnetic field becomes locally and globally divergence free. Second, it is shown that recently-developed genuinely multidimensional Riemann solvers (called MuSIC Riemann solvers) can be used on unstructured meshes to obtain a multidimensionally upwinded representation of the electric field at each edge. Third, the above two innovations work well together with a high order accurate one-step ADER time stepping strategy, which requires the divergence-free nonlinear WENO reconstruction procedure to be carried out only once per time step. The resulting divergence-free ADER-WENO schemes with MuSIC Riemann solvers give us an efficient and easily-implemented strategy for divergence-free MHD on
VISRAD, 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovkina, Viktoriya; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkin, Igor; Kulkarni, Subodh
2014-10-01
The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, LMJ, Z, and PLX. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e.g., that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. We will discuss recent improvements to the software package and plans for future developments.
VISRAD, 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yingjie; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkin, Igor
2015-11-01
The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, LMJ, Z, and PLX. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e.g., that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. We will discuss recent improvements to the software package and plans for future developments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
An agglomeration multigrid strategy is developed and implemented for the solution of three-dimensional steady viscous flows. The method enables convergence acceleration with minimal additional memory overheads, and is completely automated, in that it can deal with grids of arbitrary construction. The multigrid technique is validated by comparing the delivered convergence rates with those obtained by a previously developed overset-mesh multigrid approach, and by demonstrating grid independent convergence rates for aerodynamic problems on very large grids. Prospects for further increases in multigrid efficiency for high-Reynolds number viscous flows on highly stretched meshes are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Paul R.; Yang, Henry T. Y.; Batina, John T.
1992-01-01
Quality assessment procedures are described for two-dimensional and three-dimensional unstructured meshes. The procedures include measurement of minimum angles, element aspect ratios, stretching, and element skewness. Meshes about the ONERA M6 wing and the Boeing 747 transport configuration are generated using an advancing front method grid generation package of programs. Solutions of Euler's equations for these meshes are obtained at low angle-of-attack, transonic conditions. Results for these cases, obtained as part of a validation study demonstrate the accuracy of an implicit upwind Euler solution algorithm.
Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon
2012-01-01
A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.
Towards a 3D Space Radiation Transport Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.; Tripathl, R. K.; Cicomptta, F. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.
2002-01-01
High-speed computational procedures for space radiation shielding have relied on asymptotic expansions in terms of the off-axis scatter and replacement of the general geometry problem by a collection of flat plates. This type of solution was derived for application to human rated systems in which the radius of the shielded volume is large compared to the off-axis diffusion limiting leakage at lateral boundaries. Over the decades these computational codes are relatively complete and lateral diffusion effects are now being added. The analysis for developing a practical full 3D space shielding code is presented.
3D imaging of fetus vertebra by synchrotron radiation microtomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peyrin, Francoise; Pateyron-Salome, Murielle; Denis, Frederic; Braillon, Pierre; Laval-Jeantet, Anne-Marie; Cloetens, Peter
1997-10-01
A synchrotron radiation computed microtomography system allowing high resolution 3D imaging of bone samples has been developed at ESRF. The system uses a high resolution 2D detector based on a CCd camera coupled to a fluorescent screen through light optics. The spatial resolution of the device is particularly well adapted to the imaging of bone structure. In view of studying growth, vertebra samples of fetus with differential gestational ages were imaged. The first results show that fetus vertebra is quite different from adult bone both in terms of density and organization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a nonequilibrium flow solver, implementation of the algorithm on unstructured meshes, and application to hypersonic flow past blunt bodies. Air is modeled as a mixture of five chemical species, namely O2, N2, O, NO, and N, having two temperatures namely translational and vibrational. The solution algorithm is a cell centered, point implicit upwind scheme that employs Roe's flux difference splitting technique. Implementation of this algorithm on unstructured meshes is described. The computer code is applied to solve Mach 15 flow with and without a Type IV shock interference on a cylindrical body of 2.5mm radius representing a cowl lip. Adaptively generated meshes are employed, and the meshes are refined several times until the solution exhibits detailed flow features and surface pressure and heat flux distributions. Effects of a catalytic wall on surface heat flux distribution are studied. For the Mach 15 Type IV shock interference flow, present results showed a peak heat flux of 544 MW/m2 for a fully catalytic wall and 431 MW/m(exp 2) for a noncatalytic wall. Some of the results are compared with available computational data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Patrick; Nourgaliev, Robert; Schofield, Sam
2015-11-01
A new sharp high-order interface tracking method for multi-material flow problems on unstructured meshes is presented. The method combines the marker-tracking algorithm with a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) level set method to implicitly track interfaces. DG projection is used to provide a mapping from the Lagrangian marker field to the Eulerian level set field. For the level set re-distancing, we developed a novel marching method that takes advantage of the unique features of the DG representation of the level set. The method efficiently marches outward from the zero level set with values in the new cells being computed solely from cell neighbors. Results are presented for a number of different interface geometries including ones with sharp corners and multiple hierarchical level sets. The method can robustly handle the level set discontinuities without explicit utilization of solution limiters. Results show that the expected high order (3rd and higher) of convergence for the DG representation of the level set is obtained for smooth solutions on unstructured meshes. High-order re-distancing on irregular meshes is a must for applications were the interfacial curvature is important for underlying physics, such as surface tension, wetting and detonation shock dynamics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Information management release number LLNL-ABS-675636.
Numerical Modelling of Volcanic Ash Settling in Water Using Adaptive Unstructured Meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, C. T.; Collins, G. S.; Piggott, M. D.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.
2011-12-01
At the bottom of the world's oceans lies layer after layer of ash deposited from past volcanic eruptions. Correct interpretation of these layers can provide important constraints on the duration and frequency of volcanism, but requires a full understanding of the complex multi-phase settling and deposition process. Analogue experiments of tephra settling through a tank of water demonstrate that small ash particles can either settle individually, or collectively as a gravitationally unstable ash-laden plume. These plumes are generated when the concentration of particles exceeds a certain threshold such that the density of the tephra-water mixture is sufficiently large relative to the underlying particle-free water for a gravitational Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. These ash-laden plumes are observed to descend as a vertical density current at a velocity much greater than that of single particles, which has important implications for the emplacement of tephra deposits on the seabed. To extend the results of laboratory experiments to large scales and explore the conditions under which vertical density currents may form and persist, we have developed a multi-phase extension to Fluidity, a combined finite element / control volume CFD code that uses adaptive unstructured meshes. As a model validation, we present two- and three-dimensional simulations of tephra plume formation in a water tank that replicate laboratory experiments (Carey, 1997, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0839:IOCSOT>2.3.CO;2). An inflow boundary condition at the top of the domain allows particles to flux in at a constant rate of 0.472 gm-2s-1, forming a near-surface layer of tephra particles, which initially settle individually at the predicted Stokes velocity of 1.7 mms-1. As more tephra enters the water and the particle concentration increases, the layer eventually becomes unstable and plumes begin to form, descending with velocities more than ten times greater than those of individual
Miller, R.L.
1998-11-01
A numerically stable, accurate, and robust form of the exponential characteristic (EC) method, used to solve the time-independent linearized Boltzmann Transport Equation, is derived using direct affine coordinate transformations on unstructured meshes of tetrahedra. This quadrature, as well as the linear characteristic (LC) spatial quadrature, is implemented in the transport code, called TETRAN. This code solves multi-group neutral particle transport problems with anisotropic scattering and was parallelized using High Performance Fortran and angular domain decomposition. A new, parallel algorithm for updating the scattering source is introduced. The EC source and inflow flux coefficients are efficiently evaluated using Broyden`s rootsolver, started with special approximations developed here. TETRAN showed robustness, stability and accuracy on a variety of challenging test problems. Parallel speed-up was observed as the number of processors was increased using an IBM SP computer system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, Stephan C.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Cotter, Colin J.; Pain, Chris C.; Nelson, Rhodri B.
2010-05-01
There are many apparent advantages of the application of unstructured meshes in ocean modelling: a much better representation of the coastal boundaries, the ability to focus resolution in areas of interest, or areas of intensified flow, such as boundary currents, etc. In particular with adaptive mesh technology, where the mesh is adapted during the simulation as the flow evolves, one is able to resolve much smaller features in the often turbulent ocean flow, than would be possible with fixed, structured mesh models. The Imperial College Ocean Model[1], is a non-hydrostatic ocean model that employs fully unstructured adaptive meshes, that allow focussing of resolution not only in the horizontal but also in the vertical. This enables the modelling of physical processes, such as open ocean deep convection, density driven flows on a steep bottom topography, etc. that are very important for the global ocean circulation. The Imperial College Ocean Model has been applied succesfully in the modelling of many of these processes. On the other hand hydrostatic, layered ocean models have a significant advantage in large areas of the oceans where the hydrostatic assumption is valid. The fact that with fully unstructured meshes it is no longer straightforward to separate horizontal, baroptropic modes and vertical, baroclinic dynamics, has consequences for both numerical accuracy and the efficiency of the linear solvers. It has therefore been a challenge for ICOM to remain competitive in these areas with layered mesh models. These problems have been overcome by, amongst others, the development of a new mesh adaptation technique that maintains a columnar structure of the mesh in such areas. The application of multigrid techniques has improved the effiency of the non-hydrostatic pressure solve[2] in such a way that convergence is now independent of aspect ratio, which makes the pressure solve competitive with that of a hydrostatic model. In this contribution an overview will be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blachère, F.; Turpault, R.
2016-06-01
The objective of this work is to design explicit finite volumes schemes for specific systems of conservations laws with stiff source terms, which degenerate into diffusion equations. We propose a general framework to design an asymptotic preserving scheme, that is stable and consistent under a classical hyperbolic CFL condition in both hyperbolic and diffusive regime, for any two-dimensional unstructured mesh. Moreover, the scheme developed also preserves the set of admissible states, which is mandatory to keep physical solutions in stiff configurations. This construction is achieved by using a non-linear scheme as a target scheme for the diffusive equation, which gives the form of the global scheme for the complete system of conservation laws. Numerical results are provided to validate the scheme in both regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madura, Thomas; Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael; Icke, Vincent; Gull, Theodore
2014-09-01
We present the first results of full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in a massive binary system. We accomplish this by applying the SIMPLEX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the colliding winds in the binary system η Carinae. We use SIMPLEX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We show how the SIMPLEX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in η Car's extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SIMPLEX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the η Car system, such as the primary's mass-loss rate and the companion's temperature and luminosity. While we initially focus specifically on the η Car binary, the numerical methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR140, WR137, WR19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR104, WR98a) binary systems. One of the biggest remaining mysteries is how dust can form and survive in such systems that contain a hot, luminous O star. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SIMPLEX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Xiaohui; Cao, Yuanwei; Zhao, Yong
2016-06-01
In this paper, an unstructured mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) incompressible flow solver is developed to investigate the aerodynamics of insect hovering flight. The proposed finite-volume ALE Navier-Stokes solver is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) with a high-resolution method of characteristics-based scheme on unstructured grids. The present ALE model is validated and assessed through flow passing over an oscillating cylinder. Good agreements with experimental results and other numerical solutions are obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and the capability of the present model. The lift generation mechanisms of 2D wing in hovering motion, including wake capture, delayed stall, rapid pitch, as well as clap and fling are then studied and illustrated using the current ALE model. Moreover, the optimized angular amplitude in symmetry model, 45°, is firstly reported in details using averaged lift and the energy power method. Besides, the lift generation of complete cyclic clap and fling motion, which is simulated by few researchers using the ALE method due to large deformation, is studied and clarified for the first time. The present ALE model is found to be a useful tool to investigate lift force generation mechanism for insect wing flight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez Laguna, A.; Lani, A.; Deconinck, H.; Mansour, N. N.; Poedts, S.
2016-08-01
We present a Finite Volume scheme for solving Maxwell's equations coupled to magnetized multi-fluid plasma equations for reactive and collisional partially ionized flows on unstructured meshes. The inclusion of the displacement current allows for studying electromagnetic wave propagation in a plasma as well as charge separation effects beyond the standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) description, however, it leads to a very stiff system with characteristic velocities ranging from the speed of sound of the fluids up to the speed of light. In order to control the fulfillment of the elliptical constraints of the Maxwell's equations, we use the hyperbolic divergence cleaning method. In this paper, we extend the latter method applying the CIR scheme with scaled numerical diffusion in order to balance those terms with the Maxwell flux vectors. For the fluids, we generalize the AUSM+-up to multiple fluids of different species within the plasma. The fully implicit second-order method is first verified on the Hartmann flow (including comparison with its analytical solution), two ideal MHD cases with strong shocks, namely, Orszag-Tang and the MHD rotor, then validated on a much more challenging case, representing a two-fluid magnetic reconnection under solar chromospheric conditions. For the latter case, a comparison with pioneering results available in literature is provided.
Howard Barker; Jason Cole
2012-05-17
Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.
Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report
Jerry Y. Harrington
2012-09-21
This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.
Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS
Graziani, F
2003-07-09
In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material.
Rattner, Alexander S.; Guillen, Donna Post; Joshi, Alark; Garimella, Srinivas
2016-03-17
Photo- and physically realistic techniques are often insufficient for visualization of fluid flow simulations, especially for 3D and time-varying studies. Substantial research effort has been dedicated to the development of non-photorealistic and illustration-inspired visualization techniques for compact and intuitive presentation of such complex datasets. However, a great deal of work has been reproduced in this field, as many research groups have developed specialized visualization software. Additionally, interoperability between illustrative visualization software is limited due to diverse processing and rendering architectures employed in different studies. In this investigation, a framework for illustrative visualization is proposed, and implemented in MarmotViz, a ParaViewmore » plug-in, enabling its use on a variety of computing platforms with various data file formats and mesh geometries. Region-of-interest identification and feature-tracking algorithms incorporated into this tool are described. Implementations of multiple illustrative effect algorithms are also presented to demonstrate the use and flexibility of this framework. Here, by providing an integrated framework for illustrative visualization of CFD data, MarmotViz can serve as a valuable asset for the interpretation of simulations of ever-growing scale.« less
Alexander S. Rattner; Donna Post Guillen; Alark Joshi
2012-12-01
Photo- and physically-realistic techniques are often insufficient for visualization of simulation results, especially for 3D and time-varying datasets. Substantial research efforts have been dedicated to the development of non-photorealistic and illustration-inspired visualization techniques for compact and intuitive presentation of such complex datasets. While these efforts have yielded valuable visualization results, a great deal of work has been reproduced in studies as individual research groups often develop purpose-built platforms. Additionally, interoperability between illustrative visualization software is limited due to specialized processing and rendering architectures employed in different studies. In this investigation, a generalized framework for illustrative visualization is proposed, and implemented in marmotViz, a ParaView plugin, enabling its use on variety of computing platforms with various data file formats and mesh geometries. Detailed descriptions of the region-of-interest identification and feature-tracking algorithms incorporated into this tool are provided. Additionally, implementations of multiple illustrative effect algorithms are presented to demonstrate the use and flexibility of this framework. By providing a framework and useful underlying functionality, the marmotViz tool can act as a springboard for future research in the field of illustrative visualization.
A new spectral finite volume method for elastic wave modelling on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Chung, Eric T.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we consider a new spectral finite volume method (FVM) for the elastic wave equations. Our new FVM is based on a piecewise constant approximation on a fine mesh and a high-order polynomial reconstruction on a coarser mesh. Our new method is constructed based on two existing techniques, the high-order FVM and the spectral FVM. In fact, we will construct a new method to take advantage of both methods. More precisely, our method has two distinctive features. The first one is that the local polynomial reconstructions are performed on the coarse triangles and the reconstruction matrices for all the coarse triangles are the same. This fact enhances the parallelization of our algorithm. We will present a parallel implementation of our method and show excellent efficiency results. The second one is that, by using a suitable number of finer triangles with a coarse triangle, we obtain an overdetermined reconstruction system, which can enhance the robustness of the reconstruction process. To derive our scheme, standard finite volume technique is applied to each fine triangle, and the high-order reconstructed polynomials, computed on coarse triangles, are used to compute numerical fluxes. We will present numerical results to show the performance of our method. Our method is presented for 2-D problems, but the same methodology can be applied to 3-D.
Parameterization and analysis of 3-D radiative transfer in clouds
Varnai, Tamas
2012-03-16
This report provides a summary of major accomplishments from the project. The project examines the impact of radiative interactions between neighboring atmospheric columns, for example clouds scattering extra sunlight toward nearby clear areas. While most current cloud models don't consider these interactions and instead treat sunlight in each atmospheric column separately, the resulting uncertainties have remained unknown. This project has provided the first estimates on the way average solar heating is affected by interactions between nearby columns. These estimates have been obtained by combining several years of cloud observations at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites (in Alaska, Oklahoma, and Papua New Guinea) with simulations of solar radiation around the observed clouds. The importance of radiative interactions between atmospheric columns was evaluated by contrasting simulations that included the interactions with those that did not. This study provides lower-bound estimates for radiative interactions: It cannot consider interactions in cross-wind direction, because it uses two-dimensional vertical cross-sections through clouds that were observed by instruments looking straight up as clouds drifted aloft. Data from new DOE scanning radars will allow future radiative studies to consider the full three-dimensional nature of radiative processes. The results reveal that two-dimensional radiative interactions increase overall day-and-night average solar heating by about 0.3, 1.2, and 4.1 Watts per meter square at the three sites, respectively. This increase grows further if one considers that most large-domain cloud simulations have resolutions that cannot specify small-scale cloud variability. For example, the increases in solar heating mentioned above roughly double for a fairly typical model resolution of 1 km. The study also examined the factors that shape radiative interactions between atmospheric columns and
Radiation hardness tests of highly irradiated full-3D sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haughton, Iain; DaVia, Cinzia; Watts, Stephen
2016-01-01
Several full-3D silicon sensors (with column electrodes going fully through the bulk) were irradiated up to a fluence of (2.14±0.18)×1016 neq cm-2. An infra-red laser was used to induce a homogeneous signal within each sensor's bulk. The signal degradation, measured as a signal efficiency (signal after irradiation normalised to its value before irradiation) was determined for each fluence. The experimental set-up allowed for monitoring of the beam spot diameter, position and reflection intensity on the sensor's surface. Corrections, dependent on the measured reflection intensity, were made when calculating the signal efficiency. The sensor irradiated to the highest fluence showed a signal efficiency of (50 ± 5) %.
3D radiation hydrodynamics: Interacting photo-evaporating clumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, A. J.; Mellema, G.
2003-07-01
We present the results of a new radiation hydrodynamics code called Maartje. This code describes the evolution of a flow in three spatial dimensions using an adaptive mesh, and contains a combination of a ray tracer and an atomic physics module to describe the effects of ionizing radiation. The code is parallelized using a custom threadpool library. We present an application in which we follow the ionization of two dense spherical clumps which are exposed to an ionizing radiation field from a 50 000 K black body. We study various configurations in which one of the clumps shields the other from the ionizing photons. We find that relatively long-lived filamentary structures with narrow tails are formed. This raises the possibility that cometary knots (such as are found in the Helix Nebula) may be the result of the interaction of an ionizing radiation field with an ensemble of clumps, as opposed to the identification of a single knot with a single clump. Movies are available at http://www.edpsciences.org
3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry
2015-06-01
The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer model is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.
M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas
Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-12-31
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.
Do Fractal Models of Clouds Produces the Right 3D Radiative Effects?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Stochastic fractal models of clouds are often used to study 3D radiative effects and their influence on the remote sensing of cloud properties. Since it is important that the cloud models produce a correct radiative response, some researchers require the model parameters to match observed cloud properties such as scale-independent optical thickness variability. Unfortunately, matching these properties does not necessarily imply that the cloud models will cause the right 3D radiative effects. First, the matched properties alone only influence the 3D effects but do not completely determine them. Second, in many cases the retrieved cloud properties have been already biased by 3D radiative effects, and so the models may not match the true real clouds. Finally, the matched cloud properties cannot be considered independent from the scales at which they have been retrieved. This paper proposes an approach that helps ensure that fractal cloud models are realistic and produce the right 3D effects. The technique compares the results of radiative transfer simulations for the model clouds to new direct observations of 3D radiative effects in satellite images.
3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer modeling of η Carinae's colliding winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.; Icke, V.
We present results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system η Carinae. We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary star mass-loss rates. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing. While we initially focus on η Car, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty `pinwheel' (WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where various observed time-variable emission and absorption lines form in these unique objects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander
2010-01-01
The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.
Gong, Xing; Kirk, Michael Collins; Napoli, Josh; Stutsman, Sandy; Zusag, Tom; Khelashvili, Gocha; Chu, James
2009-07-17
To design and implement a set of quality assurance tests for an innovative 3D volumetric display for radiation treatment planning applications. A genuine 3D display (Perspecta Spatial 3D, Actuality-Systems Inc., Bedford, MA) has been integrated with the Pinnacle TPS (Philips Medical Systems, Madison WI), for treatment planning. The Perspecta 3D display renders a 25 cm diameter volume that is viewable from any side, floating within a translucent dome. In addition to displaying all 3D data exported from Pinnacle, the system provides a 3D mouse to define beam angles and apertures and to measure distance. The focus of this work is the design and implementation of a quality assurance program for 3D displays and specific 3D planning issues as guided by AAPM Task Group Report 53. A series of acceptance and quality assurance tests have been designed to evaluate the accuracy of CT images, contours, beams, and dose distributions as displayed on Perspecta. Three-dimensional matrices, rulers and phantoms with known spatial dimensions were used to check Perspecta's absolute spatial accuracy. In addition, a system of tests was designed to confirm Perspecta's ability to import and display Pinnacle data consistently. CT scans of phantoms were used to confirm beam field size, divergence, and gantry and couch angular accuracy as displayed on Perspecta. Beam angles were verified through Cartesian coordinate system measurements and by CT scans of phantoms rotated at known angles. Beams designed on Perspecta were exported to Pinnacle and checked for accuracy. Dose at sampled points were checked for consistency with Pinnacle and agreed within 1% or 1 mm. All data exported from Pinnacle to Perspecta was displayed consistently. The 3D spatial display of images, contours, and dose distributions were consistent with Pinnacle display. When measured by the 3D ruler, the distances between any two points calculated using Perspecta agreed with Pinnacle within the measurement error.
3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.
2008-12-01
DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.
A Review of 3D Radiative Transfer in Atmospheric Science: History and Outlook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiscombe, W. J.
2006-12-01
3D radiative transfer has, until recently, remained a marginal subject within atmospheric science. While some measurement techniques like lidar and radar are inherently 3D, the simplifying assumptions made in the use of such data have alleviated any need to deal with 3D radiative transfer. Cloud scenes are obviously 3D, but the crude resolution of past atmospheric models (GCMs) required clouds to be treated as 1D. Measured radiative fluxes containing 3D cloud effects were simply time-averaged until all their 3D-ness was apparently beaten out of them. The main subject which has propelled 3D radiative transfer onto center stage is, nevertheless, clouds. This is because conventional GCMs are being challenged by GCMs that have their large-scale parametrizations of cloud-related processes replaced by explicit cloud-system-resolving models. Within these new GCMs, 3D radiative transfer cannot be ignored since cloud fluctuations are resolved explicitly down to scales where 1D and 3D radiative transfer can differ markedly. This talk will attempt to identify the high points in the development of the 3D cloud radiation field. My own career interleaved with much of this history, including the strong move away from just using computers and toward field observations, and also the effort to fit the new knowledge into climate models. The 3D cloud radiation field began in the 1970s, but attracted few adherents because of severe limitations on computer time and memory, and also because of ignorance of cloud structure (beyond the qualitative classifications which had ruled for 170 years). The earliest landmarks were Monte Carlo calcuations for cubic clouds, whose main point was the drastic errors incurred by ignoring cloud 3D-ness. This line of development ramified until the early 1990s, leading finally to randomly placed cubes with sizes drawn from a probability distribution. A parallel line of development began with the landmark paper of Lovejoy in 1982, which showed that cloud
Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju
2015-01-01
SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477
3D Hydrodynamical and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Eta Carinae's Colliding Winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.; Kruip, Chael J. H.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Icke, Vincent
2015-08-01
We present the results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system Eta Carinae (Clementel, Madura, et al. 2014, MNRAS, 443, 2475 and Clementel, Madura, et al. 2015, MNRAS, 447, 2445). We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium in 3D. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary-star mass-loss rates. We show how the SimpleX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in Eta Carinae's spatially extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SimpleX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the Eta Carinae system, such as the LBV primary's mass-loss rate and the companion star's temperature and luminosity. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing (Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716). While we initially focus specifically on Eta Carinae, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty ‘pinwheel’ (WR 112, WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-04-01
At the heart of the spectacular bipolar Homunculus nebula lies an extremely luminous (5*10^6 L_sun) colliding wind binary with a highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9), 5.54-year orbit and a total mass ~ 110 M_sun. Our closest (D ~ 2.3 kpc) and best example of a pre-hypernova environment, Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions, stellar wind-wind collisions, and massive star evolution. In order to improve our knowledge of the system, we need to generate synthetic observations and compare them with the already available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer post-processing of 3D SPH hydrodynamical simulations of the interacting winds of Eta Carinae. We use SimpleX algorithm to obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, this results in ionization maps of both species that constrain the regions where these lines can form. These results will allow us to put constraints on the number of ionizing photons coming from the companion. This construction of synthetic observations allows us to obtain insight into the highly complex 3D flows in Eta, from the shape of the ionized volume and its resulting optical/spectral appearance.
Sun, Shuh-Ping; Wu, Ching-Jung
2004-01-01
This paper describes the full size solid 3D Anthropometric Model using in the positioning and verification process for radiation treatment planning of the skull of cancer patients in radiotherapy. In order to obtain a full scale 3D, solid Anthropometric Model, data is first collected through computed tomography and optical scanning. Through surface reconstruction, a model is made of the patients skull, after which rapid prototyping and rapid tooling is applied to acquire a 1:1 solid model, thus, it can replace the patient for the tumor positioning and verification in radiotherapy. The 3D Anthropometric Model are not only provide a clear picture of the external appearance, but also allow insight into the internal structure of organic bodies, which is of great advantage in radiotherapy. During radiotherapy planning, 3D Anthropometric Model can be used to simulate all kinds of situations on the simulator and the linear accelerator, without the patient needing to be present, so that the medical physicist or dosimetrist will be able to design a precise treatment plan that is tailored to the patient. The 3D Anthropometric Model production system can effectively help us solve problems related to r adiotherapy positioning and verification, helping both radiotherapists and cancer patients. We expect that the application of 3D Anthropometric Model can reduce the time that needs to be spent on pretreatment procedures and enhance the quality of health care for cancer patients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Cheng, Gary
2013-01-01
With the wide availability of affordable multiple-core parallel supercomputers, next generation numerical simulations of flow physics are being focused on unsteady computations for problems involving multiple time scales and multiple physics. These simulations require higher solution accuracy than most algorithms and computational fluid dynamics codes currently available. This paper focuses on the developmental effort for high-fidelity multi-dimensional, unstructured-mesh flow solvers using the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) framework. Two approaches have been investigated in this research in order to provide high-accuracy, cross-cutting numerical simulations for a variety of flow regimes: 1) time-accurate local time stepping and 2) highorder CESE method. The first approach utilizes consistent numerical formulations in the space-time flux integration to preserve temporal conservation across the cells with different marching time steps. Such approach relieves the stringent time step constraint associated with the smallest time step in the computational domain while preserving temporal accuracy for all the cells. For flows involving multiple scales, both numerical accuracy and efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The second approach extends the current CESE solver to higher-order accuracy. Unlike other existing explicit high-order methods for unstructured meshes, the CESE framework maintains a CFL condition of one for arbitrarily high-order formulations while retaining the same compact stencil as its second-order counterpart. For large-scale unsteady computations, this feature substantially enhances numerical efficiency. Numerical formulations and validations using benchmark problems are discussed in this paper along with realistic examples.
A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.
2015-12-01
Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.
Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.
Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K
2014-06-01
This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors. PMID:24727389
Long-term radiation belt simulation with the VERB 3-D code: Comparison with CRRES observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subbotin, D. A.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Ni, B.
2011-12-01
Highly energetic electrons in the Earth’s radiation belts are hazardous for satellite equipment. Fluxes of relativistic electrons can vary by orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms. The evolution of relativistic electron fluxes in the radiation belts is described by the 3-D Fokker-Planck equation in terms of the radial distance, energy, and equatorial pitch angle. To better understand the mechanisms that control radiation belt acceleration and loss and particle flux dynamics, we present a long-term radiation belt simulation for 100 days from 29 July to 6 November 1990 with the 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code and compare the results with the electron fluxes observed by the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). We also perform a comparison of Phase Space Density with a multisatellite reanalysis obtained by using Kalman filtering of observations from CRRES, Geosynchronous (GEO), GPS, and Akebono satellites. VERB 3-D simulations include radial, energy, and pitch angle diffusion and mixed energy and pitch angle diffusion driven by electromagnetic waves inside the magnetosphere with losses to the atmosphere. Boundary conditions account for the convective source of electrons and loss to the magnetopause. The results of the simulation that include all of the above processes show a good agreement with the data. The agreement implies that these processes are important for the radiation belt electron dynamics and therefore should be accounted for in outer radiation belt simulations. We also show that the results are very sensitive to the assumed wave model. Our simulations are driven only by the variation of the Kp index and variations of the seed electron population around geosynchronous orbit, which allows the model to be used for forecasting and nowcasting.
HERO - A 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor for accretion discs around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2015-08-01
HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) is a 3D general relativistic radiative transfer code which has been tailored to the problem of analysing radiation from simulations of relativistic accretion discs around black holes. HERO is designed to be used as a post-processor. Given some fixed fluid structure for the disc (i.e. density and velocity as a function of position from a hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic simulation), the code obtains a self-consistent solution for the radiation field and for the gas temperatures using the condition of radiative equilibrium. The novel aspect of HERO is that it combines two techniques: (1) a short-characteristics (SC) solver that quickly converges to a self-consistent disc temperature and radiation field, with (2) a long-characteristics (LC) solver that provides a more accurate solution for the radiation near the photosphere and in the optically thin regions. By combining these two techniques, we gain both the computational speed of SC and the high accuracy of LC. We present tests of HERO on a range of 1D, 2D, and 3D problems in flat space and show that the results agree well with both analytical and benchmark solutions. We also test the ability of the code to handle relativistic problems in curved space. Finally, we discuss the important topic of ray defects, a major limitation of the SC method, and describe our strategy for minimizing the induced error.
SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy
Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S
2015-06-15
Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.
Scripting in Radiation Therapy: An Automatic 3D Beam-Naming System
Holdsworth, Clay; Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M.; Phillips, Mark
2011-10-01
Scripts can be executed within the radiation treatment planning software framework to reduce human error, increase treatment planning efficiency, reduce confusion, and promote consistency within an institution or even among institutions. Scripting is versatile, and one application is an automatic 3D beam-naming system that describes the position of the beam relative to the patient in 3D space. The naming system meets the need for nomenclature that is conducive for clear and accurate communication of beam entry relative to patient anatomy. In radiation oncology in particular, where miscommunication can cause significant harm to patients, a system that minimizes error is essential. Frequent sharing of radiation treatment information occurs not only among members within a department but also between different treatment centers. Descriptions of treatment beams are perhaps the most commonly shared information about a patient's course of treatment in radiation oncology. Automating the naming system by the use of a script reduces the potential for human error, improves efficiency, enforces consistency, and would allow an institution to convert to a new naming system with greater ease. This script has been implemented in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington Medical Center since December 2009. It is currently part of the dosimetry protocol and is accessible by medical dosimetrists, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. This paper highlights the advantages of using an automatic 3D beam-naming script to flawlessly and quickly identify treatment beams with unique names. Scripting in radiation treatment planning software has many uses and great potential for improving clinical care.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-09-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in η Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work, we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in η Car. We use the SIMPLEX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post-processing 3D SPH data with SIMPLEX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for η Car.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-01-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in Eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in Eta Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post processing 3D SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for Eta Car.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C.J.H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-01-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in eta Car.We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form.We conclude that post processing 3D SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for eta Car.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumbser, Michael; Loubère, Raphaël
2016-08-01
In this paper we propose a simple, robust and accurate nonlinear a posteriori stabilization of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic PDE systems on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes in two and three space dimensions. This novel a posteriori limiter, which has been recently proposed for the simple Cartesian grid case in [62], is able to resolve discontinuities at a sub-grid scale and is substantially extended here to general unstructured simplex meshes in 2D and 3D. It can be summarized as follows: At the beginning of each time step, an approximation of the local minimum and maximum of the discrete solution is computed for each cell, taking into account also the vertex neighbors of an element. Then, an unlimited discontinuous Galerkin scheme of approximation degree N is run for one time step to produce a so-called candidate solution. Subsequently, an a posteriori detection step checks the unlimited candidate solution at time t n + 1 for positivity, absence of floating point errors and whether the discrete solution has remained within or at least very close to the bounds given by the local minimum and maximum computed in the first step. Elements that do not satisfy all the previously mentioned detection criteria are flagged as troubled cells. For these troubled cells, the candidate solution is discarded as inappropriate and consequently needs to be recomputed. Within these troubled cells the old discrete solution at the previous time tn is scattered onto small sub-cells (Ns = 2 N + 1 sub-cells per element edge), in order to obtain a set of sub-cell averages at time tn. Then, a more robust second order TVD finite volume scheme is applied to update the sub-cell averages within the troubled DG cells from time tn to time t n + 1. The new sub-grid data at time t n + 1 are finally gathered back into a valid cell-centered DG polynomial of degree N by using a classical conservative and higher order
Simulations of implosions with a 3D, parallel, unstructured-grid, radiation-hydrodynamics code
Kaiser, T B; Milovich, J L; Prasad, M K; Rathkopf, J; Shestakov, A I
1998-12-28
An unstructured-grid, radiation-hydrodynamics code is used to simulate implosions. Although most of the problems are spherically symmetric, they are run on 3D, unstructured grids in order to test the code's ability to maintain spherical symmetry of the converging waves. Three problems, of increasing complexity, are presented. In the first, a cold, spherical, ideal gas bubble is imploded by an enclosing high pressure source. For the second, we add non-linear heat conduction and drive the implosion with twelve laser beams centered on the vertices of an icosahedron. In the third problem, a NIF capsule is driven with a Planckian radiation source.
3D ultrasound Nakagami imaging for radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Shelton, Joseph; Bruner, Debrorah; Tridandapani, Srini; Liu, Tian
2014-03-01
Radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis is a debilitating side-effect affecting up to 80% of women receiving radiotherapy for their gynecological (GYN) malignancies. Despite the significant incidence and severity, little research has been conducted to identify the pathophysiologic changes of vaginal toxicity. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami shape and PDF parameters can be used to quantify radiation-induced vaginal toxicity. These Nakagami parameters are derived from the statistics of ultrasound backscattered signals to capture the physical properties (e.g., arrangement and distribution) of the biological tissues. In this paper, we propose to expand this Nakagami imaging concept from 2D to 3D to fully characterize radiation-induced changes to the vaginal wall within the radiation treatment field. A pilot study with 5 post-radiotherapy GYN patients was conducted using a clinical ultrasound scanner (6 MHz) with a mechanical stepper. A serial of 2D ultrasound images, with radio-frequency (RF) signals, were acquired at 1 mm step size. The 2D Nakagami shape and PDF parameters were calculated from the RF signal envelope with a sliding window, and then 3D Nakagami parameter images were generated from the parallel 2D images. This imaging method may be useful as we try to monitor radiation-induced vaginal injury, and address vaginal toxicities and sexual dysfunction in women after radiotherapy for GYN malignancies.
3D-radiative transfer in terrestrial atmosphere: An efficient parallel numerical procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, L. P.; Germogenova, T. A.; Nikolaeva, O. V.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Kuznetsov, V. S.
2003-04-01
Light propagation and scattering in terrestrial atmosphere is usually studied in the framework of the 1D radiative transfer theory [1]. However, in reality particles (e.g., ice crystals, solid and liquid aerosols, cloud droplets) are randomly distributed in 3D space. In particular, their concentrations vary both in vertical and horizontal directions. Therefore, 3D effects influence modern cloud and aerosol retrieval procedures, which are currently based on the 1D radiative transfer theory. It should be pointed out that the standard radiative transfer equation allows to study these more complex situations as well [2]. In recent year the parallel version of the 2D and 3D RADUGA code has been developed. This version is successfully used in gammas and neutrons transport problems [3]. Applications of this code to radiative transfer in atmosphere problems are contained in [4]. Possibilities of code RADUGA are presented in [5]. The RADUGA code system is an universal solver of radiative transfer problems for complicated models, including 2D and 3D aerosol and cloud fields with arbitrary scattering anisotropy, light absorption, inhomogeneous underlying surface and topography. Both delta type and distributed light sources can be accounted for in the framework of the algorithm developed. The accurate numerical procedure is based on the new discrete ordinate SWDD scheme [6]. The algorithm is specifically designed for parallel supercomputers. The version RADUGA 5.1(P) can run on MBC1000M [7] (768 processors with 10 Gb of hard disc memory for each processor). The peak productivity is equal 1 Tfl. Corresponding scalar version RADUGA 5.1 is working on PC. As a first example of application of the algorithm developed, we have studied the shadowing effects of clouds on neighboring cloudless atmosphere, depending on the cloud optical thickness, surface albedo, and illumination conditions. This is of importance for modern satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms development. [1] Sobolev
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niccolini, G.; Alcolea, J.
Solving the radiative transfer problem is a common problematic to may fields in astrophysics. With the increasing angular resolution of spatial or ground-based telescopes (VLTI, HST) but also with the next decade instruments (NGST, ALMA, ...), astrophysical objects reveal and will certainly reveal complex spatial structures. Consequently, it is necessary to develop numerical tools being able to solve the radiative transfer equation in three dimensions in order to model and interpret these observations. I present a 3D radiative transfer program, using a new method for the construction of an adaptive spatial grid, based on the Monte Claro method. With the help of this tools, one can solve the continuum radiative transfer problem (e.g. a dusty medium), computes the temperature structure of the considered medium and obtain the flux of the object (SED and images).
PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive
2013-06-01
IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalvin, Alan D.; Adler, Roy L.; Margulies, Joseph Y.; Tresser, Charles P.; Wu, Chai W.
1999-05-01
Decision making in the treatment of scoliosis is typically based on longitudinal studies that involve the imaging and visualization the progressive degeneration of a patient's spine over a period of years. Some patients will need surgery if their spinal deformation exceeds a certain degree of severity. Currently, surgeons rely on 2D measurements, obtained from x-rays, to quantify spinal deformation. Clearly working only with 2D measurements seriously limits the surgeon's ability to infer 3D spinal pathology. Standard CT scanning is not a practical solution for obtaining 3D spinal measurements of scoliotic patients. Because it would expose the patient to a prohibitively high dose of radiation. We have developed 2 new CT-based methods of 3D spinal visualization that produce 3D models of the spine by integrating a very small number of axial CT slices with data obtained from CT scout data. In the first method the scout data are converted to sinogram data, and then processed by a tomographic image reconstruction algorithm. In the second method, the vertebral boundaries are detected in the scout data, and these edges are then used as linear constraints to determine 2D convex hulls of the vertebrae.
Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry M.; Nookala, Prashanth; Mifflin, Rachel; Grove, Roger; Ly, Anh M.; Patyal, Baldev; Slater, Jerry D.; Yang, Gary Y.
2014-01-01
Background. While neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy has improved outcomes for esophageal cancer patients, surgical complication rates remain high. The most frequent perioperative complications after trimodality therapy were cardiopulmonary in nature. The radiation modality utilized can be a strong mitigating factor of perioperative complications given the location of the esophagus and its proximity to the heart and lungs. The purpose of this study is to make a dosimetric comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), proton and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with regard to reducing perioperative cardiopulmonary complications in esophageal cancer patients. Materials. Ten patients with esophageal cancer treated between 2010 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. All patients were simulated with contrast-enhanced CT imaging. Separate treatment plans using proton radiotherapy, IMRT, and 3D-CRT modalities were created for each patient. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and analyzed to compare plans between the three modalities. The organs at risk (OAR) being evaluated in this study are the heart, lungs, and spinal cord. To determine statistical significance, ANOVA and two-tailed paired t-tests were performed for all data parameters. Results. The proton plans showed decreased dose to various volumes of the heart and lungs in comparison to both the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans. There was no difference between the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans in dose delivered to the lung or heart. This finding was seen consistently across the parameters analyzed in this study. Conclusions. In patients receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer, proton plans are technically feasible while achieving adequate coverage with lower doses delivered to the lungs and cardiac structures. This may result in decreased cardiopulmonary toxicity and less morbidity to esophageal cancer patients. PMID:25489937
4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung.
Chin, E; Loewen, S K; Nichol, A; Otto, K
2013-02-21
Four-dimensional volumetric modulated arc therapy (4D VMAT) is a treatment strategy for lung cancers that aims to exploit relative target and tissue motion to improve organ at risk (OAR) sparing. The algorithm incorporates the entire patient respiratory cycle using 4D CT data into the optimization process. Resulting treatment plans synchronize the delivery of each beam aperture to a specific phase of target motion. Stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans for 4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT were generated on three patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour motion ranged from 1.4-3.4 cm. The dose and fractionation scheme was 48 Gy in four fractions. A B-spline transformation model registered the 4D CT images. 4D dose volume histograms (4D DVH) were calculated from total dose accumulated at the maximum exhalation. For the majority of OARs, gated VMAT achieved the most radiation sparing but treatment times were 77-148% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT plan qualities were comparable to gated VMAT, but treatment times were only 11-25% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT's improvement of healthy tissue sparing can allow for further dose escalation. Future study could potentially adapt 4D VMAT to irregular patient breathing patterns.
4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, E.; Loewen, S. K.; Nichol, A.; Otto, K.
2013-02-01
Four-dimensional volumetric modulated arc therapy (4D VMAT) is a treatment strategy for lung cancers that aims to exploit relative target and tissue motion to improve organ at risk (OAR) sparing. The algorithm incorporates the entire patient respiratory cycle using 4D CT data into the optimization process. Resulting treatment plans synchronize the delivery of each beam aperture to a specific phase of target motion. Stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans for 4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT were generated on three patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour motion ranged from 1.4-3.4 cm. The dose and fractionation scheme was 48 Gy in four fractions. A B-spline transformation model registered the 4D CT images. 4D dose volume histograms (4D DVH) were calculated from total dose accumulated at the maximum exhalation. For the majority of OARs, gated VMAT achieved the most radiation sparing but treatment times were 77-148% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT plan qualities were comparable to gated VMAT, but treatment times were only 11-25% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT's improvement of healthy tissue sparing can allow for further dose escalation. Future study could potentially adapt 4D VMAT to irregular patient breathing patterns.
Radiation Coupling with the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid CFD Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.
2012-01-01
The HARA radiation code is fully-coupled to the FUN3D unstructured-grid CFD code for the purpose of simulating high-energy hypersonic flows. The radiation energy source terms and surface heat transfer, under the tangent slab approximation, are included within the fluid dynamic ow solver. The Fire II flight test, at the Mach-31 1643-second trajectory point, is used as a demonstration case. Comparisons are made with an existing structured-grid capability, the LAURA/HARA coupling. The radiative surface heat transfer rates from the present approach match the benchmark values within 6%. Although radiation coupling is the focus of the present work, convective surface heat transfer rates are also reported, and are seen to vary depending upon the choice of mesh connectivity and FUN3D ux reconstruction algorithm. On a tetrahedral-element mesh the convective heating matches the benchmark at the stagnation point, but under-predicts by 15% on the Fire II shoulder. Conversely, on a mixed-element mesh the convective heating over-predicts at the stagnation point by 20%, but matches the benchmark away from the stagnation region.
Mass Spectrometry of 3D-printed plastic parts under plasma and radiative heat environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.
2015-11-01
We present the design and preliminary results of a mass spectrometry system used to assess vacuum compatibility of 3D-printed parts, developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). A decrease in outgassing was observed when electroplated parts were inserted in the test chamber vs. non electroplated ones. Outgassing will also be tested under different environments such as plasma and radiative heat. Heat will be generated by a titanium getter pump placed inside a 90 degree elbow, such that titanium does not coat the part. A mirror inside the elbow will be used to throttle the heat arriving at the part. Plasma exposure of 3D printed parts will be achieved by placing the parts in a separate chamber connected to the spectrometer by a vacuum line that is differentially pumped. The signals from the mass spectrometer will be analyzed to see how the vacuum conditions fluctuate under different plasma discharges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Vià, C.; Borri, M.; Dalla Betta, G.; Haughton, I.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Povoli, M.; Mendicino, R.
2015-04-01
3D sensors, with electrodes micro-processed inside the silicon bulk using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, were industrialized in 2012 and were installed in the first detector upgrade at the LHC, the ATLAS IBL in 2014. They are the radiation hardest sensors ever made. A new idea is now being explored to enhance the three-dimensional nature of 3D sensors by processing collecting electrodes at different depths inside the silicon bulk. This technique uses the electric field strength to suppress the charge collection effectiveness of the regions outside the p-n electrodes' overlap. Evidence of this property is supported by test beam data of irradiated and non-irradiated devices bump-bonded with pixel readout electronics and simulations. Applications include High-Luminosity Tracking in the high multiplicity LHC forward regions. This paper will describe the technical advantages of this idea and the tracking application rationale.
PREFACE: 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, Lars E.; Bäck, S.; Ceberg, Sofie
2015-01-01
IC3DDose 2014, the 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry was held in Ystad, Sweden, from 4-7 September 2014. This grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The 7th and last meeting was held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012. It is worth remembering that the conference series started at the very beginning of the intensity modulated radiotherapy era and that the dosimeters being developed then were, to some extent, ahead of the clinical need of radiotherapy. However, since then the technical developments in radiation therapy have been dramatic, with dynamic treatments, including tracking, gating and volumetric modulated arc therapy, widely introduced in the clinic with the need for 3D dosimetry thus endless. This was also reflected by the contributions at the meeting in Ystad. Accordingly the scope of the meeting has also broadened to IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose. A multitude of dosimetry techniques and radiation detectors are now represented, all with the common denominator: three-dimensional or 3D. Additionally, quality assurance (QA) procedures and other aspects of clinical dosimetry are represented. The implementation of new dosimetric techniques in radiotherapy is a process that needs every kind of caution, carefulness and thorough validation. Therefore, the clinical needs, reformulated as the aims for IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose, are: • Enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatments through improved clinical dosimetry. • Investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatment techniques. • Provide
A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging
Payne, Allison; Bever, Josh de; Farrer, Alexis; Coats, Brittany; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.
2015-02-15
Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison
Characterization of a parallel beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.
2006-12-01
This paper describes the initial steps we have taken in establishing CCD based optical-CT as a viable alternative for 3-D radiation dosimetry. First, we compare the optical density (OD) measurements from a high quality test target and variable neutral density filter (VNDF). A modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections is derived for three positions of the sinusoidal test target within the scanning tank. Our CCD is then characterized in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, a sample reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGETM (registered trademark of Heuris Pharma, NJ, Skillman, USA.) dosimeter is given, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus.
Visualization of 3D osteon morphology by synchrotron radiation micro-CT
Cooper, D M L; Erickson, B; Peele, A G; Hannah, K; Thomas, C D L; Clement, J G
2011-01-01
Cortical bone histology has been the subject of scientific inquiry since the advent of the earliest microscopes. Histology – literally the study of tissue – is a field nearly synonymous with 2D thin sections. That said, progressive developments in high-resolution X-ray imaging are enabling 3D visualization to reach ever smaller structures. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), employing conventional X-ray sources, has become the gold standard for 3D analysis of trabecular bone and is capable of detecting the structure of vascular (osteonal) porosity in cortical bone. To date, however, direct 3D visualization of secondary osteons has eluded micro-CT based upon absorption-derived contrast. Synchrotron radiation micro-CT, through greater image quality, resolution and alternative contrast mechanisms (e.g. phase contrast), holds great potential for non-destructive 3D visualization of secondary osteons. Our objective was to demonstrate this potential and to discuss areas of bone research that can be advanced through the application of this approach. We imaged human mid-femoral cortical bone specimens derived from a 20-year-old male (Melbourne Femur Collection) at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron (Chicago, IL, USA) using the 2BM beam line. A 60-mm distance between the target and the detector was employed to enhance visualization of internal structures through propagation phase contrast. Scan times were 1 h and images were acquired with 1.4-μm nominal isotropic resolution. Computer-aided manual segmentation and volumetric 3D rendering were employed to visualize secondary osteons and porous structures, respectively. Osteonal borders were evident via two contrast mechanisms. First, relatively new (hypomineralized) osteons were evident due to differences in X-ray attenuation relative to the surrounding bone. Second, osteon boundaries (cement lines) were delineated by phase contrast. Phase contrast also enabled the detection of soft tissue remnants within the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanzo, Davide; Siviglia, Annunziato; Toro, Eleuterio F.
2016-09-01
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, using the Cattaneo's relaxation approach, we reformulate the system of governing equations for the pollutant transport by shallow water flows over non-flat topography and anisotropic diffusion as hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms. The proposed relaxation system circumvents the infinite wave speed paradox which is inherent in standard advection-diffusion models. This turns out to give a larger stability range for the choice of the time step. Second, following a flux splitting approach, we derive a novel numerical method to discretise the resulting problem. In particular, we propose a new flux splitting and study the associated two systems of differential equations, called the "hydrodynamic" and the "relaxed diffusive" system, respectively. For the presented splitting we analyse the resulting two systems of differential equations and propose two discretisation schemes of the Godunov-type. These schemes are simple to implement, robust, accurate and fast when compared with existing methods. The resulting method is implemented on unstructured meshes and is systematically assessed for accuracy, robustness and efficiency on a carefully selected suite of test problems including non-flat topography and wetting and drying problems. Formal second order accuracy is assessed through convergence rates studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on numerical and practical aspects associated with a parallel implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible wall-bounded turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. A zonal wall model based on the solution of unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a separate near-wall grid is implemented in an unstructured, cell-centered finite-volume LES solver. The main challenge in its implementation is to couple two parallel, unstructured flow solvers for efficient boundary data communication and simultaneous time integrations. A coupling strategy with good load balancing and low processors underutilization is identified. Face mapping and interpolation procedures at the coupling interface are explained in detail. The method of manufactured solution is used for verifying the correct implementation of solver coupling, and parallel performance of the combined wall-modeled LES (WMLES) solver is investigated. The method has successfully been applied to several attached and separated flows, including a transitional flow over a flat plate and a separated flow over an airfoil at an angle of attack.
Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-d Cultures After Particle Irradiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Z. S.; Kidane, Y. H.; Huff, J. L.
2014-01-01
In this work, we evaluate the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Reducing uncertainties in current risk models requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. We are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models that provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information. We identified 45 statistically significant gene sets at 0.05 q-value cutoff, including 14 gene sets common to gamma and titanium irradiation, 19 gene sets specific to gamma irradiation, and 12 titanium-specific gene sets. Common gene sets largely align with DNA damage, cell cycle, early immune response, and inflammatory cytokine pathway activation. The top gene set enriched for the gamma- and titanium-irradiated samples involved KRAS pathway activation and genes activated in TNF-treated cells, respectively. Another difference noted for the high-LET samples was an apparent enrichment in gene sets involved in cycle cycle/mitotic control. It is
Dynamic Implicit 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion
Philip, Bobby; Wang, Zhen; Berrill, Mark A; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel; Pernice, Michael
2014-01-01
The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multiphysics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent linear solver convergence.
STEMS3D: An X-ray spectral model for magnetar persistent radiations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gogus, Ersin; Weng, Shan-Shan
2016-07-01
Anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters are recognized as the most promising magnetar candidates, as indicated by their energetic bursts and rapid spin-downs. It is expected that the strong magnetic field leaves distinctive imprints on the emergent radiation both by affecting the radiative processes in atmospheres of magnetars and by scattering in the upper magnetospheres. We construct a self-consistent physical model that incorporates emission from the magnetar surface and its reprocessing in the three-dimensional twisted magnetosphere using a Monte Carlo technique. The synthetic spectra are characterized by four parameters: surface temperature kT, surface magnetic field strength B, magnetospheric twist angle Δφ, and the normalized electron velocity β. We also create a tabular model (STEMS3D) and apply it to X-ray spectra of magnetars.
Time-Accurate, Unstructured-Mesh Navier-Stokes Computations with the Space-Time CESE Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2006-01-01
Application of the newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to compressible Navier-Stokes equations is studied. In contrast to Euler equations solvers, several issues such as boundary conditions, numerical dissipation, and grid stiffness warrant systematic investigations and validations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions applied at the truncated boundary are also investigated from the stand point of acoustic wave propagation. Validations of the numerical solutions are performed by comparing with exact solutions for steady-state as well as time-accurate viscous flow problems. The test cases cover a broad speed regime for problems ranging from acoustic wave propagation to 3D hypersonic configurations. Model problems pertinent to hypersonic configurations demonstrate the effectiveness of the CESE method in treating flows with shocks, unsteady waves, and separations. Good agreement with exact solutions suggests that the space-time CESE method provides a viable alternative for time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations of a broad range of problems.
Displaying 3D radiation dose on endoscopic video for therapeutic assessment and surgical guidance.
Qiu, Jimmy; Hope, Andrew J; Cho, B C John; Sharpe, Michael B; Dickie, Colleen I; DaCosta, Ralph S; Jaffray, David A; Weersink, Robert A
2012-10-21
We have developed a method to register and display 3D parametric data, in particular radiation dose, on two-dimensional endoscopic images. This registration of radiation dose to endoscopic or optical imaging may be valuable in assessment of normal tissue response to radiation, and visualization of radiated tissues in patients receiving post-radiation surgery. Electromagnetic sensors embedded in a flexible endoscope were used to track the position and orientation of the endoscope allowing registration of 2D endoscopic images to CT volumetric images and radiation doses planned with respect to these images. A surface was rendered from the CT image based on the air/tissue threshold, creating a virtual endoscopic view analogous to the real endoscopic view. Radiation dose at the surface or at known depth below the surface was assigned to each segment of the virtual surface. Dose could be displayed as either a colorwash on this surface or surface isodose lines. By assigning transparency levels to each surface segment based on dose or isoline location, the virtual dose display was overlaid onto the real endoscope image. Spatial accuracy of the dose display was tested using a cylindrical phantom with a treatment plan created for the phantom that matched dose levels with grid lines on the phantom surface. The accuracy of the dose display in these phantoms was 0.8-0.99 mm. To demonstrate clinical feasibility of this approach, the dose display was also tested on clinical data of a patient with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy, with estimated display accuracy of ∼2-3 mm. The utility of the dose display for registration of radiation dose information to the surgical field was further demonstrated in a mock sarcoma case using a leg phantom. With direct overlay of radiation dose on endoscopic imaging, tissue toxicities and tumor response in endoluminal organs can be directly correlated with the actual tissue dose, offering a more nuanced assessment of normal tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong; Park, Hoon-Hee
2012-04-01
This study quantified, evaluated and analyzed the radiation dose to which tumors and normal tissues were exposed in 3D conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and tomotherapy by using a dose volume histogram (DVH) that represented the volume dose and the dose distribution of anatomical structures in the evaluation of treatment planning. Furthermore, a comparison was made for the dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) of organ to be treated based on the change in field size for three- and four-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT and 4D-CT) (gating based) and in the histogram with a view to proving the usefulness of 4D-CT therapy, which corresponds to respiration-gated radiation therapy. According to the study results, a comparison of 3D CRT, IMRT with a linear accelerator (LINAC), and tomotherapy demonstrated that the GTV of the cranium was higher for tomotherapy than for 3D CRT and IMRT with a LINAC by 5.2% and 4.6%, respectively. The GTV of the neck was higher for tomotherapy than for 3D CRT and IMRT with a LINAC by 6.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The GTV of the pelvis was higher for tomotherapy than for 3D CRT and IMRT with a LINAC by 8.6% and 3.7%, respectively. When the comparison was made for the 3D-CT and the 4D-CT (gating based) treatment equipment, the GTV and the PTV became smaller for 4D-CT treatment planning than for 3D-CT, which could reduce the area in which normal tissues in the surroundings are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. In addition, when 4D-CT treatment planning (gating based) was used, the radiation dose could be concentrated on the GTV, CTV or PTV, which meant that the treatment area exceeded that when 3D-CT's treatment planning was used. Moreover, the radiation dose on nearby normal tissues could be reduced. When 4D-CT treatment planning (gating based) was utilized, unnecessary areas that were exposed to a radiation dose could be reduced more than they could
Analysis of the radiative lifetime of Pr{sup 3+} d-f emission
Zych, Aleksander; Lange, Matthijs de; Mello Donega, Celso de; Meijerink, Andries
2012-07-01
The radiative lifetime of excited states is governed by Fermi's Golden Rule. For many applications, the radiative decay rate is an important parameter. For example, for scintillators materials in PET scanners, a short response time is crucial and it has been realized that the d-f emission of Pr{sup 3+} is faster than for the widely applied d-f emission from Ce{sup 3+}. In this paper, the radiative decay rate of d-f emission from Pr{sup 3+} is systematically investigated in a wide variety of host lattices, including scintillators materials. The variation in the decay rate is analyzed based on Fermi's Golden Rule. The trend observed is best described using a full cavity model to correct for local-field effects and a {lambda}{sup 3} factor to account for the energy of the transition. Still, there is a considerable scatter of the experimental data around the best fit to these data. The variation is explained by uncertainties in the refractive indices and a variation in the transition dipole moment of the d-f transition for Pr{sup 3+}. Based on the results, the shortest radiative lifetime that can be achieved for Pr{sup 3+} d-f emission is predicted to be {approx}6 ns.
Radiation-induced second cancers: the impact of 3D-CRT and IMRT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Eric J.; Wuu, Cheng-Shie
2003-01-01
Information concerning radiation-induced malignancies comes from the A-bomb survivors and from medically exposed individuals, including second cancers in radiation therapy patients. The A-bomb survivors show an excess incidence of carcinomas in tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract, breast, thyroid, and bladder, which is linear with dose up to about 2.5 Sv. There is great uncertainty concerning the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced carcinogenesis at higher doses. Some animal and human data suggest a decrease at higher doses, usually attributed to cell killing; other data suggest a plateau in dose. Radiotherapy patients also show an excess incidence of carcinomas, often in sites remote from the treatment fields; in addition there is an excess incidence of sarcomas in the heavily irradiated in-field tissues. The transition from conventional radiotherapy to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) involves a reduction in the volume of normal tissues receiving a high dose, with an increase in dose to the target volume that includes the tumor and a limited amount of normal tissue. One might expect a decrease in the number of sarcomas induced and also (less certain) a small decrease in the number of carcinomas. All around, a good thing. By contrast, the move from 3D-CRT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) involves more fields, and the dose-volume histograms show that, as a consequence, a larger volume of normal tissue is exposed to lower doses. In addition, the number of monitor units is increased by a factor of 2 to 3, increasing the total body exposure, due to leakage radiation. Both factors will tend to increase the risk of second cancers. Altogether, IMRT is likely to almost double the incidence of second malignancies compared with conventional radiotherapy from about 1% to 1.75% for patients surviving 10 years. The numbers may be larger for longer survival (or for younger patients), but the ratio should remain the same.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander
2016-03-01
We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.
3-D UNSTRUCTURED HEXAHEDRAL-MESH Sn TRANSPORT METHODS
J. MOREL; J. MCGHEE; ET AL
2000-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a method for solving the neutral-particle transport equation on 3-D unstructured hexahedral meshes using a S{sub n} discretization in angle in conjunction with a discontinuous finite-element discretization in space and a multigroup discretization in energy. Previous methods for solving this equation in 3-D have been limited to rectangular meshes. The unstructured-mesh method that we have developed is far more efficient for solving problems with complex 3-D geometric features than rectangular-mesh methods. In spite of having to make several compromises in our spatial discretization technique and our iterative solution technique, our method has been found to be both accurate and efficient for a broad class of problems.
Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.
2014-03-01
Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.
New Insights on Pulsating White Dwarfs from 3D Radiation-Hydrodynamical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter
2015-08-01
We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of 70 pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 7.0 < log g < 9.0. This includes the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where DA white dwarfs are pulsating, by far the most common type of degenerate pulsators. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We will compare our new models with the observed sample of ZZ Ceti stars and highlight the improved derived properties of these objects. In particular, the new spectroscopically determined 3D atmospheric parameters allow for an improved definition of instability strip edges. We have also made new predictions for the size of convection zones, which significantly impact the position where the pulsations are driven, and the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate. Finally, we will present new results from non-adiabatic pulsation calculations.
Migration of Earth-sized planets in 3D radiative discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.; Morbidelli, A.
2014-05-01
In this paper, we address the migration of small-mass planets in 3D radiative discs. Indeed, migration of small planets is known to be too fast inwards in locally isothermal conditions. However, thermal effects could reverse its direction, potentially saving planets in the inner, optically thick parts of the protoplanetary disc. This effect has been seen for masses larger than 5 Earth masses, but the minimum mass for this to happen has never been probed numerically, although it is of crucial importance for planet formation scenarios. We have extended the hydrodynamical code FARGO to 3D, with thermal diffusion. With this code, we perform simulations of embedded planets down to 2 Earth masses. For a set of discs' parameters for which outward migration has been shown in the range of [5, 35] Earth masses, we find that the transition to inward migration occurs for masses in the range [3, 5] Earth masses. The transition appears to be due to an unexpected phenomenon: the formation of an asymmetric cold and dense finger of gas driven by circulation and libration streamlines. We recover this phenomenon in 2D simulations where we control the cooling effects of the gas through a simple modelling of the energy equation.
3D quantification of brain microvessels exposed to heavy particle radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hintermüller, C.; Coats, J. S.; Obenaus, A.; Nelson, G.; Krucker, T.; Stampanoni, M.
2009-09-01
Space radiation with high energy particles and cosmic rays presents a significant hazard to spaceflight crews. Recent reviews of the health risk to astronauts from ionizing radiation concluded to establish a level of risk which may indicate the possible performance decrements and decreased latency of late dysfunction syndromes (LDS) of the brain. A hierarchical imaging approach developed at ETH Zürich and PSI, which relies on synchrotron based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM), was used to visualize and analyze 3D vascular structures down to the capillary level in their precise anatomical context. Various morphological parameters, such as overall vessel volume, vessel thickness and spacing, are extracted to characterize the vascular structure within a region of interest. For a first quantification of the effect of high energy particles on the vasculature we scanned a set of 6 animals, all of same age. The animals were irradiated with 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 4 Gy of 600MeV 56Fe heavy particles simulating the space radiation environment. We found that with increasing dose the diameter of vessels and the overall vessel volume are decreased whereas the vessel spacing is increased. As these parameters reflect blood flow in three-dimensional space they can be used as indicators for the degree of vascular efficiency which can have an impact on the function and development of lung tissue or tumors.
An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark
2015-03-01
The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability post-irradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2-22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3-24 h, 2-6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given
An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification
Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark
2016-01-01
The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability postirradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2–22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3–24 h, 2–6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given to the
Development of a patient-specific 3D dose evaluation program for QA in radiation therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Suk; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Cao, Yuan Jie; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong
2015-03-01
We present preliminary results for a 3-dimensional dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient-specific 3-dimensional dose real evaluation system). Scanned computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using dosimetry were transferred to the radiation treatment planning system (ECLIPSE, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) where the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) nasopharynx plan was designed. We used a 10 MV photon beam (CLiX, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) to deliver the nasopharynx treatment plan. After irradiation, the TENOMAG dosimeter was scanned using a VISTA ™ scanner. The scanned data were reconstructed using VistaRecon software to obtain a 3D dose distribution of the optical density. An optical-CT scanner was used to readout the dose distribution in the gel dosimeter. Moreover, we developed the P DRESS by using Flatform, which were developed by our group, to display the 3D dose distribution by loading the DICOM RT data which are exported from the radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) and the optical-CT reconstructed VFF file, into the independent P DRESS with an ioniz ation chamber and EBT film was used to compare the dose distribution calculated from the RTP with that measured by using a gel dosimeter. The agreement between the normalized EBT, the gel dosimeter and RTP data was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods, such as the isodose distribution, dose difference, point value, and profile. The profiles showed good agreement between the RTP data and the gel dosimeter data, and the precision of the dose distribution was within ±3%. The results from this study showed significantly discrepancies between the dose distribution calculated from the treatment plan and the dose distribution measured by a TENOMAG gel and by scanning with an optical CT scanner. The 3D dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient specific dose real evaluation system), which were developed in this study evaluates the accuracies of the three-dimensional dose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salinas, P.; Jackson, M.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Adam, A.; Xie, Z.; Percival, J. R.
2015-12-01
We present a new, high-order, control-volume-finite-element (CVFE) method with discontinuous representation for pressure and velocity to simulate multiphase flow in heterogeneous porous media. Time is discretized using an adaptive, fully implicit method. Heterogeneous geologic features are represented as volumes bounded by surfaces. Within these volumes, termed geologic domains, the material properties are constant. A given model typically contains numerous such geologic domains. Our approach conserves mass and does not require the use of CVs that span domain boundaries. Computational efficiency is increased by use of dynamic mesh optimization, in which an unstructured mesh adapts in space and time to key solution fields, such as pressure, velocity or saturation, whilst preserving the geometry of the geologic domains. Up-, cross- or down-scaling of material properties during mesh optimization is not required, as the properties are uniform within each geologic domain. We demonstrate that the approach, amongst other features, accurately preserves sharp saturation changes associated with high aspect ratio geologic domains such as fractures and mudstones, allowing efficient simulation of flow in highly heterogeneous models. Moreover, accurate solutions are obtained at significantly lower computational cost than an equivalent fine, fixed mesh and conventional CVFE methods. The use of implicit time integration allows the method to efficiently converge using highly anisotropic meshes without having to reduce the time-step. The work is significant for two key reasons. First, it resolves a long-standing problem associated with the use of classical CVFE methods to model flow in highly heterogeneous porous media, in which CVs span boundaries between domains of contrasting material properties. Second, it reduces computational cost/increases solution accuracy through the use of dynamic mesh optimization and time-stepping with large Courant number.
Michalski, Jeff; Winter, Kathryn; Roach, Mack; Markoe, Arnold; Sandler, Howard M.; Ryu, Janice; Parliament, Matthew; Purdy, James A.; Valicenti, Richard K.; Cox, James D.
2012-07-01
Purpose: Report of clinical cancer control outcomes on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406, a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) dose escalation trial for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: RTOG 9406 is a Phase I/II multi-institutional dose escalation study of 3D-CRT for men with localized prostate cancer. Patients were registered on five sequential dose levels: 68.4 Gy, 73.8 Gy, 79.2 Gy, 74 Gy, and 78 Gy with 1.8 Gy/day (levels I-III) or 2.0 Gy/day (levels IV and V). Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) from 2 to 6 months was allowed. Protocol-specific, American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), and Phoenix biochemical failure definitions are reported. Results: Thirty-four institutions enrolled 1,084 patients and 1,051 patients are analyzable. Median follow-up for levels I, II, III, IV, and V was 11.7, 10.4, 11.8, 10.4, and 9.2 years, respectively. Thirty-six percent of patients received NHT. The 5-year overall survival was 90%, 87%, 88%, 89%, and 88% for dose levels I-V, respectively. The 5-year clinical disease-free survival (excluding protocol prostate-specific antigen definition) for levels I-V is 84%, 78%, 81%, 82%, and 82%, respectively. By ASTRO definition, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 57%, 59%, 52%, 64% and 75% (low risk); 46%, 52%, 54%, 56%, and 63% (intermediate risk); and 50%, 34%, 46%, 34%, and 61% (high risk) for levels I-V, respectively. By the Phoenix definition, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 68%, 73%, 67%, 84%, and 80% (low risk); 70%, 62%, 70%, 74%, and 69% (intermediate risk); and 42%, 62%, 68%, 54%, and 67% (high risk) for levels I-V, respectively. Conclusion: Dose-escalated 3D-CRT yields favorable outcomes for localized prostate cancer. This multi-institutional experience allows comparison to other experiences with modern radiation therapy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jinya, John; Bipasha, Paul S.
2016-05-01
Clouds strongly modulate the Earths energy balance and its atmosphere through their interaction with the solar and terrestrial radiation. They interact with radiation in various ways like scattering, emission and absorption. By observing these changes in radiation at different wavelength, cloud properties can be estimated. Cloud properties are of utmost importance in studying different weather and climate phenomena. At present, no satellite provides cloud microphysical parameters over the Indian region with high temporal resolution. INSAT-3D imager observations in 6 spectral channels from geostationary platform offer opportunity to study continuous cloud properties over Indian region. Visible (0.65 μm) and shortwave-infrared (1.67 μm) channel radiances can be used to retrieve cloud microphysical parameters such as cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud effective radius (CER). In this paper, we have carried out a feasibility study with the objective of cloud microphysics retrieval. For this, an inter-comparison of 15 globally available radiative transfer models (RTM) were carried out with the aim of generating a Look-up- Table (LUT). SBDART model was chosen for the simulations. The sensitivity of each spectral channel to different cloud properties was investigated. The inputs to the RT model were configured over our study region (50°S - 50°N and 20°E - 130°E) and a large number of simulations were carried out using random input vectors to generate the LUT. The determination of cloud optical thickness and cloud effective radius from spectral reflectance measurements constitutes the inverse problem and is typically solved by comparing the measured reflectances with entries in LUT and searching for the combination of COT and CER that gives the best fit. The products are available on the website www.mosdac.gov.in
Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion
B. Philip; Z. Wang; M.A. Berrill; M. Birke; M. Pernice
2014-04-01
The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.
3D Radiative MHD Modeling of Quiet-Sun Magnetic Activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitiashvili, Irina
2016-05-01
Quiet-Sun regions that cover most of the solar surface represent a background state that plays an extremely important role in the dynamics and energetics of the solar atmosphere. A clear understanding of these regions is required for accurate interpretation of solar activity events such as emergence of magnetic flux, sunspot formation, and eruptive dynamics. Modern high-resolution observations from ground and space telescopes have revealed a complicated dynamics of turbulent magnetoconvection and its effects in the solar atmosphere and corona, showing intense interactions across different temporal and spatial scales. Interpretation of the observed complex phenomena and understanding of their origins is impossible without advanced numerical models. I will present new results of realistic-type 3D radiative MHD simulations of the upper turbulent convective layer and atmosphere of the Sun. The results reveal the mechanism of formation and properties of the Sun’s “magnetic carpet” controlled by subsurface small-scale dynamo processes, and demonstrate interaction between the subsurface layers and the atmosphere via spontaneous small-scale eruptions and wave phenomena. To link the simulations to solar data the spectro-polarimetric radiative transfer code SPINOR is used to convert the simulated data into the Stokes profiles of various spectral lines, including the SDO and Hinode observables. The results provide a detailed physical understanding of the quiet-Sun dynamics, and show potential for future observations with the DKIST and other large solar telescopes.
FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces
Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.
1992-08-01
A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.
FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces
Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.
1992-08-01
A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.
Dosimetry in brain tumor phantom at 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy
2013-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, aggressive, highly malignant and infiltrative of all brain tumors with low rate of control. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a GBM simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Such phantom holds the following synthetic structures: brain and spinal cord, skull, cervical and thoracic vertebrae, jaw, hyoid bone, laryngeal cartilages, head and neck muscles and skin. Computer tomography (CT) of the simulator was taken, capturing a set of contrasted references. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples at coronal, sagittal-anterior and sagittal-posterior positions, inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, measured at coronal section, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. And, as final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. PMID:23829593
Study of a non-diffusing radiochromic gel dosimeter for 3D radiation dose imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsden, Craig Michael
2000-12-01
This thesis investigates the potential of a new radiation gel dosimeter, based on nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBTZ) suspended in a gelatin mold. Unlike all Fricke based gel dosimeters this dosimeter does not suffer from diffusive loss of image stability. Images are obtained by an optical tomography method. Nitro blue tetrazolium is a common biological indicator that when irradiated in an aqueous medium undergoes reduction to a highly colored formazan, which has an absorbance maximum at 525nm. Tetrazolium is water soluble while the formazan product is insoluble. The formazan product sticks to the gelatin matrix and the dose image is maintained for three months. Methods to maximize the sensitivity of the system were evaluated. It was found that a chemical detergent, Triton X-100, in combination with sodium formate, increased the dosimeter sensitivity significantly. An initial G-value of formazan production for a dosimeter composed of 1mM NBTZ, gelatin, and water was on the order of 0.2. The addition of Triton and formate produced a G-value in excess of 5.0. The effects of NBTZ, triton, formate, and gel concentration were all investigated. All the gels provided linear dose vs. absorbance plots for doses from 0 to >100 Gy. It was determined that gel concentration had minimal if any effect on sensitivity. Sensitivity increased slightly with increasing NBTZ concentration. Triton and formate individually and together provided moderate to large increases in dosimeter sensitivity. The dosimeter described in this work can provide stable 3D radiation dose images for all modalities of radiation therapy equipment. Methods to increase sensitivity are developed and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. L.; Wood, Kenneth; Brown, C. Tom A.; Moseley, Harry
2016-02-01
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been theoretically investigated using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer (MCRT) model. By including complex three dimensional (3D) tumour models a more appropriate representation of the treatment was achieved. The 3D clustered tumour model was compared to a smooth model, resulting in a significantly deeper penetration associated with the clustered model. The results from the work presented here indicates that light might penetrate deeper than suggested by 2D or simple layered models.
A study of the earth radiation budget using a 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transer code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Sato, Y.; Inoue, T.; Donovan, D. P.
2013-12-01
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the earth's radiation budget when data are available from satellite-borne active sensors, i.e. cloud profiling radar (CPR) and lidar, and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) in the project of the Earth Explorer/EarthCARE mission. For this purpose, we first developed forward and backward 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes that can treat a broadband solar flux calculation including thermal infrared emission calculation by k-distribution parameters of Sekiguchi and Nakajima (2008). In order to construct the 3D cloud field, we tried the following three methods: 1) stochastic cloud generated by randomized optical thickness each layer distribution and regularly-distributed tilted clouds, 2) numerical simulations by a non-hydrostatic model with bin cloud microphysics model and 3) Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as explained later. As for the method-2 (numerical modeling method), we employed numerical simulation results of Californian summer stratus clouds simulated by a non-hydrostatic atmospheric model with a bin-type cloud microphysics model based on the JMA NHM model (Iguchi et al., 2008; Sato et al., 2009, 2012) with horizontal (vertical) grid spacing of 100m (20m) and 300m (20m) in a domain of 30km (x), 30km (y), 1.5km (z) and with a horizontally periodic lateral boundary condition. Two different cell systems were simulated depending on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. In the case of horizontal resolution of 100m, regionally averaged cloud optical thickness,
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.
1992-01-01
A computer model of the three dimensional geometry and material distributions for the LDEF spacecraft, experiment trays, and, for selected trays, the components of experiments within a tray was developed for use in ionizing radiation assessments. The model is being applied to provide 3-D shielding distributions around radiation dosimeters to aid in data interpretation, particularly in assessing the directional properties of the radiation exposure. Also, the model has been interfaced with radiation transport codes for 3-D dosimetry response predictions and for calculations related to determining the accuracy of trapped proton and cosmic ray environment models. The methodology is described used in developing the 3-D LDEF model and the level of detail incorporated. Currently, the trays modeled in detail are F2, F8, and H12 and H3. Applications of the model which are discussed include the 3-D shielding distributions around various dosimeters, the influence of shielding on dosimetry responses, and comparisons of dose predictions based on the present 3-D model vs those from 1-D geometry model approximations used in initial estimates.
An object-oriented implementation of a parallel Monte Carlo code for radiation transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Pedro Duarte; Lani, Andrea
2016-05-01
This paper describes the main features of a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solver for radiation transport which has been implemented within COOLFluiD, a world-class open source object-oriented platform for scientific simulations. The Monte Carlo code makes use of efficient ray tracing algorithms (for 2D, axisymmetric and 3D arbitrary unstructured meshes) which are described in detail. The solver accuracy is first verified in testcases for which analytical solutions are available, then validated for a space re-entry flight experiment (i.e. FIRE II) for which comparisons against both experiments and reference numerical solutions are provided. Through the flexible design of the physical models, ray tracing and parallelization strategy (fully reusing the mesh decomposition inherited by the fluid simulator), the implementation was made efficient and reusable.
Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel
2016-10-01
Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cuihuan; Kim, Leonard; Barnard, Nicola; Khan, Atif; Pierce, Mark C.
2016-02-01
Our long term goal is to develop a high-resolution imaging method for comprehensive assessment of tissue removed during lumpectomy procedures. By identifying regions of high-grade disease within the excised specimen, we aim to develop patient-specific post-operative radiation treatment regimens. We have assembled a benchtop spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system with 1320 nm center wavelength. Automated beam scanning enables "sub-volumes" spanning 5 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm (500 A-lines x 500 B-scans x 2 mm in depth) to be collected in under 15 seconds. A motorized sample positioning stage enables multiple sub-volumes to be acquired across an entire tissue specimen. Sub-volumes are rendered from individual B-scans in 3D Slicer software and en face (XY) images are extracted at specific depths. These images are then tiled together using MosaicJ software to produce a large area en face view (up to 40 mm x 25 mm). After OCT imaging, specimens were sectioned and stained with HE, allowing comparison between OCT image features and disease markers on histopathology. This manuscript describes the technical aspects of image acquisition and reconstruction, and reports initial qualitative comparison between large area en face OCT images and HE stained tissue sections. Future goals include developing image reconstruction algorithms for mapping an entire sample, and registering OCT image volumes with clinical CT and MRI images for post-operative treatment planning.
Adaptive and Unstructured Mesh Cleaving
Bronson, Jonathan R.; Sastry, Shankar P.; Levine, Joshua A.; Whitaker, Ross T.
2015-01-01
We propose a new strategy for boundary conforming meshing that decouples the problem of building tetrahedra of proper size and shape from the problem of conforming to complex, non-manifold boundaries. This approach is motivated by the observation that while several methods exist for adaptive tetrahedral meshing, they typically have difficulty at geometric boundaries. The proposed strategy avoids this conflict by extracting the boundary conforming constraint into a secondary step. We first build a background mesh having a desired set of tetrahedral properties, and then use a generalized stenciling method to divide, or “cleave”, these elements to get a set of conforming tetrahedra, while limiting the impacts cleaving has on element quality. In developing this new framework, we make several technical contributions including a new method for building graded tetrahedral meshes as well as a generalization of the isosurface stuffing and lattice cleaving algorithms to unstructured background meshes. PMID:26137171
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ham, S.; Kato, S.; Barker, H.; Rose, F. G.
2012-12-01
Three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects are examined for cloudy atmosphere obtained from A-train satellite measurements. Since CloudSat and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) only provide two-dimensional (2-D) nadir profiles along the satellite track, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spectral radiances are used to extend the 2-D cloud profiles to the cross track direction (Barker et al., 2011). Then one-dimensional (1-D) and 3-D simulations are performed to get (SW) broad band (BB) flux and heating rate profile for constructed 3-D cloud field. In the simulation, correlated k-distribution model is employed to obtain rapid estimation of gaseous optical depths for 70 solar spectral bands. The difference between 1-D and 3-D results are interpreted as 3-D solar effects, and analyzed for different cloud types and solar zenith angle. In addition, modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances by the 1-D and 3-D models are compared to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)-derived TOA irradiances. The preliminary results show that 3-D cloud absorption is larger than 1-D calculation, and thus 3-D heating rate is larger than 1-D heating rate for cloud layer. On the other hand, 3-D downward flux at surface is smaller than 1-D flux. Reference Barker, H. W., M. P. Jerg, T. Wehr, S. Kato, D. P. Donovan, and R. J. Hogan, 2011, A 3D cloud-construction algorithm for the EarthCARE mission, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1042-1058.
Line relaxation methods for the solution of 2D and 3D compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, O.; Probert, E. J.; Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.
1993-01-01
An implicit finite element based algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is outlined, and the solution of the resulting equation by a line relaxation on general meshes of triangles or tetrahedra is described. The problem of generating and adapting unstructured meshes for viscous flows is reexamined, and an approach for both 2D and 3D simulations is proposed. An efficient approach appears to be the use of an implicit/explicit procedure, with the implicit treatment being restricted to those regions of the mesh where viscous effects are known to be dominant. Numerical examples demonstrating the computational performance of the proposed techniques are given.
Lee, W. -L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H. -H.
2014-12-15
We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D - PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.more » We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monk, Peter; Parrott, Kevin
2001-07-01
Edge-element methods have proved very effective for 3-D electromagnetic computations and are widely used on unstructured meshes. However, the accuracy of standard edge elements can be criticised because of their low order. This paper analyses discrete dispersion relations together with numerical propagation accuracy to determine the effect of tetrahedral shape on the phase accuracy of standard 3-D edge-element approximations in comparison to other methods. Scattering computations for the sphere obtained with edge elements are compared with results obtained with vertex elements, and a new formulation of the far-field integral approximations for use with edge elements is shown to give improved cross sections over conventional formulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiscombe, Warren J.
2012-01-01
The main theme for our research is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars, shortwave spectrometers, and microwave radiometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools developed by our group. In particular, we define first a large number of cloudy test cases spanning all 3D possibilities not just the customary uniform-overcast ones. Second, for each case, we define a "Best Estimate of Clouds That Affect Shortwave Radiation" using all relevant ARM instruments, notably the new scanning radars, and contribute this to the ARM Archive. Third, we test the ASR-signature radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW for those cases, focusing on the near-IR because of long-standing problems in this spectral region, and work with the developers to improve RRTMG_SW in order to increase its penetration into the modeling community.
Simulating 3-D radiative transfer effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF
Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Lee, W. -L.; Leung, L. R.
2012-01-01
A surface solar radiation parameterization based on deviations between 3-D and conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer models has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to understand the solar insolation over mountain/snow areas and to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on land-surface processes. Using the Sierra-Nevada in the western United States as a testbed, we show that mountain effect could produce up to -50 to + 50 W m^{-2} deviations in the surface solar fluxes over the mountain areas, resulting in a temperature increase of up to 1 °C on the sunny side. Upward surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are modulated accordingly to compensate for the change in surface solar fluxes. Snow water equivalent and surface albedo both show decreases on the sunny side of the mountains, indicating more snowmelt and hence reduced snow albedo associated with more solar insolation due to mountain effect. Soil moisture increases on the sunny side of the mountains due to enhanced snowmelt, while decreases on the shaded side. Substantial differences are found in the morning hours from 8–10 a.m. and in the afternoon around 3–5 p.m., while differences around noon and in the early morning and late afternoon are comparatively smaller. Variation in the surface energy balance can also affect atmospheric processes, such as cloud fields, through the modulation of vertical thermal structure. Negative changes of up to -40 g m^{-2} are found in the cloud water path, associated with reductions in the surface insolation over the cloud region. The day-averaged deviations in the surface solar flux are positive over the mountain areas and negative in the valleys, with a range between -12~12 W m^{-2}. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface skin temperature follow the solar insolation pattern. Differences in the domain-averaged diurnal variation
Chiu, Jui-Yuan
2015-09-14
ARM set out 20 years ago to “close” the radiation problem, that is, to improve radiation models to the point where they could routinely predict the observed spectral radiation fluxes knowing the optical properties of the surface and of gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. Only then could such radiation models form a proper springboard for global climate model (GCM) parameterizations of spectral radiation. Sustained efforts have more or less achieved that goal with regard to longwave radiation; ASR models now routinely predict ARM spectral longwave radiances to 1–2%. Similar efforts in the shortwave have achieved far less; the successes are mainly for carefully selected 1D stratiform cloud cases. Such cases amount, even with the most optimistic interpretation, to no more than 30% of all cases at SGP. The problem has not been lack of effort but lack of appropriate instruments.The new ARM stimulus-funded instruments, with their new capabilities, will dramatically improve this situation and once again make progress possible on the shortwave problem. The new shortwave spectrometers will provide a reliable, calibrated record including the near infrared – and for other climatic regimes than SGP. The new scanning radars will provide the 3D cloud view, making it possible to tackle fully 3D situations. Thus, our main theme for the project is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars and shortwave spectrometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, L. R.; Lee, W. L.; Fovell, R. G.
2013-07-01
Essentially all modern climate models utilize a plane-parallel (PP) radiative transfer approach in physics parameterizations; however, the potential errors that arise from neglecting three-dimensional (3-D) interactions between radiation and mountains/snow on climate simulations have not been studied and quantified. This paper is a continuation of our efforts to investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky and Sierra-Nevada Mountains. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model applied at a 30 km grid resolution with incorporation of a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008 during which abundant snowfall occurred. Comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-D-PP) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to earlier morning. Over the mountain tops above 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40-60 W m-2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations
SU-E-T-03: 3D GPU-Accelerated Secondary Checks of Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans
Clemente, F; Perez, C
2014-06-01
Purpose: Redundant treatment verifications in conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques are traditionally performed with single point calculations. New solutions can replace these checks with 3D treatment plan verifications. This work describes a software tool (Mobius3D, Mobius Medical Systems) that uses a GPU-accelerated collapsed cone algorithm to perform 3D independent verifications of TPS calculations. Methods: Mobius3D comes with reference beam models for common linear accelerators. The system uses an independently developed collapsed cone algorithm updated with recent enhancements. 144 isotropically-spaced cones are used for each voxel for calculations. These complex calculations can be sped up by using GPUs. Mobius3D calculate dose using DICOM information coming from TPS (CT, RT Struct, RT Plan RT Dose). DVH-metrics and 3D gamma tests can be used to compare both TPS and secondary calculations. 170 patients treated with all common techniques as 3DCFRT (including wedged), static and dynamic IMRT and VMAT have been successfully verified with this solution. Results: Calculation times are between 3–5 minutes for 3DCFRT treatments and 15–20 for most complex dMLC and VMAT plans. For all PTVs mean dose and 90% coverage differences are (1.12±0.97)% and (0.68±1.19)%, respectively. Mean dose discrepancies for all OARs is (0.64±1.00)%. 3D gamma (global, 3%/3 mm) analysis shows a mean passing rate of (97.8 ± 3.0)% for PTVs and (99.0±3.0)% for OARs. 3D gamma pasing rate for all voxels in CT has a mean value of (98.5±1.6)%. Conclusion: Mobius3D is a powerful tool to verify all modalities of radiation therapy treatments. Dose discrepancies calculated by this system are in good agreement with TPS. The use of reference beam data results in time savings and can be used to avoid the propagation of errors in original beam data into our QA system. GPU calculations permit enhanced collapsed cone calculations with reasonable calculation times.
Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo; Botto, Barbara; Gavarotti, Paolo; Merli, Francesco; Vitolo, Umberto; Iotti, Cinzia; Ricardi, Umberto
2014-06-01
Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete
Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhou, Luo; Deng, Qian-Fang; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Cao, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Chen, Xu-Meng; Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Bo
2015-01-01
The angioarchitecture is a fundamental aspect of brain development and physiology. However, available imaging tools are unsuited for non-destructive cerebral mapping of the functionally important three-dimensional (3D) vascular microstructures. To address this issue, we developed an ultra-high resolution 3D digitalized angioarchitectural map for rat brain, based on synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI) with pixel size of 5.92 μm. This approach provides a systematic and detailed view of the cerebrovascular anatomy at the micrometer level without any need for contrast agents. From qualitative and quantitative perspectives, the present 3D data provide a considerable insight into the spatial vascular network for whole rodent brain, particularly for functionally important regions of interest, such as the hippocampus, pre-frontal cerebral cortex and the corpus striatum. We extended these results to synchrotron-based virtual micro-endoscopy, thus revealing the trajectory of targeted vessels in 3D. The SR-PCI method for systematic visualization of cerebral microvasculature holds considerable promise for wider application in life sciences, including 3D micro-imaging in experimental models of neurodevelopmental and vascular disorders. PMID:26443231
Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Fukumoto, Wataru; Kaichi, Yoko; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo
2015-06-01
To assess the possibility of reducing the radiation dose for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring by using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) on a 320-detector CT scanner. Fifty-four patients underwent routine- and low-dose CT for CAC scoring. Low-dose CT was performed at one-third of the tube current used for routine-dose CT. Routine-dose CT was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and low-dose CT was reconstructed with AIDR 3D. We compared the calculated Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores of these images. The overall percentage difference in the Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores between routine- and low-dose CT studies was 15.9, 11.6, and 12.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the routine- and low-dose CT studies irrespective of the scoring algorithms applied. The CAC measurements of both imaging modalities were highly correlated with respect to the Agatston- (r = 0.996), volume- (r = 0.996), and mass score (r = 0.997; p < 0.001, all); the Bland-Altman limits of agreement scores were -37.4 to 51.4, -31.2 to 36.4 and -30.3 to 40.9%, respectively, suggesting that AIDR 3D was a good alternative for FBP. The mean effective radiation dose for routine- and low-dose CT was 2.2 and 0.7 mSv, respectively. The use of AIDR 3D made it possible to reduce the radiation dose by 67% for CAC scoring without impairing the quantification of coronary calcification.
Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Fukumoto, Wataru; Kaichi, Yoko; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo
2015-06-01
To assess the possibility of reducing the radiation dose for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring by using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) on a 320-detector CT scanner. Fifty-four patients underwent routine- and low-dose CT for CAC scoring. Low-dose CT was performed at one-third of the tube current used for routine-dose CT. Routine-dose CT was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and low-dose CT was reconstructed with AIDR 3D. We compared the calculated Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores of these images. The overall percentage difference in the Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores between routine- and low-dose CT studies was 15.9, 11.6, and 12.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the routine- and low-dose CT studies irrespective of the scoring algorithms applied. The CAC measurements of both imaging modalities were highly correlated with respect to the Agatston- (r = 0.996), volume- (r = 0.996), and mass score (r = 0.997; p < 0.001, all); the Bland-Altman limits of agreement scores were -37.4 to 51.4, -31.2 to 36.4 and -30.3 to 40.9%, respectively, suggesting that AIDR 3D was a good alternative for FBP. The mean effective radiation dose for routine- and low-dose CT was 2.2 and 0.7 mSv, respectively. The use of AIDR 3D made it possible to reduce the radiation dose by 67% for CAC scoring without impairing the quantification of coronary calcification. PMID:25754302
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.
2007-01-01
3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.
Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.
2009-08-01
The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.
3D Finite Element Model for Writing Long-Period Fiber Gratings by CO2 Laser Radiation
Coelho, João M. P.; Nespereira, Marta; Abreu, Manuel; Rebordão, José
2013-01-01
In the last years, mid-infrared radiation emitted by CO2 lasers has become increasing popular as a tool in the development of long-period fiber gratings. However, although the development and characterization of the resulting sensing devices have progressed quickly, further research is still necessary to consolidate functional models, especially regarding the interaction between laser radiation and the fiber's material. In this paper, a 3D finite element model is presented to simulate the interaction between laser radiation and an optical fiber and to determine the resulting refractive index change. Dependence with temperature of the main parameters of the optical fiber materials (with special focus on the absorption of incident laser radiation) is considered, as well as convection and radiation losses. Thermal and residual stress analyses are made for a standard single mode fiber, and experimental results are presented. PMID:23941908
Amundson, Sally A.
2013-06-12
We have used the MatTek 3-dimensional human skin model to study the gene expression response of a 3D model to low and high dose low LET radiation, and to study the radiation bystander effect as a function of distance from the site of irradiation with either alpha particles or low LET protons. We have found response pathways that appear to be specific for low dose exposures, that could not have been predicted from high dose studies. We also report the time and distance dependent expression of a large number of genes in bystander tissue. the bystander response in 3D tissues showed many similarities to that described previously in 2D cultured cells, but also showed some differences.
3D Space Radiation Transport in a Shielded ICRU Tissue Sphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.
2014-01-01
A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code capable of simulating High Charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation was recently developed for a simple homogeneous shield object. Monte Carlo benchmarks were used to verify the methodology in slab and spherical geometry, and the 3D corrections were shown to provide significant improvement over the straight-ahead approximation in some cases. In the present report, the new algorithms with well-defined convergence criteria are extended to inhomogeneous media within a shielded tissue slab and a shielded tissue sphere and tested against Monte Carlo simulation to verify the solution methods. The 3D corrections are again found to more accurately describe the neutron and light ion fluence spectra as compared to the straight-ahead approximation. These computationally efficient methods provide a basis for software capable of space shield analysis and optimization.
González, José; Molina, Rafael A
2016-04-15
We investigate the development of novel surface states when 3D Dirac or Weyl semimetals are placed under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. We find that the hybridization between inverted Floquet bands opens, in general, a gap, which closes at so-called exceptional points found for complex values of the momentum. This corresponds to the appearance of midgap surface states in the form of evanescent waves decaying from the surface exposed to the radiation. We observe a phenomenon reminiscent of Landau quantization by which the midgap surface states get a large degeneracy proportional to the radiation flux traversing the surface of the semimetal. We show that all of these surface states carry angular current, leading to an angular modulation of their charge that rotates with the same frequency of the radiation, which should manifest in the observation of a macroscopic chiral current in the irradiated surface. PMID:27127980
A Global 3D Radiation MHD Simulation of Super-Eddington Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yanfei
2014-10-01
We study how black holes can accrete above the Eddington limit using a global three dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulation without ad-hoc assumptions. The simulation reaches an accretion rate ~ 220L_Edd/c^2 and forms a radiation driven outflow along the rotation axis. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ~ 10L_Edd. This yields a radiative efficiency ~ 4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. The results have important implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe, tidal disruption events and ultra-luminous X-ray sources.
Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.
2015-05-19
We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model – CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D–PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmore » the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less
Application of 3-D radiative transfer theory to atmospheric correction of land surface images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diner, D. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Danielson, E. D.; Bruegge, C. J.
1988-01-01
Three dimensional radiative transfer theory was applied to computation of atmospheric effects on remotely sensed imagery. The atmospheric correction algorithm derived is used to estimate aerosol opacity.
Lambros, Maria Polikandritou; Parsa, Cyrus; Mulamalla, HariChandana; Orlando, Robert; Lau, Bernard; Huang, Ying; Pon, Doreen; Chow, Moses
2011-02-04
Research highlights: {yields} We irradiated a 3-D human oral cell culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts with 12 and 2 Gy. {yields} 6 h after irradiation the histopathology and apoptosis of the 3-D culture were evaluated. Microarrays were used to assess the gene expression in the irradiated 3-D tissue. {yields} 12 Gy induced significant histopathologic changes and cellular apoptosis. {yields} 12 Gy significantly affected genes of the NF-kB pathway, inflammatory cytokines and DAMPs. -- Abstract: Mucositis is a debilitating adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. It is important to develop a simple and reliable in vitro model, which can routinely be used to screen new drugs for prevention and treatment of mucositis. Furthermore, identifying cell and molecular stresses especially in the initiation phase of mucositis in this model will help towards this end. We evaluated a three-dimensional (3-D) human oral cell culture that consisted of oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts as a model of oral mucositis. The 3-D cell culture model was irradiated with 12 or 2 Gy. Six hours after the irradiation we evaluated microscopic sections of the cell culture for evidence of morphologic changes including apoptosis. We used microarrays to compare the expression of several genes from the irradiated tissue with identical genes from tissue that was not irradiated. We found that irradiation with 12 Gy induced significant histopathologic effects including cellular apoptosis. Irradiation significantly affected the expression of several genes of the NF-kB pathway and several inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1B, 1L-8, NF-kB1, and FOS compared to tissue that was not irradiated. We identified significant upregulation of several genes that belong to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMB1, S100A13, SA10014, and SA10016 in the 3-D tissues that received 12 Gy but not in tissues that received 2 Gy. In conclusion, this model quantifies radiation damage and this
Exploring Rotations Due to Radiation Pressure: 2-D to 3-D Transition Is Interesting!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waxman, Michael A.
2010-01-01
Radiation pressure is an important topic within a standard physics course (see, in particular, Refs. 1 and 2). The physics of radiation pressure is described, the magnitude of it is derived, both for the case of a perfectly absorbing surface and of a perfect reflector, and various applications of this interesting effect are discussed, such as…
3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.
Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B
2015-07-01
This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between
Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.
Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J
2006-04-21
Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry. PMID:16585845
3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.
2015-07-01
This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between
3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry
Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.
2015-07-15
This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between
Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.
2006-04-01
Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow (~9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry.
3D Multi-Level Non-LTE Radiative Transfer for the CO Molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berkner, A.; Schweitzer, A.; Hauschildt, P. H.
2015-01-01
The photospheres of cool stars are both rich in molecules and an environment where the assumption of LTE can not be upheld under all circumstances. Unfortunately, detailed 3D non-LTE calculations involving molecules are hardly feasible with current computers. For this reason, we present our implementation of the super level technique, in which molecular levels are combined into super levels, to reduce the number of unknowns in the rate equations and, thus, the computational effort and memory requirements involved, and show the results of our first tests against the 1D implementation of the same method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, Abdul Salam; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo
2013-11-01
This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications.
Mahmood, Abdul Salam; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo
2013-01-01
This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications. PMID:24225364
2013-01-01
This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications. PMID:24225364
Metabolic response of lung cancer cells to radiation in a paper-based 3D cell culture system.
Simon, Karen A; Mosadegh, Bobak; Minn, Kyaw Thu; Lockett, Matthew R; Mohammady, Marym R; Boucher, Diane M; Hall, Amy B; Hillier, Shawn M; Udagawa, Taturo; Eustace, Brenda K; Whitesides, George M
2016-07-01
This work demonstrates the application of a 3D culture system-Cells-in-Gels-in-Paper (CiGiP)-in evaluating the metabolic response of lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation. The 3D tissue-like construct-prepared by stacking multiple sheets of paper containing cell-embedded hydrogels-generates a gradient of oxygen and nutrients that decreases monotonically in the stack. Separating the layers of the stack after exposure enabled analysis of the cellular response to radiation as a function of oxygen and nutrient availability; this availability is dictated by the distance between the cells and the source of oxygenated medium. As the distance between the cells and source of oxygenated media increased, cells show increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, decreased proliferation, and reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Each of these cellular responses are characteristic of cancer cells observed in solid tumors. With this setup we were able to differentiate three isogenic variants of A549 cells based on their metabolic radiosensitivity; these three variants have known differences in their metastatic behavior in vivo. This system can, therefore, capture some aspects of radiosensitivity of populations of cancer cells related to mass-transport phenomenon, carry out systematic studies of radiation response in vitro that decouple effects from migration and proliferation of cells, and regulate the exposure of oxygen to subpopulations of cells in a tissue-like construct either before or after irradiation. PMID:27116031
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Viá, C.; Bolle, E.; Einsweiler, K.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Linhart, V.; Parker, Sherwood; Pospisil, S.; Rohne, O.; Slavicek, T.; Watts, S.; Wermes, N.
2009-06-01
3D detectors, with electrodes penetrating the entire silicon wafer and active edges, were fabricated at the Stanford Nano Fabrication Facility (SNF), California, USA, with different electrode configurations. After irradiation with neutrons up to a fluence of 8.8×10 15 n eq cm -2, they were characterised using an infrared laser tuned to inject ˜2 minimum ionising particles showing signal efficiencies as high as 66% for the configuration with the shortest (56 μm) inter-electrode spacing. Sensors from the same wafer were also bump-bonded to the ATLAS FE-I3 pixel readout chip and their noise characterised. Most probable signal-to-noise ratios were calculated before and after irradiation to be as good as 38:1 after the highest irradiation level with a substrate thickness of 210 μm. These devices are promising candidates for application at the LHC such as the very forward detectors at ATLAS and CMS, the ATLAS B-Layer replacement and the general pixel upgrade. Moreover, 3D sensors could play a role in applications where high speed, high-resolution detectors are required, such as the vertex locators at the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN.
3D sensitive voxel detector of ionizing radiation based on Timepix device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Vykydal, Z.
2011-01-01
Position sensitive detectors are evolving towards higher segmentation geometries from 0D (single pad) over 1D (strip) to 2D (pixel) detectors. Each step has brought up substantial expansion in the field of applications. The next logical step in this evolution is to design a 3D, i.e. voxel detector. The voxel detector can be constructed from 2D volume element detectors arranged in layers forming a 3D matrix of sensitive elements — voxels. Such detectors can effectively record tracks of energetic particles. By proper analysis of these tracks it is possible to determine the type, direction and energy of the primary particle. One of the prominent applications of such device is in the localization and identification of gamma and neutron sources in the environment. It can be also used for emission and transmission radiography in many fields where standard imagers are currently utilized. The qualitative properties of current imagers such as: spatial resolution, efficiency, directional sensitivity, energy sensitivity and selectivity (background suppression) can be improved. The first prototype of a voxel detector was built using a number of Timepix devices. Timepix is hybrid semiconductor detector consisting of a segmented semiconductor sensor bump-bonded to a readout chip. Each sensor contains 256x256 square pixels of 55 μm size. The voxel detector prototype was successfully tested to prove the concept functionality. The detector has a modular architecture with a daisy chain connection of the individual detector layers. This permits easy rearrangement due to its modularity, while keeping a single readout system for a variable number of detector layers. A limitation of this approach is the relatively large inter-layer distance (4 mm) compared to the pixel thickness (0.3 mm). Therefore the next step in the design is to decrease the space between the 2D detectors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Zhao, Xue-Peng
2005-01-01
We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into the multi-national Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) mission. Our objectives are (1) to understand the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols and the processes that control those properties over the Asian-Pacific region, (2) to investigate the interaction between aerosols and tropospheric chemistry, and (3) to determine the aerosol radiative forcing over the Asia-Pacific region. We will use the Georgia TecWGoddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to link satellite observations and the ACE-Asia measurements. First, we will use the GOCART model to simulate aerosols and related species, and evaluate the model with satellite and in-situ observations. Second, the model generated aerosol vertical profiles and compositions will be used to validate the satellite products; and the satellite data will be used for during- and post- mission analysis. Third, we will use the model to analyze and interpret both satellite and ACE- Asia field campaign data and investigate the aerosol-chemistry interactions. Finally, we will calculate aerosol radiative forcing over the Asian-Pacific region, and assess the influence of Asian pollution in the global atmosphere. We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into
A 3-D elasticity theory based model for acoustic radiation from multilayered anisotropic plates.
Shen, C; Xin, F X; Lu, T J
2014-05-01
A theoretical model built upon three-dimensional elasticity theory is developed to investigate the acoustic radiation from multilayered anisotropic plates subjected to a harmonic point force excitation. Fourier transform technique and stationary phase method are combined to predict the far-field radiated sound pressure of one-side water immersed plate. Compared to equivalent single-layer plate models, the present model based on elasticity theory can differentiate radiated sound pressure between dry-side and wet-side excited cases, as well as discrepancies induced by different layer sequences for multilayered anisotropic plates. These results highlight the superiority of the present theoretical model especially for handling multilayered anisotropic structures. PMID:24815294
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munbodh, R.; Moseley, D. J.
2014-03-01
We report results of an intensity-based 2D-3D rigid registration framework for patient positioning and monitoring during brain radiotherapy. We evaluated two intensity-based similarity measures, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Maximum Likelihood with Gaussian noise (MLG) derived from the statistics of transmission images. A useful image frequency band was identified from the bone-to-no-bone ratio. Validation was performed on gold-standard data consisting of 3D kV CBCT scans and 2D kV radiographs of an anthropomorphic head phantom acquired at 23 different poses with parameter variations along six degrees of freedom. At each pose, a single limited field of view kV radiograph was registered to the reference CBCT. The ground truth was determined from markers affixed to the phantom and visible in the CBCT images. The mean (and standard deviation) of the absolute errors in recovering each of the six transformation parameters along the x, y and z axes for ICC were varphix: 0.08(0.04)°, varphiy: 0.10(0.09)°, varphiz: 0.03(0.03)°, tx: 0.13(0.11) mm, ty: 0.08(0.06) mm and tz: 0.44(0.23) mm. For MLG, the corresponding results were varphix: 0.10(0.04)°, varphiy: 0.10(0.09)°, varphiz: 0.05(0.07)°, tx: 0.11(0.13) mm, ty: 0.05(0.05) mm and tz: 0.44(0.31) mm. It is feasible to accurately estimate all six transformation parameters from a 3D CBCT of the head and a single 2D kV radiograph within an intensity-based registration framework that incorporates the physics of transmission images.
The feasibility assessment of radiation dose of movement 3D NIPAM gel by magnetic resonance imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Chih-Ming; Leung, Joseph Hang; Ng, Yu-Bun; Cheng, Chih-Wu; Sun, Jung-Chang; Lin, Ping-Chin; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung
2015-11-01
NIPAM dosimeter is widely accepted and recommended for its 3D distribution and accuracy in dose absorption. Up to the moment, most research works on dose measurement are based on a fixed irradiation target without the consideration of the effect from physiological motion. We present a study to construct a respiratory motion simulating patient anatomical and dosimetry model for the study of dosimetic effect of organ motion. The dose on fixed and motion targets was measured by MRI after a dose adminstration of 1, 2, 5, 8, and 10 Gy from linear accelerator. Comparison of two situations is made. The average sensitivity of fixed NIPAM was 0.1356 s-1/Gy with linearity R2=0.998. The average sensitivity of movement NIPAM was 0.1366 s-1/Gy with linearity R2=0.998 both having only 0.001 of the sensitivity difference. The difference between the two based on dose rate dependency, position and depth was not significant. There was thus no apparent impact on NIPAM dosimeter from physiological motion. The high sensitivity, linearity and stability of NIPAM dosimeter proved to be an ideal apparatus in the dose measurement in these circumstances.
Doppler effects on 3-D non-LTE radiation transport and emission spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Thornhill, J. W.; Scott, H. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Clark, R. W.; Davis, J.
2011-12-01
Spatially and temporally resolved X-ray emission lines contain information about temperatures, densities, velocities, and the gradients in a plasma. Extracting this information from optically thick lines emitted from complex ions in dynamic, three-dimensional, non-LTE plasmas requires self-consistent accounting for both non-LTE atomic physics and non-local radiative transfer. We present a brief description of a hybrid-structure spectroscopic atomic model coupled to an iterative tabular on-the-spot treatment of radiative transfer that can be applied to plasmas of arbitrary material composition, conditions, and geometries. The effects of Doppler line shifts on the self-consistent radiative transfer within the plasma and the emergent emission and absorption spectra are included in the model. Sample calculations for a two-level atom in a uniform cylindrical plasma are given, showing reasonable agreement with more sophisticated transport models and illustrating the potential complexity - or richness - of radially resolved emission lines from an imploding cylindrical plasma. Also presented is a comparison of modeled L- and K-shell spectra to temporally and radially resolved emission data from a Cu:Ni plasma. Finally, some shortcomings of the model and possible paths for improvement are discussed.
Accelerating 3D radiative transfer for realistic OCO-2 cloud-aerosol scenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, S.; Massie, S. T.; Platnick, S. E.; Song, S.
2014-12-01
The recently launched NASA OCO-2 satellite is expected to provide important information about the carbon dioxide distribution in the troposphere down to Earth's surface. Among the challenges in accurately retrieving CO2 concentration from the hyperspectral observations in each of the three OCO-2 bands are cloud and aerosol impacts on the observed radiances. Preliminary studies based on idealized cloud fields have shown that they can lead to spectrally dependent radiance perturbations which differ from band to band and may lead to biases in the derived products. Since OCO-2 was inserted into the A-Train, it is only natural to capitalize on sensor synergies with other instruments, in this case on the cloud and aerosol scene context that is provided by MODIS and CALIOP. Our approach is to use cloud imagery (especially for inhomogeneous scenes) for predicting the hyperspectral observations within a collocated OCO-2 footprint and comparing with the observations, which allows a systematic assessment of the causes for biases in the retrievals themselves, and their manifestation in spectral residuals for various different cloud types and distributions. Simulating a large number of cases with line-by-line calculations using a 3D code is computationally prohibitive even on large parallel computers. Therefore, we developed a number of acceleration approaches. In this contribution, we will analyze them in terms of their speed and accuracy, using cloud fields from airborne imagery collected during a recent NASA field experiment (SEAC4RS) as proxy for different types of inhomogeneous cloud fields. The broader goal of this effort is to improve OCO-2 retrievals in the vicinity of cloud fields, and to extend the range of conditions under which the instrument will provide useful results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shprits, Yuri; Subbotin, Dmitriy; Ni, Binbin
2012-08-01
Understanding the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration, loss, and transport in the Earth's radiation belt during magnetic storms is a challenging task. The U.S. National Science Foundation's Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) has identified five magnetic storms for in-depth study that occurred during the second half of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission in the year 1991. In this study, we show the responses of relativistic radiation belt electrons to the magnetic storms by comparing the time-dependent 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) simulations with the CRRES MEA 1 MeV electron observations in order to investigate the relative roles of the competing effects of previously proposed scattering mechanisms at different storm phases, as well as to examine the extent to which the simulations can reproduce observations. The major scattering processes in our model are radial transport due to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic fluctuations, pitch angle and energy diffusion including mixed diffusion by whistler mode chorus waves outside the plasmasphere, and pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss inside the plasmasphere. The 3-D VERB simulations show that during the storm main phase and early recovery phase the estimated plasmapause is located deep in the inner region, indicating that pitch angle scattering by chorus waves can be a dominant loss process in the outer belt. We have also confirmed the important role played by mixed energy-pitch angle diffusion by chorus waves, which tends to reduce the fluxes enhanced by local acceleration, resulting in comparable levels of computed and measured fluxes. However, we cannot reproduce the more pronounced flux dropout near the boundary of our simulations during the main phase, which indicates that non-adiabatic losses may extend toL-shells lower than our simulation boundary. We also provide a detailed description of simulations for each of the GEM storm events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, A. B.; Cahalan, R. F.
2001-05-01
The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC) is an on-going initiative involving an international group of over 30 researchers engaged in the numerical modeling of three-dimensional radiative transfer as applied to clouds. Because of their strong variability and extreme opacity, clouds are indeed a major source of uncertainty in the Earth's local radiation budget (at GCM grid scales). Also 3D effects (at satellite pixel scales) invalidate the standard plane-parallel assumption made in the routine of cloud-property remote sensing at NASA and NOAA. Accordingly, the test-cases used in I3RC are based on inputs and outputs which relate to cloud effects in atmospheric heating rates and in real-world remote sensing geometries. The main objectives of I3RC are to (1) enable participants to improve their models, (2) publish results as a community, (3) archive source code, and (4) educate. We will survey the status of I3RC and its plans for the near future with a special emphasis on the mathematical models and computational approaches. We will also describe some of the prime applications of I3RC's efforts in climate models, cloud-resolving models, and remote-sensing observations of clouds, or that of the surface in their presence. In all these application areas, computational efficiency is the main concern and not accuracy. One of I3RC's main goals is to document the performance of as wide a variety as possible of three-dimensional radiative transfer models for a small but representative number of ``cases.'' However, it is dominated by modelers working at the level of linear transport theory (i.e., they solve the radiative transfer equation) and an overwhelming majority of these participants use slow-but-robust Monte Carlo techniques. This means that only a small portion of the efficiency vs. accuracy vs. flexibility domain is currently populated by I3RC participants. To balance this natural clustering the present authors have organized a systematic outreach towards
Radiation and Polarization Signatures of the 3D Multizone Time-dependent Hadronic Blazar Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Haocheng; Diltz, Chris; Böttcher, Markus
2016-10-01
We present a newly developed time-dependent three-dimensional multizone hadronic blazar emission model. By coupling a Fokker-Planck-based lepto-hadronic particle evolution code, 3DHad, with a polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, 3DPol, we are able to study the time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures of a hadronic blazar model for the first time. Our current code is limited to parameter regimes in which the hadronic γ-ray output is dominated by proton synchrotron emission, neglecting pion production. Our results demonstrate that the time-dependent flux and polarization signatures are generally dominated by the relation between the synchrotron cooling and the light-crossing timescale, which is largely independent of the exact model parameters. We find that unlike the low-energy polarization signatures, which can vary rapidly in time, the high-energy polarization signatures appear stable. As a result, future high-energy polarimeters may be able to distinguish such signatures from the lower and more rapidly variable polarization signatures expected in leptonic models.
3D measurement of the radiation distribution in a water phantom in a hadron therapy beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opalka, L.; Granja, C.; Hartmann, B.; Jakubek, J.; Jaekel, O.; Martisikova, M.; Pospisil, S.; Solc, J.
2012-01-01
Hadron therapy is a highly precise radio-therapeutic method with many advantages especially in cases when the tumour is close to sensitive organs where standard treatments cannot be used. For reliable treatment planning it is necessary to have calculation tools for maximization of the dose delivered to the targeted tissue and minimization of the dose outside of it. While the main physical processes in material irradiated by hadron beams are known, in reality the processes involved are complex so that analytical computations are impossible. Thus, the planning tools to incorporate simplified models and numerical approximations and an experimental method for high precision verification of the models within phantoms is desired. The development of sensitive, high resolution and online methods for measurement of the radiation environment inside of the irradiated object is the aim of this work. Such measurements are made possible by the resolving power of the state-of-the-art pixel detector Timepix. This quantum counting imaging device is able to record the characteristic shapes of the particle traces including their energies deposited in the detector. All these data recorded for each event allow to estimate the particle type, its energy and direction of flight. Event-by-event analysis is done using pattern recognition of the characteristic traces. The objective of the experiment is the detection and characterization of secondary radiation generated by the primary therapeutic beams in tissue equivalent material (water). Measurements were performed inside of a water phantom irradiated by a carbon beam at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT).
3D MR Sialography as a Tool to Investigate Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Feasibility Study
Astreinidou, Eleftheria . E-mail: E.Astreinidou@umcutrecht.nl; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.
2007-08-01
Purpose: To evaluate whether magnetic-resonance (MR) sialography can be used to investigate radiation-induced xerostomia. Preradiotherapy (pre-RT) and postradiotherapy (post-RT) MR sialographic images of the major salivary ducts (parotid and submandibular) were compared. Methods and Materials: Magnetic-resonance sialography was performed pre-RT, and 6 weeks and 6 months post-RT on 9 patients with T1-4N0-2M0 naso- or oropharyngeal tumors, on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Patients were positioned in the scanner, using a radiotherapy immobilization mask. Image registration of the MR sialograms pre- and post-RT with each other and with the CT and consequently the dose distribution was performed. A categorical scoring system was used to compare the visibility of ducts pre-RT and post-RT. Results: Good-quality MR sialographic images were obtained, and image registration was successful in all cases. The visibility score of the parotid ducts and submandibular ducts was reduced at 6 weeks post-RT, which means that the full trajectory of the salivary ducts, from the intraglandular space to the mouth cavity, was only partially visualized. For some of the parotid ducts, the visibility score improved at 6 months post-RT, but not for the submandibular ducts. The mean dose for the parotid glands was 35 Gy (1 standard deviation [SD] 3 Gy), and for the submandibular glands it was 62 Gy (SD, 8 Gy). Conclusion: Three-dimensional MR sialography is a promising approach for investigating xerostomia, because radiation-induced changes to the saliva content of the ducts can be visualized.
Johnson, Timothy D; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Ten Haken, Randall K; Eisbruch, Avraham
2005-10-01
A goal of cancer radiation therapy is to deliver maximum dose to the target tumor while minimizing complications due to irradiation of critical organs. Technological advances in 3D conformal radiation therapy has allowed great strides in realizing this goal; however, complications may still arise. Critical organs may be adjacent to tumors or in the path of the radiation beam. Several mathematical models have been proposed that describe the relationship between dose and observed functional complication; however, only a few published studies have successfully fit these models to data using modern statistical methods which make efficient use of the data. One complication following radiation therapy of head and neck cancers is the patient's inability to produce saliva. Xerostomia (dry mouth) leads to high susceptibility to oral infection and dental caries and is, in general, unpleasant and an annoyance. We present a dose-damage-injury model that subsumes any of the various mathematical models relating dose to damage. The model is a nonlinear, longitudinal mixed effects model where the outcome (saliva flow rate) is modeled as a mixture of a Dirac measure at zero and a gamma distribution whose mean is a function of time and dose. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the relationship between dose delivered to the parotid glands and the observational outcome-saliva flow rate. A summary measure of the dose-damage relationship is modeled and assessed by a Bayesian chi(2) test for goodness-of-fit. PMID:15917377
Viewing MORSE-CG radiation transport with 3-D color graphics
Namito, Yoshihito; Jenkins, T.M.; Nelson, W.R.
1990-01-01
In this paper we present the coupling of MORSE-CG with the SLAC Unified Graphics System (UGS77) through an add-on package called MORSGRAF which allows for real-time display of neutron and photon tracks in the Monte Carlo simulation. In addition to displaying the myriad of complicated geometries that can be created with the MORSE Combinatorial Geometry program, MORSGRAF permits color tagging of neutrons (green) and photons (red) with the variation of track intensity an indicator of the energy of the particle. Particle types can be switched off and on by means of a mouse-icon system, and the perspective can be changed (i.e., rotated, translated, and zoomed). MORSGRAF also allows one to display the propagation of radiation through shields and mazes on an ordinary graphics terminal, as well as in documents printed on a laser printer. Several examples will be given to demonstrate the various capabilities of MORSGRAF coupled to MORSE-CG. 12 refs., 8 figs.
3D unmanned aerial vehicle radiation mapping for assessing contaminant distribution and mobility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, P. G.; Kwong, S.; Smith, N. T.; Yamashiki, Y.; Payton, O. D.; Russell-Pavier, F. S.; Fardoulis, J. S.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.
2016-10-01
Following the events of March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, significant quantities of radioactive material were released into the local and wider global environment. At five years since the incident, much expense is being currently devoted to the remediation of a large portion of eastern Japan contaminated primarily by radiocesium, yet further significant expenditure will be required over the succeeding decades to complete this clean-up. People displaced from their homes by the incident are now increasingly keen to return, making it more important than ever to provide accurate quantification and representation of any residual radiological contamination. Presented here is the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a laser rangefinder unit to generate a three dimensional point-cloud of an area onto which a radiation contamination map, also obtained concurrently via the unmanned aerial platform, can be rendered. An exemplar site of an un-remediated farm consisting of multiple stepped rice paddy fields with a dedicated irrigation system was used for this work. The results obtained show that heightened radiological contamination exists around the site within the drainage network where material is observed to have collected, having been transported by transient water runoff events. These results obtained in May 2014 suggest that a proportion of the fallout material is highly mobile within the natural environment and is likely to be transported further through the system over the succeeding years.
Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.
2008-11-01
Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.
Guo, Hanqi; Phillips, Carolyn L; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Glatz, Andreas
2016-01-01
We propose a method for the vortex extraction and tracking of superconducting magnetic flux vortices for both structured and unstructured mesh data. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, magnetic flux vortices are well-defined features in a complex-valued order parameter field, and their dynamics determine electromagnetic properties in type-II superconductors. Our method represents each vortex line (a 1D curve embedded in 3D space) as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field in both space and time. For a time-varying discrete dataset, our vortex extraction and tracking method is as accurate as the data discretization. We then apply 3D visualization and 2D event diagrams to the extraction and tracking results to help scientists understand vortex dynamics and macroscale superconductor behavior in greater detail than previously possible.
Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yamada, Yuji; Yagi, Masashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko
2015-01-01
Pretreatment dose verification with beam-by-beam analysis for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is commonly performed with a gantry angle of 0° using a 2D diode detector array. Any changes in multileaf collimator (MLC) position between the actual treatment gantry angle and 0° may result in deviations from the planned dose. We evaluated the effects of MLC positioning errors between the actual treatment gantry angles and nominal gantry angles. A gantry angle correction (GAC) factor was generated by performing a non-gap test at various gantry angles using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To convert pixel intensity to dose at the MLC abutment positions, a non-gap test was performed using an EPID and a film at 0° gantry angle. We then assessed the correlations between pixel intensities and doses. Beam-by-beam analyses for 15 prostate IMRT cases as patient-specific quality assurance were performed with a 2D diode detector array at 0° gantry angle to determine the relative dose error for each beam. The resulting relative dose error with or without GAC was added back to the original dose grid for each beam. We compared the predicted dose distributions with or without GAC for film measurements to validate GAC effects. A gamma pass rate with a tolerance of 2%/2 mm was used to evaluate these dose distributions. The gamma pass rate with GAC was higher than that without GAC (P = 0.01). The predicted dose distribution improved with GAC, although the dosimetric effect to a patient was minimal. PMID:25742866
Asuni, G; Beek, T van; Van Utyven, E; McCowan, P; McCurdy, B.M.C.
2014-08-15
Radical treatment techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are becoming popular and they involve delivery of large doses in fewer fractions. Due to this feature of SBRT, a high-resolution, pre-treatment dose verification method that makes use of a 3D patient representation would be appropriate. Such a technique will provide additional information about dose delivered to the target volume(s) and organs-at-risk (OARs) in the patient volume compared to 2D verification methods. In this work, we investigate an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based pre-treatment QA method which provides an accurate reconstruction of the 3D-dose distribution in the patient model. Customized patient plans are delivered ‘in air’ and the portal images are collected using the EPID in cine mode. The images are then analysed to determine an estimate of the incident energy fluence. This is then passed to a collapsed-cone convolution dose algorithm which reconstructs a 3D patient dose estimate on the CT imaging dataset. To date, the method has been applied to 5 SBRT patient plans. Reconstructed doses were compared to those calculated by the TPS. Reconstructed mean doses were mostly within 3% of those in the TPS. DVHs of target volumes and OARs compared well. The Chi pass rates using 3%/3mm in the high dose region are greater than 97% in all cases. These initial results demonstrate clinical feasibility and utility of a robust, efficient, effective and convenient pre-treatment QA method using EPID. Research sponsored in part by Varian Medical Systems.
Alani, Shlomo; Soyfer, Viacheslav; Strauss, Natan; Schifter, Dan; Corn, Benjamin W.
2009-06-01
Purpose: Although chemoradiotherapy was considered the standard adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer, a recent Phase III trial (Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy [MAGIC]) did not include radiotherapy in the randomization scheme because it was considered expendable. Given radiotherapy's potential, efforts needed to be made to optimize its use for treating gastric cancer. We assessed whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could improve upon our published results in patients treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy using a noncoplanar four-field arrangement. Subsequently, a nine-field IMRT plan was designed using a CMS Xio IMRT version 4.3.3 module. Two IMRT beam arrangements were evaluated: beam arrangement 1 consisted of gantry angles of 0 deg., 53 deg., 107 deg., 158 deg., 204 deg., 255 deg., and 306 deg.. Beam arrangement 2 consisted of gantry angles of 30 deg., 90 deg., 315 deg., and 345 deg.; a gantry angle of 320 deg./couch, 30 deg.; and a gantry angle of 35{sup o}/couch, 312{sup o}. Both the target volume coverage and the dose deposition in adjacent critical organs were assessed in the plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the clinical target volume, kidneys, spine, and liver. Results: Comparison of the clinical target volumes revealed satisfactory coverage by the 95% isodose envelope using either IMRT or 3D conformal therapy. However, IMRT was only marginally better than 3D conformal therapy at protecting the spine and kidneys from radiation. Conclusions: IMRT confers only a marginal benefit in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer and should be used only in the small subset of patients with risk factors for kidney disease or those with a preexisting nephropathy.
Mitchell, Tracy; Truong, Pauline T.; Salter, Lee; Graham, Cathy; Gaffney, Helene; Beckham, Wayne; Olivotto, Ivo A.
2011-04-01
In trials of 3D conformal external beam partial breast radiotherapy (PBRT), the dosimetrist must balance the priorities of achieving high conformity to the target versus minimizing low-dose exposure to the normal structures. This study highlights the caveat that in the absence of a low-dose lung restriction, the use of relatively en-face fields may meet trial-defined requirements but expose the ipsilateral lung to unnecessary low-dose radiation. Adding a low-dose restriction that {<=}20% of the ipsilateral lung should receive 10% of the prescribed dose resulted in successful plans in 88% of cases. This low-dose lung limit should be used in PBRT planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultan, D. M. S.; Mendicino, R.; Boscardin, M.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.
2015-12-01
Following 3D pixel sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer, Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) fabrication facility has recently been upgraded to process 6-inch wafers. In 2014, a test batch was fabricated to check for possible issues relevant to this upgrade. While maintaining a double-sided fabrication technology, some process modifications have been investigated. We report here on the technology and the design of this batch, and present selected results from the electrical characterization of sensors and test structures. Notably, the breakdown voltage is shown to exceed 200 V before irradiation, much higher than in earlier productions, demonstrating robustness in terms of radiation hardness for forthcoming productions aimed at High Luminosity LHC upgrades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feret, J. B.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Lefèvre-Fonollosa, M. J.; Proisy, C.; Asner, G. P.
2014-12-01
The accelerating loss of biodiversity is a major environmental trend. Tropical ecosystems are particularly threatened due to climate change, invasive species, farming and natural resources exploitation. Recent advances in remote sensing of biodiversity confirmed the potential of high spatial resolution spectroscopic imagery for species identification and biodiversity mapping. Such information bridges the scale-gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. In order to produce fine-scale resolution maps of canopy alpha-diversity and beta-diversity of the Peruvian Amazonian forest, we designed, applied and validated a method based on spectral variation hypothesis to CAO AToMS (Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System) images, acquired from 2011 to 2013. There is a need to understand on a quantitative basis the physical processes leading to this spectral variability. This spectral variability mainly depends on canopy chemistry, structure, and sensor's characteristics. 3D radiative transfer modeling provides a powerful framework for the study of the relative influence of each of these factors in dense and complex canopies. We simulated series of spectroscopic images with the 3D radiative model DART, with variability gradients in terms of leaf chemistry, individual tree structure, spatial and spectral resolution, and applied methods for biodiversity mapping. This sensitivity study allowed us to determine the relative influence of these factors on the radiometric signal acquired by different types of sensors. Such study is particularly important to define the domain of validity of our approach, to refine requirements for the instrumental specifications, and to help preparing hyperspectral spatial missions to be launched at the horizon 2015-2025 (EnMAP, PRISMA, HISUI, SHALOM, HYSPIRI, HYPXIM). Simulations in preparation include topographic variations in order to estimate the robustness
Shen, Hesong; Dai, Guochao; Luo, Mingyue; Duan, Chaijie; Cai, Wenli; Liang, Dan; Wang, Xinhua; Zhu, Dongyun; Li, Wenru; Qiu, Jianping
2015-01-01
Purpose To investigate image quality and radiation dose of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scanned using automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) and reconstructed by strong adaptive iterative dose reduction three-dimensional (AIDR3D). Methods Eighty-four consecutive CTCA patients were collected for the study. All patients were scanned using ATCM and reconstructed with strong AIDR3D, standard AIDR3D and filtered back-projection (FBP) respectively. Two radiologists who were blinded to the patients' clinical data and reconstruction methods evaluated image quality. Quantitative image quality evaluation included image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). To evaluate image quality qualitatively, coronary artery is classified into 15 segments based on the modified guidelines of the American Heart Association. Qualitative image quality was evaluated using a 4-point scale. Radiation dose was calculated based on dose-length product. Results Compared with standard AIDR3D, strong AIDR3D had lower image noise, higher SNR and CNR, their differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05); compared with FBP, strong AIDR3D decreased image noise by 46.1%, increased SNR by 84.7%, and improved CNR by 82.2%, their differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.001). Segments with diagnostic image quality for strong AIDR3D were 336 (100.0%), 486 (96.4%), and 394 (93.8%) in proximal, middle, and distal part respectively; whereas those for standard AIDR3D were 332 (98.8%), 472 (93.7%), 378 (90.0%), respectively; those for FBP were 217 (64.6%), 173 (34.3%), 114 (27.1%), respectively; total segments with diagnostic image quality in strong AIDR3D (1216, 96.5%) were higher than those of standard AIDR3D (1182, 93.8%) and FBP (504, 40.0%); the differences between strong AIDR3D and standard AIDR3D, strong AIDR3D and FBP were all statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.001). The mean effective radiation dose was (2.55±1.21) mSv. Conclusion
FESTR: Finite-Element Spectral Transfer of Radiation spectroscopic modeling and analysis code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakel, Peter
2016-10-01
We report on the development of a new spectral postprocessor of hydrodynamic simulations of hot, dense plasmas. Based on given time histories of one-, two-, and three-dimensional spatial distributions of materials, and their local temperature and density conditions, spectroscopically-resolved signals are computed. The effects of radiation emission and absorption by the plasma on the emergent spectra are simultaneously taken into account. This program can also be used independently of hydrodynamic calculations to analyze available experimental data with the goal of inferring plasma conditions. Catalogue identifier: AFAR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFAR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD 3-Clause license No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1237516 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17542918 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: HPC, PC. Operating system: Linux, MacOS. RAM: Problem dependent (based on size of input) Classification: 1.3, 2.2, 20.2. Nature of problem: Calculation of spectral signals by postprocessing hydrodynamics simulations. Analysis of experimental spectroscopic data to infer plasma temperature and density conditions, and its chemical composition. Simultaneous treatment of spatial non-uniformity (on 3D unstructured meshes) along with spectroscopic-quality radiation transport. Solution method: Rays are cast across a 3D unstructured mesh that characterizes local temperature, density, and chemical composition of the material. Analytic solution to the 1D (along the ray) steady-state, local radiation transport equation is repeatedly used to gradually build a synthetic spectrum for each ray. Restrictions: Steady-state approximation of the radiation transport equation is used. Scattering as a radiation source is not included. Given plasma conditions are
Nagata, Yasushi Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki
2009-10-01
Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.
Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chang, Hyesook; Lange, Christopher S.; Ravi, Akkamma
2010-07-15
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the suitability of the prostate and seminal vesicle volumes as factors to consider patients for treatment with image-guided 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using common dosimetry parameters as comparison tools. Methods: Dosimetry of 3D and IMRT plans for 48 patients was compared. Volumes of prostate, SV, rectum, and bladder, and prescriptions were the same for both plans. For both 3D and IMRT plans, expansion margins to prostate+SV (CTV) and prostate were 0.5 cm posterior and superior and 1 cm in other dimensions to create PTV and CDPTV, respectively. Six-field 3D plans were prepared retrospectively. For 3D plans, an additional 0.5 cm margin was added to PTV and CDPTV. Prescription for both 3D and IMRT plans was the same: 45 Gy to CTV followed by a 36 Gy boost to prostate. Dosimetry parameters common to 3D and IMRT plans were used for comparison: Mean doses to prostate, CDPTV, SV, rectum, bladder, and femurs; percent volume of rectum and bladder receiving 30 (V30), 50 (V50), and 70 Gy (V70), dose to 30% of rectum and bladder, minimum and maximum point dose to CDPTV, and prescription dose covering 95% of CDPTV (D95). Results: When the data for all patients were combined, mean dose to prostate and CDPTV was higher with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). Mean D95 to CDPTV was the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). On average, among all cases, the minimum point dose was less for 3D-CRT plans and the maximum point dose was greater for 3D-CRT than for IMRT (P<0.01). Mean dose to 30% rectum with 3D and IMRT plans was comparable (P>0.1). V30 was less (P<0.01), V50 was the same (P>0.2), and V70 was more (P<0.01) for rectum with 3D than IMRT plans. Mean dose to bladder was less with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). V30 for bladder with 3D plans was less than that of IMRT plans (P<0.01). V50 and V70 for 3D plans were the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). Mean dose to femurs
Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy
Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L.
2014-08-15
This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saldamli, Belma; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Tübel, Jutta; Schauwecker, Johannes; Burgkart, Rainer; Jürgens, Philipp; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Sader, Robert; Müller, Bert
2008-08-01
Recently the importance of the third dimension in cell biology has been better understood, resulting in a re-orientation towards three-dimensional (3D) cultivation. Yet adequate tools for their morphological characterization have to be established. Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) allows visualizing such biological systems with almost isotropic micrometer resolution, non-destructively. We have applied SRμCT for studying the internal morphology of human osteoblast-derived, scaffold-free 3D cultures, termed histoids. Primary human osteoblasts, isolated from femoral neck spongy bone, were grown as 2D culture in non-mineralizing osteogenic medium until a rather thick, multi-cellular membrane was formed. This delicate system was intentionally released to randomly fold itself. The folded cell cultures were grown to histoids of cubic milli- or centimeter size in various combinations of mineralizing and non-mineralizing osteogenic medium for a total period of minimum 56 weeks. The SRμCT-measurements were performed in the absorption contrast mode at the beamlines BW 2 and W 2 (HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany), operated by the GKSS-Research Center. To investigate the entire volume of interest several scans were performed under identical conditions and registered to obtain one single dataset of each sample. The histoids grown under different conditions exhibit similar external morphology of globular or ovoid shape. The SRμCT-examination revealed the distinctly different morphological structures inside the histoids. One obtains details of the histoids that permit to identify and select the most promising slices for subsequent histological characterization.
Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Higgins, P
2015-06-15
Purpose: 3D printed phantoms constructed of multiple tissue approximating materials could be useful in both clinical and research aspects of radiotherapy. This work describes a 3D printed phantom constructed with tissue substitute plastics for both bone and soft tissue; air cavities were included as well. Methods: 3D models of an anonymized nasopharynx patient were generated for air cavities, soft tissues, and bone, which were segmented by Hounsfield Unit (HU) thresholds. HU thresholds were chosen to define air-to-soft tissue boundaries of 0.65 g/cc and soft tissue-to-bone boundaries of 1.18 g/cc based on clinical HU to density tables. After evaluation of several composite plastics, a bone tissue substitute was identified as an acceptable material for typical radiotherapy x-ray energies, composed of iron and PLA plastic. PET plastic was determined to be an acceptable soft tissue substitute. 3D printing was performed on a consumer grade dual extrusion fused deposition model 3D printer. Results: MVCT scans of the 3D printed heterogeneous phantom were acquired. Rigid image registration of the patient and the 3D printed phantom scans was performed. The average physical density of the soft tissue and bone regions was 1.02 ± 0.08 g/cc and 1.39 ± 0.14 g/cc, respectively, for the patient kVCT scan. In the 3D printed phantom MVCT scan, the average density of the soft tissue and bone was 1.01 ± 0.09 g/cc and 1.44 ± 0.12 g/cc, respectively. Conclusion: A patient specific phantom, constructed of heterogeneous tissue substitute materials was constructed by 3D printing. MVCT of the 3D printed phantom showed realistic tissue densities were recreated by the 3D printing materials. Funding provided by intra-department grant by University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, H.; Suzuki, R.; Nagai, S.; Nakai, T.; Kim, Y.
2012-12-01
Over the last couple of decades, the three dimensional plant canopy radiative transfer models have been developed, improved and used for the retrievals of biophysical variables of vegetative surface. Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) by plant canopy, a similar variable to heating rate in the atmosphere, is one of the important biophysical variables to infer the terrestrial plant canopy photosynthesis. FAPAR can be estimated by the radiative transfer model inversion or the empirical relationships between FAPAR and vegetation indices such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). To date, some global FAPAR products are publicly available. These products are estimated from the moderate resolution satellites such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION. One may apply the similar FAPAR algorithms to higher spatial resolution satellites if the ecosystem structures are horizontally homogeneous, which means that the adjacent satellite pixels have a similar spectral properties. If the vegetation surface is highly heterogeneous, "domain average FAPAR", which assumes no net horizontal radiation fluxes, can be unrealistically high (more than 1). In this presentation, we analyzed the characteristics of FAPAR in a heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, we selected our study site in a sparse black spruce forest in Alaska. We conducted the field campaigns to measure forest structural and optical properties that are used in the radiative transfer simulation. We used a 3D radiative transfer, FLiES (Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185) to create a high resolution simulated spectral reflectance and FAPAR images over the course of the growing season. From the analysis, we show (1) FAPAR with no net horizontal fluxes assumption can be higher than
Yin, Gang; Wang, Pei; Lang, Jinyi; Tian, Yin; Luo, Yangkun; Fan, Zixuan
2016-01-01
Purpose Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) boost technique (ICBT + IMRT) has been used in our hospital for advanced cervix carcinoma patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of the four different boost techniques (the conventional 2D HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [CICBT], 3D optimized HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [OICBT], and IMRT-alone with the applicator in situ). Material and methods For 30 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma, after the completion of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for whole pelvic irradiation 45 Gy/25 fractions, five fractions of ICBT + IMRT boost with 6 Gy/fractions for high risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and 5 Gy/fractions for intermediate risk clinical target volume (IRCTV) were applied. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired using an in situ CT/MRI-compatible applicator. The gross tumor volume (GTV), the high/intermediate-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV/IRCTV), bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were contoured by CT scans. Results For ICBT + IMRT plan, values of D90, D100 of HRCTV, D90, D100, and V100 of IRCTV significantly increased (p < 0.05) in comparison to OICBT and CICBT. The D2cc values for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were significantly lower than that of CICBT and IMRT alone. In all patients, the mean rectum V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT and OICBT techniques were very similar but for bladder and sigmoid, the V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT were higher than that of OICBT. For the ICBT + IMRT plan, the standard deviations (SD) of D90 and D2cc were found to be lower than other three treatment plans. Conclusions The ICBT + IMRT technique not only provides good target coverage but also maintains low doses (D2cc) to the OAR. ICBT + IMRT is an optional technique to boost parametrial region or tumor of large size and irregular shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, L. R.; Lee, W. L.; Fovell, R. G.
2013-12-01
We investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, applied at a 30 km grid resolution, is used in conjunction with a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008, during which abundant snowfall occurred. A comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes, and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-D-PP, in which PP denotes the plane-parallel approach) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to the earlier morning. Over mountaintops higher than 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40-60 W m-2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, which leads to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Overall, this study shows that deviations of SWE due to 3-D radiation effects range from an increase of 18% at the lowest elevation range (1.5-2 km) to a decrease of 8% at the highest elevation range (above 3 km). Since lower
Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, L. R.; Lee, W. L.; Fovell, R. G.
2013-01-01
We investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, applied at a 30 km grid resolution, is used in conjunction with a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008, during which abundant snowfall occurred. A comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes, and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-D-PP, in which PP denotes the plane-parallel approach) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to the earlier morning. Over mountaintops higher than 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40–60 W m^{-2} occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, which leads to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Overall, this study shows that deviations of SWE due to 3-D radiation effects range from an increase of 18% at the lowest elevation range (1.5–2 km) to a decrease of 8% at the highest elevation range (above 3 km
Hybrid MV-kV 3D respiratory motion tracking during radiation therapy with low imaging dose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Huagang; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Zhixiang; Nath, Ravinder; Liu, Wu
2012-12-01
A novel real-time adaptive MV-kV imaging framework for image-guided radiation therapy is developed to reduce the thoracic and abdominal tumor targeting uncertainty caused by respiration-induced intrafraction motion with ultra-low patient imaging dose. In our method, continuous stereoscopic MV-kV imaging is used at the beginning of a radiation therapy delivery for several seconds to measure the implanted marker positions. After this stereoscopic imaging period, the kV imager is switched off except for the times when no fiducial marker is detected in the cine-MV images. The 3D time-varying marker positions are estimated by combining the MV 2D projection data and the motion correlations between directional components of marker motion established from the stereoscopic imaging period and updated afterwards; in particular, the most likely position is assumed to be the position on the projection line that has the shortest distance to the first principal component line segment constructed from previous trajectory points. An adaptive windowed auto-regressive prediction is utilized to predict the marker position a short time later (310 ms and 460 ms in this study) to allow for tracking system latency. To demonstrate the feasibility and evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, computer simulations were performed for both arc and fixed-gantry deliveries using 66 h of retrospective tumor motion data from 42 patients treated for thoracic or abdominal cancers. The simulations reveal that using our hybrid approach, a smaller than 1.2 mm or 1.5 mm root-mean-square tracking error can be achieved at a system latency of 310 ms or 460 ms, respectively. Because the kV imaging is only used for a short period of time in our method, extra patient imaging dose can be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to continuous MV-kV imaging, while the clinical tumor targeting accuracy for thoracic or abdominal cancers is maintained. Furthermore, no additional hardware is required with the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, Guo-Yong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.
2004-01-01
Aerosol amount in clear regions of a cloudy atmosphere is a critical parameter in studying the interaction between aerosols and clouds. Since the global cloud cover is about 50%, cloudy scenes are often encountered in any satellite images. Aerosols are more or less transparent, while clouds are extremely reflective in the visible spectrum of solar radiation. The radiative transfer in clear-cloudy condition is highly three- dimensional (3D). This paper focuses on estimating the 3D effects on aerosol optical thickness retrievals using Monte Carlo simulations. An ASTER image of cumulus cloud fields in the biomass burning region in Brazil is simulated in this study. The MODIS products (i-e., cloud optical thickness, particle effective radius, cloud top pressure, surface reflectance, etc.) are used to construct the cloud property and surface reflectance fields. To estimate the cloud 3-D effects, we assume a plane-parallel stratification of aerosol properties in the 60 km x 60 km ASTER image. The simulated solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is compared with plane-parallel calculations. Furthermore, the 3D cloud radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness retrieval are estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Mark
2015-01-01
Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.
Pötter, Richard; Haie-Meder, Christine; Van Limbergen, Erik; Barillot, Isabelle; De Brabandere, Marisol; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Dumas, Isabelle; Erickson, Beth; Lang, Stefan; Nulens, An; Petrow, Peter; Rownd, Jason; Kirisits, Christian
2006-01-01
The second part of the GYN GEC ESTRO working group recommendations is focused on 3D dose-volume parameters for brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma. Methods and parameters have been developed and validated from dosimetric, imaging and clinical experience from different institutions (University of Vienna, IGR Paris, University of Leuven). Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH) are recommended for evaluation of the complex dose heterogeneity. DVH parameters for GTV, HR CTV and IR CTV are the minimum dose delivered to 90 and 100% of the respective volume: D90, D100. The volume, which is enclosed by 150 or 200% of the prescribed dose (V150, V200), is recommended for overall assessment of high dose volumes. V100 is recommended for quality assessment only within a given treatment schedule. For Organs at Risk (OAR) the minimum dose in the most irradiated tissue volume is recommended for reporting: 0.1, 1, and 2 cm3; optional 5 and 10 cm3. Underlying assumptions are: full dose of external beam therapy in the volume of interest, identical location during fractionated brachytherapy, contiguous volumes and contouring of organ walls for >2 cm3. Dose values are reported as absorbed dose and also taking into account different dose rates. The linear-quadratic radiobiological model-equivalent dose (EQD2)-is applied for brachytherapy and is also used for calculating dose from external beam therapy. This formalism allows systematic assessment within one patient, one centre and comparison between different centres with analysis of dose volume relations for GTV, CTV, and OAR. Recommendations for the transition period from traditional to 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy are formulated. Supplementary data (available in the electronic version of this paper) deals with aspects of 3D imaging, radiation physics, radiation biology, dose at reference points and dimensions and volumes for the GTV and CTV (adding to [Haie-Meder C, Pötter R, Van Limbergen E et al. Recommendations from
Li Z.
2011-05-11
A new international-patent-pending (PCT/US2010/52887) detector type, named here as 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors, is proposed in this work. In this new 3D electrode configuration, one or both types of electrodes are etched as trenches deep into the Si (fully penetrating with SOI or supporting wafer, or non-fully penetrating into 50-90% of the thickness), instead of columns as in the conventional ('standard') 3D electrode Si detectors. With trench etched electrodes, the electric field in the new 3D electrode detectors are well defined without low or zero field regions. Except near both surfaces of the detector, the electric field in the concentric type 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors is nearly radial with little or no angular dependence in the circular and hexangular (concentric-type) pixel cell geometries. In the case of parallel plate 3D trench pixels, the field is nearly linear (like the planar 2D electrode detectors), with simple and well-defined boundary conditions. Since each pixel cell in a 3D-Trench electrode detector is isolated from others by highly doped trenches, it is an electrically independent cell. Therefore, an alternative name 'Independent Coaxial Detector Array', or ICDA, is assigned to an array of 3D-Trench electrode detectors. The electric field in the detector can be reduced by a factor of nearly 10 with an optimal 3D-Trench configuration where the junction is on the surrounding trench side. The full depletion voltage in this optimal configuration can be up to 7 times less than that of a conventional 3D detector, and even a factor of two less than that of a 2D planar detector with a thickness the same as the electrode spacing in the 3D-Trench electrode detector. In the case of non-fully penetrating trench electrodes, the processing is true one-sided with backside being unprocessed. The charge loss due to the dead space associated with the trenches is insignificant as compared to that due to radiation-induced trapping in sLHC environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zheng
2011-12-01
A new international-patent-pending (PCT/US2010/52887) detector type, named here as 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors, is proposed in this work. In this new 3D electrode configuration, one or both types of electrodes are etched as trenches deep into the Si (fully penetrating with SOI or supporting wafer, or non-fully penetrating into 50-90% of the thickness), instead of columns as in the conventional ("standard") 3D electrode Si detectors. With trench etched electrodes, the electric field in the new 3D electrode detectors are well defined without low or zero field regions. Except near both surfaces of the detector, the electric field in the concentric type 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors is nearly radial with little or no angular dependence in the circular and hexangular (concentric-type) pixel cell geometries. In the case of parallel plate 3D trench pixels, the field is nearly linear (like the planar 2D electrode detectors), with simple and well-defined boundary conditions. Since each pixel cell in a 3D-Trench electrode detector is isolated from others by highly doped trenches, it is an electrically independent cell. Therefore, an alternative name "Independent Coaxial Detector Array", or ICDA, is assigned to an array of 3D-Trench electrode detectors. The electric field in the detector can be reduced by a factor of nearly 10 with an optimal 3D-Trench configuration where the junction is on the surrounding trench side. The full depletion voltage in this optimal configuration can be up to 7 times less than that of a conventional 3D detector, and even a factor of two less than that of a 2D planar detector with a thickness the same as the electrode spacing in the 3D-Trench electrode detector. In the case of non-fully penetrating trench electrodes, the processing is true one-sided with backside being unprocessed. The charge loss due to the dead space associated with the trenches is insignificant as compared to that due to radiation-induced trapping in sLHC environment
Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni
2013-07-01
Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barker, Howard W.; Kato, Serji; Wehr, T.
2012-01-01
The main point of this study was to use realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 60 km wide by 13,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances for each (1 km)2 column where then produced by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and independent column approximation mode (i.e., a 1D model).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.
2011-01-01
Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Y.; Liou, K.; Leung, L.; Lee, W.; Fovell, R. G.
2013-12-01
Modern climate models have used a plane-parallel (PP) radiative transfer approach in physics parameterizations; however, the potential errors that arise from neglecting three-dimensional (3D) interactions between radiation and mountains/snow on climate simulations have not been studied and quantified. We have developed a surface solar radiation parameterization based on the regression analysis of flux deviations between 3D and conventional PP radiative transfer models, which has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on surface hydrology. Using the Rocky and Sierra-Nevada Mountains in the Western United States as a testbed, the WRF model with the incorporation of the 3D parameterization is applied at a 30 km grid resolution covering a time period from November 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008 during which abundant snowfall occurred. Comparison of the 3D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. For lower elevations, positive deviations (3D - PP) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours, while negative deviations are shown between 10 am-2 pm during the winter months, leading to reduced diurnal variations. Over the mountain tops above 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40 - 60 W/m2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain
Li Benwen Tian Shuai; Sun Yasong; Hu, Zhang-Mao
2010-02-20
The Schur-decomposition for three-dimensional matrix equations is developed and used to directly solve the radiative discrete ordinates equations which are discretized by Chebyshev collocation spectral method. Three methods, say, the spectral methods based on 2D and 3D matrix equation solvers individually, and the standard discrete ordinates method, are presented. The numerical results show the good accuracy of spectral method based on direct solvers. The CPU time cost comparisons against the resolutions between these three methods are made using MATLAB and FORTRAN 95 computer languages separately. The results show that the CPU time cost of Chebyshev collocation spectral method with 3D Schur-decomposition solver is the least, and almost only one thirtieth to one fiftieth CPU time is needed when using the spectral method with 3D Schur-decomposition solver compared with the standard discrete ordinates method.
Performance Portability for Unstructured Mesh Physics
Keasler, J A
2012-03-23
ASC legacy software must be ported to emerging hardware architectures. This paper notes that many programming models used by DOE applications are similar, and suggests that constructing a common terminology across these models could reveal a performance portable programming model. The paper then highlights how the LULESH mini-app is used to explore new programming models with outside solution providers. Finally, we suggest better tools to identify parallelism in software, and give suggestions for enhancing the co-design process with vendors.
Ma, M; Rouabhi, O; Flynn, R; Xia, J; Bayouth, J
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric difference between 3D and 4Dweighted dose calculation using patient specific respiratory trace and deformable image registration for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors. Methods: Two dose calculation techniques, 3D and 4D-weighed dose calculation, were used for dosimetric comparison for 9 lung cancer patients. The magnitude of the tumor motion varied from 3 mm to 23 mm. Breath-hold exhale CT was used for 3D dose calculation with ITV generated from the motion observed from 4D-CT. For 4D-weighted calculation, dose of each binned CT image from the ten breathing amplitudes was first recomputed using the same planning parameters as those used in the 3D calculation. The dose distribution of each binned CT was mapped to the breath-hold CT using deformable image registration. The 4D-weighted dose was computed by summing the deformed doses with the temporal probabilities calculated from their corresponding respiratory traces. Dosimetric evaluation criteria includes lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose. Results: Comparing with 3D calculation, lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose using 4D-weighted dose calculation were changed by −0.67% ± 2.13%, −4.11% ± 6.94% (−0.36 Gy ± 0.87 Gy), −1.16% ± 1.36%(−0.73 Gy ± 0.85 Gy) accordingly. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that conventional 3D dose calculation method may overestimate the lung V20, MLD, and MTD. The absolute difference between 3D and 4D-weighted dose calculation in lung tumor may not be clinically significant. This research is supported by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc and Iowa Center for Research By Undergraduates.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
Poppe, Matthew M.; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning J.; Zhou Jinghao; Nelson, Carl; Jabbour, Salma K.
2011-01-01
We assessed dosimetric differences in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy via helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (HIMRT), linac-based IMRT, and 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with regard to successful plan acceptance and dose to critical organs. Dosimetric analysis was performed in 16 pancreatic cases that were planned to 54 Gy; both post-pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 8) and unresected (n = 8) cases were compared. Without volume modification, plans met constraints 75% of the time with HIMRT and IMRT and 13% with 3D-CRT. There was no statistically significantly improvement with HIMRT over conventional IMRT in reducing liver V35, stomach V45, or bowel V45. HIMRT offers improved planning target volume (PTV) dose homogeneity compared with IMRT, averaging a lower maximum dose and higher volume receiving the prescription dose (D100). HIMRT showed an increased mean dose over IMRT to bowel and liver. Both HIMRT and IMRT offer a statistically significant improvement over 3D-CRT in lowering dose to liver, stomach, and bowel. The results were similar for both unresected and resected patients. In pancreatic cancer, HIMRT offers improved dose homogeneity over conventional IMRT and several significant benefits to 3D-CRT. Factors to consider before incorporating IMRT into pancreatic cancer therapy are respiratory motion, dose inhomogeneity, and mean dose.
Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.
2015-03-15
Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.
Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs
Jacob, Rick E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.
2013-10-01
A new heterogeneity analysis approach to discern radiation-induced lung damage was tested on CT images of irradiated rats. The method, combining octree decomposition with variogram analysis, demonstrated a significant correlation with radiation exposure levels, whereas conventional measurements and pulmonary function tests did not. The results suggest the new approach may be highly sensitive for assessing even subtle radiation-induced changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakub, Fabian; Mayer, Bernhard
2016-04-01
The recently developed 3-D TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the University of California, Los Angeles large-eddy simulation (UCLA-LES) cloud-resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges of migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte Carlo spectral integration needed to be reexamined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte Carlo spectral integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix preconditioner: geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning (GAMG) and block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80-90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D delta-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of 5-10.
Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Edmund
2015-11-01
Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gratiy, Sergey L.; Walker, Andrew C.; Levin, Deborah A.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.; Moore, Chris H.
2010-05-01
Conflicting observations regarding the dominance of either sublimation or volcanism as the source of the atmosphere on Io and disparate reports on the extent of its spatial distribution and the absolute column abundance invite the development of detailed computational models capable of improving our understanding of Io's unique atmospheric structure and origin. Improving upon previous models, Walker et al. (Walker, A.C., Gratiy, S.L., Levin, D.A., Goldstein, D.B., Varghese, P.L., Trafton, L.M., Moore, C.H., Stewart, B. [2009]. Icarus) developed a fully 3-D global rarefied gas dynamics model of Io's atmosphere including both sublimation and volcanic sources of SO 2 gas. The fidelity of the model is tested by simulating remote observations at selected wavelength bands and comparing them to the corresponding astronomical observations of Io's atmosphere. The simulations are performed with a new 3-D spherical-shell radiative transfer code utilizing a backward Monte Carlo method. We present: (1) simulations of the mid-infrared disk-integrated spectra of Io's sunlit hemisphere at 19 μm, obtained with TEXES during 2001-2004; (2) simulations of disk-resolved images at Lyman- α obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) during 1997-2001; and (3) disk-integrated simulations of emission line profiles in the millimeter wavelength range obtained with the IRAM-30 m telescope in October-November 1999. We found that the atmospheric model generally reproduces the longitudinal variation in band depth from the mid-infrared data; however, the best match is obtained when our simulation results are shifted ˜30° toward lower orbital longitudes. The simulations of Lyman- α images do not reproduce the mid-to-high latitude bright patches seen in the observations, suggesting that the model atmosphere sustains columns that are too high at those latitudes. The simulations of emission line profiles in the millimeter spectral region support
Jenkins, C; Xing, L
2015-06-15
Purpose The rapid proliferation of affordable 3D printing techniques has enabled the custom fabrication of items ranging from paper weights to medical implants. This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing the technology for developing novel phantoms for use in radiation therapy quality assurance (QA) procedures. Methods A phantom for measuring the geometric parameters of linear accelerator (LINAC) on-board imaging (OBI) systems was designed using SolidWorks. The design was transferred to a 3D printer and fabricated using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique. Fiducials were embedded in the phantom by placing 1.6 mm diameter steel balls in predefined holes and securing them with silicone. Several MV and kV images of the phantom were collected and the visibility and geometric accuracy were evaluated. A second phantom, for use in the experimental evaluation of a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy dosimeter, was designed to secure several applicator needles in water. The applicator was fabricated in the same 3D printer and used for experiments. Results The general accuracy of printed parts was determined to be 0.1 mm. The cost of materials for the imaging and QA phantoms were $22 and $5 respectively. Both the plastic structure and fiducial markers of the imaging phantom were visible in MV and kV images. Fiducial marker locations were determined to be within 1mm of desired locations, with the discrepancy being attributed to the fiducial attachment process. The HDR phantom secured the applicators within 0.5 mm of the desired locations. Conclusion 3D printing offers an inexpensive method for fabricating custom phantoms for use in radiation therapy quality assurance. While the geometric accuracy of such parts is limited compared to more expensive methods, the phantoms are still highly functional and provide a unique opportunity for rapid fabrication of custom phantoms for use in radiation therapy QA and research.
MHD Simulations of Spherical Tori and Compact Stellarators Using M3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strauss, H. R.; Park, W.; Tang, X.; Fu, G. Y.; Sugiyama, L.
1999-11-01
The M3D++ unstructured mesh version of the M3D code is being applied to low aspect ratio spherical torus disruption simulations. In addition to spherical tokamaks (ST), similar to NSTX, we also study spherical pinches (SP). It is possible to produce SP equilibria with 1 > q > 1/2, and toroidal current decreasing to zero at the wall. These SP equilibria have reverse magnetic shear except in a narrow layer near the wall. The equilibria are free of the global m=1 modes that plague low q pinches such as RFPs. However there can be unstable (m,n) = (2,3) modes. The M3D++ code has been extended to have the capability of using a 3D mesh in configuration space, suitable for stellarator equilibrium, stability, and nonlinear studies, including resistive effects. Equilibria can be initialized with VMEC output or generated from initial data. Applications to compact stellarator configurations such as the PPPL quasi axisymmetric design will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colborn, B. L.; Armstong, T. W.
1993-01-01
A three-dimensional geometry and mass model of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft and experiment trays was developed for use in predictions and data interpretation related to ionizing radiation measurements. The modeling approach, level of detail incorporated, example models for specific experiments and radiation dosimeters, and example applications of the model are described.
Comparison of 1D stagnation solutions to 3D wire-array Z pinch simulations in absence of radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Edmund; Velikovich, Alexander; Maron, Yitzhak
2013-10-01
In the idealized picture of a Z pinch, a cylindrically symmetric plasma shell implodes towards axis. In this 1D (radial) picture, the resulting stagnation is very efficient: all the kinetic energy of the shell converts to internal energy, as for instance in the Noh shock solution or the homogeneous stagnation flow. If we generalize the problem to 2D by deforming the shell from perfectly circular to oblate, the resulting stagnation will not be as efficient. As in the Hiemenz flow, in which a jet of fluid strikes a rigid flat boundary and squirts out to the sides, the more complicated flows allowed in 2D allow flow kinetic energy to redirect rather than stagnate. With this picture in mind, we might expect the stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch, which in actuality forms a highly distorted 3D imploding plasma, to dissipate its kinetic energy inefficiently due to the lack of symmetry, and be indescribable by means of the idealized 1D stagnation solutions. On the other hand, one might expect that if the imploding plasma is sufficiently messy, the non-uniformities might ``wash out,'' allowing a quasi-1D description of the averaged quantities of plasma. In this work we explore this idea, comparing predictions of 1D stagnation solutions with 3D simulation. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC0 4-94AL85000.
Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K
2015-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.
Camus, Victoria L; Stewart, Grant; Nailon, William H; McLaren, Duncan B; Campbell, Colin J
2016-08-15
Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) are three-dimensional cell cultures that possess their own microenvironments and provide a more meaningful model of tumour biology than monolayer cultures. As a result, MTS are becoming increasingly used as tumor models when measuring the efficiency of therapies. Monitoring the viability of live MTS is complicated by their 3D nature and conventional approaches such as fluorescence often require fixation and sectioning. In this paper we detail the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to measure the viability of MTS grown from prostate cancer (PC3) cells. Our results show that we can monitor loss of viability by measuring pH and redox potential in MTS and furthermore we demonstrate that SERS can be used to measure the effects of fractionation of a dose of radiotherapy in a way that has potential to inform treatment planning.
Camus, Victoria L; Stewart, Grant; Nailon, William H; McLaren, Duncan B; Campbell, Colin J
2016-08-15
Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) are three-dimensional cell cultures that possess their own microenvironments and provide a more meaningful model of tumour biology than monolayer cultures. As a result, MTS are becoming increasingly used as tumor models when measuring the efficiency of therapies. Monitoring the viability of live MTS is complicated by their 3D nature and conventional approaches such as fluorescence often require fixation and sectioning. In this paper we detail the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to measure the viability of MTS grown from prostate cancer (PC3) cells. Our results show that we can monitor loss of viability by measuring pH and redox potential in MTS and furthermore we demonstrate that SERS can be used to measure the effects of fractionation of a dose of radiotherapy in a way that has potential to inform treatment planning. PMID:27310732
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnier, F.; Ghedhaifi, W.; Vancassel, X.; Khou, J. C.; Montreuil, E.
2015-12-01
Civil aviation contributes to degradation of air quality around airport (SOx, NOx, speciated hydrocarbons,…) and climate change through its emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, water vapor), as well as particulate matters. These particles include soot particles formed in the combustor, volatile aerosols and contrails generated in the aircraft wake. Although the aircraft emissions represent today only about 3% of all those produced on the surface of the earth by other anthropogenic sources, they are mostly released in the very sensitive region of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. These emissions have a radiative effect reinforced by specific physical and chemical processes at high altitudes, such as cloud formation and ozone production. In this context, most of the work to-date assessed that the actual effect of aviation on the climate are affected by very large uncertainties, partly due to lack of knowledge on the mechanisms of new particles formation and growth processes in the exhaust plume of the aircraft. The engine exhaust gases are mixed in the ambient air under the influence of the interaction between the jet engine and the wing tip vortices. The characteristics of vortices as well as their interaction with the jet depend on the aircraft airframe especially on the wing geometry and the engine position (distance from the wing tip). The aim of this study is to examine the influence of aircraft parameters on contrail formation using a 3D CFD calculation based on a RANS (Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes) approach. Numerical simulations have been performed using CEDRE, the multiphysics ONERA code for energetics. CEDRE is a CFD code using finite volume methods and unstructured meshes. These meshes are especially appropriate when complex geometries are used. A transport model has been used for condensation of water vapor onto ice particles. Growth is evaluated using a modified Fick's law to mass transfer on particles. In this study, different aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.
2015-03-01
Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.
Pannala, S; D'Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T
2002-02-26
The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of
Li, Q; Juang, T; Bache, S; Chang, S; Oldham, M
2014-06-15
Purpose: The feasibility of MRT has recently been demonstrated utilizing a new technology of Carbon-Nano-Tube(CNT) field emission x-ray sources.This approach can deliver very high dose(10's of Gy) in narrow stripes(sub-mm) of radiation which enables the study of novel radiation treatment approaches. Here we investigate the application of highresolution (50um isotropic) PRESAGE/Optical-CT 3D dosimetry techniques to characterize the radiation delivered in this extremely dosimetrically challenging scenario. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source irradiator comprises of a linear cathode array and a novel collimator alignment system. This allows a precise delivery of high-energy small beams up to 160 kVp. A cylindrical dosimeter (∼2.2cm in height ∼2.5cm in diameter) was irradiated by CNT MRT delivering 3 strips of radiation with a nominal entrance dose of 32 Gy.A second dosimeter was irradiated with similar entrance dose, with a regular x-ray irradiator collimated to microscopical strip-beams. 50um (isotropic) 3D dosimetry was performed using an in-house optical-CT system designed and optimized for high resolution imaging (including a stray light deconvolution correction).The percentage depth dose (PDD), peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and beam width (FWHM) data were obtained and analyzed in both cases. Results: High resolution 3D images were successfully achieved with the prototype system, enabling extraction of PDD and dose profiles. The PDDs for the CNT irradiation showed pronounced attenuation, but less build-up effect than that from the multibeam irradiation. The beam spacing between the three strips has an average value of 0.9mm while that for the 13 strips is 1.5 mm at a depth of 16.5 mm. The stray light corrected image shows line profiles with reduced noise and consistent PVR values. Conclusion: MRT dosimetry is extremely challenging due to the ultra small fields involved.This preliminary application of a novel, ultra-high resolution, optical-CT 3D
Modeling the physical structure of star-forming regions with LIME, a 3D radiative transfer code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quénard, D.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.
2016-05-01
The ability to predict line emission is crucial in order to make a comparison with observations. From LTE to full radiative transfer codes, the goal is always to derive the most accurately possible the physical properties of the source. Non-LTE calculations can be very time consuming but are needed in most of the cases since many studied regions are far from LTE.
Yue, Ning J.; Li Xiang; Beriwal, Sushil; Heron, Dwight E.; Sontag, Marc R.; Huq, M. Saiful
2007-07-15
The question remains regarding the dosimetric impact of intrafraction motion in 3D breast treatment. This study was conducted to investigate this issue utilizing the 4DCT scan. The 4D and helical CT scan sets were acquired for 12 breast cancer patients. For each of these patients, based on the helical CT scan, a conventional 3D conformal plan was generated. The breast treatment was then simulated based on the 4DCT scan. In each phase of the 4DCT scan, dose distribution was generated with the same beam parameters as the conventional plan. A software package was developed to compute the cumulative dose distribution from all the phases. Since the intrafraction organ motion is reflected by the 4DCT images, the cumulative dose computed based on the 4DCT images should be closer to what the patient received during treatment. Various dosimetric parameters were obtained from the plan and 4D cumulative dose distribution for the target volume and heart, and were compared to deduce the motion-induced impacts. The studies were performed for both whole breast and partial breast treatment. In the whole breast treatment, the average intrafraction motion induced changes in D{sub 95}, D{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 95}, and V{sub 90} of the target volume were -5.4%, -3.1%, -13.4%, -5.1%, and -3.2%, respectively, with the largest values at -26.2%, -14.1%, -91.0%, -15.1%, and -9.0%, respectively. Motion had little impact on the D{sub max} of the target volume, but its impact on the D{sub min} of the target volume was significant. For left breast treatment, the motion-induced D{sub max} change to the heart could be negative or positive, with the largest increase at about 6 Gy. In partial breast treatment, the only non-insignificant impact was in the D{sub min} of the CTV (ranging from -15.2% to 11.7%). The results showed that the intrafraction motion may compromise target dose coverage in breast treatments and the degree of that compromise was correlated with motion magnitude. However
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.
2013-10-01
A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H2 is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ~few× 10-8 L ⊙. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.
Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.
2013-10-20
A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ∼few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ☉}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.
Sonnik, Deborah; Selvaraj, Raj N; Faul, Clare; Gerszten, Kristina; Heron, Dwight E; King, Gwendolyn C
2007-01-01
Breast, chest wall, and regional nodal irradiation have been associated with an improved outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients. Complex treatment planning is often utilized to ensure complete coverage of the target volume while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The 2 techniques evaluated in this report are the partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) and the 4-field photon/electron combination (the modified "Kuske Technique"). These 2 techniques were evaluated in 10 consecutive breast cancer patients. All patients had computerized tomographic (CT) scans for 3D planning supine on a breast board. The breast was defined clinically by the physician and confirmed radiographically with radiopaque bebes. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of normal and target tissues were then compared. The deep tangent field with blocks resulted in optimal coverage of the target and the upper internal mammary chain (IMC) while sparing of critical and nontarget tissues. The wide tangent technique required less treatment planning and delivery time. We compared the 2 techniques and their resultant DVHs and feasibility in a busy clinic.
Lamprecht, Andreas; Lakämper, Stefan; Baasch, Thierry; Schaap, Iwan A T; Dual, Jurg
2016-07-01
Acoustic particle manipulation in microfluidic channels is becoming a powerful tool in microfluidics to control micrometer sized objects in medical, chemical and biological applications. By creating a standing acoustic wave in the channel, the resulting pressure field can be employed to trap or sort particles. To design efficient and reproducible devices, it is important to characterize the pressure field throughout the volume of the microfluidic device. Here, we used an optically trapped particle as probe to measure the forces in all three dimensions. By moving the probe through the volume of the channel, we imaged spatial variations in the pressure field. In the direction of the standing wave this revealed a periodic energy landscape for 2 μm beads, resulting in an effective stiffness of 2.6 nN m(-1) for the acoustic trap. We found that multiple fabricated devices showed consistent pressure fields. Surprisingly, forces perpendicular to the direction of the standing wave reached values of up to 20% of the main-axis-values. To separate the direct acoustic force from secondary effects, we performed experiments with different bead sizes, which attributed some of the perpendicular forces to acoustic streaming. This method to image acoustically generated forces in 3D can be used to either minimize perpendicular forces or to employ them for specific applications in novel acoustofluidic designs. PMID:27302661
Lamprecht, Andreas; Lakämper, Stefan; Baasch, Thierry; Schaap, Iwan A T; Dual, Jurg
2016-07-01
Acoustic particle manipulation in microfluidic channels is becoming a powerful tool in microfluidics to control micrometer sized objects in medical, chemical and biological applications. By creating a standing acoustic wave in the channel, the resulting pressure field can be employed to trap or sort particles. To design efficient and reproducible devices, it is important to characterize the pressure field throughout the volume of the microfluidic device. Here, we used an optically trapped particle as probe to measure the forces in all three dimensions. By moving the probe through the volume of the channel, we imaged spatial variations in the pressure field. In the direction of the standing wave this revealed a periodic energy landscape for 2 μm beads, resulting in an effective stiffness of 2.6 nN m(-1) for the acoustic trap. We found that multiple fabricated devices showed consistent pressure fields. Surprisingly, forces perpendicular to the direction of the standing wave reached values of up to 20% of the main-axis-values. To separate the direct acoustic force from secondary effects, we performed experiments with different bead sizes, which attributed some of the perpendicular forces to acoustic streaming. This method to image acoustically generated forces in 3D can be used to either minimize perpendicular forces or to employ them for specific applications in novel acoustofluidic designs.
Shapiro, A.B.
1983-08-01
The computer code FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors for input to finite-element heat-transfer analysis codes. The first section of this report is a brief review of previous radiation-view-factor computer codes. The second section presents the defining integral equation for the geometric view factor between two surfaces and the assumptions made in its derivation. Also in this section are the numerical algorithms used to integrate this equation for the various geometries. The third section presents the algorithms used to detect self-shadowing and third-surface shadowing between the two surfaces for which a view factor is being calculated. The fourth section provides a user's input guide followed by several example problems.
Scrape-off layer modeling of radiative divertor and high heat flux experiments on D3-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, R. B.; Petrie, T. W.; Hill, D. N.
1992-03-01
We use a new multispecies 1-D fluid code, NEWT-1D, to model DIII-D scrape-off layer (SOL) behavior during radiative divertor and high heat flux experiments. The separatrix location and the width of the SOL are uncertain, and affect the comparison of the data in important ways. The model agrees with many of the experimental measurements for a particular prescription for the separatrix location. The model cannot explain the recent data on the separatrix T(sub i) with a conventional picture of ion and electron power flows across the separatrix. Radial transport of particles and heat in some form is required to explain the peak heat flux data before and after gas puffing. For argon puffing in the private flux region, entrainment is poor in the steady state. The calculations suggest that strike point argon puffing in a slot divertor geometry results in substantially better entrainment. Self-consistent, steady-state solutions with radiated powers up to 80 percent of the SOL power input are obtained in 1-D. We discuss significant radial effects which warrant the development of a code which can treat strongly radiating impurities in 2-D geometries.
Wiscombe, Warren; Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Chiu, Christine
2007-05-04
We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.
Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu
2011-05-24
We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: â¢ Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. â¢ Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. â¢ Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraser, Danielle; Fava, Palma; Cury, Fabio; Vuong, Te; Falco, Tony; Verhaegen, Frank
2007-03-01
Sonography has good topographic accuracy for superficial lymph node assessment in patients with head and neck cancers. It is therefore an ideal non-invasive tool for precise inter-fraction volumetric analysis of enlarged cervical nodes. In addition, when registered with computed tomography (CT) images, ultrasound information may improve target volume delineation and facilitate image-guided adaptive radiation therapy. A feasibility study was developed to evaluate the use of a prototype ultrasound system capable of three dimensional visualization and multi-modality image fusion for cervical node geometry. A ceiling-mounted optical tracking camera recorded the position and orientation of a transducer in order to synchronize the transducer's position with respect to the room's coordinate system. Tracking systems were installed in both the CT-simulator and radiation therapy treatment rooms. Serial images were collected at the time of treatment planning and at subsequent treatment fractions. Volume reconstruction was performed by generating surfaces around contours. The quality of the spatial reconstruction and semi-automatic segmentation was highly dependent on the system's ability to track the transducer throughout each scan procedure. The ultrasound information provided enhanced soft tissue contrast and facilitated node delineation. Manual segmentation was the preferred method to contour structures due to their sonographic topography.
Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa
2013-04-01
For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR's, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR's DVH's as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment.
Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa
2013-01-01
For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR’s, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR’s DVH’s as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment. PMID:23776314
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickel, Michael; Hammel, Jörg U.; Herzen, Julia; Bullinger, Eric; Beckmann, Felix
2008-08-01
Zoological sciences widely rely on morphological data to reconstruct and understand body structures of animals. The best suitable methods like tomography allow for a direct representation of 3D-structures. In recent years, synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) placed high resolutions to the disposal of morphologists. With the development of highly brilliant and collimated third generation synchrotron sources, phase contrast SR μCT became widely available. A number of scientific contributions stressed the superiority of phase contrast over absorption contrast. However, here we demonstrate the power of high density resolution methods based on absorption-contrast SRμCT for quantitative 3D-measurements of tissues and other delicate bio-structures in zoological sciences. We used beamline BW2 at DORIS III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) to perform microtomography on tissue and mineral skeletons of marine sponges (Porifera) which were shock frozen and/or fixed in a glutamate osmium tetroxide solution, followed by critical point drying. High density resolution tomographic reconstructions allowed running quantitative 3D-image analyses in Matlab and ImageJ. By applying contrast and shape rule based algorithms we semi-automatically extracted and measured sponge body structures like mineral spicules, elements of the canal system or tissue structures. This lead to a better understanding of sponge biology: from skeleton functional morphology and internal water flow regimes to body contractility. Our high density resolution based quantitative approach can be applied to a wide variety of biological structures. However, two prerequisites apply: (1) maximum density resolution is necessary; (2) edge effects as seen for example in phase outline contrast SR μCT must not be present. As a consequence, to allow biological sciences to fully exploit the power of SR μCT further increase of density resolution in absorption contrast methods is desirable.
Gessner, Ryan C.; Streeter, Jason E.; Kothadia, Roshni; Feingold, Steven; Dayton, Paul A.
2012-01-01
For over a decade, the application of acoustic radiation force (ARF) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase ultrasonic molecular imaging (MI) sensitivity in vivo. Presented herein is the first noninvasive in vivo validation of ARF-enhanced MI with an unmodified clinical system. First, an in vitro optical-acoustical setup was used to optimize system parameters and ensure sufficient microbubble translation when exposed to ARF. 3D ARF-enhanced MI was then performed on 7 rat fibrosarcoma tumors using microbubbles targeted to αvβ3 and non-targeted microbubbles. Low-amplitude (< 25 kPa) 3D ARF pulse sequences were tested and compared to passive targeting studies in the same animal. Our results demonstrate that a 78% increase in image intensity from targeted microbubbles can be achieved when using ARF relative to the passive targeting studies. Furthermore, ARF did not significantly increase image contrast when applied to non-targeted agents, suggesting that ARF did not increase non-specific adhesion. PMID:22341052
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletinckx, D.
2011-09-01
The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.
Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P
2008-12-01
A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber. PMID:18804168
Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P
2008-12-01
A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber.
Gary W. Phillips
2000-12-20
We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.
3d-3d correspondence revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-01
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
3d-3d correspondence revisited
Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-21
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
Accelerating DynEarthSol3D on tightly coupled CPU-GPU heterogeneous processors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ta, Tuan; Choo, Kyoshin; Tan, Eh; Jang, Byunghyun; Choi, Eunseo
2015-06-01
DynEarthSol3D (Dynamic Earth Solver in Three Dimensions) is a flexible, open-source finite element solver that models the momentum balance and the heat transfer of elasto-visco-plastic material in the Lagrangian form using unstructured meshes. It provides a platform for the study of the long-term deformation of earth's lithosphere and various problems in civil and geotechnical engineering. However, the continuous computation and update of a very large mesh poses an intolerably high computational burden to developers and users in practice. For example, simulating a small input mesh containing around 3000 elements in 20 million time steps would take more than 10 days on a high-end desktop CPU. In this paper, we explore tightly coupled CPU-GPU heterogeneous processors to address the computing concern by leveraging their new features and developing hardware-architecture-aware optimizations. Our proposed key optimization techniques are three-fold: memory access pattern improvement, data transfer elimination and kernel launch overhead minimization. Experimental results show that our proposed implementation on a tightly coupled heterogeneous processor outperforms all other alternatives including traditional discrete GPU, quad-core CPU using OpenMP, and serial implementations by 67%, 50%, and 154% respectively even though the embedded GPU in the heterogeneous processor has significantly less number of cores than high-end discrete GPU.
Palmeri, Mark L; Glass, Tyler J; Miller, Zachary A; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Buck, Andrew; Polascik, Thomas J; Gupta, Rajan T; Brown, Alison F; Madden, John; Nightingale, Kathryn R
2016-06-01
Overly aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) treatment adversely affects patients and places an unnecessary burden on our health care system. The inability to identify and grade clinically significant PCa lesions is a factor contributing to excessively aggressive PCa treatment, such as radical prostatectomy, instead of more focal, prostate-sparing procedures such as cryotherapy and high-dose radiation therapy. We have performed 3-D in vivo B-mode and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging using a mechanically rotated, side-fire endorectal imaging array to identify regions suspicious for PCa in 29 patients being treated with radical prostatectomies for biopsy-confirmed PCa. Whole-mount histopathology analyses were performed to identify regions of clinically significant/insignificant PCa lesions, atrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Regions of suspicion for PCa were reader-identified in ARFI images based on boundary delineation, contrast, texture and location. These regions of suspicion were compared with histopathology identified lesions using a nearest-neighbor regional localization approach. Of all clinically significant lesions identified on histopathology, 71.4% were also identified using ARFI imaging, including 79.3% of posterior and 33.3% of anterior lesions. Among the ARFI-identified lesions, 79.3% corresponded to clinically significant PCa lesions, with these lesions having higher indices of suspicion than clinically insignificant PCa. ARFI imaging had greater sensitivity for posterior versus anterior lesions because of greater displacement signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial sampling. Atrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause appreciable prostate anatomy distortion and heterogeneity that confounds ARFI PCa lesion identification; however, in general, ARFI regions of suspicion did not coincide with these benign pathologies. PMID:26947445
Chiu, Jui-Yuan
2010-10-19
Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the "solar-background" mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM's zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS's 1 Hz sampling to study the "twilight zone" around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM's 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM's operational data processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen
2016-04-01
Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods.
Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen
2016-01-01
Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods. PMID:27097672
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulien Ohlmann, Odile
2013-02-01
Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?
[3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].
Schlegel, W
1991-10-01
3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hastings, S. K.
2002-01-01
Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Chun-Hsu; Tsai, Ting-Yu; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Tsang, Yuk-Wah; Chiu, Chung-Yu; Chao, His-Ya; Chang, Yuan-Jen
2016-09-01
This study aimed to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc therapy by using 3D N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel. Optical computed tomography, specifically OCTOPUSTM-10X fast optical computed tomography scanner, was used as a readout tool. Two cylindrical acrylic phantoms (10 cm in diameter, 10 cm in height, and 3 mm in thickness) were filled with NIPAM gel and used for IMRT and RapidArc irradiation by using the Clinac iX treatment machine. The irradiation energies for IMRT and RapidArc® were set as 6 MV photons, but their irradiation angles and dose rates differed during irradiation. The irradiation angles of IMRT were 120°, 155°, 180°, 215°, and 245°, and the dose rate was fixed at 400 cGy/min. RapidArc® rotated continuously during irradiation, and the dose rate varied from 330 cGy/min to 400 cGy/min. The pass rates were 98.02% and 97.48% for IMRT and RapidArc®, respectively, and the rejected area appeared at the edge of the irradiated region. The isodose lines of IMRT and RapidArc® were consistent with those of TPS in most regions. Scattering and edge enhancement effects are main factors that cause dose inaccuracy in the edge region and reduced pass rates. Considering dose rate dependence, we used variable dose rates during irradiation with RapidArc®. Results showed that the dose distribution of NIPAM gel was consistent with that of TPS. The pass rates were also the same for IMRT and RapidArc® irradiation. This study proposes a preliminary profile of dosimetric characteristics of IMRT and RapidArc® by using a NIPAM gel dosimeter.
TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code
Mason, W.E.
1992-03-04
TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.
Mijnheer, B; Mans, A; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Spreeuw, H; Herk, M van
2014-06-15
Purpose: To develop a 3D in vivo dosimetry method that is able to substitute pre-treatment verification in an efficient way, and to terminate treatment delivery if the online measured 3D dose distribution deviates too much from the predicted dose distribution. Methods: A back-projection algorithm has been further developed and implemented to enable automatic 3D in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments using a-Si EPIDs. New software tools were clinically introduced to allow automated image acquisition, to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database, and to automatically run the EPID dosimetry software. The comparison of the EPID-reconstructed and planned dose distribution is done offline to raise automatically alerts and to schedule actions when deviations are detected. Furthermore, a software package for online dose reconstruction was also developed. The RMS of the difference between the cumulative planned and reconstructed 3D dose distributions was used for triggering a halt of a linac. Results: The implementation of fully automated 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry was able to replace pre-treatment verification for more than 90% of the patient treatments. The process has been fully automated and integrated in our clinical workflow where over 3,500 IMRT/VMAT treatments are verified each year. By optimizing the dose reconstruction algorithm and the I/O performance, the delivered 3D dose distribution is verified in less than 200 ms per portal image, which includes the comparison between the reconstructed and planned dose distribution. In this way it was possible to generate a trigger that can stop the irradiation at less than 20 cGy after introducing large delivery errors. Conclusion: The automatic offline solution facilitated the large scale clinical implementation of 3D EPID-based in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments; the online approach has been successfully tested for various severe delivery errors.
Douglass, Michael; Bezak, Eva; Penfold, Scott
2013-07-15
Purpose: Investigation of increased radiation dose deposition due to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using a 3D computational cell model during x-ray radiotherapy.Methods: Two GNP simulation scenarios were set up in Geant4; a single 400 nm diameter gold cluster randomly positioned in the cytoplasm and a 300 nm gold layer around the nucleus of the cell. Using an 80 kVp photon beam, the effect of GNP on the dose deposition in five modeled regions of the cell including cytoplasm, membrane, and nucleus was simulated. Two Geant4 physics lists were tested: the default Livermore and custom built Livermore/DNA hybrid physics list. 10{sup 6} particles were simulated at 840 cells in the simulation. Each cell was randomly placed with random orientation and a diameter varying between 9 and 13 {mu}m. A mathematical algorithm was used to ensure that none of the 840 cells overlapped. The energy dependence of the GNP physical dose enhancement effect was calculated by simulating the dose deposition in the cells with two energy spectra of 80 kVp and 6 MV. The contribution from Auger electrons was investigated by comparing the two GNP simulation scenarios while activating and deactivating atomic de-excitation processes in Geant4.Results: The physical dose enhancement ratio (DER) of GNP was calculated using the Monte Carlo model. The model has demonstrated that the DER depends on the amount of gold and the position of the gold cluster within the cell. Individual cell regions experienced statistically significant (p < 0.05) change in absorbed dose (DER between 1 and 10) depending on the type of gold geometry used. The DER resulting from gold clusters attached to the cell nucleus had the more significant effect of the two cases (DER {approx} 55). The DER value calculated at 6 MV was shown to be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the DER values calculated for the 80 kVp spectrum. Based on simulations, when 80 kVp photons are used, Auger electrons have a statistically insignificant (p
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, M.; Dullemond, C. P.; Kama, M.; Dominik, C.
2011-03-01
The precise location of the water ice condensation front (‘snow line’) in the protosolar nebula has been a debate for a long time. Its importance stems from the expected substantial jump in the abundance of solids beyond the snow line, which is conducive to planet formation, and from the higher ‘stickiness’ in collisions of ice-coated dust grains, which may help the process of coagulation of dust and the formation of planetesimals. In an optically thin nebula, the location of the snow line is easily calculated to be around 3 AU, subject to brightness variations of the young Sun. However, in its first 5-10 myr, the solar nebula was optically thick, implying a smaller snowline radius due to shielding from direct sunlight, but also a larger radius because of viscous heating. Several models have attempted to treat these opposing effects. However, until recently treatments beyond an approximate 1 + 1D radiative transfer were unfeasible. We revisit the problem with a fully self-consistent 3D treatment in an axisymmetric disk model, including a density-dependent treatment of the dust and ice sublimation. We find that the location of the snow line is very sensitive to the opacities of the dust grains and the mass accretion rate of the disk. We show that previous approximate treatments are quite efficient at determining the location of the snow line if the energy budget is locally dominated by viscous accretion. Using this result we derive an analytic estimate of the location of the snow line that compares very well with results from this and previous studies. Using solar abundances of the elements we compute the abundance of dust and ice and find that the expected jump in solid surface density at the snow line is smaller than previously assumed. We further show that in the inner few AU the refractory species are also partly evaporated, leading to a significantly smaller solid state surface density in the regions where the rocky planets were formed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Gregory F.
2009-05-01
This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plaut, J. J.
1993-08-01
Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.
Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )
1991-11-01
This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif
2008-04-01
In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laboure, Vincent M.; McClarren, Ryan G.; Hauck, Cory D.
2016-09-01
In this work, we provide a fully-implicit implementation of the time-dependent, filtered spherical harmonics (FPN) equations for non-linear, thermal radiative transfer. We investigate local filtering strategies and analyze the effect of the filter on the conditioning of the system, showing in particular that the filter improves the convergence properties of the iterative solver. We also investigate numerically the rigorous error estimates derived in the linear setting, to determine whether they hold also for the non-linear case. Finally, we simulate a standard test problem on an unstructured mesh and make comparisons with implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculations.
Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors
Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.
2012-06-06
Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.
Ma, C; Yin, Y
2015-06-15
Purpose: A method using four-dimensional(4D) PET/CT in design of radiation treatment planning was proposed and the target volume and radiation dose distribution changes relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT were examined. Methods: A target deformable registration method was used by which the whole patient’s respiration process was considered and the effect of respiration motion was minimized when designing radiotherapy planning. The gross tumor volume of a non-small-cell lung cancer was contoured on the 4D FDG-PET/CT and 3D PET/CT scans by use of two different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; another technique using a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5. The target volume and radiotherapy dose distribution between VOL3D and VOL4D were analyzed. Results: For all phases, the average automatic and manually GTV volume was 18.61 cm3 (range, 16.39–22.03 cm3) and 31.29 cm3 (range, 30.11–35.55 cm3), respectively. The automatic and manually volume of merged IGTV were 27.82 cm3 and 49.37 cm3, respectively. For the manual contour, compared to 3D plan the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung of 4D plan have an average decrease 21.55%, 15.17% and 15.86%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 2.35%. For the automatic contour, the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung have an average decrease 23.48%, 16.84% and 17.44%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 1.68%. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D PET/CT, 4D PET/CT may better define the extent of moving tumors and reduce the contouring tumor volume thereby optimize radiation treatment planning for lung tumors.
Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-07-01
We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damasso, Mario; Dachev, Tsvetan; Zanini, Alba; Falzetta, Giuseppe; Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Giardi, Maria Teresa
Foton-M3 ESA space mission flew in Low Earth Orbit (250÷290 km) from 14 to 26 September 2007, carrying more than 40 experiments related to different scientific disciplines. During the mission, the dose and particle flux variations inside and outside the capsule have been monitored in real time by Liulin-Photo e R3D-B3 spectrum-dosimeters respectively, the latter housed in the Biopan-6 facility containing experiments directly exposed to the space environment. Liulin-Photo and R3D-B3 are both composed of a silicon detector (area=2 cm2 ) and they measure the energies deposited by the incident ionizing particles (R3D-B3 measuring also solar UV radiation). Inside the capsule, Liulin-Photo was mounted on the top of the space biology experiment Photo-II to monitor the radiation field around this experiment. The device Photo- II is a system of optical sensors that measured in real time the chlorophyll fluorescence to study the effects of the mixed ionizing space radiations on the photosynthetic activity of several microrganisms modified at the level of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain of Photosystem II. In this study we present the results obtained comparing the dose and flux data collected from the two instruments, in order to get information about the effects produced by the capsule shielding. In particular, we analyse in deeper detail the data corresponding to the passages of the spacecraft above the South Atlantic magnetic Anomaly (SAA) and inside the outer electron belt. A comparison between experimental data and predictions of ionizing radiation environment models is also performed. Moreover, an analysis of some space weather data is conducted to better characterize the space environment in relation to the effect on the biological material during the mission.
VALIDATION OF CFD PREDICTIONS OF FLOW IN A 3D ALVEOLATED BEND WITH EXPERIMENTAL DATA
VAN ERTBRUGGEN, C.; CORIERI, P.; THEUNISSEN, R.; RIETHMULLER, M.L.; DARQUENNE, C.
2008-01-01
Verifying numerical predictions with experimental data is an important aspect of any modeling studies. In the case of the lung, the absence of direct in-vivo flow measurements makes such verification almost impossible. We performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in a 3D scaled-up model of an alveolated bend with rigid walls that incorporated essential geometrical characteristics of human alveolar structures and compared numerical predictions with experimental flow measurements made in the same model by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Flow in both models was representative of acinar flow during normal breathing (0.82 ml/s). The experimental model was built in silicone and silicone oil was used as the carrier fluid. Flow measurements were obtained by an ensemble averaging procedure. CFD simulation was performed with STAR-CCM+ (CD-Adapco) using a polyhedral unstructured mesh. Velocity profiles in the central duct were parabolic and no bulk convection existed between the central duct and the alveoli. Velocities inside the alveoli were ∼2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mean velocity in the central duct. CFD data agreed well with those obtained by PIV. In the central duct, data agreed within 1%. The maximum simulated velocity along the centerline of the model was 0.5% larger than measured experimentally. In the alveolar cavities, data agreed within 15% on average. This suggests that CFD techniques can satisfactorily predict acinar-type flow. Such a validation ensure a great degree of confidence in the accuracy of predictions made in more complex models of the alveolar region of the lung using similar CFD techniques. PMID:17915225
The importance of 3D dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Daniel
2015-01-01
Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gimeno García, S.; Trautmann, T.; Venema, V.
2012-09-01
Handling complexity to the smallest detail in atmospheric radiative transfer models is unfeasible in practice. On the one hand, the properties of the interacting medium, i.e., the atmosphere and the surface, are only available at a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, the computational cost of accurate radiation models accounting for three-dimensional heterogeneous media are prohibitive for some applications, especially for climate modelling and operational remote-sensing algorithms. Hence, it is still common practice to use simplified models for atmospheric radiation applications. Three-dimensional radiation models can deal with complex scenarios providing an accurate solution to the radiative transfer. In contrast, one-dimensional models are computationally more efficient, but introduce biases to the radiation results. With the help of stochastic models that consider the multi-fractal nature of clouds, it is possible to scale cloud properties given at a coarse spatial resolution down to a higher resolution. Performing the radiative transfer within the cloud fields at higher spatial resolution noticeably helps to improve the radiation results. We present a new Monte Carlo model, MoCaRT, that computes the radiative transfer in three-dimensional inhomogeneous atmospheres. The MoCaRT model is validated by comparison with the consensus results of the Intercomparison of Three-Dimensional Radiation Codes (I3RC) project. In the framework of this paper, we aim at characterising cloud heterogeneity effects on radiances and broadband fluxes, namely: the errors due to unresolved variability (the so-called plane parallel homogeneous, PPH, bias) and the errors due to the neglect of transversal photon displacements (independent pixel approximation, IPA, bias). First, we study the effect of the missing cloud variability on reflectivities. We will show that the generation of subscale variability by means of stochastic methods greatly reduce or nearly eliminate the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, X. Y.; Wu, Z. W.; Dong, C. Z.; Shi, Y. L.; Xie, L. Y.
2014-04-01
Electron-impact excitation and resonant electron capture cross sections to the specific magnetic sublevels of highly charged Ni-like to Ge-like tungsten ions have been calculated systematically by using a fully relativistic distorted-wave method. And these magnetic cross sections have further been employed to obtain the degrees of linear polarization of the corresponding strongest nf → 3d (n = 4, 5, 6) x-rays. We compare polarizations of the same lines but from the above two different processes for the first time. It has been found the polarizations following both the both processes are totally different. It is expected that the obvious differences between the polarizations can be used to distinguish the formation mechanism of the corresponding lines.
A parallel, volume-tracking algorithm for unstructured meshes
Mosso, S.J.; Swartz, B.K.; Kothe, D.B.; Ferrell, R.C.
1996-10-01
Many diverse areas of industry benefit from the use of volume of fluid methods to predict the movement of materials. Casting is a common method of part fabrication. The accurate prediction of the casting process is pivotal to industry. Mold design and casting is currently considered an art by industry. It typically involves many trial mold designs, and the rejection of defective parts is costly. Failure of cast parts, because residual stresses reduce the part`s strength, can be catastrophic. Cast parts should have precise geometric details that reduce or eliminate the need for machining after casting. Volume of fluid codes will help designers predict how the molten metal fills a mold and where ay trapped voids remain. Prediction of defects due to thermal contraction or expansion will eliminate defective, trial mold designs and speed the parts to market with fewer rejections. Increasing the predictability and therefore the accuracy of the casting process will reduce the art that is involved in mold design and parts casting. Here, recent enhancements to multidimensional volume-tracking algorithms are presented. Illustrations in two dimensions are given. The improvements include new, local algorithms for interface normal constructions and a new full remapping algorithm for time integration. These methods are used on structured and unstructured grids.
Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application
Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F
1999-12-10
This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.
Video object motion tracking: a structured versus unstructured mesh topology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badawy, Wael
2001-11-01
This paper presents a novel concept for very low bit rate video codec. It uses a new hierarchical adaptive structured mesh topology. The proposed video codec can be used in wireless video applications. It uses structures to model the dynamics of the video object where the proposed the adaptive structure splitting significantly reduces the number of bits used for mesh description. Moreover, it reduces the latency of motion estimation and compensation operations. A comprehensive performance study is presented for the proposed mesh-based motion tracking and the commonly used techniques. It shows the superior of the proposed concept compare to the current MPEG techniques.
PLUM: Parallel Load Balancing for Adaptive Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured-grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method called PLUM to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. A data redistribution model is also presented that predicts the remapping cost on the SP2. This model is required to determine whether the gain from a balanced workload distribution offsets the cost of data movement. Results presented in this paper demonstrate that PLUM is an effective dynamic load balancing strategy which remains viable on a large number of processors.
Recent Improvements in Aerodynamic Design Optimization on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Anderson, W. Kyle
2000-01-01
Recent improvements in an unstructured-grid method for large-scale aerodynamic design are presented. Previous work had shown such computations to be prohibitively long in a sequential processing environment. Also, robust adjoint solutions and mesh movement procedures were difficult to realize, particularly for viscous flows. To overcome these limiting factors, a set of design codes based on a discrete adjoint method is extended to a multiprocessor environment using a shared memory approach. A nearly linear speedup is demonstrated, and the consistency of the linearizations is shown to remain valid. The full linearization of the residual is used to precondition the adjoint system, and a significantly improved convergence rate is obtained. A new mesh movement algorithm is implemented and several advantages over an existing technique are presented. Several design cases are shown for turbulent flows in two and three dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Disch, C.
2014-09-01
Mobile surveillance systems are used to find lost radioactive sources and possible nuclear threats in urban areas. The REWARD collaboration [1] aims to develop such a complete radiation monitoring system that can be installed in mobile or stationary setups across a wide area. The scenarios include nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination and nuclear accidents. This paper will show the performance capabilities of the REWARD system in different scnarios. The results include both Monte Carlo simulations as well as neutron and gamma-ray detection performances in terms of efficiency and nuclide identification. The outcomes of several radiation mapping survey with the entire REWARD system will also be presented.
Conservative multizonal interface algorithm for the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klopfer, G. H.; Molvik, G. A.
1991-01-01
A conservative zonal interface algorithm using features of both structured and unstructured mesh CFD technology is presented. The flow solver within each of the zones is based on structured mesh CFD technology. The interface algorithm was implemented into two three-dimensional Navier-Stokes finite volume codes and was found to yield good results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fathi Azarkhavarani, M. E.; Hosseini Abardeh, R.; Rahmani, M.
2016-11-01
In this study a new approach for radiation heat flux calculations by coupling the discrete ordinates method with the Leckner global model is introduced. The aim is to analyze the radiative heat transfer problem within a three-dimensional enclosure filled with non-gray gas mixture of {H}2{O} and {C}{O}2. A computer code developed by this approach is applied to radiative calculations in three groups of well-known test cases published previously; considering homogeneous and inhomogeneous isothermal and non-isothermal participating media. All results are compared with well-known calculations based on statistical narrow band model. Also a new series of predictions for a medium with non-black walls and various mixture of {H}2{O} and {C}{O}2 is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the Leckner model. The effect of different compositions of {H}2{O} and {C}{O}2 on the radiative transfer within modern combustors is also examined. Based on the results obtained, it is believed that the discrete ordinates method coupled with the Leckner global model despite of its inherent simplicity and low computational cost is sufficiently accurate. For its convenient use, this method is suitable for a wide range of engineering calculations of participating media as well as for its link to previously written computational fluid dynamics codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fathi Azarkhavarani, M. E.; Hosseini Abardeh, R.; Rahmani, M.
2015-12-01
In this study a new approach for radiation heat flux calculations by coupling the discrete ordinates method with the Leckner global model is introduced. The aim is to analyze the radiative heat transfer problem within a three-dimensional enclosure filled with non-gray gas mixture of H2O and CO2 . A computer code developed by this approach is applied to radiative calculations in three groups of well-known test cases published previously; considering homogeneous and inhomogeneous isothermal and non-isothermal participating media. All results are compared with well-known calculations based on statistical narrow band model. Also a new series of predictions for a medium with non-black walls and various mixture of H2O and CO2 is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the Leckner model. The effect of different compositions of H2O and CO2 on the radiative transfer within modern combustors is also examined. Based on the results obtained, it is believed that the discrete ordinates method coupled with the Leckner global model despite of its inherent simplicity and low computational cost is sufficiently accurate. For its convenient use, this method is suitable for a wide range of engineering calculations of participating media as well as for its link to previously written computational fluid dynamics codes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Flatau, Piotr; Anderson, Tad; Masonis, Sarah; Russell, Phil; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John; Redemann, Jens; Kahn, Ralph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) took place in Spring 2001 in the East Asia-West Pacific Ocean. During the ACE-Asia intensive field operation period, high concentrations of dust and anthropogenic aerosols were observed over the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, which were transported out from the Asian continent, with the plume often extending to 6-8 km altitude. The multi-component aerosols originated from Asia are expected to exert a significant radiative forcing over the Pacific region. We present here results from the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model of aerosol transport and radiative forcing in the context of ACE-Asia. The model calculated aerosol concentrations, extinctions, optical thickness, size distributions, and vertical profiles are compared with the aircraft and ship measurements, and the distributions of aerosols are compared with satellite data. The model will be used to understand the origins of the aerosols observed in ACE-Asia, estimate the contributions from anthropogenic and natural aerosols to the total aerosol optical thickness, investigate the effects of humidification and clouds on aerosol properties, and assess the radiative forcing of Asian aerosols over the Pacific region and in the northern hemisphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawes, Frederick T.; Berk, Alexander; Richtsmeier, Steven C.
2016-05-01
A validated, polarimetric 3-dimensional simulation capability, P-MCScene, is being developed by generalizing Spectral Sciences' Monte Carlo-based synthetic scene simulation model, MCScene, to include calculation of all 4 Stokes components. P-MCScene polarimetric optical databases will be generated by a new version (MODTRAN7) of the government-standard MODTRAN radiative transfer algorithm. The conversion of MODTRAN6 to a polarimetric model is being accomplished by (1) introducing polarimetric data, by (2) vectorizing the MODTRAN radiation calculations and by (3) integrating the newly revised and validated vector discrete ordinate model VDISORT3. Early results, presented here, demonstrate a clear pathway to the long-term goal of fully validated polarimetric models.
Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine
2014-04-10
This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.
Parallel radiation transport algorithms and associated architectural requirements
Morel, J. E.; Baker, R. S.; Warsa, J. S.
2004-01-01
The radiation transport equation is a seven-dimensional equation that can be extremely expensive to solve. In general, transport can be expected to completely dominate the memory and CPU time requirements for the ASCI codes. Both traditional iterative transport solution methods and modern Krylov-subspace solution methods require the inversion of a large number of block lower-diagonal matrices. While such inversions are easily done in serial, a high level of sophistication is needed for implementations on massively parallel platforms. Rectangular-mesh methods are well-established and generally quite efficient but unstructured-mesh methods remain a research topic. Nonetheless, considerable progress has been made in unstructured-mesh methods over the last several years. In general, the efficiency of transport solution algorithms are quite sensitive to communication latencies and bandwidth, but there are other significant considerations as well. Some new parallel algorithms have recently been defined that may be significantly better than existing methods for time-dependent problems, but will be significantly less effective for steady-state problems in some circumstances. Transport methods would benefit from a machine architecture with low latencies, high bandwidth, and on the order of one thousand very fast, large-memory processors, as opposed to an architecture that consists of a very large number of slower processors with less memory. In addition, a lightweight operating system is highly desirable.
3D Convection-pulsation Simulations with the HERACLES Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felix, S.; Audit, E.; Dintrans, B.
2015-10-01
We present 3D simulations of the coupling between surface convection and pulsations due to the κ-mechanism in classical Cepheids of the red edge of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram's instability strip. We show that 3D convection is less powerful than 2D convection and does not quench the radiative pulsations, leading to an efficient 3D κ-mechanism. Thus, the 3D instability strip is closer to the observed one than the 1D or 2D were.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.
Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.
On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.
The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.
The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer
1992-02-01
TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
Dumane, V; Knoll, M; Green, S; Bakst, R; Hunt, M; Steinberger, E
2014-06-01
Purpose: To predict the dosimetric gain of VMAT over 3D for the treatment ofchestwall/IMN/supraclavicular nodes using geometric parameters acquired during simulation Methods: CT scans for 20 left and 20 right sided patients were retrospectively analyzed toobtain percent ipsilateral lung volume included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields, central lung depth (CLD), maximum lung depth (MLD), separation, chestwall concavity (defined here as the product of CLD and separation) and the maximum heart depth (MHD). VMAT, PWT and P/E plans were done for each case. The ipsilateral lung V20 Gy and mean, total lung V20 Gy and mean, heart V25 Gy and mean were noted for each plan. Correlation coefficients were obtained and linear regression models were built using data from the above training set of patients and then tested on 4 new patients. Results: The decrease in ipsilateral lung V20 Gy, total lung V20 Gy, ipsilateral lung mean and total lung mean with VMAT over PWT significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the percent volume of ipsilateral lung included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields with correlation coefficient values of r = 0.83, r = 0.77, r = 0.78 and r = 0.75 respectively. Significant correlations were also found between MHD and the decrease in heart V25 Gy and mean of r = 0.77 and r = 0.67 respectively. Dosimetric improvement with VMAT over P/E plans showed no correlation to any of the geometric parameters investigated in this study. The dosimetric gain predicted for the 4 test cases by the linear regression models given their respective percent ipsilateral lung volumes fell within the 95% confidence intervals around the best regression fit. Conclusion: The percent ipsilateral lung volume appears to be a strong predictor of the dosimetric gain on using VMAT over PWT apriori.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Anthony B.; Garay, Michael J.; Xu, Feng; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia
2013-01-01
When observing a spatially complex mix of aerosols and clouds in a single relatively large field-of-view, nature entangles their signals non-linearly through polarized radiation transport processes that unfold in the 3D position and direction spaces. In contrast, any practical forward model in a retrieval algorithm will use only 1D vector radiative transfer (vRT) in a linear mixing technique. We assess the difference between the observed and predicted signals using synthetic data from a high-fidelity 3D vRT model with clouds generated using a Large Eddy Simulation model and an aerosol climatology. We find that this difference is signal--not noise--for the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), an instrument developed by NASA. Moreover, the worst case scenario is also the most interesting case, namely, when the aerosol burden is large, hence hase the most impact on the cloud microphysics and dynamics. Based on our findings, we formulate a mitigation strategy for these unresolved cloud adjacency effects assuming that some spatial information is available about the structure of the clouds at higher resolution from "context" cameras, as was planned for NASA's ill-fated Glory mission that was to carry the APS but failed to reach orbit. Application to POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) data from the period when PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) was in the A-train is briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.; Firoozabadi, A.
2013-12-01
Most problems of interest in hydrogeology and subsurface energy resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most naturally represented in numerical reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods are a natural choice to describe fluid flow on unstructured meshes, because the governing equations can be readily discretized for any grid-element geometry. In this work, we consider the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by tetrahedra, prisms, or hexahedra, and compare to simulations on 3D structured grids. We employ a combination of mixed hybrid finite element methods to solve for the pressure and flux fields in a fractional flow formulation, and higher-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for the mass transport equations. These methods are well suited to simulate flow in heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide a globally continuous pressure and flux field, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in the phase properties, such as compositions and saturations. The increased accuracy from using higher-order methods improves the modeling of highly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We present several numerical examples to study convergence rates and the (lack of) sensitivity to gridding/mesh orientation, and mesh quality. These examples consider gravity depletion, water and gas injection in oil saturated subsurface reservoirs with species exchange between up to three fluid phases. The examples demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods in the study of challenging multiphase flow problems in porous, geometrically complex, subsurface media.
Su, M; Sura, S
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing.
Lin, Steven H.; Wang, Lu; Myles, Bevan; Thall, Peter F.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing
2014-01-01
Purpose Although 3DCRT is the worldwide standard for the treatment of esophageal cancers, IMRT improves dose conformality and reduces radiation exposure to normal tissues. We hypothesized that the dosimetric advantages of IMRT should translate to substantive benefits in clinical outcomes compared to 3DCRT. Methods and Materials Analysis was performed on 676 nonrandomized patients (3DCRT=413, IMRT=263) with stage Ib-IVa (AJCC 2002) esophageal cancers treated with chemoradiation at a single institution from 1998–2008. An inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPW) and inclusion of propensity score (treatment probability) as a covariate were used to compare overall survival (OS) time, time to local failure, and time to distant metastasis, while accounting for effects of other clinically relevant covariates. Propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression. Results A fitted multivariate inverse probability weighted (IPW)-adjusted Cox model showed that OS time was significantly associated with several well-known prognostic factors, along with radiation modality (IMRT vs 3DCRT, HR=0.72, p<0.001). Compared to IMRT, 3DCRT patients had a significantly greater risk of dying (72.6% vs 52.9%, IPW log rank test: p<0.0001) and for local-regional recurrence (LRR) (p=0.0038). There was no difference in cancer-specific mortality (Gray’s test, p=0.86), or distant metastasis (p=0.99) between the two groups. An increased cumulative incidence of cardiac deaths was seen in the 3DCRT group (p=0.049), but most deaths were undocumented (5 year estimate: 11.7% in 3DCRT vs 5.4% in IMRT, Gray’s test, p=0.0029). Conclusions Overall survival, locoregional control, and non-cancer related deaths were significantly better for IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Although these results need confirmation, IMRT should be considered for the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:22867894
Tol-Geerdink, Julia J. van . E-mail: J.vanTol@rther.umcn.nl; Stalmeier, Peep F.M.; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C.M.; Huizenga, Henk; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van; Schimmel, Erik C.; Leer, Jan Willem; Daal, Willem A.J. van
2006-02-01
Purpose: A higher radiation dose is believed to result in a larger probability of tumor control and a higher risk of side effects. To make an evidence-based choice of dose, the relation between dose and outcome needs to be known. This study focuses on the dose-response relation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A systematic review was carried out on the literature from 1990 to 2003. From the selected studies, the radiation dose, the associated 5-year survival, 5-year bNED (biochemical no evidence of disease), acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity Grade 2 or more, and sexual dysfunction were extracted. With logistic regression models, the relation between dose and outcome was described. Results: Thirty-eight studies met our criteria, describing 87 subgroups and involving up to 3000 patients per outcome measure. Between the (equivalent) dose of 70 and 80 Gy, various models estimated an increase in 5-year survival (ranging from 10% to 11%), 5-year bNED for low-risk patients (5-7%), late GI complications (12-16%), late GU complications (8-10%), and erectile dysfunction (19-24%). Only for the overall 5-year bNED, results were inconclusive (range, 0-18%). Conclusions: The data suggest a relationship between dose and outcome measures, including survival. However, the strength of these conclusions is limited by the sometimes small number of studies, the incompleteness of the data, and above all, the correlational nature of the data. Unambiguous proof for the dose-response relationships can, therefore, only be obtained by conducting randomized trials.
Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter
2014-04-15
Purpose: Oxygen distribution models have been used to analyze the influences of oxygen tensions on tissue response after radiotherapy. These distributions are often generated assuming constant oxygen tension in the blood vessels. However, as red blood cells progress through the vessels, oxygen is continuously released into the plasma and the surrounding tissue, resulting in longitudinally varying oxygen levels in the blood vessels. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a tumor oxygenation model that incorporated longitudinally varying oxygen levels would provide different predictions of necrotic fractions and radiosensitivity compared to commonly used models with a constant oxygen pressure. Methods: Our models simulated oxygen diffusion based on a Green's function approach and oxygen consumption according to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The authors constructed tumor models with different vascular fractions (VFs), from which they generated depth oxygenation curves and a look-up table of oxygen pressure gradients. The authors evaluated models of spherical tumors of various sizes, from 1 to 10{sup 4} mg. The authors compared the results from a model with constant vessel oxygen (CVO) pressure to those from models with longitudinal variations in oxygen saturation and either a constant VF (CVF) or variable VF (VVF) within the tumor tissue. The authors monitored the necrotic fractions, defined as tumor regions with an oxygen pressure below 1 mmHg. Tumor radiation sensitivity was expressed as D{sub 99,} the homogeneous radiation dose required for a tumor control probability of 0.99. Results: In the CVO saturation model, no necrosis was observed, and decreasing the VF could only decrease the D{sub 99} by up to 10%. Furthermore, the D{sub 99} vs VF dependence was similar for different tumor masses. Compared to the CVO model, the extended CVF and VVF models provided clearly different results, including pronounced effects of VF and tumor size on the necrotic
Vicini, Frank; Winter, Kathryn; Wong, John
2010-07-15
Purpose: This prospective study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0319) examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Initial data on efficacy and toxicity are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage I or II breast cancer with lesions {<=}3 cm, negative margins and with {<=}3 positive nodes were eligible. The 3D-CRT was 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction delivered 2x/day. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Mastectomy-free, disease-free, and overall survival (MFS, DFS, OS) were recorded. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, was used to grade acute and late toxicity. Results: Fifty-eight patients were entered and 52 patients are eligible and evaluable for efficacy. The median age of patients was 61 years with the following characteristics: 46% tumor size <1 cm; 87% invasive ductal histology; 94% American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage I; 65% postmenopausal; 83% no chemotherapy; and 71% with no hormone therapy. Median follow-up is 4.5 years (1.7-4.8). Four-year estimates (95% CI) of efficacy are: IBF 6% (0-12%) [4% within field (0-9%)]; INF 2% (0-6%); CBF 0%; DF 8% (0-15%); MFS 90% (78-96%); DFS 84% (71-92%); and OS 96% (85-99%). Only two (4%) Grade 3 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Initial efficacy and toxicity using 3D-CRT to deliver APBI appears comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up. However, additional patients, further follow-up, and mature Phase III data are needed to evaluate the extent of application, limitations, and value of this particular form of APBI.
Shi, Li-Wan; Lai, You-Qun; Lin, Qin; Ha, Hui-Ming; Fu, Li-Rong
2015-07-01
Flattening filter free (FFF) may affect outcome measures of radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters in three types of radiotherapy plans, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), with or without the flattening filter (FF), developed for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From July 2013 to October 2013, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans were designed using 6 MV and 10 MV, with and without FF, for 10 patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC. The evaluation of the treatment plans included homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), monitor units (MU), mean dose (Dmean), treatment time, and the influence of FFF on volumes. There was no difference in CI or HI between FFF and FF models with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans. At 6 MV, a lower Dmean was seen in the FFF model of 3D-CRT and in the VMAT plan at 10 MV. In the IMRT 6 MV, IMRT 10 MV, and VMAT 10 MV plans, higher MUs were seen in the FFF models. FFF treatments are similar in quality to FF plans, generally lead to more monitor units, and are associated with shorter treatment times. FFF plans ranked by the order of superiority in terms of a time advantage are VMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT.
Shi, Li-Wan; Lai, You-Qun; Lin, Qin; Ha, Hui-Ming; Fu, Li-Rong
2015-07-01
Flattening filter free (FFF) may affect outcome measures of radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters in three types of radiotherapy plans, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), with or without the flattening filter (FF), developed for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From July 2013 to October 2013, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans were designed using 6 MV and 10 MV, with and without FF, for 10 patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC. The evaluation of the treatment plans included homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), monitor units (MU), mean dose (Dmean), treatment time, and the influence of FFF on volumes. There was no difference in CI or HI between FFF and FF models with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans. At 6 MV, a lower Dmean was seen in the FFF model of 3D-CRT and in the VMAT plan at 10 MV. In the IMRT 6 MV, IMRT 10 MV, and VMAT 10 MV plans, higher MUs were seen in the FFF models. FFF treatments are similar in quality to FF plans, generally lead to more monitor units, and are associated with shorter treatment times. FFF plans ranked by the order of superiority in terms of a time advantage are VMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT. PMID:26011493
The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.
Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-04-14
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation
Graf, Norman A.
2011-01-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.
Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package
2009-01-29
This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less
Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation
Graf, Norman A.
2011-01-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.
None
2016-07-12
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
2013-10-30
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
2013-10-01
Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.
[3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].
Zoller, W G; Liess, H
1994-06-01
Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, J. R.
2004-02-01
The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.
1990-01-01
PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.
Modelling of river plume dynamics in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-3D hydrodynamic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, Alexander
2016-04-01
The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume dynamics a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - 3D is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume dynamics. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
Future trends of 3D silicon sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Vià, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Haughton, Iain; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Povoli, Marco; Tzhnevyi, Vladislav; Watts, Stephen J.
2013-12-01
Vertex detectors for the next LHC experiments upgrades will need to have low mass while at the same time be radiation hard and with sufficient granularity to fulfil the physics challenges of the next decade. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL project and the on-going developments on light materials, interconnectivity and cooling, this paper will discuss possible solutions to these requirements.
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
Unassisted 3D camera calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.
2012-03-01
With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGarry, Conor K.; Butterworth, Karl T.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Prise, Kevin M.; Hounsell, Alan R.
2011-04-01
A phantom was designed and implemented for the delivery of treatment plans to cells in vitro. Single beam, 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans, inverse planned five-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), nine-field IMRT, single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and dual-arc VMAT plans were created on a CT scan of the phantom to deliver 3 Gy to the cell layer and verified using a Farmer chamber, 2D ionization chamber array and gafchromic film. Each plan was delivered to a 2D ionization chamber array to assess the temporal characteristics of the plan including delivery time and 'cell's eye view' for the central ionization chamber. The effective fraction time, defined as the percentage of the fraction time where any dose is delivered to each point examined, was also assessed across 120 ionization chambers. Each plan was delivered to human prostate cancer DU-145 cells and normal primary AGO-1522b fibroblast cells. Uniform beams were delivered to each cell line with the delivery time varying from 0.5 to 20.54 min. Effective fraction time was found to increase with a decreasing number of beams or arcs. For a uniform beam delivery, AGO-1552b cells exhibited a statistically significant trend towards increased survival with increased delivery time. This trend was not repeated when the different modulated clinical delivery methods were used. Less sensitive DU-145 cells did not exhibit a significant trend towards increased survival with increased delivery time for either the uniform or clinical deliveries. These results confirm that dose rate effects are most prevalent in more radiosensitive cells. Cell survival data generated from uniform beam deliveries over a range of dose rates and delivery times may not always be accurate in predicting response to more complex delivery techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.
2016-05-01
When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee-Elkin, Forest
2008-04-01
Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.
Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.
1994-10-01
In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.
Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2015-03-01
We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.
LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2004-01-01
Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.
2014-08-01
In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers
YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic
2012-03-01
Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.
Remote 3D Medical Consultation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.
Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.
UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.
2013-12-01
Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC
Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert
2016-03-14
The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2004-04-05
This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.
Clinical Applications of 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miralbell, Raymond
Although a significant improvement in cancer cure (i.e. 20% increment) has been obtained in the last 2-3 decades, 30-40% of patients still fail locally after curative radiotherapy. In order to improve local tumor control rates with radiotherapy high doses to the tumor volume are frequently necessary. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) is used to denote a spectrum of radiation planning and delivery techniques that rely on three-dimensional imaging to define the target (tumor) and to distinguish it from normal tissues. Modern, high-precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques are needed in order to implement the goal of optimal tumor destruction delivering minimal dose to the non-target normal tissues. A better target definition is nowadays possible with contemporary imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography) and image registration technology. A highly precise dose distributions can be obtained with optimal 3-D CRT treatment delivery techniques such as stereotactic RT, intensity modulated RT (IMRT), or protontherapy (the latter allowing for in-depth conformation). Patient daily set-up repositioning and internal organ immobilization systems are necessary before considering to undertake any of the above mentioned high-precision treatment approaches. Prostate cancer, brain tumors, and base of skull malignancies are among the sites most benefitting of dose escalation approaches. Nevertheless, a significant dose reduction to the normal tissues in the vicinity of the irradiated tumor also achievable with optimal 3-D CRT may also be a major issue in the treatment of pediatric tumors in order to preserve growth, normal development, and to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced diseases such as cancer or endocrinologic disorders.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less
Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.
3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim
2015-01-01
As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…
DRACO development for 3D simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory
2006-10-01
The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.
Flexydos3D: A new deformable anthropomorphic 3D dosimeter readout with optical CT scanning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Deene, Yves; Hill, Robin; Skyt, Peter S.; Booth, Jeremy
2015-01-01
A new deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dosimeter is proposed that can be cast in an anthropomorphic shape and that can be used for 3D radiation dosimetry of deformable targets. The new material has additional favorable characteristics as it is tissue equivalent for high-energy photons, easy to make and is non-toxic. In combination with dual wavelength optical scanning, it is a powerful dosimeter for dose verification of image gated or organ tracked radiotherapy with moving and deforming targets.
Forensic 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.
2000-05-01
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
3D Printable Graphene Composite.
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-08
In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction
LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.
1999-10-12
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.
2013-01-01
Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.
3D light scanning macrography.
Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D
2001-08-01
The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078
[Real time 3D echocardiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.
[Real time 3D echocardiography].
Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D
2001-07-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )
1993-11-30
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)
2013-10-01
The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.
2002-12-01
Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated
3D Printing the Complete CubeSat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kief, Craig
2015-01-01
The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.
Interactive 3D Mars Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Mark W.
2012-01-01
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
Love, Lonnie
2015-01-09
ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.
Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise
2012-01-01
The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.
3D Data Assimilation using VERB Diffusion Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shprits, Y.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Subbotin, D.
2012-12-01
Significant progress has been done in recent years in application of the data assimilation tools to the radiation belt research. Previous studies concentrated on the analysis of radial profiles of phase space density using multi-satellite measurements and radial transport models. In this study we present analysis of the 3D phase space density using the VERB-3D code blended with CRRES observations by means of operator-splitting Kalman filtering. Assimilation electron fluxes at various energies and pitch-angles into the model allows us to utilize a vast amount of data including information on pitch-angle distributions and radial energy spectra. 3D data assimilation of the radiation belts allows us to differentiate between various acceleration and loss mechanisms. We present reanalysis of the radiation belts and find tell-tale signatures of various physical processes.
3D acoustic atmospheric tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony
2014-10-01
This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi
2009-05-01
3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.
3D medical thermography device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadam, Peyman
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3D Printable Graphene Composite
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
3D Printable Graphene Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller
2004-09-01
The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data
Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS
Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.
2009-01-01
Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680
Plans for a 3D reconnection experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellan, Paul
2010-11-01
Plasma-filled, current-carrying magnetic flux tubes are the essence of tokamaks, RFP's, spheromaks, solar coronal loops, and astrophysical jets. Relevant behaviors/issues are magnetic helicity content and injection, motion of the tube axis (hoop force, kinking), plasma confinement (balance between hydrodynamic pressure and pinch force), axial jet flows (acceleration and stagnation), waves, particle orbits, reconnection, and open v. closed field lines. These behaviors/issues and their mutual interaction are being investigated via Alfven time-scale imaging and conventional diagnostics in highly reproducible experiments having the simplest relevant geometry. High-speed movies clearly show flux tube kinking, motion of the flux tube axis due to hoop force, axial jet flows, an unusual particle orbit associated with flows counter to the electrical current, and reconnection between adjacent co- or counter-helicity flux tubes. A new experiment now under construction will have two slightly offset plasma-filled, current carrying flux tubes locally reconnect in 3D to form a single long flux tube. The setup requires two floating power supplies to drive the pre-reconnection currents as post-reconnection the power supplies become series-connected. A means for overcoming the topologically unavoidable mutual repulsion between the pre-reconnection currents is also required. It is anticipated that Alfven waves will radiate from the 3D localized reconnection region.
Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey
2005-04-01
The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.
Sinclair, Michael B
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.
3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.
2010-12-01
Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal
Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes
Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.
2010-01-01
Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grönlund, Tanja; Li, Zheng; Carini, Gabriella; Li, Michael
2008-02-01
Full three-dimensional (3D) simulations have been carried out on the BNL one-sided single-type column and dual-type column 3D Si detectors (p-type substrate). Due to the facts that columns are not etched all the way through, all electrodes are on the front side, and the backside is neither supported nor processed at all, the BNL one-sided 3D detectors are true one-sided detectors. Simulations show that the volume under the columns, where it is supposed to be dead space (about 10%), can be depleted at high biases with some modest electric field, leading to the possibility of recovering some sensitivity from this region. This region can also provide some sensitivity to particle tracks directly through the columns. The dual-type column detectors are the best in radiation hardness due to their low depletion voltages and short drift distances. Single-type column detectors are more radiation hard than the planar detectors due to their lower depletion voltages. Single-type column detectors are easier to process than dual-type column detectors, but have a more complicated, non-uniform electric field profile. The BNL one-sided 3D detectors were compared to various 3D detector structures developed by other institutes. The field profiles for all types of dual-type column 3D detectors are similar with just some minor differences on both surfaces (front and back). The BNL single-type column one-sided 3D detectors have some major differences from the Trento ones: (1) the high electric field is on the sensing electrode side (pixel or strip); and (2) it can develop some high electric field along the junction column as the bias voltage increases.
3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code
2001-02-14
ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less
The PLX- α project: Radiation-MHD Simulations of Imploding Plasma Liners Using USim
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckwith, Kristian; Stoltz, Peter; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Hsu, Scott; PLX-α Team
2015-11-01
USim is a tool for modeling high energy density plasmas using multi-fluid models coupled to electromagnetics using fully-implicit iterative solvers, combined with finite volume discretizations on unstructured meshes. Prior work has demonstrated application of USim models and algorithms to simulation of supersonic plasma jets relevant to the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) and compared synthetic interferometry to that gathered from the experiment. Here, we give an overview of the models and algorithms included in USim; review results from prior modeling campaigns for the PLX; and describe plans for radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation efforts focusing on integrated plasma-liner implosion and target compression in a fusion-relevant regime using USim for the PLX- α project. Supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program. Original PLX construction supported by OFES. USim development supported in part by Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong
2013-03-01
Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New
[Development of a software for 3D virtual phantom design].
Zou, Lian; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Qi
2014-02-01
In this paper, we present a 3D virtual phantom design software, which was developed based on object-oriented programming methodology and dedicated to medical physics research. This software was named Magical Phan tom (MPhantom), which is composed of 3D visual builder module and virtual CT scanner. The users can conveniently construct any complex 3D phantom, and then export the phantom as DICOM 3.0 CT images. MPhantom is a user-friendly and powerful software for 3D phantom configuration, and has passed the real scene's application test. MPhantom will accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculation in radiation therapy and X ray imaging reconstruction algorithm research. PMID:24804488
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-21
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third
NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design
Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D
2008-11-05
We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.
3D Simulations of the Beehive Proplyd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feitosa, J. A.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.
2014-10-01
Some star formation regions, like the Orion nebula, have stars of different masses, from massive stars, responsible for strong ionizing winds and HII regions, to low-mass stars, which spend a long time in the protostellar phase, and are frequently associated with protostellar disks and jets. Massive O or B stars emit a great deal of UV radiation, able to dissociate the hydrogen molecule (FUV radiation, energies between 6-13 eV), to ionize the atomic hydrogen (EUV radiation, energies greater than 13.6 eV) and heat the gas. Around these stars, a large and hot (10^{4}K) region is formed, known as HII region. T-Tauri stars inside HII regions produce a type of young stellar object, a proplyd, described with accuracy in O'Dell et al. (1993). Proplyds exhibit a cometary shape from which we can distinguish a central low-mass star with an accretion disk, an ionization front, a photodissociation region and, sometimes, an external bow shock and a protostellar jet. Its morphological characteristics depends on the distance between the low-mass star and the source of the ionizing radiation. The Beehive, a giant proplyd in Orion Nebula, has attracted attention due to its exotic system of rings coaxial to the HH540 jet's axis. Bally et al. (2005) suggested that the rings are perturbations due to the crossing of the ionization front by the jet. In this work, we test this hypothesis making 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations over an adaptive grid, using the Yguazú-A code (Raga et al., 2000), properly adapted for the Beehive conditions. Our results show that the jet causes a perturbation in the ionization front of the proplyd, but is necessary to adjust carefully some parameters of the jet like its velocity and ejection frequency in order to have the results matching the observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermanns, Maria
The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.
Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle
2010-08-01
In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.
2013-03-01
Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.
The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.
The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.
2009-04-01
Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.
Mask free intravenous 3D digital subtraction angiography (IV 3D-DSA) from a single C-arm acquisition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yinsheng; Niu, Kai; Yang, Pengfei; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beveley; Niemann, David B.; Ahmed, Azam S.; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong
2016-03-01
Currently, clinical acquisition of IV 3D-DSA requires two separate scans: one mask scan without contrast medium and a filled scan with contrast injection. Having two separate scans adds radiation dose to the patient and increases the likelihood of suffering inadvertent patient motion induced mis-registration and the associated mis-registraion artifacts in IV 3D-DSA images. In this paper, a new technique, SMART-RECON is introduced to generate IV 3D-DSA images from a single Cone Beam CT (CBCT) acquisition to eliminate the mask scan. Potential benefits of eliminating mask scan would be: (1) both radiation dose and scan time can be reduced by a factor of 2; (2) intra-sweep motion can be eliminated; (3) inter-sweep motion can be mitigated. Numerical simulations were used to validate the algorithm in terms of contrast recoverability and the ability to mitigate limited view artifacts.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.
2012-07-01
It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, Rob
2008-02-01
This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.
Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.
2006-01-01
Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…
Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi
2016-01-01
With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must
3-D Perspective Pasadena, California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handy Turner, Tara
2010-02-01
From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.
Riemke, Richard Allan
2002-09-01
The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.
3D laptop for defense applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David
2012-06-01
Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.
3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors
Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab
2007-09-01
High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.
Rathnayaka, Kanchana; Momot, Konstantin I; Noser, Hansrudi; Volp, Andrew; Schuetz, Michael A; Sahama, Tony; Schmutz, Beat
2012-04-01
Orthopaedic fracture fixation implants are increasingly being designed using accurate 3D models of long bones based on computer tomography (CT). Unlike CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not involve ionising radiation and is therefore a desirable alternative to CT. This study aims to quantify the accuracy of MRI-based 3D models compared to CT-based 3D models of long bones. The femora of five intact cadaver ovine limbs were scanned using a 1.5 T MRI and a CT scanner. Image segmentation of CT and MRI data was performed using a multi-threshold segmentation method. Reference models were generated by digitising the bone surfaces free of soft tissue with a mechanical contact scanner. The MRI- and CT-derived models were validated against the reference models. The results demonstrated that the CT-based models contained an average error of 0.15 mm while the MRI-based models contained an average error of 0.23 mm. Statistical validation shows that there are no significant differences between 3D models based on CT and MRI data. These results indicate that the geometric accuracy of MRI based 3D models was comparable to that of CT-based models and therefore MRI is a potential alternative to CT for generation of 3D models with high geometric accuracy.
Computations of Emissions Using a 3-D Combustor Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivatsa, S. K.
1983-01-01
A general 3-D combustor performance program developed by Garrett was extended to predict soot and NOx emissions. The soot formation and oxidation rates were computed by quasi-global models, taking into account the influence of turbulence. Radiation heat transfer was computed by the six-flux radiation mode. The radiation properties include the influence of CO2 and H2O in addition to soot. NOx emissions were computed from a global four-step hydrocarbon oxidation scheme and a set of rate-controlled reactions involving radicals and nitrogen oxides.
Comparison of physical quality assurance between Scanora 3D and 3D Accuitomo 80 dental CT scanners
Ali, Ahmed S.; Fteita, Dareen; Kulmala, Jarmo
2015-01-01
Background The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentistry has proven to be useful in the diagnosis and treatment planning of several oral and maxillofacial diseases. The quality of the resulting image is dictated by many factors related to the patient, unit, and operator. Materials and methods In this work, two dental CBCT units, namely Scanora 3D and 3D Accuitomo 80, were assessed and compared in terms of quantitative effective dose delivered to specific locations in a dosimetry phantom. Resolution and contrast were evaluated in only 3D Accuitomo 80 using special quality assurance phantoms. Results Scanora 3D, with less radiation time, showed less dosing values compared to 3D Accuitomo 80 (mean 0.33 mSv, SD±0.16 vs. 0.18 mSv, SD±0.1). Using paired t-test, no significant difference was found in Accuitomo two scan sessions (p>0.05), while it was highly significant in Scanora (p>0.05). The modulation transfer function value (at 2 lp/mm), in both measurements, was found to be 4.4%. The contrast assessment of 3D Accuitomo 80 in the two measurements showed few differences, for example, the grayscale values were the same (SD=0) while the noise level was slightly different (SD=0 and 0.67, respectively). Conclusions The radiation dose values in these two CBCT units are significantly less than those encountered in systemic CT scans. However, the dose seems to be affected more by changing the field of view rather than the voltage or amperage. The low doses were at the expense of the image quality produced, which was still acceptable. Although the spatial resolution and contrast were inferior to the medical images produced in systemic CT units, the present results recommend adopting CBCTs in maxillofacial imaging because of low radiation dose and adequate image quality. PMID:26091832
3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team
Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).
Automatic 3D video format detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier
2011-03-01
Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important f