Science.gov

Sample records for 3d velocity mapping

  1. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  2. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGES

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  3. The lithosphere and asthenosphere system in Italy as inferred from the Vp and Vs 3D velocity model and moho map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ciaccio, M.; Di Stefano, R.

    2013-12-01

    We present an updated high resolution tomographic P- and S-wave velocity model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere system in Italy, obtained by adding the observations from 7.200 earthquakes to the previously inverted dataset (165,000 P-wave arrivals) and by including S-waves readings from 10 years of seismic data recorded at three components seismic stations. The main strength of this research is the use of a method able to model P- and S- seismic phases refracted at the Moho discontinuity. We use a new and original map of the 3D Moho geometry obtained by integrating selected high quality controlled source seismic and teleseismic receiver function data. Resolution strongly benefits also from the fast increase in number and quality of INGV National Seismic Network since year 2003 and from its integration with several permanent regional seismic networks. This study confirms the main structural features in the best resolved parts of the inverted volume and much better image details in some of the previously less resolved areas, due to both the larger number of inverted phases and the more even distribution of seismic stations. Surface basins and relationships between the Adriatic, Tyrrhenian, and Adria plates are better imaged. The investigation of the physical properties of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system if improved by the use of a large dataset of good quality S-readings.

  4. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  5. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  6. Measuring the Stellar Halo Velocity Anisotropy With 3D Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Sohn, S. Tony

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematic information outside of the solar neighborhood. Our sample consists of 13 Milky Way halo stars with measured proper motions and radial velocities in the line of sight of M31. Proper motions were measured using deep, multi-epoch HST imaging, and radial velocities were measured from Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We measure β = -0.3-0.9 +0.4, which is consistent with isotropy, and inconsistent with measurements in the solar neighborhood. We suggest that this may be the kinematic signature of a relatively early, massive accretion event, or perhaps several such events.

  7. State-Of of 3d National Mapping in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, Jantien; Vallet, Bruno; Lithen, Thomas; Pla, Maria; Wozniak, Piotr; Kellenberger, Tobias; Streilein, Andre; Ilves, Risto; Ledoux, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Techniques for 3D mapping are maturing. At the same time the need for 3D data is increasing. This has pushed national (and regional) mapping agencies (NMAs) to consider extending their traditional task of providing topographic data into the third dimension. To show how research results in 3D mapping obtained over the past twenty years have been adopted by practice, this paper presents the ongoing work on 3D mapping within seven NMAs, all member of the 3D Special Interest Group of European Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR). The paper shows that some NMAs are still in the initial (experimental) phase of 3D mapping, while others have already built solid databases to maintain 2.5D and 3D topographic data covering their whole country.

  8. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  9. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-08-08

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphics pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  10. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-03-01

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphite pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  11. Real-time depth map manipulation for 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideses, Ianir; Fishbain, Barak; Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    One of the key aspects of 3D visualization is computation of depth maps. Depth maps enables synthesis of 3D video from 2D video and use of multi-view displays. Depth maps can be acquired in several ways. One method is to measure the real 3D properties of the scene objects. Other methods rely on using two cameras and computing the correspondence for each pixel. Once a depth map is acquired for every frame, it can be used to construct its artificial stereo pair. There are many known methods for computing the optical flow between adjacent video frames. The drawback of these methods is that they require extensive computation power and are not very well suited to high quality real-time 3D rendering. One efficient method for computing depth maps is extraction of motion vector information from standard video encoders. In this paper we present methods to improve the 3D visualization quality acquired from compression CODECS by spatial/temporal and logical operations and manipulations. We show how an efficient real time implementation of spatial-temporal local order statistics such as median and local adaptive filtering in 3D-DCT domain can substantially improve the quality of depth maps and consequently 3D video while retaining real-time rendering. Real-time performance is achived by utilizing multi-core technology using standard parallelization algorithms and libraries (OpenMP, IPP).

  12. Finite-Source Inversion for the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake using 3D Velocity Model Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

    2008-12-01

    We determine finite fault models of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using 3D Green's functions. Because of the dense station coverage and detailed 3D velocity structure model in this region, this earthquake provides an excellent opportunity to examine how the 3D velocity structure affects the finite fault inverse solutions. Various studies (e.g. Michaels and Eberhart-Phillips, 1991; Thurber et al., 2006) indicate that there is a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas Fault along the Parkfield segment. Also the fault zone at Parkfield is wide as evidenced by mapped surface faults and where surface slip and creep occurred in the 1966 and the 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. For high resolution images of the rupture process"Ait is necessary to include the accurate 3D velocity structure for the finite source inversion. Liu and Aurchuleta (2004) performed finite fault inversions using both 1D and 3D Green's functions for 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using the same source paramerization and data but different Green's functions and found that the models were quite different. This indicates that the choice of the velocity model significantly affects the waveform modeling at near-fault stations. In this study, we used the P-wave velocity model developed by Thurber et al (2006) to construct the 3D Green's functions. P-wave speeds are converted to S-wave speeds and density using by the empirical relationships of Brocher (2005). Using a finite difference method, E3D (Larsen and Schultz, 1995), we computed the 3D Green's functions numerically by inserting body forces at each station. Using reciprocity, these Green's functions are recombined to represent the ground motion at each station due to the slip on the fault plane. First we modeled the waveforms of small earthquakes to validate the 3D velocity model and the reciprocity of the Green"fs function. In the numerical tests we found that the 3D velocity model predicted the individual phases well at frequencies lower than 0

  13. 3-D Maps and Compasses in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arseny; Las, Liora; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2016-07-01

    The world has a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) spatial structure, but until recently the neural representation of space was studied primarily in planar horizontal environments. Here we review the emerging literature on allocentric spatial representations in 3-D and discuss the relations between 3-D spatial perception and the underlying neural codes. We suggest that the statistics of movements through space determine the topology and the dimensionality of the neural representation, across species and different behavioral modes. We argue that hippocampal place-cell maps are metric in all three dimensions, and might be composed of 2-D and 3-D fragments that are stitched together into a global 3-D metric representation via the 3-D head-direction cells. Finally, we propose that the hippocampal formation might implement a neural analogue of a Kalman filter, a standard engineering algorithm used for 3-D navigation. PMID:27442069

  14. Velocity field measurements in sedimentary rock cores by magnetization prepared 3D SPRITE.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-10-01

    A time-efficient MRI method suitable for quantitative mapping of 3-D velocity fields in sedimentary rock cores, and granular samples is discussed. The method combines the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme and three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T(1) Enhancement (SPRITE). Collecting a few samples near the q-space origin and employing restricted k-space sampling dramatically improves the performance of the imaging method. The APGSTE-SPRITE method is illustrated through mapping of 3-D velocity field in a macroscopic bead pack and heterogeneous sandstone and limestone core plugs. The observed flow patterns are consistent with a general trend for permeability to increase with the porosity. Domains of low permeability obstruct the flow within the core volume. Water tends to flow along macroscopic zones of higher porosity and across zones of lower porosity. PMID:22967892

  15. Velocity field measurements in sedimentary rock cores by magnetization prepared 3D SPRITE.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-10-01

    A time-efficient MRI method suitable for quantitative mapping of 3-D velocity fields in sedimentary rock cores, and granular samples is discussed. The method combines the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme and three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T(1) Enhancement (SPRITE). Collecting a few samples near the q-space origin and employing restricted k-space sampling dramatically improves the performance of the imaging method. The APGSTE-SPRITE method is illustrated through mapping of 3-D velocity field in a macroscopic bead pack and heterogeneous sandstone and limestone core plugs. The observed flow patterns are consistent with a general trend for permeability to increase with the porosity. Domains of low permeability obstruct the flow within the core volume. Water tends to flow along macroscopic zones of higher porosity and across zones of lower porosity.

  16. GVIZ BETA VERSION. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.W.; Stevenson, C.; Patel, K.; Wang, J.

    1997-03-25

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  17. Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

  18. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  19. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  20. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/. PMID:25261742

  1. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  2. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the

  3. MSV3d: database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin-Mihai; Walter, Vincent; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Toursel, Thierry; Thompson, Julie D; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the complex relationships linking genotypic and phenotypic variations to protein structure is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. We present MSV3d (Database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure), a new database that contains detailed annotation of missense variants of all human proteins (20 199 proteins). The multi-level characterization includes details of the physico-chemical changes induced by amino acid modification, as well as information related to the conservation of the mutated residue and its position relative to functional features in the available or predicted 3D model. Major releases of the database are automatically generated and updated regularly in line with the dbSNP (database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SwissVar releases, by exploiting the extensive Décrypthon computational grid resources. The database (http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d) is easily accessible through a simple web interface coupled to a powerful query engine and a standard web service. The content is completely or partially downloadable in XML or flat file formats. Database URL: http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d.

  4. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  5. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  6. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  7. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  8. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter-promoter, promoter-enhancer and enhancer-enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  9. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease. PMID:26529689

  10. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  11. The 3D velocity structure beneath Iceland: Identifying melt pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The integration of various seismic datasets, recorded by the broadband HOTSPOT network deployed across Iceland, provides one of the highest resolution studies of the crust and mantle structure associated with a plume-ridge system. The mantle P- and S-velocity models (ICEMAN), derived from teleseismic body-wave and surface wave analysis, show a vertical, cylindrical low velocity anomaly ˜200 km in diameter extending from ˜400 km, the maximum depth of resolution, up to ˜200 km above which low velocity material is present beneath all of Iceland. The maximum P- and S-velocity anomalies of -2% and -4% respectively are found beneath the northwestern edge of Vatnajokull. The crustal S-velocity model (ICECRTb) is constrained by local surface waves, refraction experiments and receiver functions, and shows significant variation in crustal thickness. The thinnest, ˜15 km, crust is found around coastal regions, the thickest crust is beneath northwestern Vatnajokull where it reaches a thickness of 45 km. Within this thick crustal root is a vertical low velocity anomaly connecting the core of the mantle anomaly to horizontal low velocity regions that extend along the western and eastern volcanic zones but not the northern volcanic zone. These crustal low velocity zones are interpreted as regions through which melt is fed from the mantle to shallow magma chambers beneath the rift zones, where crustal formation occurs. The pipework between the core of the mantle anomaly and the southern rift zones is responsible for ˜30 km thick crust. Its absence to the north results in relatively thin, ˜20 km thick, crust.

  12. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  13. Lidar on small UAV for 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Larsson, Hâkan

    2014-10-01

    Small UAV:s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are currently in an explosive technical development phase. The performance of UAV-system components such as inertial navigation sensors, propulsion, control processors and algorithms are gradually improving. Simultaneously, lidar technologies are continuously developing in terms of reliability, accuracy, as well as speed of data collection, storage and processing. The lidar development towards miniature systems with high data rates has, together with recent UAV development, a great potential for new three dimensional (3D) mapping capabilities. Compared to lidar mapping from manned full-size aircraft a small unmanned aircraft can be cost efficient over small areas and more flexible for deployment. An advantage with high resolution lidar compared to 3D mapping from passive (multi angle) photogrammetry is the ability to penetrate through vegetation and detect partially obscured targets. Another advantage is the ability to obtain 3D data over the whole survey area, without the limited performance of passive photogrammetry in low contrast areas. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate 3D lidar mapping capability from a small multirotor UAV. We present the first experimental results and the mechanical and electrical integration of the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 7 kg. The rotating lidar is mounted at an angle of 20 degrees from the horizontal plane giving a vertical field-of-view of 10-50 degrees below the horizon in the aircraft forward directions. For absolute positioning of the 3D data, accurate positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is of high importance. We evaluate the lidar data position accuracy both based on inertial navigation system (INS) data, and on INS data combined with lidar data. The INS sensors consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS, magnetometers, and a pressure sensor for altimetry. The lidar range resolution and accuracy is documented as well as the

  14. Direct ambient noise tomography for 3-D near surface shear velocity structure: methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H.; Fang, H.; Li, C.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, H.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Huang, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography has provided essential constraints on crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity structure in global seismology. Recent studies demonstrate that high frequency (e.g., ~ 1 Hz) surface waves between receivers at short distances can be successfully retrieved from ambient noise cross-correlation and then be used for imaging near surface or shallow crustal shear velocity structures. This approach provides important information for strong ground motion prediction in seismically active area and overburden structure characterization in oil and gas fields. Here we propose a new tomographic method to invert all surface wave dispersion data for 3-D variations of shear wavespeed without the intermediate step of phase or group velocity maps.The method uses frequency-dependent propagation paths and a wavelet-based sparsity-constrained tomographic inversion. A fast marching method is used to compute, at each period, surface wave traveltimes and ray paths between sources and receivers. This avoids the assumption of great-circle propagation that is used in most surface wave tomographic studies, but which is not appropriate in complex media. The wavelet coefficients of the velocity model are estimated with an iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) algorithm, and upon iterations the surface wave ray paths and the data sensitivity matrix are updated from the newly obtained velocity model. We apply this new method to determine the 3-D near surface wavespeed variations in the Taipei basin of Taiwan, Hefei urban area and a shale and gas production field in China using the high-frequency interstation Rayleigh wave dispersion data extracted from ambient noisecross-correlation. The results reveal strong effects of off-great-circle propagation of high-frequency surface waves in these regions with above 30% shear wavespeed variations. The proposed approach is more efficient and robust than the traditional two-step surface wave tomography for imaging complex

  15. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc'h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  16. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc’h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M.; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  17. Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Yücel; Kul, Basri; Okursoy, Rasim

    2008-01-01

    Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software.

  18. 3D velocity structure of upper crust beneath NW Bohemia/Vogtland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Fallahi, Mohammad; Mousavi, Sima; Korn, Michael; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Bauer, Klaus; Rößler, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    surrounding area. Surface wave tomography using ambient noise provides additional constraints on shear velocities. The detailed knowledge of the 3D structure is essential to select the optimal future borehole locations. we use the vertical and transverse component ambient noise data to estimate both Rayleigh and Love waves from ambient noise cross-correlation waveforms to investigate the crustal seismic structure of W-Bohemia/Vogtland. More than 2000 Rayleigh and Love group-velocity dispersion curves are obtained by time-frequency analysis of stacked ambient noise cross-correlation functions between station pairs. We used the data between 2002 and 2004 recorded at 43 seismic stations from BOHEMA experiment and between 2006 and 2008 recorded at 79 seismic stations from permanent station networks of Germany, Czech Academy of Sciences (WEBNET) and PASSEQ experiments. At each period between 1 and 10 s, group velocity maps are constructed, all corresponding to different sampling depths, and thus together giving an indication of the 3D shear wave velocity structure extending to a depth of about 15 km.

  19. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  20. 3D Gel Map of Arabidopsis Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katrin; Belt, Katharina; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Complex I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves, and roots. Subunits of complex I were resolved by 3D blue-native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, seven of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis complex I consists of 49 distinct types of subunits, 40 of which represent homologs of bovine complex I. The nine other subunits represent special proteins absent in the animal linage of eukaryotes, most prominently a group of subunits related to bacterial gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. A GelMap http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis-3d-complex-i/ is presented for promoting future complex I research in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23761796

  1. Imaging 3D seismic velocity along the seismogenic zone of Algarve region (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João.; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Caldeira, Bento; Dias, Nuno; Borges, José; Matias, Luís.; Dorbath, Catherine; Carrilho, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The present seismic tomographic study is focused around Algarve region, in South of Portugal. To locate the seismic events and find the local velocity structure of epicentral area, the P and S arrival times at 38 stations are used. The data used in this study were obtained during the Algarve campaign which worked from January/2006 to July/2007. The preliminary estimate of origin times and hypocentral coordinates are determined by the Hypoinverse program. Linearized inversion procedure was applied to comprise the following two steps: 1) finding the minimum 1D velocity model using Velest and 2) simultaneous relocation of hypocenters and determination of local velocity structure. The velocity model we have reached is a 10 layer model which gave the lowest RMS, after several runnings of eight different velocity models that we used "a priori". The model parameterization assumes a continuous velocity field between 4.5 km/s and 7.0 km/s until 30 km depth. The earth structure is represented in 3D by velocity at discrete points, and velocity at any intervening point is determined by linear interpolation among the surrounding eight grid points. A preliminary analysis of the resolution capabilities of the dataset, based on the Derivative Weight Sum (DWS) distribution, shows that the velocity structure is better resolved in the West part of the region between the surface to15 km. The resulting tomographic image has a prominent low-velocity anomaly that shows a maximum decrease in P-wave velocity in the first 12 kms in the studied region. We also identified the occurrence of local seismic events of reduced magnitude not catalogued, in the neighbourhood of Almodôvar (low Alentejo). The spatial distribution of epicentres defines a NE-SW direction that coincides with the strike of the mapped geological faults of the region and issued from photo-interpretation. Is still expectable to refine the seismicity of the region of Almodôvar and establish more rigorously its role in the

  2. The 3D Space and Spin Velocities of a Gamma-ray Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2016-04-01

    PSR J2030+4415 is a LAT-discovered 0.5My-old gamma-ray pulsar with an X-ray synchrotron trail and a rare Halpha bowshock. We have obtained GMOS IFU spectroscopic imaging of this shell, and show a sweep through the remarkable Halpha structure, comparing with the high energy emission. These data provide a unique 3D map of the momentum distribution of the relativistic pulsar wind. This shows that the pulsar is moving nearly in the plane of the sky and that the pulsar wind has a polar component misaligned with the space velocity. The spin axis is shown to be inclined some 95degrees to the Earth line of sight, explaining why this is a radio-quiet, gamma-only pulsar. Intriguingly, the shell also shows multiple bubbles that suggest that the pulsar wind power has varied substantially over the past 500 years.

  3. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  4. An industrial light-field camera applied for 3D velocity measurements in a slot jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredkin, A. V.; Shestakov, M. V.; Tokarev, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Modern light-field cameras have found their application in different areas like photography, surveillance and quality control in industry. A number of studies have been reported relatively low spatial resolution of 3D profiles of registered objects along the optical axis of the camera. This article describes a method for 3D velocity measurements in fluid flows using an industrial light-field camera and an alternative reconstruction algorithm based on a statistical approach. This method is more accurate than triangulation when applied for tracking small registered objects like tracer particles in images. The technique was used to measure 3D velocity fields in a turbulent slot jet.

  5. Effects of 3D random correlated velocity perturbations on predicted ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional, finite-difference simulations of a realistic finite-fault rupture on the southern Hayward fault are used to evaluate the effects of random, correlated velocity perturbations on predicted ground motions. Velocity perturbations are added to a three-dimensional (3D) regional seismic velocity model of the San Francisco Bay Area using a 3D von Karman random medium. Velocity correlation lengths of 5 and 10 km and standard deviations in the velocity of 5% and 10% are considered. The results show that significant deviations in predicted ground velocities are seen in the calculated frequency range (≤1 Hz) for standard deviations in velocity of 5% to 10%. These results have implications for the practical limits on the accuracy of scenario ground-motion calculations and on retrieval of source parameters using higher-frequency, strong-motion data.

  6. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  7. Velocity and Density Models Incorporating the Cascadia Subduction Zone for 3D Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.

  8. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Syahputra, Ahmad; Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat

    2013-09-09

    We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

  9. 3D velocity measurement by a single camera using Doppler phase-shifting holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Nao; Kubo, Yamato; Barada, Daisuke; Kiire, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the details of the flow field in micro- and nano-fluidic devices, it is necessary to measure the 3D velocities under a microscopy. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of a new measuring technique for 3D velocity by a single camera. One solution is the use of holography, but it is well known that the accuracy in the depth direction is very poor for the commonly used in-line holography. At present, the Doppler phase-shifting holography is used for the 3D measurement of an object. This method extracts the signal of a fixed frequency caused by the Doppler beat between the object light and the reference light. It can measure the 3D shape precisely. Here, the frequency of the Doppler beat is determined by the velocity difference between the object light and the reference light. This implies that the velocity of an object can be calculated by the Doppler frequency. In this study, a Japanese 5 yen coin was traversed at a constant speed and its holography has been observed by a high-speed camera. By extracting only the first order diffraction signal at the Doppler frequency, a precise measurement of the shape and the position of a 5 yen coin has been achieved. At the same time, the longitudinal velocity of a 5 yen coin can be measured by the Doppler frequency. Furthermore, the lateral velocities are obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. A 5 yen coin has been traversed at different angles and its shapes and the 3D velocities have been measured accurately. This method can be applied to the particle flows in the micro- or nano-devices, and the 3D velocities will be measured under microscopes.

  10. Waveform Simulations For TAIGER Data Sets From Taiwan 3D Reference Velocity And Moho Boundary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, M.; Chen, H.; Zhao, L.

    2008-12-01

    Studying seismic waveform variations in space and time is an important issue to investigate structural heterogeneities and ground motion responses for seismic hazard mitigation. The available 3D reference velocity models from transmission tomography studies are mainly limited by depth resolution, refraction arrival picks without explicit considering later phases and the spatial distribution of earthquakes and stations. Seismic data collected from the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research) project can provide a valuable opportunity for studying deep crust structures. Evaluation of 3D reference models and update their shallow velocity structure is presented through travel-time and waveforms studies. Even though a well-defined multi-scaled reference velocity model of Taiwan is being debated, existing models are still important to study the structural heterogeneities and path effects through parallel computation of 4th-order staggered grid FD 3D waveform simulation. Simulation utilizes both far-field point and finite-dimensional moment tensor sources to investigate effects on Moho reflections and lateral velocity variations. Constraints on Moho reference boundary obtained from receiver function studies is discussed and compared with data collected from TAIGER project. For controlled source experiments, synthetic simulations show clear and focused Moho reflections in the 3-C data. Simultaneous 3D simulation of all available seismic records provides unique constraints on reference velocity model known so far. The waveform simulation will provide a fundamental research platform for future full 3D waveform inversion.

  11. Quasi-3D Waveform Inversion for Velocity Structures and Source Process Analyses Using its Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikima, K.; Koketsu, K.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, we propose an efficient waveform inversion method for 2-D velocity structures and 3-D velocity structures are constructed by interpolating the results of the 2-D inversions. We apply these methods to a source process study of the 2003 Miyagi-ken Hokubu earthquake. We will first construct a velocity model, then determine the source processes of this earthquake sequence using the Green's function calculated with the resultant 3-D velocity model. We formulate the inversion procedure in a 2-D cross section. In a 2-D problem, an earthquake is forced to be a line source. Therefore, we introduce approximate transformation from a line source to a point source (Vidale and Helmberger, 1987). We use the 2-D velocity-stress staggered-grid finite difference scheme, so that the source representation is somewhat different from the original 'source box method' and we apply additional corrections to calculated waveforms. The boundary shapes of layers are expressed by connected nodes and we invert observed waveforms for layer thicknesses at the nodes. We perform 2-D velocity inversions along cross sections which involve a medium-size earthquake and observation points. We assemble the results for many stations and interpolated them to construct the 3-D velocity model. Finally, we calculate waveforms from the target earthquake by the 3-D finite difference method with this velocity model to confirm the validity of the model. We next perform waveform inversions for source processes of the 2003 Miyagi-ken Hokubu earthquake sequence using the resultant 3-D velocity model. We divide the fault plane into northern and southern subplanes, so that the southern subplane includes the hypocenter of the mainshock and the largest foreshock. The strike directions of the northern and southern subplanes were N-S and NE-SW, respectively. The Green's functions for these source inversions are calculated using the reciprocal theorem. We determine the slip models using the 3- D structure and

  12. 3D strength map of the Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebetskiy, Y. L.; Baranov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern and Central Asia is a tectonically complex region which characterized by the great collision between the Asian and Indian plates. Its tectonic evolution is strongly related to the active subduction process along the Pacific border. Stress investigation in the continental crust is a very important problem not only for science but also for the practical purposes. There are four main factors which produce tectonic stresses: gravity anomalies of the crust, density inhomogeneities, deformation from area with intraplate collision, residual elastic deformations and underthrust stresses conditions from convective mantle. We present the stress model of the crust and lithosphere for the Central and Southern Asia on the basis of the finite element modeling. For the crust we take the elasto-plastic rheology with Drucker-Prager criterion. In the lithosphere the elasto-plastic model with von Mises criterion is assumed. We investigated stresses which are produced by the crustal density inhomogeneities and surface relief. The calculations are done using the U-WAY finite element code developed at the Institute of Applied Mechanics Russian Academy of Sciences. (similar to the Nastran program) Density inhomogeneities are based on the AsCRUST-08 crustal model (Baranov, 2008), which has resolution of 1 x 1 degree. AsCRUST-08 was built using the data of deep seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies from published papers. The complex 3D crustal model consists of three layers: upper, middle, and lower crust. Besides depth of the boundaries, we provided average P-wave velocities in the upper, middle and lower parts of the crystalline crust and sediments. The seismic P-velocity data was also recalculated to the densities and the elastic moduli of the crustal layers using the rheological properties and geological constraints. Strength parameters of rocks strongly depend on temperature, tectonic and fluid pressure. Fluid pressure can reduce resistance forces

  13. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  14. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  15. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  16. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  17. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  18. 3D mapping and simulation of Geneva Lake environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Roch; Maignan, Michel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Rapin, Francois; Klein, Audrey

    2010-05-01

    The Geneva Lake is the biggest alpine and subalpine lake in central Europe. The depth of this lake is 309 meters and its total volume of water is 89 billions m3. It takes, on average, around twelve years so that waters of the lake are completely brewed. Furthermore the Geneva lake waters are rich in dissolved substances as carbonate, sulfate. The quantity of particles in suspension in the lake, which mainly arrived from the Rhône, is nowadays around height million of tones. The International Commission for the Leman Lake (CIPEL) works about the improvement of the quality of this lake since 1962. In the present study three dimensional environmental data (temperature, oxygen and nitrate) which cover the period from 1954 to 2008, for a total of 27'500 cases are investigated. We are interested to study the evolution of the temperature of the lake because there is an impact on the reproduction of fishes and also because the winter brewing of the water makes the re-oxygenation of deep-water. In order that biological balance is maintained in a lake, there must be enough oxygen in the water. Moreover, we work on nitrate distribution and evolution because contributions in fertilizers cause eutrophication of lake. The data are very numerous when we consider the time series, some of them with more than 300 occurrences, but there are between 2 and 15 data available for spatial cartography. The basic methodology used for the analysis, mapping and simulations of 3D patterns of environmental data is based on geostatistical predictions (family of kriging models) and conditional stochastic simulations. Spatial and temporal variability, 3D monitoring networks changing over time, make this study challenging. An important problem is also to make interpolation/simulations over a long period of time, like ten years. One way used to overcome this problem, consists in using a weighted average of ten variograms during this period. 3D mapping was carried out using environment data for

  19. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  20. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map. PMID:27762276

  1. 3D Color Digital Elevation Map of AFM Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image is a three dimensional (3D) view of a digital elevation map of a sample collected by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Assessment of Altered 3D Blood Characteristics in Aortic Disease by Velocity Distribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Schnell, Susanne; Puthumana, Jyothy; Bonow, Robert O; Collins, Jeremy D; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of velocity distribution analysis for identifying altered 3D flow characteristics in patients with aortic disease based on 4D flow MRI volumetric analysis. Methods Forty patients with aortic (Ao) dilation (mid ascending aortic diameter MAA=40±7 mm, age=56±17 yr, 11 females) underwent cardiovascular MRI. Four groups were retrospectively defined: mild Ao dilation (n=10, MAA<35 mm); moderate Ao dilation (n=10, 3545 mm); Ao dilation+aortic stenosis AS (n=10, MAA>35 mm and peak velocity >2.5m/s). 3D PC-MR angiograms were computed and used to obtain a 3D segmentation of the aorta which was divided into four segments: root, ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta. Radial chart displays were used to visualize multiple parameters representing segmental changes in the 3D velocity distribution associated with aortic disease. Results Changes in the velocity field and geometry between cohorts resulted in distinct hemodynamic patterns for each aortic segment. Disease progression from mild to Ao dilation+AS resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in flow parameters across cohorts and increased radial chart size for root and ascending aorta segments by 146% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion Volumetric 4D velocity distribution analysis has the potential to identify characteristic changes in regional blood flow patterns in patients with aortic disease. PMID:25252029

  3. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, G.; Minshull, T. A.; Davy, R. G.; Sawyer, D. S.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Reston, T. J.; Shillington, D. J.; Ranero, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.

  4. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy; Davy, Richard; Sawyer, Dale; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Reston, Timothy; Shillington, Donna; Ranero, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.

  5. GAM & RF for 3D mapping of multinomial peat properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Aalders, Inge; Morrice, Jane; Hough, Rupert

    2013-04-01

    Different statistical methods have been proposed for fitting the empirical quantitative function linking the soil information to the scorpan factors, while taking into account the spatial structure of the data . Regression kriging extends the methods of kriging and co-kriging and it has been further extended by the use of GAMs (Generalized Additive Models) with the estimation of uncertainty. When multinomial data are modelled, advanced non-parametric methods, such as CART (Classification and Regression Tree), can be used. CARTs have been used widely to estimate soil properties. Bagging trees and Random Forest (RF) approaches have among the best performances among CART methods. CARTs have been used in DSM applications, While RF have often been used in ecological modelling, fewer examples exist in DSM, such as soil erosion occurrence, soil types prediction and soil organic carbon content. In this paper we propose a methodology to map multinomial peat properties in 3D space with a combination of GAMs and RF. The methodology was applied to the humification (according to the VonPost classification) classes in a bog (18 km2) in the north-east of Scotland. A large survey campaign was carried out in 1955 and humification information were collected at 125 points. In order to integrate the information from the GAM in the RT, a series of binary GAMs were fitted using DEM-derived information as covariates. The binary GAMs were fitted assigning 1 if the class considered was present at the location, 0 if the class considered was absent. The probability predictions resulting from the binary GAMs, were included in the pool of covariates used for the RT together with other ancillary covariates. The model diagnostics had a fair to good agreement between measured and modelled values (K statistics). The probability predictions resulting from the binary GAMs proved to be important variables, increasing the agreement of the model. The obtained spatial distribution of values on the

  6. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  7. Sector mapping method for 3D detached retina visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Li, Ke; Lu, Cui-Xin; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    A new sphere-mapping algorithm called sector mapping is introduced to map sector images to the sphere of an eyeball. The proposed sector-mapping algorithm is evaluated and compared with the plane-mapping algorithm adopted in previous work. A simulation that maps an image of concentric circles to the sphere of the eyeball and an analysis of the difference in distance between neighboring points in a plane and sector were used to compare the two mapping algorithms. A three-dimensional model of a whole retina with clear retinal detachment was generated using the Visualization Toolkit software. A comparison of the mapping results shows that the central part of the retina near the optic disc is stretched and its edges are compressed when the plane-mapping algorithm is used. A better mapping result is obtained by the sector-mapping algorithm than by the plane-mapping algorithm in both the simulation results and real clinical retinal detachment three-dimensional reconstruction. PMID:27480739

  8. Mapping the human cerebral cortex using 3-D medial manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Gabor; Brechbuehler, Christian; Kuebler, Olaf; Ogniewicz, Robert; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1992-09-01

    Novel imaging technologies provide a detailed look at structure and function of the tremendously complex and variable human brain. Optimal exploitation of the information stored in the rapidly growing collection of acquired and segmented MRI data calls for robust and reliable descriptions of the individual geometry of the cerebral cortex. A mathematical description and representation of 3-D shape, capable of dealing with form of variable appearance, is at the focus of this paper. We base our development on the Medial Axis Transformation (MAT) customarily defined in 2-D although the concept generalizes to any number of dimensions. Our implementation of the 3-D MAT combines full 3-D Voronoitesselation generated by the set of all border points with regularization procedures to obtain geometrically and topologically correct medial manifolds. The proposed algorithm was tested on synthetic objects and has been applied to 3-D MRI data of 1 mm isotropic resolution to obtain a description of the sulci in the cerebral cortex. Description and representation of the cortical anatomy is significant in clinical applications, medical research, and instrumentation developments.

  9. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): 2D Maps and 3D Globes Support Arctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Gaylord, A. G.; Brady, J. J.; Cody, R. P.; Aguilar, J. A.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online services to provide support of Arctic science. These services include: a text based online search utility, 2D Internet Map Server (IMS); 3D globes and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS). With ARMAP's 2D maps and 3D globes, users can navigate to areas of interest, view a variety of map layers, and explore U.S. Federally funded research projects. Projects can be queried by location, year, funding program, discipline, and keyword. Links take you to specific information and other web sites associated with a particular research project. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the foundation of ARMAP including US research funded by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Geological Survey. Avoiding a duplication of effort has been a primary objective of the ARMAP project which incorporates best practices (e.g. Spatial Data Infrastructure and OGC standard web services and metadata) and off the shelf technologies where appropriate. The ARMAP suite provides tools for users of various levels of technical ability to interact with the data by importing the web services directly into their own GIS applications and virtual globes; performing advanced GIS queries; simply printing maps from a set of predefined images in the map gallery; browsing the layers in an IMS; or by choosing to "fly to" sites using a 3D globe. With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has targeted science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. In sum, ARMAP goes beyond a simple map display to enable analysis, synthesis, and coordination of Arctic research. ARMAP may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org.

  10. Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.

  11. UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC

  12. Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha

    2013-04-01

    Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.

  13. Direct inversion of digital 3D Fraunhofer holography maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorov, Sergei G.; Förster, Eckhart

    2016-01-01

    The Differential Fourier Holography (DFH) gives an exact mathematical solution of the inverse problem of diffraction in the Fraunhofer regime. After the first publication [1] the Differential Fourier Holography was successfully applied in many experiments to obtain amplitude and phase information about two-dimensional (2D) images. In this article we demonstrate numerically the possibility to apply the DFH also for investigation of unknown 3D Objects. The first simulation is made for a double-spiral structure plus a line as a reference object.

  14. Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-04-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.

  15. 3D Road-Mapping in the Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Rossitti, S.; Pfister, M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary 3D road-mapping with syngo iPilot was used as an additional tool for assessing cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) for endovascular therapy. This method provides accurate superimposition of a live fluoroscopic image (native or vascular road-map) and its matching 2D projection of the 3D data set, delivering more anatomic information on one additional display. In the endovascular management of cases with complex anatomy, 3D road-mapping provides excellent image quality at the intervention site. This method can potentially reduce intervention time, the number of DSA runs, fluoroscopy time and the amount of contrast media used in a procedure, with reservation for these factors being mainly operator-dependent. 3D road-mapping probably does not provide any advantage in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or AVMs with very simple configuration, and it should not be used when acquisition of an optimum 3D data set is not feasible. PMID:20465911

  16. Comparative velocity structure of active Hawaiian volcanoes from 3-D onshore-offshore seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.; Morgan, J.K.; Zelt, C.A.; Okubo, P.G.; Peters, L.; Benesh, N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the combined subaerial and submarine portions of the southeastern part of the Island of Hawaii, based on first-arrival seismic tomography of marine airgun shots recorded by the onland seismic network. Our model shows that high-velocity materials (6.5-7.0??km/s) lie beneath Kilauea's summit, Koae fault zone, and the upper Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and upper and middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), indicative of magma cumulates within the volcanic edifice. A separate high-velocity body of 6.5-6.9??km/s within Kilauea's lower ERZ and upper Puna Ridge suggests a distinct body of magma cumulates, possibly connected to the summit magma cumulates at depth. The two cumulate bodies within Kilauea's ERZ may have undergone separate ductile flow seaward, influencing the submarine morphology of Kilauea's south flank. Low velocities (5.0-6.3??km/s) seaward of Kilauea's Hilina fault zone, and along Mauna Loa's seaward facing Kao'iki fault zone, are attributed to thick piles of volcaniclastic sediments deposited on the submarine flanks. Loihi seamount shows high-velocity anomalies beneath the summit and along the rift zones, similar to the interpreted magma cumulates below Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, and a low-velocity anomaly beneath the oceanic crust, probably indicative of melt within the upper mantle. Around Kilauea's submarine flank, a high-velocity anomaly beneath the outer bench suggests the presence of an ancient seamount that may obstruct outward spreading of the flank. Mauna Loa's southeast flank is also marked by a large, anomalously high-velocity feature (7.0-7.4??km/s), interpreted to define an inactive, buried volcanic rift zone, which might provide a new explanation for the westward migration of Mauna Loa's current SWRZ and the growth of Kilauea's SWRZ. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D velocity structure of Mt. Fuji and the south Fossa Magna, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present models of the velocity structure beneath the south Fossa Magna and Mt. Fuji, Japan, using local earthquake tomography and new data from a dense seismic network. The seismic network includes 28 temporary and 138 permanent 3-component seismic stations. The stations are deployed 2 - 10 km apart with a gradual increase in station spacing away from Mt. Fuji and are also densely distributed in the direction NE-SW across Mt. Fuji. We inverted 63,287 P- and 59,558 S-wave arrival times from 1087 local earthquakes to obtain the 3D P- (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) and their ratio (Vp/Vs) structure. There is a high correlation between the Vp and Vs structures. At 5-15 km depths both velocity structures show low velocity anomalies trending northward in the west along the Fujikawa river, from Suruga Bay to northwest of Mt. Fuji. North of the Izu Peninsula, there is a broad high-velocity zone. These results correlate with Bouguer gravity anomalies previously observed. A shallowing high velocity anomaly is seen above sea level beneath Mt. Fuji. A low-Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs (1.5-1.6) anomaly is seen at depths of 7 - 17 km beneath Mt. Fuji, corresponding to locations of low-frequency (LF) earthquakes. Volatile fluids (CO2-H2O) could be abundant in the low Vp/Vs region and play an important role in generating the LF earthquakes. A low-Vp, Vs and high-Vp/Vs (1.8-1.9) anomaly is seen at depths of 15 - 25 km beneath Mt. Fuji and is interpreted as partial melt (basaltic magma). P-wave velocities of 6.0 - 6.5 km/s in the Izu collision zone beneath the Tanzawa Mountains indicate a plutonic body of tonalite within an accreted crustal slice of the Philippine Sea plate.

  18. A 3-D crustal velocity structure across the Variscides of southwest Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, M.; Readman, P. W.; O'Reilly, B. M.; Shannon, P. M.

    2003-04-01

    In the VARNET-96 experiment three seismic refraction profiles were acquired to examine the crustal structure in the south-west of Ireland. The shotpoint geometry allowed for both in-line and off-line fan shot recordings on the three profiles. Results of 3-D inversion modelling illustrate that there is pervasive lateral heterogeneity of the sedimentary and crustal velocity structure south of the Shannon Estuary. Palaeozoic strata at the south coast are about 5-6 km thick associated with the sedimentary infill of the Munster and South Munster Basins. To the north, shallow upper crust in the vicinity of the Killarney-Mallow Fault Zone is followed by a 3-4 km thick sedimentary succession in the Dingle-Shannon Basin. A zone of high-velocity upper crust (6.4-6.6 km/s) beneath the South Munster Basin correlates with a gravity high between the Kenmare-Killarney and the Leinster Granite gravity lows. Other high-velocity zones beneath Dingle Bay and the Kenmare River region may be associated with the deep traces of the Killarney-Mallow Fault Zone and the Cork-Kenmare Line. The 3-D velocity model was taken as a basis for the computation of PmP reflected arrivals from the crust-mantle boundary. The Moho depth varies from 28-29 km at the south coast to 32-33 km beneath the Dingle-Shannon Basin. Pervasive Variscan deformation appears to be confined to the sedimentary and upper crustal structure thus supporting a thin-skinned tectonic model for Variscan deformation. Deep-crustal variations only occur where they can be correlated with major tectonic features such as the Caledonian Iapetus Suture near the Shannon Estuary. The shallowing of the Moho towards the coast may result from Mesozoic crustal extension in the adjacent offshore sedimentary basins.

  19. 3D Droplet velocities and sizes in the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, R.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Michalek, W. R.

    2012-11-01

    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a known device that is used to generate spot cooling. In this study, we experimentally investigate the behavior of small water droplets in the vortex tube by means of Phase Doppler Particle Analysis. In an experimental vortex tube, droplets were injected together with a carrier gas to form a fast rotating (up to 80.000 rpm) droplet-gas mixture. Droplet sizes, 3D velocity components, and turbulent properties were measured, showing high intensity isotropic turbulence in the core region. To investigate the cause of the high intensity turbulence, a frequency analysis was applied on the measured velocity. The frequency spectrum of the velocity is presented and indicates that wobbling of the vortex axis is the cause of the high turbulence intensity. It was expected that larger droplets have a higher radial velocity because of the larger centrifugal force. Results show, however, that small and lager droplets behave similar. This research is supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is the applied science division of NWO, and the Technology Programme of the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

  20. Improvement to Ooty IPS Velocity Maps for Time-Dependent MHD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropf, D.; Pogorelov, N.; Kim, T. K.; Manoharan, P.; Arge, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) observations can provide informationon the three-dimensional (3-D) solar wind structure. Manoharan et al.(2015) have recently used IPS velocity data from the Ootacommad RadioTelescope in India directly as time-dependent boundary conditions todrive a 3-D heliospheric MHD model. Their results showed consistentlylarger velocities at Earth compared to in situ data, most likely due tothe assumptions of constant velocity when the IPS velocity data in 3-Dspace are mapped onto the boundary surface. Thus, we improve upontheir results by assuming non-constant velocity when we construct theboundary velocity maps. New boundary conditions are then used to perform solarwind propagation outward from the Sun.

  1. Face recognition using 3D facial shape and color map information: comparison and combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godil, Afzal; Ressler, Sandy; Grother, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of 3D surface geometry for face recognition and compare it to one based on color map information. The 3D surface and color map data are from the CAESAR anthropometric database. We find that the recognition performance is not very different between 3D surface and color map information using a principal component analysis algorithm. We also discuss the different techniques for the combination of the 3D surface and color map information for multi-modal recognition by using different fusion approaches and show that there is significant improvement in results. The effectiveness of various techniques is compared and evaluated on a dataset with 200 subjects in two different positions.

  2. Lithologic identification & mapping test based on 3D inversion of magnetic and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtian; Qi, Guang; Zhao, Jinhua; Zhang, Yongqian

    2016-04-01

    Though lithologic identification & mapping to achieve ore concentration district transparent within 5km depth is the main way to realize deep fine structures study, to explore deep mineral resources and to reveal metallogenic regularity of large-scale ore district . Owing to the wide covered area, high sampling density and mature three-dimensional inversion algorithm of gravity and magnetic data, so gravity and magnetic inversion become the most likely way to achieve three-dimensional lithologic mapping at the present stage. In this paper, we take Lu-zong(Lujiang county to Zongyang county in Anhui province ,east China) ore district as a case, we proposed lithologic mapping flow based 3D inversion of gravity magnetic and then carry out the lithologic mapping test. Lithologic identification & mapping flow is as follows: 1. Analysis relations between lithology and density and magnetic susceptibility by cross plot. 2.Extracting appropriate residual anomalies from high-precision Bourger gravity and aeromagnetic. 3.Use same mesh, do 3D magnetic and gravity inversion respectively under prior information constrained, and then invert susceptibility and density 3D model. 4. According setp1, construct logical topology operations between density 3D model and susceptibility. 5.Use the logical operations, identify lithogies cell by cell in 3D mesh, and then get 3D lithological model. According this flow, we obtained three-dimensional distribution of five main type lithologies in the Lu-Zong ore district within 5km depth. The result of lithologic mapping not only showed that the shallow characteristics and surface geological mapping are basically Coincide,more importantly ,it reveals the deeper lithologic changes.The lithlogical model make up the insufficient of surface geological mapping. The lithologic mapping test results in Lu-Zong ore concentration district showed that lithological mapping using 3D inversion of gravity and magnetic is a effective method to reveal the

  3. TReMAP: Automatic 3D Neuron Reconstruction Based on Tracing, Reverse Mapping and Assembling of 2D Projections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Long, Brian; Peng, Hanchuan

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and accurate digital reconstruction of neurons from large-scale 3D microscopic images remains a challenge in neuroscience. We propose a new automatic 3D neuron reconstruction algorithm, TReMAP, which utilizes 3D Virtual Finger (a reverse-mapping technique) to detect 3D neuron structures based on tracing results on 2D projection planes. Our fully automatic tracing strategy achieves close performance with the state-of-the-art neuron tracing algorithms, with the crucial advantage of efficient computation (much less memory consumption and parallel computation) for large-scale images.

  4. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  5. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): 2D Maps and 3D Globes Support Arctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A.; Manley, W. F.; Dover, M.; Score, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. With ARMAP's 2D mapping application, 3D globes, and data services (http://armap.org), users can search for research projects by location, year, funding program, keyword, investigator, and discipline, among other variables. Key information about each project is displayed within the application with links to web pages that provide additional information. The ARMAP 2D mapping application has been significantly enhanced to include support for multiple projections, improved base maps, additional reference data layers, and optimization for better performance. The additional functionality of this tool will increase awareness of projects funded by numerous entities in the Arctic, enhance coordination for logistics support, help identify geographic gaps in research efforts and potentially foster more collaboration amongst researchers working in the region. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate the effects of the International Polar Year (IPY) on funding of different research disciplines by the U.S. Government.

  6. Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Incorporating 3D Sedimentary Basin Effects, Nonlinear Site Response, and Rupture Directivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Stephenson, William J.; Carver, David L.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Rhea, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report presents probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle, Washington, based on over 500 3D simulations of ground motions from scenario earthquakes. These maps include 3D sedimentary basin effects and rupture directivity. Nonlinear site response for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium was also applied in the maps. The report describes the methodology for incorporating source and site dependent amplification factors into a probabilistic seismic hazard calculation. 3D simulations were conducted for the various earthquake sources that can affect Seattle: Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep earthquakes. The maps presented in this document used essentially the same set of faults and distributed-earthquake sources as in the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The 3D velocity model utilized in the simulations was validated by modeling the amplitudes and waveforms of observed seismograms from five earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps presented here depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years. The maps are based on determinations of seismic hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the most hazardous locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and along the inferred trace of the frontal fault of the Seattle fault zone. The next highest hazard is typically found for soft-soil sites in the Duwamish Valley south of the Seattle basin. In general, stiff-soil sites in the Seattle basin exhibit higher hazard than stiff-soil sites outside the basin. Sites with shallow bedrock outside the Seattle basin have the lowest estimated hazard for this frequency band.

  7. 3D P and S Wave Velocity Structure and Tremor Locations in the Parkfield Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Shelly, D. R.; Bennington, N. L.; Cochran, E. S.; Harrington, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have assembled a new dataset to refine the 3D seismic velocity model in the Parkfield region. The S arrivals from 184 earthquakes recorded by the Parkfield Experiment to Record MIcroseismicity and Tremor array (PERMIT) during 2010-2011 were picked by a new S wave picker, which is based on machine learning. 74 blasts have been assigned to four quarries, whose locations were identified with Google Earth. About 1000 P and S wave arrivals from these blasts at permanent seismic network were also incorporated. Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) occurring within non-volcanic tremor (NVT) are valuable for improving the precision of NVT location and the seismic velocity model at greater depths. Based on previous work (Shelley and Hardebeck, 2010), waveforms of hundreds of LFEs in same family were stacked to improve signal qualify. In a previous study (McClement et al., 2013), stacked traces of more than 30 LFE families at the Parkfileld Array Seismic Observatory (PASO) have been picked. We expanded our work to include LFEs recorded by the PERMIT array. The time-frequency Phase Weight Stacking (tf-PWS) method was introduced to improve the stack quality, as direct stacking does not produce clear S-wave arrivals on the PERMIT stations. This technique uses the coherence of the instantaneous phase among the stacked signals to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the stack. We found that it is extremely effective for picking LFE arrivals (Thurber et al., 2014). More than 500 P and about 1000 S arrivals from 58 LFE families were picked at the PERMIT and PASO arrays. Since the depths of LFEs are much deeper than earthquakes, we are able to extend model resolution to lower crustal depths. Both P and S wave velocity structure have been obtained with the tomoDD method. The result suggests that there is a low velocity zone (LVZ) in the lower crust and the location of the LVZ is consistent with the high conductivity zone beneath the southern segment of the Rinconada fault that

  8. Approaches of National 3d Mapping: Research Results and Standardisation in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, J. E.; Streilein, A.; Pla, M.; Baella, B.; Capstick, D.; Home, R.; Roensdorf, C.; Lagrange, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed in this paper is how research results achieved in the past ten years are applied in practice and what research problems remain. In addition, the paper explores the potentials of the OGC 3D standard (i.e. CityGML) for 3D national mapping and what developments are further required to make the standard better fit for this purpose. The main conclusions of the paper are that 3D data is more and more available but still suffers from a low level of usage (mainly visualisation) and standards and formats based on CityGML have been stabilised although software support is still in the early stage. Several recommendations are made to meet these problems, including the definition of European CityGML profiles (as the INSPIRE Building profile) to harmonise 3D needs and standardise 3D implementations at international level.

  9. Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Fan, Lin; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2014-12-14

    We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector.

  10. Coronal Outflow Velocities in a 3D Coronal Model Determined from UVCS Doppler Dimming Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, L.; Panasyuk, A. V.; Dobrzycka, D.; Gibson, S.; Biesecker, D. A.; Ko, Y.-K.; Galvin, A. B.; Romoli, M.; Kohn, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    We constrain coronal outflow velocity solutions, resolved along the line-of-sight, by using Doppler dimming models of H I Lyman alpha and O VI 1032/1037 Angstrom emissivities obtained with data from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on SOHO. The local emissivities, from heliocentric heights of 1.5 to 3.0 radii, were determined from 3-D reconstructions of line-of-sight intensities obtained during the Whole Sun Month Campaign (10 Aug. -- 8 Sep. 1996). The models use electron densities derived from polarized brightness measurements made with the visible light coronagraphs on UVCS and LASCO, supplemented with data from Mark III at NCAR/MLSO. Electron temperature profiles are derived from `freezing-in' temperatures obtained from an analysis of charge state data from SWICS/Ulysses. The work concentrates on O5+ outflow velocities which are determined from an analysis of the the O VI line ratios. This analysis is less sensitive to the uncertainties in the electron density and independent of the ionization balance and elemental abundance than the analyses which use individual spectral lines. This work is supported in part by NASA under grant NAG-3192 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, by the Italian Space Agency and by Swiss funding agencies.

  11. Using Adjoint Methods to Improve 3-D Velocity Models of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Tape, C.; Maggi, A.; Tromp, J.

    2006-12-01

    We use adjoint methods popular in climate and ocean dynamics to calculate Fréchet derivatives for tomographic inversions in southern California. The Fréchet derivative of an objective function χ(m), where m denotes the Earth model, may be written in the generic form δχ=int Km(x) δln m(x) d3x, where δln m=δ m/m denotes the relative model perturbation. For illustrative purposes, we construct the 3-D finite-frequency banana-doughnut kernel Km, corresponding to the misfit of a single traveltime measurement, by simultaneously computing the 'adjoint' wave field s† forward in time and reconstructing the regular wave field s backward in time. The adjoint wave field is produced by using the time-reversed velocity at the receiver as a fictitious source, while the regular wave field is reconstructed on the fly by propagating the last frame of the wave field saved by a previous forward simulation backward in time. The approach is based upon the spectral-element method, and only two simulations are needed to produce density, shear-wave, and compressional-wave sensitivity kernels. This method is applied to the SCEC southern California velocity model. Various density, shear-wave, and compressional-wave sensitivity kernels are presented for different phases in the seismograms. We also generate 'event' kernels for Pnl, S and surface waves, which are the Fréchet kernels of misfit functions that measure the P, S or surface wave traveltime residuals at all the receivers simultaneously for one particular event. Effectively, an event kernel is a sum of weighted Fréchet kernels, with weights determined by the associated traveltime anomalies. By the nature of the 3-D simulation, every event kernel is also computed based upon just two simulations, i.e., its construction costs the same amount of computation time as an individual banana-doughnut kernel. One can think of the sum of the event kernels for all available earthquakes, called the 'misfit' kernel, as a graphical

  12. The effect of volumetric (3D) tactile symbols within inclusive tactile maps.

    PubMed

    Gual, Jaume; Puyuelo, Marina; Lloveras, Joaquim

    2015-05-01

    Point, linear and areal elements, which are two-dimensional and of a graphic nature, are the morphological elements employed when designing tactile maps and symbols for visually impaired users. However, beyond the two-dimensional domain, there is a fourth group of elements - volumetric elements - which mapmakers do not take sufficiently into account when it comes to designing tactile maps and symbols. This study analyses the effect of including volumetric, or 3D, symbols within a tactile map. In order to do so, the researchers compared two tactile maps. One of them uses only two-dimensional elements and is produced using thermoforming, one of the most popular systems in this field, while the other includes volumetric symbols, thus highlighting the possibilities opened up by 3D printing, a new area of production. The results of the study show that including 3D symbols improves the efficiency and autonomous use of these products. PMID:25683526

  13. Validating 3D Seismic Velocity Models Using the Spectral Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Allen, R. M.; Obrebski, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    As seismic instrumentation, data storage and dissemination and computational power improve, seismic velocity models attempt to resolve smaller structures and cover larger areas. However, it is unclear how accurate these velocity models are and, while the best models available are used for event determination, it is difficult to put uncertainties on seismic event parameters. Model validation is typically done using resolution tests that assume the imaging theory used is accurate and thus only considers the impact of the data coverage on resolution. We present the results of a more rigorous approach to model validation via full three-dimensional waveform propagation using Spectral Element Methods (SEM). This approach makes no assumptions about the theory used to generate the models but require substantial computational resources. We first validate 3D tomographic models for the Western USA generated using both ray-theoretical and finite-frequency methods. The Dynamic North America (DNA) Models of P- and S- velocity structure (DNA09-P and DNA09-S) use teleseismic body-wave traveltime residuals recorded at over 800 seismic stations provided by the Earthscope USArray and regional seismic networks. We performed systematic computations of synthetics for the dataset used to generate the DNA models. Direct comparison of these synthetic seismograms to the actual observations allows us to accurately assess and validate the models. Implementation of the method for a densely instrumented region such as that covered by the DNA model provides a useful testbed for the validation methods that we will subsequently apply to other, more challenging study areas.

  14. A global 3D P-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location : SALSA3D.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Christopher John; Steck, Lee K.; Phillips, William Scott; Ballard, Sanford; Chang, Marcus C.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D version 1.5, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is {approx}50%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed

  15. SALSA3D : a global 3D p-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location.

    SciTech Connect

    Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Ballard, Sally C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D version 1.5, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is {approx}50%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed

  16. 3D Body Wave Velocity Tomography in Southern Peru: Seismotectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, A.; Perez, J.; David, C.; Comte, D.; Charrier, R.; Dorbath, L.

    2004-12-01

    The studied region corresponds to the southern segment of the 1868 rupture area, that did not break with the last Mw=8.4 Arequipa earthquake in southern Peru. A temporary network of 19 short period, continuous recording seismic stations was deployed (16.5° -18.5° S; 69.5° -72° W) between December 2002-March 2003 in this region. The 1093 select events were used for a joint hypocentral and velocity structure inversion. The first obtained 1D velocity model was used as the initial model for the 3D inversion, consisting in 231 blocks distributed along layers separated by 10 km for depths lower than 80 km, and by 20 km for depths between 80 and 160 km. North of the Arica Bend, between the Coast and Andean Range the high Vp velocity and Vp/Vs ratio observed at depths lower than 10 km could represent the Precambrian basement uplifted by the Incapuquio sinistral fault system, which develops a positive flower structure typical for transpressional zones, that raised the basement. This behavior is in good agreement with the uplift of the Cambrian metamorphic complex, in the Precordillera south of the Arica Bend (northern Chile), by the west-vergent thrust system. Beneath the anomalous high velocities (between 20 and 30 km depth), a low velocity zone (Vp<4.5 km/s, and Vp/Vs<1.5) can be observed; this LVZ can be associated with a zone of continuous metamorphism and/or partial melting that the decouples the upper-crustal imbrication from a thickening lower-crust. The Wadati-Benioff zone exhibits a dip angle of about 20° between 10 to 60 km depth, and about 45° for depths higher than 80 km. The double seismic zone known for northern Chile is not present in southern Peru. Cross sections perpendicular to the trench, define a very active seismic zone which dips about 45° trenchward, and is almost perpendicular to the subducting slab between 0 and 60 km depths, similar to the one existing in northern Chile, but with a lower rate of seismicity; the higher activity of this zone

  17. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  18. Quantification of carotid arteries atherosclerosis using 3D ultrasound images and area-preserving flattened maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Egger, Micaela; Spence, J. David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Quantitative measurements of the progression (or regression) of carotid plaque burden are important in monitoring patients and evaluating new treatment options. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to monitor the progression of carotid artery plaques in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Different methods of measuring various ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been developed. In this work, we extended concepts used in intima-media thickness (IMT) measurements based on 2D images and introduced a metric called 3D vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (3D VWT), which was obtained by computing the distance between the carotid wall and lumen surfaces on a point-by-point basis in a 3D image of the carotid arteries. The VWT measurements were then superimposed on the arterial wall to produce the VWT map. Since the progression of plaque thickness is important in monitoring patients who are at risk for stroke, we also computed the change of VWT by comparing the VWT maps obtained for a patient at two different time points. In order to facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the 3D VWT and VWT-Change maps, we proposed a technique to flatten these maps in an area-preserving manner.

  19. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  20. MAP(2.0)3D: a sequence/structure based server for protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajni; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Roccatano, Danilo

    2012-04-20

    The Mutagenesis Assistant Program (MAP) is a web-based tool to provide statistical analyses of the mutational biases of directed evolution experiments on amino acid substitution patterns. MAP analysis assists protein engineers in the benchmarking of random mutagenesis methods that generate single nucleotide mutations in a codon. Herein, we describe a completely renewed and improved version of the MAP server, the MAP(2.0)3D server, which correlates the generated amino acid substitution patterns to the structural information of the target protein. This correlation aids in the selection of a more suitable random mutagenesis method with specific biases on amino acid substitution patterns. In particular, the new server represents MAP indicators on secondary and tertiary structure and correlates them to specific structural components such as hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic contacts, salt bridges, solvent accessibility, and crystallographic B-factors. Three model proteins (D-amino oxidase, phytase, and N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase) are used to illustrate the novel capability of the server. MAP(2.0)3D server is available publicly at http://map.jacobs-university.de/map3d.html.

  1. Energy cost and body centre of mass' 3D intracycle velocity variation in swimming.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Barbosa, Tiago M; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the energy cost (C) and the 3D intracycle velocity variation (IVV; swimming direction--x, vertical--y and lateral--z axes) throughout the 200 m front crawl event. Ten international level swimmers performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swim followed by 50, 100 and 150 m bouts at the same pace as in the 200 m splits. Oxygen consumption was measured during the bouts and blood samples were collected before and after each one. The C was calculated for each 50 m lap as the ratio of the total energy expenditure (three energy pathways) to the distance. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and to collect breathing air samples. Two above water and four underwater cameras videotaped the swim bouts and thereafter APAS was used to assess the centre of mass IVV (x, y and z components). The increase in the C was significantly associated with the increase in the IVV in x for the first 50 m lap (R = -0.83, P < 0.01). It is concluded that the IVV relationship with C in a competitive event does not present the direct relationship found in the literature, revealing a great specificity, which suggests that the relation between these two parameters could not be used as a performance predictor in competitive events. PMID:22262010

  2. Energy cost and body centre of mass' 3D intracycle velocity variation in swimming.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Barbosa, Tiago M; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the energy cost (C) and the 3D intracycle velocity variation (IVV; swimming direction--x, vertical--y and lateral--z axes) throughout the 200 m front crawl event. Ten international level swimmers performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swim followed by 50, 100 and 150 m bouts at the same pace as in the 200 m splits. Oxygen consumption was measured during the bouts and blood samples were collected before and after each one. The C was calculated for each 50 m lap as the ratio of the total energy expenditure (three energy pathways) to the distance. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and to collect breathing air samples. Two above water and four underwater cameras videotaped the swim bouts and thereafter APAS was used to assess the centre of mass IVV (x, y and z components). The increase in the C was significantly associated with the increase in the IVV in x for the first 50 m lap (R = -0.83, P < 0.01). It is concluded that the IVV relationship with C in a competitive event does not present the direct relationship found in the literature, revealing a great specificity, which suggests that the relation between these two parameters could not be used as a performance predictor in competitive events.

  3. 3D DWT-DCT and Logistic MAP Based Robust Watermarking for Medical Volume Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingbing; Liu, Yaoli; Zhong, Jiling

    2014-01-01

    Applying digital watermarking technique for the security protection of medical information systems is a hotspot of research in recent years. In this paper, we present a robust watermarking algorithm for medical volume data using 3D DWT-DCT and Logistic Map. After applying Logistic Map to enhance the security of watermarking, the visual feature vector of medical volume data is obtained using 3D DWT-DCT. Combining the feature vector, the third party concept and Hash function, a zero-watermarking scheme can be achieved. The proposed algorithm can mitigate the illogicality between robustness and invisibility. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is robust to common and geometrical attacks.

  4. On 3D world perception: towards a definition of a cognitive map based electronic travel aid.

    PubMed

    Pissaloux, E E; Velazquez, R; Maingreaud, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a 3D world perception principle and their usage for cognitive map building by visually impaired people. These bases are applied to define a new electronic travel aid named intelligent glasses system (IGS), a wearable system. IGS provides to blind people an information on their nearest 3D environment structure, and especially a tactile stimulating cognitive map of the obstacles located in user's peri-personal space. This paper outlines briefly the IG system, and presents first results on the validation of the proposed representation via psycho-physiological experiments.

  5. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity

  6. 3D P-wave velocity structure of the deep Galicia rifted margin: A first analysis of the Galicia 3D wide-angle seismic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy A.; Davy, Richard G.; Karplus, Marianne S.; Kaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Krabbenhoeft, Anne; Sawyer, Dale; Reston, Timothy J.; Shillington, Donna J.; Ranero, César R.

    2014-05-01

    Galicia 3D, a reflection-refraction and long offset seismic experiment was carried out from May through September 2013, at the Galicia rifted margin (in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain) as a collaboration between US, UK, German and Spanish groups. The 3D multichannel seismic acquisition conducted by R/V Marcus Langseth covered a 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2) zone where the main geological features are the Peridotite Ridge (PR), composed of serpentinized peridotite and thought be upper mantle exhumed to the seafloor during rifting, and the S reflector which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault overlain by fault bounded, rotated, continental crustal blocks. In the 3D box, two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. were fired alternately (in flip-flop configuration) every 37.5 m. All shots are recorded by 44 short period four component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 26 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) deployed and recovered by R/V Poseidon, as well as four 6 km hydrophone streamers with 12.5 m channel spacing towed by R/V Marcus Langseth. We present the preliminary results of the first arrival time tomography study which is carried out with a subset of the wide-angle dataset, in order to generate a 3D P-wave velocity volume for the entire depth sampled by the reflection data. After the relocation of OBSs and OBHs, an automatic first-arrival time picking approach is applied to a subset of the dataset, which comprises more than 5.5 million source-receiver pairs. Then, the first-arrival times are checked visually, in 3-dimensions. The a priori model used for the first-arrival time tomography is built up using information from previous seismic surveys carried out at the Galicia margin (e.g. ISE, 1997). The FAST algorithm of Zelt and Barton (1998) is used for the first-arrival time inversion. The 3D P-wave velocity volume can be used in interpreting the reflection dataset, as a starting point for migration, to quantify the thinning of the crustal layers

  7. Vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination based on 3D lithostratigraphical models of porous aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a methodology in order to reconstruct a lithostratigraphic 3D model of an aquifer so as to define some parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination of porous aquifers. The DRASTIC, SINTACS and AVI methods have been applied to an alluvial coastal aquifer of southern Italy. The stratigraphic reconstruction has been obtained by interpolating stratigraphic data from more than one borehole per 2 km. The lithostratigraphic reconstruction of a 3D model has been applied and used for three-dimensional or two-dimensional representations. In the first two methods, the layers of the vadose zone and the aquifer media have been evaluated not only by the interpolation of the single boreholes and piezometers, but also by the 3D model, assigning the scores of the parameters of each layer of the 3D model. The comparison between the maps constructed from the weighted values in each borehole and the maps deriving from the attribution of the values of each layer of the 3D model, highlights that the second representation avoids or minimizes the "bullseye" effect linked to the presence of boreholes with higher or lower values. The study has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate a 3D lithostratigraphic model of an aquifer in the assessment of the parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination by Point Count System methods.

  8. 3D crustal seismic velocity model for the Gulf of Cadiz and adjacent areas (SW Iberia margin) based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Lucía; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Barco, Jaime; Carranza, Marta; Burforn, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic margin of the SW Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco has been subject of study during the last 30 years. Many seismic reflection and refraction profiles have been carried out offshore, providing detailed information about the crustal structure of the main seafloor tectonic domains in the region, from the South Portuguese Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz to the Abyssal Plains and the Josephine Seamount. The interest to obtain a detailed and realistic velocity model for this area, integrating the available data from these studies, is clear, mainly to improve real-time earthquake hypocentral location and for tsunami and earthquake early warning. Since currently real-time seismic location tools allow the implementation of 3D velocity models, we aim to generate a full 3D crustal model. For this purpose we have reviewed more than 50 profiles obtained in different seismic surveys, from 1980 to 2008. Data from the most relevant and reliable 2D seismic velocity published profiles were retrieved. We first generated a Moho depth map of the studied area (latitude 32°N - 41°N and longitude 15°W - 5°W) by extracting Moho depths along each digitized profile with a 10 km spacing, and then interpolating this dataset using ordinary kriging method and generating the contour isodepth map. Then, a 3D crustal velocity model has been obtained. Selected vertical sections at different distances along each profile were considered to retrieve P-wave velocity values at each interface in order to reproduce the geometry and the velocity gradient within each layer. A double linear interpolation, both in distance and depth, with sampling rates of 10 km and 1 km respectively, was carried out to generate a (latitude, longitude, depth, velocity) matrix. This database of all the profiles was interpolated to obtain the P-wave velocity distribution map every kilometer of depth. The new 3D velocity model has been integrated in NonLinLoc location program to relocate several representative

  9. Velocity selection in coupled-map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Nita; Puri, Sanjay

    1993-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of velocity selection for traveling wave fronts in a class of coupled-map lattices, derived by discretizations of the Fisher equation [Ann. Eugenics 7, 355 (1937)]. We find that the velocity selection can be understood in terms of a discrete analog of the marginal-stability hypothesis. A perturbative approach also enables us to estimate the selected velocity accurately for small values of the discretization mesh sizes.

  10. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.

  11. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer. PMID:26276956

  12. A volumetric sensor for real-time 3D mapping and robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Ricard, Benoit; Laurendeau, Denis

    2006-05-01

    The use of robots for (semi-) autonomous operations in complex terrains such as urban environments poses difficult mobility, mapping, and perception challenges. To be able to work efficiently, a robot should be provided with sensors and software such that it can perceive and analyze the world in 3D. Real-time 3D sensing and perception in this operational context are paramount. To address these challenges, DRDC Valcartier has developed over the past years a compact sensor that combines a wide baseline stereo camera and a laser scanner with a full 360 degree azimuth and 55 degree elevation field of view allowing the robot to view and manage overhang obstacles as well as obstacles at ground level. Sensing in 3D is common but to efficiently navigate and work in complex terrain, the robot should also perceive, decide and act in three dimensions. Therefore, 3D information should be preserved and exploited in all steps of the process. To achieve this, we use a multiresolution octree to store the acquired data, allowing mapping of large environments while keeping the representation compact and memory efficient. Ray tracing is used to build and update the 3D occupancy model. This model is used, via a temporary 2.5D map, for navigation, obstacle avoidance and efficient frontier-based exploration. This paper describes the volumetric sensor concept, describes its design features and presents an overview of the 3D software framework that allows 3D information persistency through all computation steps. Simulation and real-world experiments are presented at the end of the paper to demonstrate the key elements of our approach.

  13. 3D image copyright protection based on cellular automata transform and direct smart pixel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) watermarking system with the direct smart pixel mapping algorithm to improve the resolution of the reconstructed 3D watermark plane images. The depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained through the computational pixel mapping method. In the watermark embedding process, the depth-converted EIA is first scrambled by using the Arnold transform, which is then embedded in the middle frequency of the cellular automata (CA) transform. Compared with conventional computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) methods, this proposed scheme gives us a higher resolution of the reconstructed 3D plane images by using the quality-enhanced depth-converted EIA. The proposed method, which can obtain many transform planes for embedding watermark data, uses CA transforms with various gateway values. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we present the results of our preliminary experiments.

  14. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  15. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  16. Towards 3C-3D digital holographic fluid velocity vector field measurement—tomographic digital holographic PIV (Tomo-HPIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, J.; Atkinson, C.

    2008-07-01

    Most unsteady and/or turbulent flows of geophysical and engineering interest have a highly three-dimensional (3D) complex topology and their experimental investigation is in pressing need of quantitative velocity measurement methods that are robust and can provide instantaneous 3C-3D velocity field data over a significant volumetric domain of the flow. This paper introduces and demonstrates a new method that uses multiple digital CCD array cameras to record in-line digital holograms of the same volume of seed particles from multiple orientations. This technique uses the same basic equipment as Tomo-PIV minus the camera lenses, it overcomes the depth-of-field problem of digital in-line holography and does not require the complex optical calibration of Tomo-PIV. The digital sensors can be oriented in an optimal manner to overcome the depth-of-field limitation of in-line holograms recorded using digital CCD or CMOS array cameras, resulting in a 3D reconstruction of the seed particles within the volume of interest, which can subsequently be analysed using 3D cross-correlation PIV analysis to yield a 3C-3D velocity field. A demonstration experiment of Tomo-HPIV using uniform translation with nominally 11 µm diameter seed particles shows that the 3D displacement derived from 3D cross-correlation Tomo-HPIV analysis can be measured within 5% of the imposed uniform translation, where the imposed uniform translation has an estimated standard uncertainty of 4.3%. So this paper proposes a multi-camera digital holographic imaging 3C-3D PIV method, which is identified as tomographic digital holographic PIV or Tomo-HPIV.

  17. SALSA3D - A Global 3D P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Chang, M.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Rowe, C. A.; Phillips, W. S.; Steck, L.

    2010-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth’s crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D version 1.5, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is ~50%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions.. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with ~400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed using a

  18. Application of Plenoptic PIV for 3D Velocity Measurements Over Roughness Elements in a Refractive Index Matched Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Brian; Johnson, Kyle; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Best, Jim; Christensen, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The application of Plenoptic PIV in a Refractive Index Matched (RIM) facility housed at Illinois is presented. Plenoptic PIV is an emerging 3D diagnostic that exploits the light-field imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera. Plenoptic cameras utilize a microlens array to measure the position and angle of light rays captured by the camera. 3D/3C velocity fields are determined through application of the MART algorithm for volume reconstruction and a conventional 3D cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The RIM facility is a recirculating tunnel with a 62.5% aqueous solution of sodium iodide used as the working fluid. Its resulting index of 1.49 is equal to that of acrylic. Plenoptic PIV was used to measure the 3D velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth wall, a single wall-mounted hemisphere and a full array of hemispheres (i.e. a rough wall) with a k/ δ ~ 4.6. Preliminary time averaged and instantaneous 3D velocity fields will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1235726.

  19. Pilot Application of 3d Underwater Imaging Techniques for Mapping Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile Meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rende, F. S.; Irving, A. D.; Lagudi, A.; Bruno, F.; Scalise, S.; Cappa, P.; Montefalcone, M.; Bacci, T.; Penna, M.; Trabucco, B.; Di Mento, R.; Cicero, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Seagrass communities are considered one of the most productive and complex marine ecosystems. Seagrasses belong to a small group of 66 species that can form extensive meadows in all coastal areas of our planet. Posidonia oceanica beds are the most characteristic ecosystem of the Mediterranean Sea, and should be constantly monitored, preserved and maintained, as specified by EU Habitats Directive for priority habitats. Underwater 3D imaging by means of still or video cameras can allow a detailed analysis of the temporal evolution of these meadows, but also of the seafloor morphology and integrity. Video-photographic devices and open source software for acquiring and managing 3D optical data rapidly became more and more effective and economically viable, making underwater 3D mapping an easier task to carry out. 3D reconstruction of the underwater scene can be obtained with photogrammetric techniques that require just one or more digital cameras, also in stereo configuration. In this work we present the preliminary results of a pilot 3D mapping project applied to the P. oceanica meadow in the Marine Protected Area of Capo Rizzuto (KR, Calabria Region - Italy).

  20. Inclusion of high resolution MODIS maps on a 3D tropospheric water vapor GPS tomography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Nico, Giovanni; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Observing the water vapor distribution on the troposphere remains a challenge for the weather forecast. Radiosondes provide precise water vapor profiles of the troposphere, but lack geographical and temporal coverage, while satellite meteorological maps have good spatial resolution but even poorer temporal resolution. GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapor in all weather conditions with high temporal sampling frequency. However these measurements lack a vertical water vapor discretization. Reconstruction of the slant path GPS observation to the satellite allows oblique water vapor measurements. Implementation of a 3D grid of voxels along the troposphere over an area where GPS stations are available enables the observation ray tracing. A relation between the water vapor density and the distanced traveled inside the voxels is established, defining GPS tomography. An inverse problem formulation is needed to obtain a water vapor solution. The combination of precipitable water vapor (PWV) maps obtained from MODIS satellite data with the GPS tomography is performed in this work. The MODIS PWV maps can have 1 or 5 km pixel resolution, being obtained 2 times per day in the same location at most. The inclusion of MODIS PWV maps provides an enhanced horizontal resolution for the tomographic solution and benefits the stability of the inversion problem. A 3D tomographic grid was adjusted over a regional area covering Lisbon, Portugal, where a GNSS network of 9 receivers is available. Radiosonde measurements in the area are used to evaluate the 3D water vapor tomography maps.

  1. From digital mapping to GIS-based 3D visualization of geological maps: example from the Western Alps geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Gianni; Cassulo, Roberto; Festa, Andrea; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Nicolò, Gabriele; Perotti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Collection of field geological data and sharing of geological maps are nowadays greatly enhanced by using digital tools and IT (Information Technology) applications. Portable hardware allows accurate GPS localization of data and homogeneous storing of information in field databases, whereas GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications enable generalization of field data and realization of geological map databases. A further step in the digital processing of geological map information consists of building virtual visualization by means of GIS-based 3D viewers, that allow projection and draping of significant geological features over photo-realistic terrain models. Digital fieldwork activities carried out by the Authors in the Western Alps, together with building of geological map databases and related 3D visualizations, are an example of application of the above described digital technologies. Digital geological mapping was performed by means of a GIS mobile software loaded on a rugged handheld device, and lithological, structural and geomorphological features with their attributes were stored in different layers that form the field database. The latter was then generalized through usual map processing steps such as outcrops interpolation, characterization of geological boundaries and selection of meaningful punctual observations. This map databases was used for building virtual visualizations through a GIS-based 3D-viewer that loaded detailed DTM (resolution of 5 meters) and aerial images. 3D visualizations were focused on projection and draping of significant stratigraphic contacts (e.g. contacts that separate different Quaternary deposits) and tectonic contacts (i.e. exhumation-related contacts that dismembered original ophiolite sequences). In our experience digital geological mapping and related databases ensured homogeneous data storing and effective sharing of information, and allowed subsequent building of 3D GIS-based visualizations. The latters gave

  2. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  3. 3D volume MR temperature mapping for HIFU heating trajectory comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2012-10-01

    Many areas of MR-guided thermal therapy research would benefit from temperature maps with high spatial and temporal resolution that cover a large 3-D volume. This paper describes an approach to achieve these goals that is suitable for research applications where retrospective reconstruction of the temperature maps is acceptable. The method acquires undersampled data from a modified 3-D segmented EPI sequence and creates images using a temporally constrained reconstruction algorithm. The 3-D images can be zero-filled to arbitrarily small voxel spacing in all directions and then converted into temperature maps using the standard proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift technique. During HIFU heating experiments, the proposed method was used to obtain temperature maps with 1.5×1.5×3.0 mm resolution, 288×162×78 mm field of view, and 1.7 second temporal resolution. The approach is validated to demonstrate that it can accurately capture the spatial characteristics and time dynamics of rapidly changing HIFU-induced temperature distributions. An example application is presented where the method is used to analyze and compare different HIFU volumetric heating trajectories.

  4. 3D maps of the local ISM from inversion of individual color excess measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Valette, B.; Puspitarini, L.; Eyer, L.; Casagrande, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Galactic interstellar matter (ISM) are a potential tool of wide use, but accurate and detailed maps are still lacking. One of the ways to construct the maps is to invert individual distance-limited ISM measurements, a method we have applied here to measurements of stellar color excess in the optical. Methods: We assembled color excess data together with the associated parallax or photometric distances to constitute a catalog of ≃23 000 sightlines for stars within 2.5 kpc. The photometric data are taken from Strömgren catalogs, the Geneva photometric database, and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. We also included extinctions derived towards open clusters. We applied an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach to this color excess dataset, a method previously used for mapping at closer distances. Results: We show the dust spatial distribution resulting from the inversion by means of planar cuts through the differential opacity 3D distribution, and by means of 2D maps of the integrated opacity from the Sun up to various distances. The mapping assigns locations to the nearby dense clouds and represents their distribution at the spatial resolution that is allowed by the dataset properties, i.e. ≃10 pc close to the Sun and increasing to ≃100 pc beyond 1 kpc. Biases toward nearby and/or weakly extincted stars make this dataset particularly appropriate to mapping the local and neighboring cavities and to locating faint, extended nearby clouds, which are both goals that are difficult or impossible with other mapping methods. The new maps reveal a ≃1 kpc wide empty region in the third quadrant in the continuation of the so-called CMa tunnel of the Local Cavity, a cavity that we identify as the Superbubble GSH238+00+09 detected in radio emission maps and that is found to be bounded by the Orion and Vela clouds. The maps also show an extended narrower tunnel in the opposite direction (l ≃ 70°) that also extends

  5. Three-dimensional correction of conduction velocity in the embryonic heart using integrated optical mapping and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pei; Wang, Yves T.; Gu, Shi; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical mapping (OM) of cardiac electrical activity conventionally collects information from a three-dimensional (3-D) surface as a two-dimensional (2-D) projection map. When applied to measurements of the embryonic heart, this method ignores the substantial and complex curvature of the heart surface, resulting in significant errors when calculating conduction velocity, an important electrophysiological parameter. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of imaging the 3-D structure of the embryonic heart and accurately characterizing the surface topology. We demonstrate an integrated OCT/OM imaging system capable of simultaneous conduction mapping and 3-D structural imaging. From these multimodal data, we obtained 3-D activation maps and corrected conduction velocity maps of early embryonic quail hearts. 3-D correction eliminates underestimation bias in 2-D conduction velocity measurements, therefore enabling more accurate measurements with less experimental variability. The integrated system will also open the door to correlate the structure and electrophysiology, thereby improving our understanding of heart development.

  6. SU-F-BRF-08: Conformal Mapping-Based 3D Surface Matching and Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y; Zeng, W; Gu, X; Liu, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, non-rigid 3D surface matching and registration has been used extensively in engineering and medicine. However, matching 3D surfaces undergoing non-rigid deformation accurately is still a challenging mathematical problem. In this study, we present a novel algorithm to address this issue by introducing intrinsic symmetry to the registration Methods: Our computational algorithm for symmetric conformal mapping is divided into three major steps: 1) Finding the symmetric plane; 2) Finding feature points; and 3) Performing cross registration. The key strategy is to preserve the symmetry during the conformal mapping, such that the image on the parameter domain is symmetric and the area distortion factor on the parameter image is also symmetric. Several novel algorithms were developed using different conformal geometric tools. One was based on solving Riemann-Cauchy equation and the other one employed curvature flow Results: Our algorithm was implemented using generic C++ on Windows XP and used conjugate gradient search optimization for acceleration. The human face 3D surface images were acquired using a high speed 3D scanner based on the phase-shifting method. The scanning speed was 30 frames/sec. The image resolution for each frame was 640 × 480. For 3D human face surfaces with different expressions, postures, and boundaries, our algorithms were able to produce consistent result on the texture pattern on the overlapping region Conclusion: We proposed a novel algorithm to improve the robustness of conformal geometric methods by incorporating the symmetric information into the mapping process. To objectively evaluate its performance, we compared it with most existing techniques. Experimental results indicated that our method outperformed all the others in terms of robustness. The technique has a great potential in real-time patient monitoring and tracking in image-guided radiation therapy.

  7. Microseismic monitoring of soft-rock landslide: contribution of a 3D velocity model for the location of seismic sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floriane, Provost; Jean-Philippe, Malet; Cécile, Doubre; Julien, Gance; Alessia, Maggi; Agnès, Helmstetter

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing the micro-seismic activity of landslides is an important parameter for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling landslide behaviour. However, the location of the seismic sources on landslides is a challenging task mostly because of (a) the recording system geometry, (b) the lack of clear P-wave arrivals and clear wave differentiation, (c) the heterogeneous velocities of the ground. The objective of this work is therefore to test whether the integration of a 3D velocity model in probabilistic seismic source location codes improves the quality of the determination especially in depth. We studied the clay-rich landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps). Most of the seismic events (rockfalls, slidequakes, tremors...) are generated in the upper part of the landslide near the main scarp. The seismic recording system is composed of two antennas with four vertical seismometers each located on the east and west sides of the seismically active part of the landslide. A refraction seismic campaign was conducted in August 2014 and a 3D P-wave model has been estimated using the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm. The shots of the seismic campaign are used as calibration shots to test the performance of the different location methods and to further update the 3D velocity model. Natural seismic events are detected with a semi-automatic technique using a frequency threshold. The first arrivals are picked using a kurtosis-based method and compared to the manual picking. Several location methods were finally tested. We compared a non-linear probabilistic method coupled with the 3D P-wave model and a beam-forming method inverted for an apparent velocity. We found that the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm provides results coherent with the original underlaying topography. The velocity ranges from 500 m.s-1 at the surface to 3000 m.s-1 in the bedrock. For the majority of the calibration shots, the use of a 3D velocity model

  8. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates.

  9. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates. PMID:26488641

  10. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  11. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system. PMID:19849837

  12. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing. Here, we demonstrate the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the dominant axial component of the magnetic induction and electrostatic potential within a cobalt nanowire (NW) of 100 nm in diameter with spatial resolution below 10 nm by applying electron holographic tomography. The tomogram was obtained using a dedicated TEM sample holder for acquisition, in combination with advanced alignment and tomographic reconstruction routines. The powerful approach presented here is widely applicable to a broad range of 3D magnetic nanostructures and may trigger the progress of novel spintronic nonplanar nanodevices. PMID:27182110

  13. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D interstellar extinct. map within nearest kpc (Gontcharov, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    The product of the previously constructed 3D maps of stellar reddening (2010AstL...36..584G) and Rv variations (2012AstL...38...12G) has allowed us to produce a 3D interstellar extinction map within the nearest kiloparsec from the Sun with a spatial resolution of 100pc and an accuracy of 0.2m. This map is compared with the 2D reddening map by Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S), the 3D extinction map at high latitudes by Jones et al. (2011AJ....142...44J), and the analytical 3D extinction models by Arenou et al. (1992A&A...258..104A) and Gontcharov (2009AstL...35..780G). In all cases, we have found good agreement and show that there are no systematic errors in the new map everywhere except the direction toward the Galactic center. We have found that the map by Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S) reaches saturation near the Galactic equator at E(B-V)>0.8m, has a zero-point error and systematic errors gradually increasing with reddening, and among the analytical models those that take into account the extinction in the Gould Belt are more accurate. Our extinction map shows that it is determined by reddening variations at low latitudes and Rv variations at high ones. This naturally explains the contradictory data on the correlation or anticorrelation between reddening and Rv available in the literature. There is a correlation in a thin layer near the Galactic equator, because both reddening and Rv here increase toward the Galactic center. There is an anticorrelation outside this layer, because higher values of Rv correspond to lower reddening at high and middle latitudes. Systematic differences in sizes and other properties of the dust grains in different parts of the Galaxy manifest themselves in this way. The largest structures within the nearest kiloparsec, including the Local Bubble, the Gould Belt, the Great Tunnel, the Scorpius, Perseus, Orion, and other complexes, have manifested themselves in the constructed map. (1 data file).

  15. 3D DWT-DCT and Logistic MAP Based Robust Watermarking for Medical Volume Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingbing; Liu, Yaoli; Zhong, Jiling

    2014-01-01

    Applying digital watermarking technique for the security protection of medical information systems is a hotspot of research in recent years. In this paper, we present a robust watermarking algorithm for medical volume data using 3D DWT-DCT and Logistic Map. After applying Logistic Map to enhance the security of watermarking, the visual feature vector of medical volume data is obtained using 3D DWT-DCT. Combining the feature vector, the third party concept and Hash function, a zero-watermarking scheme can be achieved. The proposed algorithm can mitigate the illogicality between robustness and invisibility. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is robust to common and geometrical attacks. PMID:25852783

  16. 3D Mapping of Glacially-Sculpted Bedrock in Central Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderman, L.; Stark, C. P.; Creyts, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of glaciers and ice sheets through sliding over bedrock depends on the configuration of the subglacial hydrological system. Over time, the glacier erodes the bedrock, which in turn changes water drainage pathways, the overall interaction with the ice, and potentially sliding rates. Drainage can take many forms. At the largest scale, subglacial lakes tens of kilometers in length store water, but the individual pathways are often on the order of meters or smaller. Studies at such a fine scale are only possible by looking at deglaciated beds to infer water drainage. 3D mapping can resolve centimeter scale features and inform studies of the processes that created them. In this survey, Agisoft Photoscan's structure from motion algorithm is used to create a map of Umpire Rock in New York's Central Park from digital photographs. Over 3300 photographs are taken at a separation of roughly half a meter to cover the 1000 square meter survey area. The surface is imaged in separate sections and the resulting point clouds are each aligned with a central section using Photoscan's Align Chunks tool. This process allows additional areas to easily be added to the 3D map. The scale of the final model is accurate to 1mm across the survey area and 3D meshes with a surface resolution of up to 5mm can be created. The distribution of striation directions and sizes on surfaces across the outcrop gives the overall flow direction of the ice and, more locally, illustrates how ice deforms around bedrock features. In addition to striations, we identify cavities and subtle drainage features that are oblique to ice flow. This study demonstrates the relative ease of 3D mapping bedrock outcrops from digital photographs, and indicates the utility of applying this process to more recently deglaciated areas.

  17. 3-D Crustal Velocity Structure of Central Idaho/ Eastern Oregon from Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group and Phase Velocities Derived from Ambient Seismic Noise: Newest Results from the IDOR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Stanciu, A. C.; Torpey, M. E.; Hongsresawat, S.; VanDecar, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present the latest 3-D isotropic crustal velocity model beneath central Idaho and eastern Oregon. We produced the velocity model from vertical component Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity measurements on data from the IDaho/ORegon (IDOR) Passive seismic network, 86 broadband seismic stations, using ambient noise tomography and the methods of Gallego et. al (2010) and Lin et. al (2008). We calculated inter-station group/phase velocities in narrow frequency bands from travel-time measurements of the stacked cross-correlations (bandpass filtered between 2 and 30 seconds), which we used to invert for velocity structure beneath the network. Goals of our work include refining models of crustal structure in the accreted Blue Mountain terranes in the western study area; determining the depth extent of the Salmon River Suture/West Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), which crosses north-south through the middle of the network; determining the architecture of the Idaho batholith, an extensive largely crustal-derived pluton; and examining the nature of the autochthonous (?) North American crust and lithosphere beneath and east of the batholith. We derived Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity maps for each frequency band using the damped least-squares inversion method of Tarantola (2005), and then jointly inverted for velocity with depth. Moho depths are prescribed in the joint inversions based on receiver functions, also from the IDOR seismic data, and provides a starting crustal velocity model. 3-D checkerboard resolution tests indicate lateral resolution of better than 40 km. Preliminary results show higher S wave velocities in the western study area, and lower velocities in the lower crust on the east side of the network, consistent with Basin-and-Range style extension there. A tabular velocity anomaly juxtaposing higher above lower seismic velocities dips shallow west in the midcrust on the west side of the network.

  18. Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Burden, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy. PMID:18042275

  19. Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Burden, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy. PMID:18042275

  20. Low Cost and Efficient 3d Indoor Mapping Using Multiple Consumer Rgb-D Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yang, B. S.; Song, S.

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the miniaturization, lightweight of positioning and remote sensing sensors as well as the urgent needs for fusing indoor and outdoor maps for next generation navigation, 3D indoor mapping from mobile scanning is a hot research and application topic. The point clouds with auxiliary data such as colour, infrared images derived from 3D indoor mobile mapping suite can be used in a variety of novel applications, including indoor scene visualization, automated floorplan generation, gaming, reverse engineering, navigation, simulation and etc. State-of-the-art 3D indoor mapping systems equipped with multiple laser scanners product accurate point clouds of building interiors containing billions of points. However, these laser scanner based systems are mostly expensive and not portable. Low cost consumer RGB-D Cameras provides an alternative way to solve the core challenge of indoor mapping that is capturing detailed underlying geometry of the building interiors. Nevertheless, RGB-D Cameras have a very limited field of view resulting in low efficiency in the data collecting stage and incomplete dataset that missing major building structures (e.g. ceilings, walls). Endeavour to collect a complete scene without data blanks using single RGB-D Camera is not technic sound because of the large amount of human labour and position parameters need to be solved. To find an efficient and low cost way to solve the 3D indoor mapping, in this paper, we present an indoor mapping suite prototype that is built upon a novel calibration method which calibrates internal parameters and external parameters of multiple RGB-D Cameras. Three Kinect sensors are mounted on a rig with different view direction to form a large field of view. The calibration procedure is three folds: 1, the internal parameters of the colour and infrared camera inside each Kinect are calibrated using a chess board pattern, respectively; 2, the external parameters between the colour and infrared camera inside each

  1. Large-scale Inference Problems in Astronomy: Building a 3D Galactic Dust Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The term ''Big Data'' has become trite, as modern technology has made data sets of terabytes or even petabytes easy to store. Such data sets provide a sandbox in which to develop new statistical inference techniques that can extract interesting results from increasingly rich (and large) databases. I will give an example from my work on mapping the interstellar dust of the Milky Way. 2D emission-based maps have been used for decades to estimate the reddening and emission from interstellar dust, with applications from CMB foregrounds to surveys of large-scale structure. For studies within the Milky Way, however, the third dimension is required. I will present our work on a 3D dust map based on Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS over 3/4 of the sky (http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.01005), assess its usefulness relative to other dust maps, and discuss future work. Supported by the NSF.

  2. Digital mono- and 3D stereo-photogrammetry for geological and geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Castelletti, Claudio; Bozzini, Claudio; Ambrosi, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The generalization of application of digital tools for managing, mapping and updating geological data have become widely accepted in the last decennia. Despite the increasing quality and availability of digital topographical maps, orthorectified aerial photographs (orthophotos) and high resolution (5 up to 0.5 m) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), a correct recognition of the kind, the nature and the boundaries of geological formations and geomophological landforms, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits or slope instabilities is often very difficult on conventional two-dimensional (2D) products, in particular in steep zones (rock walls and talus slopes), under the forest cover, for a very complex topography and in deeply urbanised zones. In many cases, photo-interpretative maps drawn only by 2D data sets must be improved by field verifications or, at least, by field oblique photographs. This is logical, because our natural perception of the real world is three-dimensional (3D), which is partially disabled by the application of 2D visualization techniques. Here we present some examples of application of digital mapping based on a 3D visualization (for aerial and satellite images photo-interpretation) or on a terrestrial perception by digital mono-photogrammetry (for oblique photographs). The 3D digital mapping was performed thanks to an extension of the software ESRI® ArcGIS™ called ArcGDS™. This methodology was also applied on historical aerial photographs (normally analysed by optical stereo-photogrammetry), which were digitized by scanning and then oriented and aero-triangulated thanks to the ArcGDS™ software, allowing the 3D visualisation and the mapping in a GIS environment (Ambrosi and Scapozza, 2015). The mono-photogrammetry (or monoplotting) is the technique of photogrammetrical georeferentiation of single oblique unrectified photographs, which are related to a DEM. In other words, the monoplotting allows relating each pixel of the photograph to the

  3. In vivo isotropic 3D diffusion tensor mapping of the rat brain using diffusion-weighted 3D MP-RAGE MRI.

    PubMed

    Numano, Tomokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hyodo, Koji; Nitta, Naotaka; Hirose, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW) three-dimensional (3D) MP-RAGE MRI for diffusion-tensor mapping of the rat brain in vivo. A DW-3D-MP-RAGE (3D-DWI) sequence was implemented at 2.0 T using six gradient orientations and a b value of 1000 s/mm2. In this sequence, the preparation sequence with a "90 degrees RF-motion proving gradient (MPG): MPG-180 degrees RF-MPG-90 degrees RF" pulse train (DW driven equilibrium Fourier transform) was used to sensitize the magnetization to diffusion. A centric k-space acquisition order was necessary to minimize saturation effects (T1 contamination) from tissues with short relaxation time. The image matrix was 128x128x128 (interpolated from 64x64x64 acquisitions), which resulted in small isotropic DW image data (voxel size: 0.273x0.273x0.273 mm3). Moreover, 3D-DWI-derived maps of the fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA) and main-diffusion direction were completely free of susceptibility-induced signal losses and geometric distortions. Two well-known commissural fibers, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, were indicated and shown to be in agreement with the locations of these known stereotaxic atlases. The experiment took 45 min, and shorter times should be possible in clinical application. The 3D-DWI sequence allows for in vivo 3D diffusion-tensor mapping of the rat brain without motion artifacts and susceptibility to distortion. PMID:16563958

  4. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  5. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  6. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed.

  7. Enhanced Rgb-D Mapping Method for Detailed 3d Modeling of Large Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengjun; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Wu; Darwish, Walid; Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Chen, Min

    2016-06-01

    RGB-D sensors are novel sensing systems that capture RGB images along with pixel-wise depth information. Although they are widely used in various applications, RGB-D sensors have significant drawbacks with respect to 3D dense mapping of indoor environments. First, they only allow a measurement range with a limited distance (e.g., within 3 m) and a limited field of view. Second, the error of the depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor. In this paper, we propose an enhanced RGB-D mapping method for detailed 3D modeling of large indoor environments by combining RGB image-based modeling and depth-based modeling. The scale ambiguity problem during the pose estimation with RGB image sequences can be resolved by integrating the information from the depth and visual information provided by the proposed system. A robust rigid-transformation recovery method is developed to register the RGB image-based and depth-based 3D models together. The proposed method is examined with two datasets collected in indoor environments for which the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method

  8. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust and Relocation of Earthquakes in 21 the Lushan Source Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The double difference seismic tomography method is applied to the absolute first arrival P wave arrival times and high quality relative P arrival times of the Lushan seismic sequence to determine the detailed crustal 3D P wave velocity structure and the hypocenter parameters in the Lushan seismic area. The results show that the Lushan mainshock locates at 30.28 N, 103.98 E, with the depth of 16.38 km. The leading edge of aftershock in the northeast of mainshock present a spade with a steep dip angle, the aftershocks' extended length is about 12 km. In the southwest of the Lushan mainshock, the leading edge of aftershock in low velocity zone slope gently, the aftershocks' extended length is about 23 km. The P wave velocity structure of the Lushan seismic area shows obviously lateral heterogeneity. The P wave velocity anomalies represent close relationship with topographic relief and geological structure. In Baoxing area the complex rocks correspond obvious high-velocity anomalies extending down to 15 km depth,while the Cenozoic rocks are correlated with low-velocity anomalies. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous models, but also reveals some new features. An obvious high-velocity anomaly is visible in Daxing area. The high-velocity anomalies beneath Baoxing and Daxing connect each other in 10 km depth, which makes the contrast between high and low velocity anomalies more sharp. Above 20 km depth the velocity structure in southwest and northeast segment of the mainshock shows a big difference: low-velocity anomalies are dominated the southwest segment, while high-velocity anomalies rule the northeast segment. The Lushan mainshock locates at the leading edge of a low-velocity anomaly surrounded by the Baoxing and Daxing high-velocity anomalies. The Lushan aftershocks in southwest are distributed in low-velocity anomalies or the transition belt: the footwall represents low-velocity anomalies, while

  9. Testing the PV-Theta Mapping Technique in a 3-D CTM Model Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, Stacey M.

    2004-01-01

    Mapping lower stratospheric ozone into potential vorticity (PV)- potential temperature (Theta) coordinates is a common technique employed to analyze sparse data sets. Ozone transformed into a flow-following dynamical coordinate system is insensitive to meteorological variations. Therefore data from a wide range of times/locations can be compared, so long as the measurements were made in the same airmass (as defined by PV). Moreover, once a relationship between ozone and PV/Theta is established, a full 3D ozone field can be estimated from this relationship and the 3D analyzed PV field. However, ozone data mapped in this fashion can be hampered by noisy PV fields, or "mis-matches" in the resolution and/or exact location of the ozone and PV measurements. In this study, we investigate the PV-ozone relationship using output from a recent 50-year run of the Goddard 3D chemical transport model (CTM). Model constituents are transported using off-line dynamics from the finite volume general circulation model (FVGCM). By using the internally consistent model PV and ozone fields, we minimize noise due to mis-matching and resolution issues. We calculate correlations between model ozone and PV throughout the stratosphere, and test the sensitivity of the technique to initial data resolution. To do this we degrade the model data to that of various satellite instruments, then compare the mapped fields derived from the sub-sampled data to the full resolution model data. With these studies we can determine appropriate limits for the PV-theta mapping technique in latitude, altitude, and as a function of original data resolution.

  10. 2D Maps, 3D Globes, and OGC Web Services Supporting Arctic Science through the Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. W.; Gaylord, A. G.; Brady, J.; Cody, R.; Ramirez, G.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Rubio, C.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online services designed to provide support for Arctic science. These services include: a text based online search utility, 2D Internet Map Server (IMS), 3D globe applications (Google Earth and ArcGIS Explorer), Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) Service , and a prototype 2D ArcGIS Server Web Mapping Application (WMA). Avoiding a duplication of effort has been a primary objective of the ARMAP project which incorporates best practices (e.g. OGC standard web services and metadata) and off the shelf technologies. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the foundation of all the ARMAP services and includes US research funded by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. With ARMAP's 2D maps and 3D globes, users can navigate to areas of interest, view a variety of map layers, and explore U.S. federally funded research projects. Projects can be queried by location, year, funding program, discipline, and keyword. Links to specific information and other web sites associated with particular research projects are included. . The ARMAP suite provides tools for users of various levels of technical ability to interact with data by running text based queries, browsing in 2D or 3D, or importing the KML and OGC web services directly into their own GIS applications and virtual globes. With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has targeted science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. In sum, ARMAP goes beyond a simple map display to enable analysis, synthesis, and coordination of Arctic research. ARMAP may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org.

  11. Characterizing 3-D flow velocity in evolving pore networks driven by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnicki, K. N.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding reactive flow in geomaterials is important for optimizing geologic carbon storage practices, such as using pore space efficiently. Flow paths can be complex in large degrees of geologic heterogeneities across scales. In addition, local heterogeneity can evolve as reactive transport processes alter the pore-scale morphology. For example, dissolved carbon dioxide may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in heterogeneous cementation (and/or dissolution) and evolving flow conditions. Both path and flow complexities are important and poorly characterized, making it difficult to determine their evolution with traditional 2-D transport models. Here we characterize the development of 3-D pore-scale flow with an evolving pore configuration due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation and dissolution. A simple pattern of a microfluidic pore network is used initially and pore structures will become more complex due to precipitation and dissolution processes. At several stages of precipitation and dissolution, we directly visualize 3-D velocity vectors using micro particle image velocimetry and a laser scanning confocal microscope. Measured 3-D velocity vectors are then compared to 3-D simulated flow fields which will be used to simulate reactive transport. Our findings will highlight the importance of the 3-D flow dynamics and its impact on estimating reactive surface area over time. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.

  12. A 3-D shear velocity model of the southern North American and Caribbean plates from ambient noise and earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, B.; Villaseñor, A.; Iglesias, A.; Herraiz, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.

    2015-02-01

    We use group velocities from earthquake tomography together with group and phase velocities from ambient noise tomography (ANT) of Rayleigh waves to invert for the 3-D shear-wave velocity structure (5-70 km) of the Caribbean (CAR) and southern North American (NAM) plates. The lithospheric model proposed offers a complete image of the crust and uppermost-mantle with imprints of the tectonic evolution. One of the most striking features inferred is the main role of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogeny front on the crustal seismic structure of the NAM plate. A new imaged feature is the low crustal velocities along the USA-Mexico border. The model also shows a break of the east-west mantle velocity dichotomy of the NAM and CAR plates beneath the Isthmus of the Tehuantepec and the Yucatan Block. High upper-mantle velocities along the Mesoamerican Subduction Zone coincide with inactive volcanic areas while the lowest velocities correspond to active volcanic arcs and thin lithospheric mantle regions.

  13. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  14. Measurement of near-wall 3D flow velocity from wave-guiding micro-pillars.

    PubMed

    Bruecker, Christoph

    2016-09-19

    The measurement of near-wall flow in a plane close to the wall is achieved using the wave-guiding feature of transparent flexible micro-pillars which are attached in a 2D array to a surface and bend with the flow. Optical detection of bending from below the surface and application of auto-correlation methods provide mean and fluctuating part of the components of the wall-parallel velocity components. In addition, the wall-normal fluid motion is determined from spatial gradients in the array. The data provide the three-component velocity vector field in a plane close to the wall as well as their statistics.

  15. Dose distribution and mapping with 3D imaging presentation in intraoral and panoramic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Yung-Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2011-10-01

    In current medical imaging applications, high quality images not only provide more diagnostic value for anatomic delineation but also offer functional information for treatment direction. However, this approach would potentially subscribe higher radiation dose in dental radiographies, which has been putatively associated with low-birth-weight during pregnancy, which affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis or thereby directly affects the reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to apply the high resolution 3-D image mapping technique to evaluate radiation doses from the following aspects: (1) verifying operating parameters of dental X-ray units, (2) measuring the leakage radiations and (3) mapping dose with 3-D radiographic imaging to evaluate dose distribution in head and neck regions. From the study results, we found that (1) leakage radiation from X-ray units was about 21.31±15.24 mR/h (<100 mR/h), (2) error of actual tube voltage for 60 kVp setting was from 0.2% to 6.5%, with an average of 2.5% (<7%) and (3) the error of exposure time for a 0.5-1.5 s setting was within 0.7-8.5%, with an average of 7.3% (<10%) error as well. Our 3-D dose mapping demonstrated that dose values were relatively lower in soft tissues and higher in bone surfaces compared with other investigations. Multiple causes could contribute to these variations, including irradiation geometry, image equipment and type of technique applied, etc. From the results, we also observed that larger accumulated doses were presented in certain critical organs, such as salivary gland, thyroid gland and bone marrow. Potential biological affects associated with these findings warrant further investigation.

  16. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-In-Cell Methods on 3-D Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Pusok, A. E.; Popov, A.

    2015-12-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered to be a flexible and robust method to model advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e. rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems or incompressible Stokes problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an immobile, Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without preserving the zero divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e. non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Jenny et al., 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. Solutions to this problem include: using larger mesh resolutions and/or marker densities, or repeatedly controlling the marker distribution (i.e. inject/delete), but which does not have an established physical background. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (2001) and Meyer and Jenny (2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation (CVI) scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we follow up with these studies and report on the quality of velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We adapt the formulations from both Jenny et al. (2001) and Wang et al. (2015) for use on 3-D staggered grids, where the velocity components have different node locations as compared to finite element, where they share the same node location. We test the different interpolation schemes (CVI and non-CVI) in combination with different advection schemes (Euler, RK2 and RK4) and with/out marker control on Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. We show that a conservative formulation

  17. Crustal and upper mantle 3D shear wave velocity structure of the High Lava Plains, Oregon, determined from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Hedgecock, S.; Wagner, L.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of inversions for 3D shear velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the High Lava Plains, Oregon using data from ~300 broadband stations of the High Lava Plains seismic experiment and the EarthScope/USArray Transportable Array (TA). The High Lava Plains (HLP) is a WNW progressive silicic volcanism, initiated ~14.5 Ma near the Owyhee Plateau and is currently active at the Newberry caldera. The Yellowstone Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic track is temporally contemporaneous with the HLP, but trends to the northeast, parallel to North American plate motion. The cause of volcanism along the HLP is debated and has been variously attributed to Basin and Range extension, back-arc extension, rollback of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, and an intra-continental hotspot/plume source. Additionally the relationship between the HLP, YSRP, and Columbia River Basalts (CRB), the three major post-17Ma intracontinental volcanic provinces of the Pacific Northwest, is not well understood. The 3D shear velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle to ~65km depth is determined from fundamental mode Rayleigh wave ambient noise phase velocity maps at periods up to 40s. The use of ambient noise tomography with the dense station spacing of the combined High Lava Plains seismic experiment and the EarthScope/USArray Transportable Array (TA) datasets allows the shallow structure of the High Lava Plains to be imaged in finer detail than previous ANT studies that focused on the entire western United States. In the crust, low velocities in central Oregon are observed in association with the Brothers Fault Zone, Jordan and Diamond Craters and Steens Mountain regions in addition to the strong low velocity zone associated with the Cascades to the west. To the east of the HLP, low velocities are observed to about 10km depth in the western SRP. In the eastern SRP we observe a shallow veneer of low velocities underlain by a ~10km thick high velocity

  18. 3D mapping of lithium in battery electrodes using neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Downing, R. Gregory; Wang, Howard

    2015-08-01

    The neutron depth profiling technique based on the neutron activation reaction, 6Li (n, α) 3H, was applied with two dimensional (2D) pinhole aperture scans to spatially map lithium in 3D. The technique was used to study model LiFePO4 electrodes of rechargeable batteries for spatial heterogeneities of lithium in two cathode films that had undergone different electrochemical cycling histories. The method is useful for better understanding the functioning and failure of batteries using lithium as the active element.

  19. 3D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and relocation of earthquakes in the Lushan, China, source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-04-01

    Many researchers have investigated the Lushan source area with geological and geophysical approaches since the 2013 Lushan, China, earthquake happened. Compared with the previous tomographic studies, we have used a much large data set and an updated tomographic method to determine a small scale three-dimensional P wave velocity structure with spatial resolution less than 5km, which plays the important role for understanding the deep structure and the genetic mechanism beneath the Lushan area. The double difference seismic tomography method is applied to 50,711 absolute first arrival P wave arrival times and 7,294,691 high quality relative P arrival times of 5,285 events of Lushan seismic sequence to simultaneously determine the detailed crustal 3D P wave velocity structure and the hypocenter parameters in the Lushan seismic area. This method takes account of the path anomaly biases explicitly by making full use of valuable information of seismic wave propagation jointly with absolute and relative arrival time data. Our results show that the Lushan mainshock locates at 30.28N, 103.98E, with the depth of 16.38km. The front edge of aftershock in the northeast of mainshock present a spade with a steep dip angle, the aftershocks' extended length is about 12km. In the southwest of Lushan mainshock, the front edge of aftershock in low velocity zone slope gently, the aftershocks' extended length is about 23km. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous models, but also reveals some new features. The Tianquan, Shuangshi and Daguan line lies in the transition zone between high velocity anomalies to the southeast and low velocity anomalies to the northwest at the ground surface. An obvious high-velocity anomaly is visible in Daxing area. With the depth increasing, Baoxing high velocity anomaly extends to Lingguan, while the southeast of the Tianquan, Shuangshi and Daguan line still shows low velocity. The high-velocity

  20. Development of a State-Wide 3-D Seismic Tomography Velocity Model for California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, C. H.; Lin, G.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.; Waldhauser, F.; Hardebeck, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report on progress towards the development of a state-wide tomographic model of the P-wave velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle of California. The dataset combines first arrival times from earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded on regional network stations and travel times of first arrivals from explosions and airguns recorded on profile receivers and network stations. The principal active-source datasets are Geysers-San Pablo Bay, Imperial Valley, Livermore, W. Mojave, Gilroy-Coyote Lake, Shasta region, Great Valley, Morro Bay, Mono Craters-Long Valley, PACE, S. Sierras, LARSE 1 and 2, Loma Prieta, BASIX, San Francisco Peninsula and Parkfield. Our beta-version model is coarse (uniform 30 km horizontal and variable vertical gridding) but is able to image the principal features in previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, such as the high-velocity subducting Gorda Plate, upper to middle crustal velocity highs beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Coast Ranges, the deep low-velocity basins of the Great Valley, Ventura, and Los Angeles, and a high- velocity body in the lower crust underlying the Great Valley. The new state-wide model has improved areal coverage compared to the previous models, and extends to greater depth due to the data at large epicentral distances. We plan a series of steps to improve the model. We are enlarging and calibrating the active-source dataset as we obtain additional picks from investigators and perform quality control analyses on the existing and new picks. We will also be adding data from more quarry blasts, mainly in northern California, following an identification and calibration procedure similar to Lin et al. (2006). Composite event construction (Lin et al., in press) will be carried out for northern California for use in conventional tomography. A major contribution of the state-wide model is the identification of earthquakes yielding arrival times at both the Northern California Seismic

  1. Anisotropic 3-D Crustal Velocity Structure of Idaho/ Oregon from a Joint Inversion of Group and Phase Velocities of Love and Rayleigh Waves from Ambient Seismic Noise: Results from the IDOR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V. I.; Stanciu, A. C.; Torpey, M. E.; Hongsresawat, S.; VanDecar, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present new 3-D radially anisotropic and isotropic crustal velocity models beneath central Idaho and eastern Oregon. We produced the velocity models from Love and horizontal component Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity measurements on the IDaho/ORegon (IDOR) Passive seismic network, 86 broadband seismic stations, dataset using ambient noise tomography and the methods of Gallego et. al (2010) and Lin et. al (2008). We calculated inter-station group/phase velocities in narrow frequency bands from travel-time measurements of the rotated stacked horizontal component cross-correlations (bandpass filtered between 2 and 30 seconds), which we used to invert for velocity structure beneath the network. We derived group and phase velocity maps for each frequency band using the damped least-squares inversion method of Tarantola (2005), and then jointly inverted for velocity with depth. Moho depths are prescribed in the joint inversions based on receiver functions, also from the IDOR seismic data, and provides a starting crustal velocity model. Goals of our work include refining models of crustal structure in the accreted Blue Mountain terranes in the western study area; determining the depth extent of the Salmon River Suture/West Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), which crosses north-south through the middle of the network; determining the architecture of the Idaho batholith, an extensive largely crustal-derived pluton; and examining the nature of the autochthonous (?) North American crust and lithosphere beneath and east of the batholith.

  2. Neuroinformatics for genome-wide 3D gene expression mapping in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lydia; Pathak, Sayan D; Kuan, Chihchau; Lau, Chris; Dong, Hongwei; Sodt, Andrew; Dang, Chinh; Avants, Brian; Yushkevich, Paul; Gee, James C; Haynor, David; Lein, Ed; Jones, Allan; Hawrylycz, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Large scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain offer the promise of understanding the topology, networks and ultimately the function of its complex anatomy, opening previously unexplored avenues in neuroscience. High-throughput methods permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions that control behavior. Previous gene expression mapping studies in model organisms have employed situ hybridization (ISH), a technique that uses labeled nucleic acid probes to bind to specific mRNA transcripts in tissue sections. A key requirement for this effort is the development of fast and robust algorithms for anatomically mapping and quantifying gene expression for ISH. We describe a neuroinformatics pipeline for automatically mapping expression profiles of ISH data and its use to produce the first genomic scale 3-D mapping of gene expression in a mammalian brain. The pipeline is fully automated and adaptable to other organisms and tissues. Our automated study of over 20,000 genes indicates that at least 78.8 percent are expressed at some level in the adult C56BL/6J mouse brain. In addition to providing a platform for genomic scale search, high-resolution images and visualization tools for expression analysis are available at the Allen Brain Atlas web site (http://www.brain-map.org).

  3. Slip versus Field-Line Mapping in Describing 3D Reconnection of Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate two techniques for describing the structure of the coronal magnetic field and its evolution due to reconnection in numerical 3D simulations of the solar corona and CMEs. These techniques employ two types of mapping of the boundary of the computational domain on itself. One of them is defined at a given time moment via connections of the magnetic field lines to their opposite endpoints. The other mapping, called slip mapping, relates field line endpoints at two different time moments and allows one to identify the slippage of plasma elements due to resistivity across field lines for a given time interval (Titov et al. 2009). The distortion of each of these mappings can be measured by using the so-called squashing factor Q (Titov 2007). The high-Q layers computed for the first and second mappings define, respectively, (quasi-)separatrix surfaces and reconnection fronts in evolving magnetic configurations. Analyzing these structural features, we are able to reveal topologically different domains and reconnected flux systems in the configurations, in particular, open, closed and disconnected magnetic flux tubes, as well as quantify the related magnetic flux transfer. Comparison with observations makes it possible also to relate these features to observed morphological elements such as flare loops and ribbons, and EUV dimmings. We illustrate these general techniques by applying them to particular data-driven MHD simulations. *Research supported by NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and NSF/SHINE and NSF/FESD.

  4. Measurement of near-wall 3D flow velocity from wave-guiding micro-pillars.

    PubMed

    Bruecker, Christoph

    2016-09-19

    The measurement of near-wall flow in a plane close to the wall is achieved using the wave-guiding feature of transparent flexible micro-pillars which are attached in a 2D array to a surface and bend with the flow. Optical detection of bending from below the surface and application of auto-correlation methods provide mean and fluctuating part of the components of the wall-parallel velocity components. In addition, the wall-normal fluid motion is determined from spatial gradients in the array. The data provide the three-component velocity vector field in a plane close to the wall as well as their statistics. PMID:27661882

  5. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  6. Whole-brain quantitative mapping of metabolites using short echo 3D-proton- MRSI

    PubMed Central

    Lecocq, Angèle; Le Fur, Yann; Maudsley, Andrew A; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Sabati, Mohamad; Donnadieu, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve the extent over which whole brain quantitative 3D-MRSI maps can be obtained and be used to explore brain metabolism in a population of healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods Two short TE (20 ms) acquisitions of 3D Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging at two orientations, one in the anterior commissure – posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane and the second tilted in the AC-PC +15° plane were obtained at 3T in a group of ten healthy volunteers. B1+, B1−, and B0 correction procedures and normalization of metabolite signals with quantitative water proton density measurements were performed. A combination of the two spatially normalized 3D-MRSI, using a weighted mean based on the pixel wise standard deviation metabolic maps of each orientation obtained from the whole group, provided metabolite maps for each subject allowing regional metabolic profiles of all parcels of the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas to be obtained. Results The combined metabolite maps derived from the two acquisitions reduced the regional inter-subject variance. The numbers of AAL regions showing NAA SD/Mean ratios lower than 30% increased from 17 in the AC-PC orientation and 41 in the AC-PC+15° orientation, to a value of 76 regions out of 116 for the combined NAA maps. Quantitatively, regional differences in absolute metabolite concentrations (mM) over the whole brain were depicted such as in the GM of frontal lobes (cNAA=10.03+1.71, cCho=1.78±0.55, cCr=7.29±1.69; cmIns=5.30±2.67) and in cerebellum (cNAA=5.28±1.77, cCho=1.60±0.41, cCr=6.95±2.15; cmIns=3.60±0.74). Conclusion A double-angulation acquisition enables improved metabolic characterization over a wide volume of the brain. PMID:25431032

  7. Inlining 3d Reconstruction, Multi-Source Texture Mapping and Semantic Analysis Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for façade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the façades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained façade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and

  8. Mapping 3D Large-Scale Structure at z ˜2 with Lyman-α Forest Tomographic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J. F.; White, M.; Croft, R. A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; Kneib, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Spergel, D. N.; Rix, H.; Strauss, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-α (Lyα) forest absorption at z>2 traces the underlying dark-matter distribution, and with a sufficient density of background sightlines can be used to create 3D tomographic maps of large-scale structure. Since the useful Lyα forest in each sightline spans ˜400-500 h-1Mpc, Lyα forest tomography can efficiently map out large-scale structure at z˜2. The Cosmic Lyman-Alpha Program for the Tomographic Reconstruction of Absorption Probes (CLAPTRAP) will be the first survey to attempt this technique. We aim to obtain spectra for a background grid of faint quasars and bright LBGs at 23D map with similar 3 h-1Mpc resolution to be reconstructed from the data. In a recent paper, we have found that spectra with S/N ˜ 4 per Å are sufficient to make excellent-quality tomographic maps that clearly trace the underlying dark-matter distribution at overdensities of order unity. This requires integrations of several hours on moderate-resolution spectrographs mounted on existing 8-10m telescopes, such as LRIS on the Keck-I telescope and VIMOS on the Very Large Telescopes. We aim to observe ˜1500-2000 background sources over 1 sq deg of the COSMOS field with Lyα forest coverage over 2.0map out a total comoving volume of ˜106h-3Mpc3, equivalent to the zCOSMOS and DEEP2 galaxy redshift maps out to z˜1. The total time requirement is 16 nights on either VLT-VIMOS or Keck-LRIS. The resulting tomographic maps will be the first 3D maps of large-scale structure at z>1. In conjunction with the rich multi-wavelength data from the COSMOS survey, these maps will facilitate the study of galaxies in the context of the large-scale environment, reveal the topology of large-scale structure at high-redshifts, and allow the direct detection of galaxy protoclusters at the intersections of the cosmic web. The

  9. Intra-retinal layer segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography using coarse grained diffusion map

    PubMed Central

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful and noninvasive method for retinal imaging. In this paper, we introduce a fast segmentation method based on a new variant of spectral graph theory named diffusion maps. The research is performed on spectral domain (SD) OCT images depicting macular and optic nerve head appearance. The presented approach does not require edge-based image information in localizing most of boundaries and relies on regional image texture. Consequently, the proposed method demonstrates robustness in situations of low image contrast or poor layer-to-layer image gradients. Diffusion mapping applied to 2D and 3D OCT datasets is composed of two steps, one for partitioning the data into important and less important sections, and another one for localization of internal layers. In the first step, the pixels/voxels are grouped in rectangular/cubic sets to form a graph node. The weights of the graph are calculated based on geometric distances between pixels/voxels and differences of their mean intensity. The first diffusion map clusters the data into three parts, the second of which is the area of interest. The other two sections are eliminated from the remaining calculations. In the second step, the remaining area is subjected to another diffusion map assessment and the internal layers are localized based on their textural similarities. The proposed method was tested on 23 datasets from two patient groups (glaucoma and normals). The mean unsigned border positioning errors (mean ± SD) was 8.52 ± 3.13 and 7.56 ± 2.95 μm for the 2D and 3D methods, respectively. PMID:23837966

  10. Mass Movement Susceptibility in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A Preliminary 3-D Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, K. A.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mass movement is a major activity that impacts lives of humans and their infrastructure. Human activity in steep, mountainous regions is especially at risk to this potential hazard. Thus, the identification and quantification of risk by mapping and determining mass movement susceptibility are fundamental in protecting lives, resources and ensuring proper land use regulation and planning. Specific mass-movement processes including debris flows, rock falls, snow avalanches and landslides continuously modify the landscape of the San Juan Mountains. Historically, large-magnitude slope failures have repeatedly occurred in the region. Common triggers include intense, long-duration precipitation, freeze-thaw processes, human activity and various volcanic lithologies overlying weaker sedimentary formations. Predicting mass movement is challenging because of its episodic and spatially, discontinuous occurrence. Landslides in mountain terrain are characterized as widespread, highly mobile and have a long duration of activity. We developed a 3-D model for landslide susceptibility using Geographic Information Systems Technology (GIST). The study area encompasses eight USGS quadrangles: Ridgway, Dallas, Mount Sneffels, Ouray, Telluride, Ironton, Ophir and Silverton. Fieldwork consisted of field reconnaissance mapping at 1:5,000 focusing on surficial geomorphology. Field mapping was used to identify potential locations, which then received additional onsite investigation and photographic documentation of features indicative of slope failure. A GIS module was created using seven terrain spatial databases: geology, surficial geomorphology (digitized), slope aspect, slope angle, vegetation, soils and distance to infrastructure to map risk. The GIS database will help determine risk zonation for the study area. Correlations between terrain parameters leading to slope failure were determined through the GIS module. This 3-D model will provide a spatial perspective of the landscape to

  11. Lapse-time dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: firstly, we evaluate the contribution of surface and body wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Secondly, we compare the lapse-time behavior in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  12. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  13. MuPIT interactive: webserver for mapping variant positions to annotated, interactive 3D structures.

    PubMed

    Niknafs, Noushin; Kim, Dewey; Kim, Ryangguk; Diekhans, Mark; Ryan, Michael; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Karchin, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Mutation position imaging toolbox (MuPIT) interactive is a browser-based application for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), which automatically maps the genomic coordinates of SNVs onto the coordinates of available three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. The application is designed for interactive browser-based visualization of the putative functional relevance of SNVs by biologists who are not necessarily experts either in bioinformatics or protein structure. Users may submit batches of several thousand SNVs and review all protein structures that cover the SNVs, including available functional annotations such as binding sites, mutagenesis experiments, and common polymorphisms. Multiple SNVs may be mapped onto each structure, enabling 3D visualization of SNV clusters and their relationship to functionally annotated positions. We illustrate the utility of MuPIT interactive in rationalizing the impact of selected polymorphisms in the PharmGKB database, somatic mutations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas study of invasive breast carcinomas, and rare variants identified in the exome sequencing project. MuPIT interactive is freely available for non-profit use at http://mupit.icm.jhu.edu .

  14. Improved Uav-Borne 3d Mapping by Fusing Optical and Laserscanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, B.; Weinmann, M.; Meidow, J.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a new method for fusing optical and laserscanner data is presented for improved UAV-borne 3D mapping. We propose to equip an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a small platform which includes two sensors: a standard low-cost digital camera and a lightweight Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laserscanning device (210 g without cable). Initially, a calibration is carried out for the utilized devices. This involves a geometric camera calibration and the estimation of the position and orientation offset between the two sensors by lever-arm and bore-sight calibration. Subsequently, a feature tracking is performed through the image sequence by considering extracted interest points as well as the projected 3D laser points. These 2D results are fused with the measured laser distances and fed into a bundle adjustment in order to obtain a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). It is demonstrated that an improvement in terms of precision for the pose estimation is derived by fusing optical and laserscanner data.

  15. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  16. A 3D endoscopy reconstruction as a saliency map for analysis of polyp shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Josue; Martínez, Fabio; Gómez, Martín.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    A first diagnosis of colorectal cancer is performed by examination of polyp shape and appearance during an endoscopy routine procedure. However, the video-endoscopy is highly noisy because exacerbated physiological conditions like increased motility or secretion may limit the visual analysis of lesions. In this work a 3D reconstruction of the digestive tract is proposed, facilitating the polyp shape evaluation by highlighting its surface geometry and allowing an analysis from different perspectives. The method starts by a spatio-temporal map, constructed to group the different regions of the tract by their similar dynamic patterns during the sequence. Then, such map was convolved with a second derivative of a Gaussian kernel that emulates the camera distortion and allows to highlight the polyp surface. The position initialization in each frame of the kernel was computed from expert manual delineation and propagated along the sequence based on. Results show reliable reconstructions, with a salient 3D polyp structure that can then be better observed.

  17. Quasi-3D Resistivity Imaging - Results from Geophysical Mapping and Forward Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, D.; Kneisel, C.

    2009-04-01

    2D resistivity tomography has proven to be a reliable tool in detecting, characterizing and mapping of permafrost, especially in joint application with other geophysical methods, e.g. seismic refraction. For many permafrost related problems a 3D image of the subsurface is of interest. Possibilities of quasi-3D imaging by collating several 2D ERT files into one quasi-3D file were tested. Data acquisition took place on a vegetated scree slope with isolated permafrost lenses in the Bever Valley, Swiss Alps. 21 2D-electrical arrays were applied with an electrode spacing of 5 m and a parallel spacing of 20 and 30 m using the Wenner electrode configuration. Refraction seismic was applied parallel to every second ERT array, with a geophone spacing of 5 m for validation. Results of quasi-3D imaging indicate that the most important factors influencing data quality are parallel spacing and number of right-angled crossing profiles. While the quasi-3D images generated of 2D-files with a parallel spacing of 20 m provide an interpretable image, 30 m spacing results in a blurred illustration of resistivity structures. To test the influence of crossing profiles quasi-3D images were inverted using only parallel measured data files as well as images containing right-angled crossing transects. Application of crossing profiles is of great importance, because the number of model blocks with interpolated resistivity values between parallel profiles is minimized. In case of two adjacent high resistivity anomalies a quasi-3D image consisting of parallel measured transects only illustrates one anomaly. A crossing profile provides information to differentiate the anomalies. Forward modeling was used to prove these assumptions and to improve the application of 2D ERT with regard to quasi-3D imaging. Main focus was on electrode and parallel spacing, the influence of crossing transects and the applicability of different array types. A number of 2D ERT profiles were generated, using the forward

  18. New 3D seismicity maps using chromo-stereoscopy with two alternative freewares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Seismicity maps play a key role in an introduction of geosciences studies or outreach programs. Various techniques are used in order to show earthquakes in a three dimensional field. To use "chromo-stereoscopy" is our simple and easier-making solution. The Chroma Depth 3D Glasses are employed for this purpose. The glasses consist of two transparent blazed grating films covered with a paper holder and cost a little (1 US$). Looking through these glasses, the colored chart turns into three dimensional perspective due to the mechanism that the color codes make a depth dimension with dispersion. We use two complementary freewares to make maps, the GMT (Generic Mapping Tools, Wessel and Smith.1988) and the POV-Ray (Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. 2004). The two softwares have their own advantages; the GMT is specialized for map making with simple scripts, while the POV-Ray produces realistic 3D rendering images with more complicated scripts. The earthquakes are plotted with the rainbow color codes depending on their depths in a black background as printed or PC images. Therefore, the red colored shallow earthquakes are float in front and blue colored ones sink deeper. This effect is so amazing that the students who first wear these glasses are strongly moved and fascinated with this simple mechanism. The data used here are from JMA seismicity catalogue and USGS (ANSS) catalogue. The POV-Ray version needs coastline data, so we got them from the Coastline Extractor (NGDC) web site. Also, the POR-Ray has no function to draw lines in three dimensions, so we had to make some trials for showing them in relief. The main target of our map is "the Wadati-Beniof zone", in which the sub-ducting oceanic plate surface is fringed by deeper earthquakes colored yellow, green to blue. The active volcanic regions such as the Hawaii islands or the active fault regions such as the San Andreas Fault are also effective targets of our method. However, since their shallow complicated seismic

  19. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  20. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping. At the end…

  1. Stardust Under a Microscope - 3D maps of Wild 2/81P Cometary Samples in Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Amanda J.; Ebel, Denton

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 returned to Earth in 2006 with cometary and interstellar material captured in aerogel. Cometary particles impacted an aerogel collector at a relative velocity of 6.1 km/s, creating three-dimensional (3D) impact tracks of melted and crushed aerogel, void space, and fragmented cometary material. Each track represents the history of a unique hypervelocity capture event. The nature of each impact, including the original state of the impactor, is recorded in track morphology and material distribution. Using a combination of 3D morphological data, chemical data, and microphysical models, it is possible to reconstruct track formation events and a model of the original impactor.The focus of this work is to fully characterize whole tracks both morphologically and chemically using solely non-destructive methods. To achieve this, we combine high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) 3D imaging with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) chemical mapping. We are also beginning to incorporate Raman spectroscopy to perform mineral phase analysis of fine track wall material. Using a Zeiss LSM 710 LSCM located in the American Museum of Natural History, we have imaged the morphology of over a dozen, whole Stardust tracks at high resolution (<80 nm/pixel in XY). We obtain the distribution of fine material along the track walls both quickly and without disturbing the sample. Complementary chemical data is acquired using the GSECARS X-ray microbe on beamline 13-IDE at the Advance Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. X-ray fluorescence maps of each track were collected with 100ms/pixel dwell time at a resolution of 1 or 2 micron/pixel. Many tracks were tilted and mapped a second time for stereo measurements.A thorough understanding of how cometary material and aerogel is distributed along tracks is required to understand the events which occurred after impact and to back-calculate properties of the original impactor

  2. Simulated square kilometre array maps from Galactic 3D-emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Reich, W.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Planning of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) requires simulations of the expected sky emission at arcsec angular resolution to evaluate its scientific potential, to constrain its technical realization in the best possible way, and to guide the observing strategy. Aims: We simulate high-resolution total intensity, polarization, and rotation measure (RM) maps of selected fields based on our recent global 3D-model of Galactic emission. Methods: Simulations of diffuse Galactic emission were conducted using the hammurabi code modified for arcsec angular resolution patches towards various Galactic directions. The random magnetic field components are set to follow a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum. We analysed the simulated maps in terms of their probability density functions (PDFs) and structure functions. Results: We present maps for various Galactic longitudes and latitudes at 1.4 GHz, which is the frequency where deep SKA surveys are proposed. The maps are about 1.5 ° in size and have an angular resolution of about 1.6 °. Total intensity emission is smoother in the plane than at high latitudes because of the different contributions from the regular and random magnetic field. The high-latitude fields show more extended polarized emission and RM structures than those in the plane, where patchy emission structures dominate on very small scales. The RM PDFs in the plane are close to Gaussians, but clearly deviate from that at high latitudes. The RM structure functions show smaller amplitudes and steeper slopes towards high latitudes. These results emerge from much more turbulent cells being passed through by the line-of-sights in the plane. Although the simulated random magnetic field components distribute in 3D, the magnetic field spectrum extracted from the structure functions of RMs conforms to 2D in the plane and approaches 3D at high latitudes. This is partly related to the outer scale of the turbulent magnetic field, but mainly to the different lengths

  3. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  4. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  5. 3D viscosity maps for Greenland and effect on GRACE mass balance estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE satellite mission measures mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. To correct for glacial isostatic adjustment numerical models are used. Although generally found to be a small signal, the full range of possible GIA models has not been explored yet. In particular, low viscosities due to a wet mantle and high temperatures due to the nearby Iceland hotspot could have a significant effect on GIA gravity rates. The goal of this study is to present a range of possible viscosity maps, and investigate the effect on GRACE mass balance estimates. Viscosity is derived using flow laws for olivine. Mantle temperature is computed from global seismology models, based on temperature derivatives for different mantle compositions. An indication for grain sizes is obtained by xenolith findings at a few locations. We also investigate the weakening effect of the presence of melt. To calculate gravity rates, we use a finite-element GIA model with the 3D viscosity maps and the ICE-5G loading history. GRACE mass balances for mascons in Greenland are derived with a least-squares inversion, using separate constraints for the inland and coastal areas in Greenland. Biases in the least-squares inversion are corrected using scale factors estimated from a simulation based on a surface mass balance model (Xu et al., submitted to The Cryosphere). Model results show enhanced gravity rates in the west and south of Greenland with 3D viscosity maps, compared to GIA models with 1D viscosity. The effect on regional mass balance is up to 5 Gt/year. Regional low viscosity can make present-day gravity rates sensitivity to ice thickness changes in the last decades. Therefore, an improved ice loading history for these time scales is needed.

  6. A robust method to detect zero velocity for improved 3D personal navigation using inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengyi; Wei, Jianming; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust zero velocity (ZV) detector algorithm to accurately calculate stationary periods in a gait cycle. The proposed algorithm adopts an effective gait cycle segmentation method and introduces a Bayesian network (BN) model based on the measurements of inertial sensors and kinesiology knowledge to infer the ZV period. During the detected ZV period, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate the error states and calibrate the position error. The experiments reveal that the removal rate of ZV false detections by the proposed method increases 80% compared with traditional method at high walking speed. Furthermore, based on the detected ZV, the Personal Inertial Navigation System (PINS) algorithm aided by EKF performs better, especially in the altitude aspect. PMID:25831086

  7. 3-D seismic velocity structure of the crust and the uppermost mantle in the northeastern Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1990-09-01

    3-D seismic velocity structure of the crust and the uppermost mantle beneath the northeastern Japan Arc is investigated by using arrival time data from local earthquakes. We use a velocity model composed of three layers corresponding to the upper crust, the lower crust and the uppermost mantle, respectively. Taking into account the observed regional variation of P n-velocity, the uppermost mantle is further divided into three parts by two P n-velocity boundaries near the coasts of the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The velocities within the upper crust, the lower crust and the three parts of the uppermost mantle are assumed to be constant. Locations of two P n-velocity boundaries and depth distributions of the Conrad and the Moho discontinuities are expressed by continuous functions of unknown parameters. Station corrections and hypocenters are also introduced to be unknowns. These unknown parameters are determined by inverting arrival time data of P- and S-wave first arrivals and clear later arrivals of P g- and P ∗-waves. The P n-velocity boundary between the land and the Pacific Ocean is located approximately along the Pacific coastline and that between the land and the Japan Sea is nearly along the Japan Sea coastline. The Conrad and the Moho discontinuities are at depths ranging from 14 to 20 km and from 27 to 36 km, respectively. The Conrad and the Moho depths have similar spatial distributions. They are deep beneath the land and become shallower toward the western and the eastern coastlines. Beneath the land, they are shallow in the central part of the Tohoku District and become deeper toward both the north and the south directions. In the north, they become shallow again.

  8. 3D velocity field of present-day crustal motion of the Tibetan Plateau derived from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, W.

    2013-12-01

    Using the measurements of 564 GPS stations around the Tibetan plateau for over 10 years, we derived a high-resolution 3D velocity field for the present-day crustal motion of the plateau with improved precision. The horizontal velocity field of the plateau relative to stable Eurasia displays in details the crustal movement and tectonic deformation features of India-Eurasia continental collision zone with thrust compression, lateral extrusion and clockwise rotation. The vertical velocities reveal that the plateau is still rising as a whole relative to its stable north neighbor. However, in some subregions uplift is insignificant or even negative. The main features of the vertical crustal deformation are: a) The Himalayan range is rising at a rate of ~3mm/yr, the most significant in the whole plateau. The uplift rate of the Himalayan range is ~6mm/a relative to its south foot; b) The mid-eastern plateau has an typical uplift rate between 1~2 mm/a, and some high mountain ranges in this area have surprising uplift rates as large as 2~3mm/a; c) In the mid-southern plateau, there is a basin and endorheic subregion with a series of NE striking normal faults, showing obvious sinking with the rates between 0 to -4mm/a; d) The present-day rising and sinking subregions generally correspond well to the Cenozoic orogenic belts and basins, respectively; e) At the southeastern corner of the plateau, although the horizontal velocity field demonstrates an outstanding clockwise rotation and fan-like front of a flow zone, the vertical velocity field does not show a general uplift or incline trend. Horizontal GPS velocities of the Tibetan plateau relative to stable Eurasia Vertical GPS velocities of the Tibetan plateau relative to its stable northern neighbor

  9. Near-wall 3D velocity measurements above biomimetic shark skin denticles using Digital In-line Holographic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Brajkovic, David; Hong, Jiarong

    2014-11-01

    Digital In-line Holography is employed to image 3D flow structures in the vicinity of a transparent rough surface consisting of closely packed biomimetic shark skin denticles as roughness elements. The 3D printed surface replicates the morphological features of real shark skin, and the denticles have a geometrical scale of 2 mm, i.e. 10 times of the real ones. In order to minimize optical aberrations near the fluid-roughness interface and enable flow measurements around denticles, the optical refractive index of the fluid medium is maintained the same as that of the denticle model in an index-matched flow facility using NaI solution as the working fluid. The experiment is conducted in a 1.2 m long test section with 50 mm × 50 mm cross section. The sampling volume is located in the downstream region of a shark skin replica of 12'' stretch where the turbulent flow is fully-developed and the transitional effect from smooth to the rough surface becomes negligible. Several instantaneous realizations of the 3D velocity field are obtained and are used to illustrate turbulent coherent structures induced by shark-skin denticles. This information will provide insights on the hydrodynamic function of shark's unique surface ornamentation.

  10. InSAR, GPS, triangulation and EDM combination in a 3D velocity field: Insight from Arenal volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Cyril; del Potro, Rodrigo; Biggs, Juliet; Gottsmann, Joachim; Ebmeier, Susanna; Van der Laat, Rodolfo

    2014-05-01

    Geodetic techniques provide useful information to detect and assess geophysical processes occurring at volcanoes. When the deformation signal is large, standard analyses and modelling can be carried out. However, when surface movements are subtle and several processes occur simultaneously, stochastic and multi-techniques assessment is required. Here we present a methodology that combines GPS, triangulation, trilateration and InSAR in a 3D velocity surface without any prior specific source assumption. The methodology is in 5 steps: design of the geodetic monitoring network, acquisition and post-processing of deformation observations, spatial integration, time series computation and finally spatial and temporal measurement integration. We apply this methodology to Arenal volcano in Costa Rica and provide an unprecedented insight of the volcano's deformation. The most significant improvements of this method are the reduction of campaign logistics, the unambiguous detection of the outliers, an increase in accuracy, a 3D velocity field accounting for all techniques and measurements. Although, the methodology is applied to GPS, triangulation, trilateration and INSAR geodetic networks with a steady motion, it has the potential to be extended to other geodetic techniques and where transient deformations are ongoing. The described methodology can be applied in volcano monitoring worldwide.

  11. A new method for automated discontinuity trace mapping on rock mass 3D surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an automated discontinuity trace mapping method on a 3D surface model of rock mass. Feature points of discontinuity traces are first detected using the Normal Tensor Voting Theory, which is robust to noisy point cloud data. Discontinuity traces are then extracted from feature points in four steps: (1) trace feature point grouping, (2) trace segment growth, (3) trace segment connection, and (4) redundant trace segment removal. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify optimal values for the parameters used in the proposed method. The optimal triangular mesh element size is between 5 cm and 6 cm; the angle threshold in the trace segment growth step is between 70° and 90°; the angle threshold in the trace segment connection step is between 50° and 70°, and the distance threshold should be at least 15 times the mean triangular mesh element size. The method is applied to the excavation face trace mapping of a drill-and-blast tunnel. The results show that the proposed discontinuity trace mapping method is fast and effective and could be used as a supplement to traditional direct measurement of discontinuity traces.

  12. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance.

  13. Mapping Nearby Terrain in 3D by Use of a Grid of Laser Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Curtis; Liebe, Carl; Chang, Johnny; Brown, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic system, to be mounted aboard an exploratory robotic vehicle, would be used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) map of nearby terrain and obstacles for purposes of navigating the vehicle across the terrain and avoiding the obstacles. The difference between this system and the other systems would lie in the details of implementation. In this system, the illumination would be provided by a laser. The beam from the laser would pass through a two-dimensional diffraction grating, which would divide the beam into multiple beams propagating in different, fixed, known directions. These beams would form a grid of bright spots on the nearby terrain and obstacles. The centroid of each bright spot in the image would be computed. For each such spot, the combination of (1) the centroid, (2) the known direction of the light beam that produced the spot, and (3) the known baseline would constitute sufficient information for calculating the 3D position of the spot.

  14. 3-D seismic improves structural mapping of a gas storage reservoir (Paris basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. ); Pinson, C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the Paris basin, anticlinal structures with closure of no more than 80 m and surface area of a few km[sup 2] are used for underground gas storage. At Soings-en-Sologne, a three-dimensional (3-D) survey (13 km[sup 2]) was carried out over such a structure to establish its exact geometry and to detail its fault network. Various reflectors were picked automatically on the migrated data: the top of the Kimmeridgian, the top of the Bathoinian and the base of the Hettangian close to the top of the reservoir. The isochron maps were converted into depth using data from 12 wells. Horizon attributes (amplitude, dip, and azimuth) were used to reconstruct the fault's pattern with much greater accuracy than that supplied by interpretation from previous two-dimensional seismic. The Triassic and the Jurassic are affected by two systems of conjugate faults (N10-N110, inherited from the Hercynian basement and N30-N120). Alternating clay and limestone are the cause of numerous structural disharmonies, particularly on both sides of the Bathonian. Ridges associated with N30-N120 faults suggest compressive movements contemporaneous with the tertiary events. The northern structure in Soings-en-Sologne thus appear to be the result of polyphased tectonics. Its closure (25 m), which is associated either with dips or faults, is described in detail by 3-D seismic, permitting more accurate forecast of the volume available for gas storage.

  15. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance. PMID:26494523

  16. Mapping the True 3D Morphology of Deep-Sea Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huvenne, V. A.; Masson, D.; Tyler, P. A.; Huehnerbach, V.

    2010-12-01

    The importance of submarine canyons as ecosystem hotspots and sediment transport pathways has been recognised for decades (e.g. Heezen et al., 1955; Vetter & Dayton, 1998). However, studying canyon systems in detail is a challenge, because of the complexity and steepness of the terrain. Acoustic surveys are hampered by side-echoes, while the high slope angles cause most types of sampling equipment, deployed from surface vessels, to fail. Ship-borne bathymetric surveys tend to represent the canyon topography in an overly smoothed way as a result of their limited resolution in deep water compared to the scale of the terrain variability. Moreover, it is clear that overhanging cliffs cannot be mapped correctly with traditional, downward looking multibeam echosounders. The increasing availability of underwater vehicles, however, opens new opportunities. During summer 2009, we mapped several submarine canyon habitats in detail, using the UK deep-water Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) ISIS. In particular, we developed a new methodology to map vertical cliffs and overhangs by placing the high-resolution Simrad SM2000 multibeam system of the ROV in a forward-looking position rather than in the traditional downward-looking configuration. The cliff morphology was then mapped by moving the ROV laterally in parallel passes at different depths. Repeating this approach at different distances from the cliff face, we obtained maps of varying resolution and extent. The low resolution maps provide an overview of the general geological framework, while individual strata and faunal colonies can be recognised on the highest resolution maps. Using point-cloud models, we combined the ship-borne bathymetry with the ROV-based data, in order to obtain a true 3D seabed morphology of the canyon study site, which can be used for fly-throughs, geomorphological analysis or habitat mapping. With this approach, we could visualise the spatial structure and density distribution of a unique and

  17. Correlated 3D Nanoscale Mapping and Simulation of Coupled Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electron tomography in combination with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments and simulations was used to unravel the interplay between structure and plasmonic properties of a silver nanocuboid dimer. The precise 3D geometry of the particles fabricated by means of electron beam lithography was reconstructed through electron tomography, and the full three-dimensional information was used as an input for simulations of energy-loss spectra and plasmon resonance maps. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory was found throughout, bringing the comparison between EELS imaging and simulations to a quantitative and correlative level. In addition, interface mode patterns, normally masked by the projection nature of a transmission microscopy investigation, could be unambiguously identified through tomographic reconstruction. This work overcomes the need for geometrical assumptions or symmetry restrictions of the sample in simulations and paves the way for detailed investigations of realistic and complex plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26495933

  18. 3D mapping of nanoscale electric potentials in semiconductor structures using electron-holographic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Daniel; Lubk, Axel; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico; Lichte, Hannes

    2016-09-01

    Off-axis electron holography (EH) is a powerful method for mapping projected electric potentials, such as built-in potentials in semiconductor devices, in two dimensions (2D) at nanometer resolution. However, not well-defined thickness profiles, surface effects, and composition changes of the sample under investigation complicate the interpretation of the projected potentials. Here, we demonstrate how these problems can be overcome by combining EH with tomographic techniques, that is, electron holographic tomography (EHT), reconstructing electric potentials in 3D. We present EHT reconstructions of an n-type MOSFET including its dopant-related built-in potentials inside the device, as well as of a GaAs/AlGaAs core-multishell nanowire containing a 5 nm thick quantum well tube.

  19. A 3D map of the human genome at kilobase resolution reveals principles of chromatin looping.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suhas S P; Huntley, Miriam H; Durand, Neva C; Stamenova, Elena K; Bochkov, Ivan D; Robinson, James T; Sanborn, Adrian L; Machol, Ido; Omer, Arina D; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2014-12-18

    We use in situ Hi-C to probe the 3D architecture of genomes, constructing haploid and diploid maps of nine cell types. The densest, in human lymphoblastoid cells, contains 4.9 billion contacts, achieving 1 kb resolution. We find that genomes are partitioned into contact domains (median length, 185 kb), which are associated with distinct patterns of histone marks and segregate into six subcompartments. We identify ∼10,000 loops. These loops frequently link promoters and enhancers, correlate with gene activation, and show conservation across cell types and species. Loop anchors typically occur at domain boundaries and bind CTCF. CTCF sites at loop anchors occur predominantly (>90%) in a convergent orientation, with the asymmetric motifs "facing" one another. The inactive X chromosome splits into two massive domains and contains large loops anchored at CTCF-binding repeats. PMID:25497547

  20. 3D-Mapping of Dolomitized Structures in Lower Cambrian Phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Stammeier, Jessica A.; Brunner, Roland; Rosc, Jördis; Franz, Gerhard; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitization is a widespread phenomenon in ancient sedimentary rocks, particularly close to the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Dolomite can form in synsedimentary or hydrothermal environments, preferentially via the replacement of solid carbonate precursor phases. Synsedimentary dolomite formation is often associated with microbial activity, such as bacterial sulfate reduction or methanogenesis. In this study, we investigate dolomitic phosphorites from the Lowermost Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoori Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India, using micro-CT 3D-mapping, in order to unravel the complex diagenetic history of the rocks. The selected sample shows alternating layering of phosphatic mudstones and sparitic dolostone, in which brecciated layers of phosphorite or phosphatic mudstones are immersed in a dolomite-rich matrix. Lamination occurs on a sub-millimetre scale, with lamination sometimes wavy to crinkly. This fabric is interpreted as former microbial mats, providing the environment for early diagenetic phosphatization. Preliminary electron backscatter imaging with scanning microscopy revealed that dolomite crystals often occur in spherical to ellipsoidal structures, typically with a high porosity. This dolomite is associated with botryoidal apatite, organic matter and small amounts of calcite. Micro-CT 3D-mappings reveal that dolomite structures are cigar-shaped, elongated and up to 600 μm long. They are further arranged in a Mikado-like oriented framework spanning a layer thickness of a few millimetres. Analyses of ambient pore space, with similar elongated outlines and filled with organic matter, suggest a potential coherence of ambient pore space and shape of the dolomite structures. Allowing for other associated mineral phases, such as pyrite and silicates, and their spatial distribution, the present approach can be used to unravel distinct diagenetic reaction pathways, and might thus constrain the proxy potential of these Lower Cambrian dolomitic phosphorites

  1. 3D models mapping optimization through an integrated parameterization approach: cases studies from Ravenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, L.; Fantini, F.; Bertacchi, S.

    2014-06-01

    Image-based modelling tools based on SfM algorithms gained great popularity since several software houses provided applications able to achieve 3D textured models easily and automatically. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of controlling models parameterization process, considering that automatic solutions included in these modelling tools can produce poor results in terms of texture utilization. In order to achieve a better quality of textured models from image-based modelling applications, this research presents a series of practical strategies aimed at providing a better balance between geometric resolution of models from passive sensors and their corresponding (u,v) map reference systems. This aspect is essential for the achievement of a high-quality 3D representation, since "apparent colour" is a fundamental aspect in the field of Cultural Heritage documentation. Complex meshes without native parameterization have to be "flatten" or "unwrapped" in the (u,v) parameter space, with the main objective to be mapped with a single image. This result can be obtained by using two different strategies: the former automatic and faster, while the latter manual and time-consuming. Reverse modelling applications provide automatic solutions based on splitting the models by means of different algorithms, that produce a sort of "atlas" of the original model in the parameter space, in many instances not adequate and negatively affecting the overall quality of representation. Using in synergy different solutions, ranging from semantic aware modelling techniques to quad-dominant meshes achieved using retopology tools, it is possible to obtain a complete control of the parameterization process.

  2. 3D numerical simulations of negative hydrogen ion extraction using realistic plasma parameters, geometry of the extraction aperture and full 3D magnetic field map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.; Minea, T.

    2014-02-01

    Decreasing the co-extracted electron current while simultaneously keeping negative ion (NI) current sufficiently high is a crucial issue on the development plasma source system for ITER Neutral Beam Injector. To support finding the best extraction conditions the 3D Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision electrostatic code ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) has been developed. Close collaboration with experiments and other numerical models allows performing realistic simulations with relevant input parameters: plasma properties, geometry of the extraction aperture, full 3D magnetic field map, etc. For the first time ONIX has been benchmarked with commercial positive ions tracing code KOBRA3D. A very good agreement in terms of the meniscus position and depth has been found. Simulation of NI extraction with different e/NI ratio in bulk plasma shows high relevance of the direct negative ion extraction from the surface produced NI in order to obtain extracted NI current as in the experimental results from BATMAN testbed.

  3. A global 3D P-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) version 1.4, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is > 55%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model

  4. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    PubMed

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information.

  5. FeatureMap3D--a tool to map protein features and sequence conservation onto homologous structures in the PDB.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Staerfeldt, Hans-Henrik; Sackett, Peter Wad; Mølgaard, Anne

    2006-07-01

    FeatureMap3D is a web-based tool that maps protein features onto 3D structures. The user provides sequences annotated with any feature of interest, such as post-translational modifications, protease cleavage sites or exonic structure and FeatureMap3D will then search the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for structures of homologous proteins. The results are displayed both as an annotated sequence alignment, where the user-provided annotations as well as the sequence conservation between the query and the target sequence are displayed, and also as a publication-quality image of the 3D protein structure with the selected features and sequence conservation enhanced. The results are also returned in a readily parsable text format as well as a PyMol (http://pymol.sourceforge.net/) script file, which allows the user to easily modify the protein structure image to suit a specific purpose. FeatureMap3D can also be used without sequence annotation, to evaluate the quality of the alignment of the input sequences to the most homologous structures in the PDB, through the sequence conservation colored 3D structure visualization tool. FeatureMap3D is available at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/FeatureMap3D/. PMID:16845115

  6. A 3D Seismic Velocity Model Offshore Southern California from Ambient Noise Tomography of the ALBACORE OBS Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, M. D.; Bowden, D. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific-North America plate boundary in Southern California extends far west of the coastline, and a 12-month ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) array spanned the western side of the plate boundary to image lithospheric seismic velocities. Velocities are modeled through stacked cross correlations of ambient noise data. Twelve months of continuous data were used from 22 OBS stations and ~30 coastal and island Southern California Seismic Network stations. Particular attention has been paid to improving signal-to-noise ratios in the noise correlations with OBS stations by removing the effects of instrument tilt and infragravity waves. Different applications of preprocessing techniques allow us to distinguish the fundamental and first higher order Rayleigh modes, especially in deep water OBS pairs where the water layer dominates crustal sensitivity of the fundamental mode. Standard time domain and frequency domain methods are used to examine surface wave dispersion curves for group and phase velocities between 5 and 50 second periods, and these are inverted for 3D velocity structure. The results define the transition in three dimensions from continental lithospheric structure in the near-shore region to oceanic structure west of the continental borderland. While the most prominent features of the model relate to thinning of the crust west of the Patton Escarpment, other notable anomalies are present north-to-south throughout the continental borderland and along the coast from the Los Angeles Basin to the Peninsular Ranges. The velocity model will help describe the region's tectonic history, as well as provide new constraints for determination of earthquake relocations and rupture styles.

  7. The 3-D strain patterns in Turkey using geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutoglu, Hakan Senol; Toker, Mustafa; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    This study presents our use of GPS data to obtain and quantify the full continuous strain tensor using a 3-D velocity field in Turkey. In this study, GPS velocities improve the estimation of short-term strain tensor fields for determining the seismic hazard of Turkey. The tensorial analysis presents different aspects of deformation, such as the normal and shear strains, including their directions, the compressional and extensional strains. This analysis is appropriate for the characterizing the state of the current seismic deformation. GPS velocity data from continuous measurements (2009-2012) to estimate deformations were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software. Using high-rate GPS data from permanent 146 GNSS stations (RTK-CORS-TR network), the strain distribution was determined and interpolated using a biharmonic spline technique. We show the strain field patterns within axial and plane form at several critical locations, and discuss these results within the context of the seismic and tectonic deformation of Turkey. We conclude that the knowledge of the crustal strain patterns provides important information on the location of the main faults and strain accumulation for the hazard assessment. The results show an agreement between the seismic and tectonic strains confirming that there are active crustal deformations in Turkey.

  8. 3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.

  9. Automated 3D IR defect mapping system for CZT wafer and tile inspection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi; Heidari, Esmaeil; Abramovich, Gil; Nafis, Christopher; Butt, Amer; Czechowski, Joseph; Harding, Kevin; Tkaczyk, J. Eric

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the design and evaluation of a 3D stereo, near infrared (IR), defect mapping system for CZT inspection is described. This system provides rapid acquisition and data analysis that result in detailed mapping of CZT crystal defects across the area of wafers up to 100 millimeter diameter and through thicknesses of up to 20 millimeter. In this paper, system characterization has been performed including a close evaluation of the bright field and dark field illumination configurations for both wafer-scale and tile-scale inspection. A comparison of microscope image and IR image for the same sample is performed. As a result, the IR inspection system has successfully demonstrated the capability of detecting and localizing inclusions within minutes for a whole CZT wafer. Important information is provided for selecting defect free areas out of a wafer and thereby ensuring the quality of the tile. This system would support the CZT wafer dicing and assembly techniques that enable the economical production of CZT detectors. This capability can improve the yield and reduce the cost of the thick detector devices that are rarely produced today.

  10. MuPIT Interactive: Webserver for mapping variant positions to annotated, interactive 3D structures

    PubMed Central

    Niknafs, Noushin; Kim, Dewey; Kim, Ryang Guk; Diekhans, Mark; Ryan, Michael; Stenson, Peter D.; Cooper, David N.; Karchin, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Mutation Position Imaging Toolbox (MuPIT) Interactive is a browser-based application for single nucleotide variants (SNVs), which automatically maps the genomic coordinates of SNVs onto the coordinates of available three-dimensional protein structures. The application is designed for interactive browser-based visualization of the putative functional relevance of SNVs by biologists who are not necessarily experts either in bioinformatics or protein structure. Users may submit batches of several thousand SNVs and review all protein structures that cover the SNVs, including available functional annotations such as binding sites, mutagenesis experiments, and common polymorphisms. Multiple SNVs may be mapped onto each structure, enabling 3D visualization of SNV clusters and their relationship to functionally annotated positions. We illustrate the utility of MuPIT Interactive in rationalizing the impact of selected polymorphisms in the PharmGKB database, somatic mutations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas study of invasive breast carcinomas, and rare variants identified in the Exome Sequencing Project. MuPIT Interactive is freely available for non-profit use at http://mupit.icm.jhu.edu. PMID:23793516

  11. Enabling 3D-Liver Perfusion Mapping from MR-DCE Imaging Using Distributed Computing.

    PubMed

    Leporq, Benjamin; Camarasu-Pop, Sorina; Davila-Serrano, Eduardo E; Pilleul, Frank; Beuf, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An MR acquisition protocol and a processing method using distributed computing on the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) to allow 3D liver perfusion parametric mapping after Magnetic Resonance Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (MR-DCE) imaging are presented. Seven patients (one healthy control and six with chronic liver diseases) were prospectively enrolled after liver biopsy. MR-dynamic acquisition was continuously performed in free-breathing during two minutes after simultaneous intravascular contrast agent (MS-325 blood pool agent) injection. Hepatic capillary system was modeled by a 3-parameters one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The processing step was parallelized and executed on the EGI. It was modeled and implemented as a grid workflow using the Gwendia language and the MOTEUR workflow engine. Results showed good reproducibility in repeated processing on the grid. The results obtained from the grid were well correlated with ROI-based reference method ran locally on a personal computer. The speed-up range was 71 to 242 with an average value of 126. In conclusion, distributed computing applied to perfusion mapping brings significant speed-up to quantification step to be used for further clinical studies in a research context. Accuracy would be improved with higher image SNR accessible on the latest 3T MR systems available today.

  12. Exploration criteria for mineral target mapping based on 3D geological modeling in the Taebaek mineralized belt in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H. J.; Kihm, Y. H.; Cho, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    We constructed a three-dimensional (3D) geological model based on a 1:50,000-scaled geologic map and determined the exploration criteria for skarn deposit target mapping in the Taebaek mineralized belt. All available geological and geophysical data were compiled in a 3D computing environment using GOCAD software. Twenty-four stratigraphic horizons and more than 100 fault surfaces are defined in the 3D geological model. The primary geological criteria for skarn mineralization in the Taebaek mineralized belt included the presence of an NE-oriented strike-slip fault, key stratigraphic horizons, and a high magnetic susceptibility anomaly based on 3D inversion of magnetic data. The 3D geological criteria were extracted from the 3D geological model for skarn deposit target mapping in the belt. The distance values of the three criteria (NE strike-slip fault, limestone horizon, and area of high magnetic susceptibility) were divided into four classes based on cutoff values determined by experts. The weight values for all of the geological criteria and the score value for each class of the distance criteria were also estimated based on expert knowledge. The weights and scores of geological criteria derived from expert knowledge serve as useful guides for target mapping in the Taebaek mineralized belt.

  13. First 3D thermal mapping of an active volcano using an advanced photogrammetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Lacogne, Julien; Lopez, Teodolina; Fauchard, Cyrille; Bretar, Frédéric; Arab-Sedze, Mélanie; Staudacher, Thomas; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Thermal infrared data obtained in the [7-14 microns] spectral range are usually used in many Earth Science disciplines. These studies are exclusively based on the analysis of 2D information. In this case, a quantitative analysis of the surface energy budget remains limited, as it may be difficult to estimate the radiative contribution of the topography, the thermal influence of winds on the surface or potential imprints of subsurface flows on the soil without any precise DEM. The draping of a thermal image on a recent DEM is a common method to obtain a 3D thermal map of a surface. However, this method has many disadvantages i) errors can be significant in the orientation process of the thermal images, due to the lack of tie points between the images and the DEM; ii) the use of a recent DEM implies the use of another remote sensing technique to quantify the topography; iii) finally, the characterization of the evolution of a surface requires the simultaneous acquisition of thermal data and topographic information, which may be expensive in most cases. The stereophotogrammetry method allows to reconstitute the relief of an object from photos taken from different positions. Recently, substantial progress have been realized in the generation of high spatial resolution topographic surfaces using stereophotogrammetry. However, the presence of shadows, homogeneous textures and/or weak contrasts in the visible spectrum (e.g., flowing lavas, uniform lithologies) may prevent from the use of such method, because of the difficulties to find tie points on each image. Such situations are more favorable in the thermal infrared spectrum, as any variation in the thermal properties or geometric orientation of the surfaces may induce temperature contrasts that are detectable with a thermal camera. This system, usually functioning with a array sensor (Focal Plane Array) and an optical device, have geometric characteristics that are similar to digital cameras. Thus, it may be possible

  14. Developed Design for Humeral Head Replacement Using 3D Surface Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of dimensional and geometrical data on the humeral head replacement (HHR) objects is essential for solving the relevant designing problems in the physics of reverse engineering (RE). In this work, 2D-assessment for human humerus was performed using the computed tomography (CT) technique within the RE plan, after which the 2D images of humeral objects were converted into 3D images. The conversion was successful and indicated a clear difference in the 2D and 3D estimates of sizes and geometry of the humerus. The authors have analyzed and confirmed experimentally the statistical information on the relevant anatomical objects. The results of finite-element simulation of the compressive stresses affecting the geometry of 3D surface mapping were analyzed using SolidWorks software. For developing the biomechanical design of an HHR object suitable biomaterials were selected, and different metal-based biomaterials are discussed as applied at various loads. New methodology is presented for the size estimation of humeral head - both anatomical and artificial - in 3D-shape. A detailed interpretation is given for the results of CT D-measurements. Izmēru un ģeometrisko datu novērtējums, kas attiecas uz pleca kaula galviņas nomaiņas (PKGN) objektiem, nepieciešams, lai risinātu virkni reversīvās inženierijas (RI) problēmu. Šajā darbā cilvēka pleca kaula galviņas divdimensiju novērtējums tika veikts ar datortomogrāfijas palīdzību (RI) ietvaros, un pēc tam objekta divdimensiju attēlojums tika pārveidots trīsdimensiju. Pārveidojums bija sekmīgs, parādot pleca kaula galviņas izmēru un ģeometrijas atšķirības starp 2D un 3D novērtējumiem. Autori izanalizēja un eksperimentāli apstiprināja statistisko informāciju pēc dotā veida anatomiskiem objektiem. Saspiešanas sasprindzinājumi, kuri ietekmē trīsdimensiju virsmas attēlojuma ģeometriju, tika analizēti ar gala-elementu simulācijas metodi, lietojot programmu Solid

  15. Low velocity crustal flow and crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan, SE Tibet, revealed by 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haopeng; Zhu, Liangbao; Su, Youjin

    2016-08-01

    We used teleseismic data recorded by a permanent seismic network in Yunnan, SE Tibet, and measured the interstation Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 10 and 60 s. A two-step inversion scheme was used to invert for the 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy structure of 10-110 km. The results show that there are two low velocity channels between depths of 20-30 km in Yunnan and that the fast axes are sub-parallel to the strikes of the low velocity channels, which supports the crustal flow model. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern is quite complicated and reveals a complex crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan. The N-S trending Lüzhijiang Fault separates the Dianzhong Block into two parts. In the western Dianzhong Block, the fast axis of the S-wave changes with depth, which indicates that the crust and the lithospheric mantle are decoupled. In the eastern Dianzhong Block and the western Yangtze Craton, the crust and the lithospheric mantle may be decoupled because of crustal flow, despite a coherent S-wave fast axis at depths of 10-110 km. In addition, the difference between the S-wave fast axis in the lithosphere and the SKS splitting measurement suggests that the lithosphere and the upper mantle are decoupled there. In the Baoshan Block, the stratified anisotropic pattern suggests that the crust and the upper mantle are decoupled.

  16. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  17. Hot deformation characterization of duplex low-density steel through 3D processing map development

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamadizadeh, A.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H.R.; Mehtonen, S.; Porter, D.

    2015-09-15

    The high temperature deformation behavior of duplex low-density Fe–18Mn–8Al–0.8C steel was investigated at temperatures in the range of 600–1000 °C. The primary constitutive analysis indicated that the Zener–Hollomon parameter, which represents the coupled effects of temperature and strain rate, significantly varies with the amount of deformation. Accordingly, the 3D processing maps were developed considering the effect of strain and were used to determine the safe and unsafe deformation conditions in association with the microstructural evolution. The deformation at efficiency domain I (900–1100 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}) was found to be safe at different strains due to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in austenite. The safe efficiency domain II (700–900 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1}), which appeared at logarithmic strain of 0.4, was characterized by deformation induced ferrite formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microband formation and crack initiation at ferrite\\austenite interphases were the main causes of deformation instability at 600–800 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}. The degree of instability was found to decrease by increasing the strain due to the uniformity of microbanded structure obtained at higher strains. The shear band formation at 900–1100 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1} was verified by electron backscattered diffraction. The local dynamic recrystallization of austenite and the deformation induced ferrite formation were observed within shear-banded regions as the results of flow localization. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The 3D processing map is developed for duplex low-density Fe–Mn–Al–C steel. • The efficiency domains shrink, expand or appear with increasing strain. • The occurrence of DRX and DIFF increases the power efficiency. • Crack initiation

  18. Seismicity patterns along the Ecuadorian subduction zone: new constraints from earthquake location in a 3-D a priori velocity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Yvonne; Segovia, Monica; Vaca, Sandro; Theunissen, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    To improve earthquake location, we create a 3-D a priori P-wave velocity model (3-DVM) that approximates the large velocity variations of the Ecuadorian subduction system. The 3-DVM is constructed from the integration of geophysical and geological data that depend on the structural geometry and velocity properties of the crust and the upper mantle. In addition, specific station selection is carried out to compensate for the high station density on the Andean Chain. 3-D synthetic experiments are then designed to evaluate the network capacity to recover the event position using only P arrivals and the MAXI technique. Three synthetic earthquake location experiments are proposed: (1) noise-free and (2) noisy arrivals used in the 3-DVM, and (3) noise-free arrivals used in a 1-DVM. Synthetic results indicate that, under the best conditions (exact arrival data set and 3-DVM), the spatiotemporal configuration of the Ecuadorian network can accurately locate 70 per cent of events in the frontal part of the subduction zone (average azimuthal gap is 289° ± 44°). Noisy P arrivals (up to ± 0.3 s) can accurately located 50 per cent of earthquakes. Processing earthquake location within a 1-DVM almost never allows accurate hypocentre position for offshore earthquakes (15 per cent), which highlights the role of using a 3-DVM in subduction zone. For the application to real data, the seismicity distribution from the 3-D-MAXI catalogue is also compared to the determinations obtained in a 1-D-layered VM. In addition to good-quality location uncertainties, the clustering and the depth distribution confirm the 3-D-MAXI catalogue reliability. The pattern of the seismicity distribution (a 13 yr record during the inter-seismic period of the seismic cycle) is compared to the pattern of rupture zone and asperity of the Mw = 7.9 1942 and the Mw = 7.7 1958 events (the Mw = 8.8 1906 asperity patch is not defined). We observe that the nucleation of 1942, 1958 and 1906 events coincides with

  19. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-09-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time-frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  20. Hypocenter relocation using a fast grid search method and a 3-D seismic velocity model for the Sumatra region

    SciTech Connect

    Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2013-09-09

    Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.

  1. An improved and extended GPS-derived 3D velocity field of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidberg, Martin; Johansson, Jan M.; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Davis, James L.

    2007-03-01

    We present a new GPS-derived 3D velocity field for the Fennoscandia glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) area. This new solution is based upon ˜3,000 days of continuous GPS observations obtained from the permanent networks in Fennoscandia. The period encompasses a prolongated phase of stable observation conditions after the northern autumn of 1996. Several significant improvements have led to smaller uncertainties and lower systematic errors in the new solutions compared to our previous results. The GPS satellite elevation cut-off angle was lowered to 10°, we fixed ambiguities to integers where possible, and only a few hardware changes occurred over the entire network. The GAMIT/GLOBK software package was used for the GPS analysis and reference frame realization. Our new results confirmed earlier findings of maximum discrepancies between GIA models and observations in northern Finland. The reason may be related to overestimated ice-sheet thickness and glaciation period in the north. In general, the new solutions are more coherent in the velocity field, as some of the perturbations are now avoided. We compared GPS-derived GIA rates with sea-level rates from tide-gauge observations, repeated precise leveling, and with GIA model computations, which showed consistency.

  2. Euro-Maps 3D- A Transnational, High-Resolution Digital Surface Model For Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, A.; Barner, F.; Hass, T.; Makiola, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.; Carl, S.; Steiner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Euro-Maps 3D is a homogeneous 5 m spaced digital surface model (DSM) semi-automatically derived by Euromap from 2.5 m in-flight stereo data provided by the Indian IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 satellite. This new and innovative product has been developed in close co- operation with the Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and is being jointly exploited. The very detailed and accurate representation of the surface is achieved by using a sophisticated and well adapted algorithm implemented on the basis of the Semi-Global Matching approach. In addition, the final product includes detailed flanking information consisting of several pixel-based quality and traceability layers also including an ortho layer. The product is believed to provide maximum accuracy and transparency. The DSM product meets and exceeds HRE80 qualification standards. The DSM product will be made available transnational in a homogeneous quality for most parts of Europe, North Africa and Turkey by Euromap step-by-step. Other areas around the world are processed on demand.

  3. 3-D modeling useful tool for planning. [mapping groundwater and soil pollution and subsurface features

    SciTech Connect

    Calmbacher, C.W. )

    1992-12-01

    Visualizing and delineating subsurface geological features, groundwater contaminant plumes, soil contamination, geological faults, shears and other features can prove invaluable to environmental consultants, engineers, geologists and hydrogeologists. Three-dimensional modeling is useful for a variety of applications from planning remediation to site planning design. The problem often is figuring out how to convert drilling logs, map lists or contaminant levels from soil and groundwater into a 3-D model. Three-dimensional subsurface modeling is not a new requirement, but a flexible, easily applied method of developing such models has not always been readily available. LYNX Geosystems Inc. has developed the Geoscience Modeling System (GMS) in answer to the needs of those regularly having to do three-dimensional geostatistical modeling. The GMS program has been designed to allow analysis, interpretation and visualization of complex geological features and soil and groundwater contamination. This is a powerful program driven by a 30 volume modeling technology engine. Data can be entered, stored, manipulated and analyzed in ways that will present very few limitations to the user. The program has selections for Geoscience Data Management, Geoscience Data Analysis, Geological Modeling (interpretation and analysis), Geostatistical Modeling and an optional engineering component.

  4. An evaluation of 3-D velocity models of the Kanto basin for long-period ground motion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Yadab P.; Yamanaka, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    We performed three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference simulations of long-period ground motions (2-10 s) in the Kanto basin using the Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station (J-SHIS 2009), Yamada and Yamanaka (Exploration Geophysics 65(3):139-150, 2012) (YY), and Head Quarter for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP 2012) velocity models for two intermediate depth (68-80 km) moderate earthquakes (Mw 5.8-5.9), which occurred beneath the Kanto basin. The models primarily differ in the basic data set used in the construction of the velocity models. The J-SHIS and HERP models are the results of integration of mainly geological, geophysical, and earthquake data. On the other hand, the YY model is oriented towards the microtremor-array-observation data. We obtained a goodness of fit between the observed and synthetic data based on three parameters, peak ground velocities (PGVs), smoothed Fourier spectra (FFT), and cross-correlations, using an algorithm proposed by Olsen and Mayhew (Seism Res Lett 81:715-723, 2010). We found that the three models reproduced the PGVs and FFT satisfactorily at most sites. However, the models performed poorly in terms of cross-correlations especially at the basin edges. We found that the synthetics using the YY model overestimate the observed waveforms at several sites located in the areas having V s 0.3 km/s in the top layer; on the other hand, the J-SHIS and HERP models explain the waveforms better at the sites and perform similarly at most sites. We also found that the J-SHIS and HERP models consist of thick sediments beneath some sites, where the YY model is preferable. Thus, we have concluded that the models require revisions for the reliable prediction of long-period ground motions from future large earthquakes.

  5. Constructing a 3D Crustal Model Across the Entire Contiguous US Using Broadband Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity and Ellipticity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. C.; Schmandt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging the crust and lithosphere structure beneath North America is one of the primary targets for the NSF-funded EarthScope project. In this study, we apply the recently developed ambient noise and surface wave tomography methods to construct a detailed 3D crustal model across the entire contiguous US using USArray data between January 2007 and May 2015. By using both Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity measurements between 8 and 100 sec period, the shear velocity structure can be well resolved within the five crustal layers we modeled: three upper crust, one middle crust, and one lower crust. Clear correlations are observed between the resolved velocity anomalies and known geological features at all depths. In the uppermost crust, slow Vs anomalies are observed within major sedimentary environments such as the Williston Basin, Denver Basin, and Mississippi embayment, and fast Vs anomalies are observed in environments with deeply exhumed bedrock outcrops at the surface including the Laurentian Highlands, Ouachita-Ozark Interior Highlands, and Appalachian Highlands. In the deeper upper crust, slow anomalies are observed in deep sedimentary basins such as the Green River Basin, Appalachian Basin, Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, and areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico. Fast anomalies, on the other hand, are observed in the Colorado Plateau, within the Great Plains between the Front Ranges and Midcontinental Rift, and east of the Appalachian Mountains. At this depth, the Midcontinental Rift and Grenville Front clearly correlate well with various velocity structure boundaries. In the middle crust, slow anomalies are mostly observed in the tectonically active areas in the western US, but relatively slow anomalies are also observed southeast of the Precambrian Rift Margins. At this depth, fast anomalies are observed beneath various deep sedimentary basins such as the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, Appalachian Basin, and Central Valley. In the lower crust, a clear

  6. 3D leaf water content mapping using terrestrial laser scanner backscatter intensity with radiometric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Niemann, K. Olaf

    2015-12-01

    Leaf water content (LWC) plays an important role in agriculture and forestry management. It can be used to assess drought conditions and wildfire susceptibility. Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data have been widely used in forested environments for retrieving geometrically-based biophysical parameters. Recent studies have also shown the potential of using radiometric information (backscatter intensity) for estimating LWC. However, the usefulness of backscatter intensity data has been limited by leaf surface characteristics, and incidence angle effects. To explore the idea of using LiDAR intensity data to assess LWC we normalized (for both angular effects and leaf surface properties) shortwave infrared TLS data (1550 nm). A reflectance model describing both diffuse and specular reflectance was applied to remove strong specular backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle. Leaves with different surface properties were collected from eight broadleaf plant species for modeling the relationship between LWC and backscatter intensity. Reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to compensate for incidence angle effects. Results showed that before removing the specular influences, there was no significant correlation (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05) between the backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle and LWC. After the removal of the specular influences, a significant correlation emerged (R2 = 0.74, P < 0.05). The agreement between measured and TLS-derived LWC demonstrated a significant reduction of RMSE (root mean square error, from 0.008 to 0.003 g/cm2) after correcting for the incidence angle effect. We show that it is possible to use TLS to estimate LWC for selected broadleaved plants with an R2 of 0.76 (significance level α = 0.05) at leaf level. Further investigations of leaf surface and internal structure will likely result in improvements of 3D LWC mapping for studying physiology and ecology in vegetation.

  7. Global well-posedness to the 3-D incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with a class of large velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Cuili; Zhang, Ting

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we consider the global well-posedness to the 3-D incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with a class of large velocity. More precisely, assuming a 0 ∈ B˙ q , 1 /3 q ( R 3 ) and u 0 = ( u0 h , u0 3 ) ∈ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) for p, q ∈ (1, 6) with sup ( /1 p , /1 q ) ≤ /1 3 + inf ( /1 p , /1 q ) , we prove that if C a↑0↑ B˙q1/3 q α (↑u0 3↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p/μ + 1 ) ≤ 1 , /C μ (↑u0 h↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p + ↑u03↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p 1 - α ↑u0h↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p α) ≤ 1 , then the system has a unique global solution a ∈ C ˜ ( [ 0 , ∞ ) ; B˙ q , 1 /3 q ( R 3 ) ) , u ∈ C ˜ ( [ 0 , ∞ ) ; B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) ) ∩ L 1 ( R + ; B˙ p , 1 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) ) . It improves the recent result of M. Paicu and P. Zhang [J. Funct. Anal. 262, 3556-3584 (2012)], where the exponent form of the initial smallness condition is replaced by a polynomial form.

  8. Direct measurement of particle size and 3D velocity of a gas-solid pipe flow with digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Yao, Longchao; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2015-03-20

    The 3D measurement of the particles in a gas-solid pipe flow is of great interest, but remains challenging due to curved pipe walls in various engineering applications. Because of the astigmatism induced by the pipe, concentric ellipse fringes in the hologram of spherical particles are observed in the experiments. With a theoretical analysis of the particle holography by an ABCD matrix, the in-focus particle image can be reconstructed by the modified convolution method and fractional Fourier transform. Thereafter, the particle size, 3D position, and velocity are simultaneously measured by digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DHPTV). The successful application of DHPTV to the particle size and 3D velocity measurement in a glass pipe's flow can facilitate its 3D diagnostics.

  9. 3-D or median map? Earthquake scenario ground-motion maps from physics-based models versus maps from ground-motion prediction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are two common ways to create a ground-motion map for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion prediction equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. Maps for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of map tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two maps, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D map.

  10. Advances in animal ecology from 3D-LiDAR ecosystem mapping.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Here, we review insights gained through the application of LiDAR to animal ecology studies, revealing the fundamental importance of structure for animals. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential compared with traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. To develop a better understanding of animal dynamics, future studies will benefit from considering 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa.

  11. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  12. Advances in animal ecology from 3D-LiDAR ecosystem mapping.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Here, we review insights gained through the application of LiDAR to animal ecology studies, revealing the fundamental importance of structure for animals. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential compared with traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. To develop a better understanding of animal dynamics, future studies will benefit from considering 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa. PMID:25457158

  13. Note: A simple method to suppress the artificial noise for velocity map imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhengbo E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn; Li, Chunsheng; Qu, Zehua; Tang, Zichao E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn

    2015-04-15

    A simple method has been proposed to suppress artificial noise from the counts with respect to the central line (or point) for the reconstructed 3D images with cylindrical symmetry in the velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. A raw 2D projection around the z-axis (usually referred to as central line) for photodetachment, photoionization, or photodissociation experiments is pre-processed via angular tailored method to avoid the signal counts distributed near the central line (or point). Two types of photoelectron velocity-map imaging (O{sup −} and Au{sup −} ⋅ NH{sub 3}) are demonstrated to give rise to the 3D images with significantly reduced central line noise after pre-processing operation. The major advantages of the pre-operation are the ability of suppression of central-line noise to resolve weak structures or vibrational excitation in atoms or molecules near photon threshold.

  14. a Review of Cooling Road Maps for 3d Chip Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agonafer, Dereje

    The microelectronics industry has thrived through dimensional scaling and corresponding reduction in cost and increase in performance. It has been reported that the average selling price of a transistor has reduced from a few dollars in the early 50's to a billionth of a dollar in the early 2000. It has, however, become more difficult to sustain reduction in cost by scaling. Also, while new technology nodes results in reduced gate delay, it also effects an increase in the interconnect delay. One approach to delaying new technology node and improving performance is through reduction in interconnect delay through packaging. In particular, 3-D Through-Silicon-Via (3D TSV) technology is emerging as a powerful technology to reduce package footprint, decrease interconnection power, higher frequencies, and provide efficient integration of heterogeneous devices. TSVs provide high speed signal propagation due to reduced interconnect lengths as compared to wirebonding and SOC (system-on-chip). However, with many advantages of 3D ICs over conventional 2D counterpart, there are some inherent thermal-mechanical-electrical challenges that need to be addressed before 3D ICs could become mainstream. This chapter talks about a few of the 3D TSV IC challenges from the thermal, mechanical and the performance standpoint of view. It also discusses a novel technique for high powered 3D IC cooling to sub-ambient temperatures using thermo-electric cooler (TEC).

  15. PF2fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps.

    PubMed

    Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2015-10-01

    There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2) fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2) fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2) fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2) fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2) fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2) fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search.

  16. PF2 fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps

    PubMed Central

    Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2015-01-01

    There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF2 fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF2 fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF2 fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF2 fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF2 fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF2 fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search. PMID:26469938

  17. PF2fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps.

    PubMed

    Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2015-10-01

    There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2) fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2) fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2) fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2) fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2) fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2) fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search. PMID:26469938

  18. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  19. Advances in animal ecology from 3D ecosystem mapping with LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Although the use of LiDAR data is widespread in vegetation science, it has only recently (< 14 years) been applied to animal ecology. Despite such recent application, LiDAR has enabled new insights in the field and revealed the fundamental importance of 3D ecosystem structure for animals. We reviewed the studies to date that have used LiDAR in animal ecology, synthesising the insights gained. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential than traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. LiDAR technology can be applied to animal ecology studies in a wide variety of environments to answer an impressive array of questions. Drawing on case studies from vastly different groups, termites and lions, we further demonstrate the applicability of LiDAR and highlight new understanding, ranging from habitat preference to predator-prey interactions, that would not have been possible from studies restricted to field based methods. We conclude with discussion of how future studies will benefit by using LiDAR to consider 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa to develop a better understanding of animal dynamics.

  20. Mobile 3d Mapping with a Low-Cost Uav System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, F.; Klonowski, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this contribution it is shown how an UAV system can be built at low costs. The components of the system, the equipment as well as the control software are presented. Furthermore an implemented programme for photogrammetric flight planning and its execution are described. The main focus of this contribution is on the generation of 3D point clouds from digital imagery. For this web services and free software solutions are presented which automatically generate 3D point clouds from arbitrary image configurations. Possibilities of georeferencing are described whereas the achieved accuracy has been determined. The presented workflow is finally used for the acquisition of 3D geodata. On the example of a landfill survey it is shown that marketable products can be derived using a low-cost UAV.

  1. A mapping of an ensemble of mitochondrial sequences for various organisms into 3D space based on the word composition.

    PubMed

    Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    To visualize a bird's-eye view of an ensemble of mitochondrial genome sequences for various species, we recently developed a novel method of mapping a biological sequence ensemble into Three-Dimensional (3D) vector space. First, we represented a biological sequence of a species s by a word-composition vector x(s), where its length [absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the sequence length, and its unit vector x(s)/[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the relative composition of the K-tuple words through the sequence and the size of the dimension, N=4(K), is the number of all possible words with the length of K. Second, we mapped the vector x(s) to the 3D position vector y(s), based on the two following simple principles: (1) [absolute value]y(s)[absolute value]=[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] and (2) the angle between y(s) and y(t) maximally correlates with the angle between x(s) and x(t). The mitochondrial genome sequences for 311 species, including 177 Animalia, 85 Fungi and 49 Green plants, were mapped into 3D space by using K=7. The mapping was successful because the angles between vectors before and after the mapping highly correlated with each other (correlation coefficients were 0.92-0.97). Interestingly, the Animalia kingdom is distributed along a single arc belt (just like the Milky Way on a Celestial Globe), and the Fungi and Green plant kingdoms are distributed in a similar arc belt. These two arc belts intersect at their respective middle regions and form a cross structure just like a jet aircraft fuselage and its wings. This new mapping method will allow researchers to intuitively interpret the visual information presented in the maps in a highly effective manner.

  2. A mapping of an ensemble of mitochondrial sequences for various organisms into 3D space based on the word composition.

    PubMed

    Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    To visualize a bird's-eye view of an ensemble of mitochondrial genome sequences for various species, we recently developed a novel method of mapping a biological sequence ensemble into Three-Dimensional (3D) vector space. First, we represented a biological sequence of a species s by a word-composition vector x(s), where its length [absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the sequence length, and its unit vector x(s)/[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the relative composition of the K-tuple words through the sequence and the size of the dimension, N=4(K), is the number of all possible words with the length of K. Second, we mapped the vector x(s) to the 3D position vector y(s), based on the two following simple principles: (1) [absolute value]y(s)[absolute value]=[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] and (2) the angle between y(s) and y(t) maximally correlates with the angle between x(s) and x(t). The mitochondrial genome sequences for 311 species, including 177 Animalia, 85 Fungi and 49 Green plants, were mapped into 3D space by using K=7. The mapping was successful because the angles between vectors before and after the mapping highly correlated with each other (correlation coefficients were 0.92-0.97). Interestingly, the Animalia kingdom is distributed along a single arc belt (just like the Milky Way on a Celestial Globe), and the Fungi and Green plant kingdoms are distributed in a similar arc belt. These two arc belts intersect at their respective middle regions and form a cross structure just like a jet aircraft fuselage and its wings. This new mapping method will allow researchers to intuitively interpret the visual information presented in the maps in a highly effective manner. PMID:22776549

  3. Thermal Performance Mapping of Direct Liquid Cooled 3d Chip Stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Karl J. L.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    Chip stacks are a crucial building block in advanced 3D microsystem architectures and can accommodate shorter interconnect distances between devices, leading to reduced power dissipation and improved electrical performance. Although enhanced conduction can serve to transfer the dissipated heat to the top and sides of the package and/or down to the underlying PCB, effective thermal management of stacked chips remains a most difficult challenge. Immersion cooling techniques, which provide convective and/or ebullient heat transfer, along with buoyant fluid flow, in the narrow gaps separating adjacent chips, are a most promising alternative to conduction cooling of threedimensional chip stacks. Application of the available theories, correlations, and experimental data are shown to reveal that passive immersion cooling--relying on natural convection and/or pool boiling--could provide the requisite thermal management capability for 3D chip stacks anticipated for use in much of the portable equipment category. Alternatively, pumped flow of dielectric liquids through the microgaps in 3D stacks, providing single phase and/or flow boiling heat absorption, could meet many of the most extreme thermal management requirements for high-performance 3D microsystems.

  4. Mapping molecular orientational distributions for biological sample in 3D (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HE, Wei; Ferrand, Patrick; Richter, Benjamin; Bastmeyer, Martin; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Measuring molecular orientation properties is very appealing for scientists in molecular and cell biology, as well as biomedical research. Orientational organization at the molecular scale is indeed an important brick to cells and tissues morphology, mechanics, functions and pathologies. Recent work has shown that polarized fluorescence imaging, based on excitation polarization tuning in the sample plane, is able to probe molecular orientational order in biological samples; however this applies only to information in 2D, projected in the sample plane. To surpass this limitation, we extended this approach to excitation polarization tuning in 3D. The principle is based on the decomposition of any arbitrary 3D linear excitation in a polarization along the longitudinal z-axis, and a polarization in the transverse xy-sample plane. We designed an interferometer with one arm generating radial polarization light (thus producing longitudinal polarization under high numerical aperture focusing), the other arm controlling a linear polarization in the transverse plane. The amplitude ratio between the two arms can vary so as to get any linear polarized excitation in 3D at the focus of a high NA objective. This technique has been characterized by polarimetry imaging at the back focal plane of the focusing objective, and modeled theoretically. 3D polarized fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated on actin stress fibers in non-flat cells suspended on synthetic polymer structures forming supporting pillars, for which heterogeneous actin orientational order could be identified. This technique shows a great potential in structural investigations in 3D biological systems, such as cell spheroids and tissues.

  5. Mapping the North Sea base-Quaternary: using 3D seismic to fill a gap in the geological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    The identification and mapping of the base-Quaternary boundary in the central parts of the North Sea is problematic due to the change from an unconformable transition between Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic deposits in the southern North Sea to a conformable one further north (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). The best estimates of the transition use seismic reflection data to identify a 'crenulated reflector' (Buckley 2012), or rely on correlating sparse biostratigraphy (Cameron et al 1987). Recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) allows greater confidence in the correlation to a regional 3D seismic dataset and show that the base-Quaternary can be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The mapped horizon is presented here alongside the difference between this new interpretation and the previously interpreted base-Quaternary (Buckley 2012). The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT or approximately 1120 m (assuming average velocity of 1800 m/s) showing an elongate basin shape that follows the underlying structure of the Central Graben. The difference between the revised base-Quaternary and the traditional base-Quaternary reaches a maximum of over 600 ms TWT or approximately 540 m in the south-west with over 300 ms TWT or approximately 270 m at the Josephine well (56° 36.11'N, 2° 27.09'E) in the centre of the basin. Mapping this new base-Quaternary allows for the interpretation of the paleo-envionrment during the earliest Quaternary. Seismic attribute analysis indicates a deep water basin with sediment deposition from multiple deltas and redistribution by deep

  6. Measuring distances and reddenings for a billion stars: Toward a 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gregory Maurice; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jurić, Mario; Burgett, Will; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-10

    We present a method to infer reddenings and distances to stars based only on their broad-band photometry, and show how this method can be used to produce a three-dimensional (3D) dust map of the Galaxy. Our method samples from the full probability density function of distance, reddening, and stellar type for individual stars, as well as the full uncertainty in reddening as a function of distance in the 3D dust map. We incorporate prior knowledge of the distribution of stars in the Galaxy and the detection limits of the survey. For stars in the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) 3π survey, we demonstrate that our reddening estimates are unbiased and accurate to ∼0.13 mag in E(B – V) for the typical star. Based on comparisons with mock catalogs, we expect distances for main-sequence stars to be constrained to within ∼20%-60%, although this range can vary, depending on the reddening of the star, the precise stellar type, and its position on the sky. A later paper will present a 3D map of dust over the three quarters of the sky surveyed by PS1. Both the individual stellar inferences and the 3D dust map will enable a wealth of Galactic science in the plane. The method we present is not limited to the passbands of the PS1 survey but may be extended to incorporate photometry from other surveys, such as the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (where available), and in the future, LSST and Gaia.

  7. Advances in 3D soil mapping and water content estimation using multi-channel ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar systems have recently become widely available, thereby opening new possibilities for shallow imaging of the subsurface. One advantage of these systems is that they can significantly reduce survey times by simultaneously collecting multiple lines of GPR reflection data. As a result, it is becoming more practical to complete 3D surveys - particularly in situations where the subsurface undergoes rapid changes, e.g., when monitoring infiltration and redistribution of water in soils. While 3D and 4D surveys can provide a degree of clarity that significantly improves interpretation of the subsurface, an even more powerful feature of the new multi-channel systems for hydrologists is their ability to collect data using multiple antenna offsets. Central mid-point (CMP) surveys have been widely used to estimate radar wave velocities, which can be related to water contents, by sequentially increasing the distance, i.e., offset, between the source and receiver antennas. This process is highly labor intensive using single-channel systems and therefore such surveys are often only performed at a few locations at any given site. In contrast, with multi-channel GPR systems it is possible to physically arrange an array of antennas at different offsets, such that a CMP-style survey is performed at every point along a radar transect. It is then possible to process this data to obtain detailed maps of wave velocity with a horizontal resolution on the order of centimeters. In this talk I review concepts underlying multi-channel GPR imaging with an emphasis on multi-offset profiling for water content estimation. Numerical simulations are used to provide examples that illustrate situations where multi-offset GPR profiling is likely to be successful, with an emphasis on considering how issues like noise, soil heterogeneity, vertical variations in water content and weak reflection returns affect algorithms for automated analysis of the data. Overall

  8. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  9. Segmentation of Hypocenters and 3-D Velocity Structure around the Kii Peninsula Revealed by Onshore and Offshore Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuhara, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamada, T.; Shinohara, M.; Sakai, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimizu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Eurasian Plate at a rate of ~4 cm/year along the Nankai Trough, southwest of Japan. Around the Kii Peninsula, the rupture boundary of the historical Tonankai and Nankai large earthquakes is located, and previous researches have revealed along-strike segmentation of hypocenters [Mochizuki et al., 2010], P-wave anisotropy [Ishise et al., 2009], low frequency earthquake (LFE) distribution [e.g., Obara, 2010] and subduction depth of the Philippine Sea (PHS) Plate, or there may exist a split in the PHS Plate [Ide et al., 2010]. To investigate such segmentation, in our previous work we determined 3-D velocity structure and hypocenters using P- and S-wave arrival times of earthquakes recorded by both ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) that were deployed from 2003 to 2007 and on-land stations [Akuhara et al., 2013]. As a result, it was discovered that Vp/Vs ratio is also segmented within the oceanic crust and at the bottom of the overriding plate, which coincides with the LFE distribution: segment A is located along the Kii Channel, segment B around the western Kii Peninsula, and segment C around the eastern Kii Peninsula. In segment B, Vp/Vs ratio is low within the oceanic crust and LFE cluster characterized by an anomalously small amount of cumulative slip, compared to the other LFE clusters around the Kii Peninsula, is located [Obara, 2010]. The difference of Vp/Vs ratio and LFE activity among segments were interpreted as difference of pore fluid pressure. In fact, similar segmentation can be seen in hypocenters: Segment A with concentrated seismicity in the oceanic mantle, segment B with that in the oceanic crust, and segment C with little seismicity. To derive characteristic patterns of the hypocenters, we conducted a cluster analysis of earthquakes based on waveform similarity represented by cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) [e.g., Cattaneo, 1999], in which we took varying structural site effects among the OBS stations

  10. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

  11. An efficient algorithm for mapping imaging data to 3D unstructured grids in computational biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P; Einstein, David M; Jacob, Richard E; Corley, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging-based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: (i) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstructured ventricular grid; (ii) the mapping of serial cyrosection histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and (iii) the mapping of computed tomography-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case. PMID:23293066

  12. System Considerations and Challendes in 3d Mapping and Modeling Using Low-Cost Uav Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the last few years, low-cost UAV systems have been acknowledged as an affordable technology for geospatial data acquisition that can meet the needs of a variety of traditional and non-traditional mapping applications. In spite of its proven potential, UAV-based mapping is still lacking in terms of what is needed for it to become an acceptable mapping tool. In other words, a well-designed system architecture that considers payload restrictions as well as the specifications of the utilized direct geo-referencing component and the imaging systems in light of the required mapping accuracy and intended application is still required. Moreover, efficient data processing workflows, which are capable of delivering the mapping products with the specified quality while considering the synergistic characteristics of the sensors onboard, the wide range of potential users who might lack deep knowledge in mapping activities, and time constraints of emerging applications, are still needed to be adopted. Therefore, the introduced challenges by having low-cost imaging and georeferencing sensors onboard UAVs with limited payload capability, the necessity of efficient data processing techniques for delivering required products for intended applications, and the diversity of potential users with insufficient mapping-related expertise needs to be fully investigated and addressed by UAV-based mapping research efforts. This paper addresses these challenges and reviews system considerations, adaptive processing techniques, and quality assurance/quality control procedures for achievement of accurate mapping products from these systems.

  13. 3D perfusion mapping in the intact mouse heart after myocardial infarction using myocardial contrast echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinbo; Yang, Zequan; French, Brent A.; Hossack, John A.

    2005-04-01

    An intact mouse model of surgically-induced myocardial infarction (MI) caused by permanent occlusion of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery was studied. Normal mice with no occlusion were also studied as controls. For each mouse, contrast enhanced ultrasound images of the heart were acquired in parallel cross-sections perpendicular to the sternum at millimeter increments. For accurate 3D reconstruction, ECG gating and a tri-axial adjustable micromanipulator were used for temporal and spatial registration. Ultrasound images at steady-state of blood refilling were color-coded in each slice to show relative perfusion. Myocardial perfusion defects and necrosis were also examined postmortem by staining with Phthalo blue and TTC red dyes. Good correlation (R>0.93) in perfused area size was observed between in vivo measurements and histological staining. A 3D multi-slice model and a 3D rendering of perfusion distribution were created and showed a promising match with postmortem results, lending further credence to its use as a more comprehensive and more reliable tool for in vivo assessment of myocardial perfusion than 2D tomographic analysis.

  14. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  15. Comparative Analysis of 3D Expression Patterns of Transcription Factor Genes and Digit Fate Maps in the Developing Chick Wing

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Irene; Bain, Andrew; Planzer, Thorsten; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Hoxd13, Tbx2, Tbx3, Sall1 and Sall3 genes are candidates for encoding antero-posterior positional values in the developing chick wing and specifying digit identity. In order to build up a detailed profile of gene expression patterns in cell lineages that give rise to each of the digits over time, we compared 3 dimensional (3D) expression patterns of these genes during wing development and related them to digit fate maps. 3D gene expression data at stages 21, 24 and 27 spanning early bud to digital plate formation, captured from in situ hybridisation whole mounts using Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) were mapped to reference wing bud models. Grafts of wing bud tissue from GFP chicken embryos were used to fate map regions of the wing bud giving rise to each digit; 3D images of the grafts were captured using OPT and mapped on to the same models. Computational analysis of the combined computerised data revealed that Tbx2 and Tbx3 are expressed in digit 3 and 4 progenitors at all stages, consistent with encoding stable antero-posterior positional values established in the early bud; Hoxd13 and Sall1 expression is more dynamic, being associated with posterior digit 3 and 4 progenitors in the early bud but later becoming associated with anterior digit 2 progenitors in the digital plate. Sox9 expression in digit condensations lies within domains of digit progenitors defined by fate mapping; digit 3 condensations express Hoxd13 and Sall1, digit 4 condensations Hoxd13, Tbx3 and to a lesser extent Tbx2. Sall3 is only transiently expressed in digit 3 progenitors at stage 24 together with Sall1 and Hoxd13; then becomes excluded from the digital plate. These dynamic patterns of expression suggest that these genes may play different roles in digit identity either together or in combination at different stages including the digit condensation stage. PMID:21526123

  16. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  17. RADIAL VELOCITY ECLIPSE MAPPING OF EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix

    2015-07-20

    Planetary rotation rates and obliquities provide information regarding the history of planet formation, but have not yet been measured for evolved extrasolar planets. Here we investigate the theoretical and observational perspective of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect during secondary eclipse (RMse) ingress and egress for transiting exoplanets. Near secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the parent star, the star sequentially obscures light from the approaching and receding parts of the rotating planetary surface. The temporal block of light emerging from the approaching (blueshifted) or receding (redshifted) parts of the planet causes a temporal distortion in the planet’s spectral line profiles resulting in an anomaly in the planet’s radial velocity curve. We demonstrate that the shape and the ratio of the ingress-to-egress radial velocity amplitudes depends on the planetary rotational rate, axial tilt, and impact factor (i.e., sky-projected planet spin–orbital alignment). In addition, line asymmetries originating from different layers in the atmosphere of the planet could provide information regarding zonal atmospheric winds and constraints on the hot spot shape for giant irradiated exoplanets. The effect is expected to be most-pronounced at near-infrared wavelengths, where the planet-to-star contrasts are large. We create synthetic near-infrared, high-dispersion spectroscopic data and demonstrate how the sky-projected spin axis orientation and equatorial velocity of the planet can be estimated. We conclude that the RMse effect could be a powerful method to measure exoplanet spins.

  18. Ligand mapping on protein surfaces by the 3D-RISM theory: toward computational fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takashi; Oda, Koji; Kovalenko, Andriy; Hirata, Fumio; Kidera, Akinori

    2009-09-01

    In line with the recent development of fragment-based drug design, a new computational method for mapping of small ligand molecules on protein surfaces is proposed. The method uses three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution functions of the atomic sites of the ligand calculated using the molecular theory of solvation, known as the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory, to identify the most probable binding modes of ligand molecules. The 3D-RISM-based method is applied to the binding of several small organic molecules to thermolysin, in order to show its efficiency and accuracy in detecting binding sites. The results demonstrate that our method can reproduce the major binding modes found by X-ray crystallographic studies with sufficient precision. Moreover, the method can successfully identify some binding modes associated with a known inhibitor, which could not be detected by X-ray analysis. The dependence of ligand-binding modes on the ligand concentration, which essentially cannot be treated with other existing computational methods, is also investigated. The results indicate that some binding modes are readily affected by the ligand concentration, whereas others are not significantly altered. In the former case, it is the subtle balance in the binding affinity between the ligand and water that determines the dominant ligand-binding mode.

  19. a Multiple Data Set Joint Inversion Global 3d P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Hipp, J. R.; Chael, E. P.; Encarnacao, A.; Maceira, M.; Yang, X.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W.

    2013-12-01

    SALSA3D is a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle developed specifically to provide seismic event locations that are more accurate and more precise than are locations from 1D and 2.5D models. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, for the first time jointly derived from multiple types of data: body wave travel times, surface wave group velocities, and gravity. The latter two are added to provide information in areas with poor body wave coverage, and are down-weighted in areas where body wave coverage is good. To constrain the inversions, we invoked empirical relations among the density, S velocity, and P velocity. We demonstrate the ability of the new SALSA3D model to reduce mislocations and generate statistically robust uncertainty estimates for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. We obtain path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainties for our model by computing the full 3D model covariance matrix of our tomographic system and integrating the model slowness variance and covariance along paths of interest. This approach yields very low travel time prediction uncertainties for well-sampled paths through the Earth and higher uncertainties for paths that are poorly represented in the data set used to develop the model. While the calculation of path-dependent prediction uncertainties with this approach is computationally expensive, uncertainties can be pre-computed for a network of stations and stored in 3D lookup tables that can be quickly and efficiently interrogated using GeoTess software.

  20. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  1. GPU-based rapid reconstruction of cellular 3D refractive index maps from tomographic phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardikman, Gili; Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    We present highly parallel and efficient algorithms for real-time reconstruction of the quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) refractive-index maps of biological cells without labeling, as obtained from the interferometric projections acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The new algorithms are implemented on the graphic processing unit (GPU) of the computer using CUDA programming environment. The reconstruction process includes two main parts. First, we used parallel complex wave-front reconstruction of the TPM-based interferometric projections acquired at various angles. The complex wave front reconstructions are done on the GPU in parallel, while minimizing the calculation time of the Fourier transforms and phase unwrapping needed. Next, we implemented on the GPU in parallel the 3-D refractive index map retrieval using the TPM filtered-back projection algorithm. The incorporation of algorithms that are inherently parallel with a programming environment such as Nvidia's CUDA makes it possible to obtain real-time processing rate, and enables high-throughput platform for label-free, 3-D cell visualization and diagnosis.

  2. Identifying Components in 3D Density Maps of Protein Nanomachines by Multi-scale Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Pintilie, Grigore; Zhang, Junjie; Chiu, Wah; Gossard, David

    2009-04-01

    Segmentation of density maps obtained using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a challenging task, and is typically accomplished by time-intensive interactive methods. The goal of segmentation is to identify the regions inside the density map that correspond to individual components. We present a multi-scale segmentation method for accomplishing this task that requires very little user interaction. The method uses the concept of scale space, which is created by convolution of the input density map with a Gaussian filter. The latter process smoothes the density map. The standard deviation of the Gaussian filter is varied, with smaller values corresponding to finer scales and larger values to coarser scales. Each of the maps at different scales is segmented using the watershed method, which is very efficient, completely automatic, and does not require the specification of seed points. Some detail is lost in the smoothing process. A sharpening process reintroduces detail into the segmentation at the coarsest scale by using the segmentations at the finer scales. We apply the method to simulated density maps, where the exact segmentation (or ground truth) is known, and rigorously evaluate the accuracy of the resulting segmentations.

  3. CheS-Mapper - Chemical Space Mapping and Visualization in 3D

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing chemical datasets is a challenging task for scientific researchers in the field of chemoinformatics. It is important, yet difficult to understand the relationship between the structure of chemical compounds, their physico-chemical properties, and biological or toxic effects. To that respect, visualization tools can help to better comprehend the underlying correlations. Our recently developed 3D molecular viewer CheS-Mapper (Chemical Space Mapper) divides large datasets into clusters of similar compounds and consequently arranges them in 3D space, such that their spatial proximity reflects their similarity. The user can indirectly determine similarity, by selecting which features to employ in the process. The tool can use and calculate different kind of features, like structural fragments as well as quantitative chemical descriptors. These features can be highlighted within CheS-Mapper, which aids the chemist to better understand patterns and regularities and relate the observations to established scientific knowledge. As a final function, the tool can also be used to select and export specific subsets of a given dataset for further analysis. PMID:22424447

  4. Large-scale 3D mapping of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman α forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Melih; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2016-03-01

    Maps of the large-scale structure of the Universe at redshifts 2-4 can be made with the Lyman α forest which are complementary to low-redshift galaxy surveys. We apply the Wiener interpolation method of Caucci et al. to construct three-dimensional maps from sets of Lyman α forest spectra taken from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We mimic some current and future quasar redshift surveys [Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extended BOSS (eBOSS) and Mid-Scale Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (MS-DESI)] by choosing similar sightline densities. We use these appropriate subsets of the Lyman α absorption sightlines to reconstruct the full three-dimensional Lyman α flux field and perform comparisons between the true and the reconstructed fields. We study global statistical properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) maps with autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis, slice plots, local peaks and point-by-point scatter. We find that both the density field and the statistical properties of the IGM are recovered well enough that the resulting IGM maps can be meaningfully considered to represent large-scale maps of the Universe in agreement with Caucci et al., on larger scales and for sparser sightlines than had been tested previously. Quantitatively, for sightline parameters comparable to current and near future surveys the correlation coefficient between true and reconstructed fields is r > 0.9 on scales >30 h-1 Mpc. The properties of the maps are relatively insensitive to the precise form of the covariance matrix used. The final BOSS quasar Lyman α forest sample will allow maps to be made with a resolution of ˜30 h-1 Mpc over a volume of ˜15 h-3 Gpc3 between redshifts 1.9 and 2.3.

  5. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  6. Particle-based optical pressure sensors for 3D pressure mapping.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Niladri; Xie, Yan; Chalaseni, Sandeep; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents particle-based optical pressure sensors for in-flow pressure sensing, especially for microfluidic environments. Three generations of pressure sensitive particles have been developed- flat planar particles, particles with integrated retroreflectors and spherical microballoon particles. The first two versions suffer from pressure measurement dependence on particles orientation in 3D space and angle of interrogation. The third generation of microspherical particles with spherical symmetry solves these problems making particle-based manometry in microfluidic environment a viable and efficient methodology. Static and dynamic pressure measurements have been performed in liquid medium for long periods of time in a pressure range of atmospheric to 40 psi. Spherical particles with radius of 12 μm and balloon-wall thickness of 0.5 μm are effective for more than 5 h in this pressure range with an error of less than 5%.

  7. A 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1 photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Gregory M.

    We have constructed a three-dimensional map of dust in the Milky Way, tracing reddening on ˜ 7' scales out to a distance of several kiloparsecs. We trace reddening using stars embedded in the dust, by simultaneously inferring stellar distance, stellar type, and the reddening along the line of sight. We use 5-band grizy Pan-STARRS 1 photometry of 800 million stars, augmented by 3-band 2MASS JHKs photometry when available. The full map is available at http://argonaut.skymaps.info. An online version of this talk is available at http://http://greg.ory.gr/present/ewass2015.

  8. EMRinger: side chain–directed model and map validation for 3D cryo-electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Barad, Benjamin A.; Echols, Nathaniel; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Cheng, Yifan; DiMaio, Frank; Adams, Paul D.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-08-17

    Advances in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) require the development of validation metrics to independently assess map quality and model geometry. We report that EMRinger is a tool that assesses the precise fitting of an atomic model into the map during refinement and shows how radiation damage alters scattering from negatively charged amino acids. EMRinger (https://github.com/fraser-lab/EMRinger) will be useful for monitoring progress in resolving and modeling high-resolution features in cryo-EM.

  9. Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows: Mapping to regular systems and numerical solutions of blowup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulungye, Rachel M.; Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel D.

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a family of 2D models describing the dynamics on the so-called symmetry plane of the full 3D Euler fluid equations. These models depend on a free real parameter and can be solved analytically. For selected representative values of the free parameter, we apply the method introduced in [M.D. Bustamante, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom. 240, 1092 (2011)] to map the fluid equations bijectively to globally regular systems. By comparing the analytical solutions with the results of numerical simulations, we establish that the numerical simulations of the mapped regular systems are far more accurate than the numerical simulations of the original systems, at the same spatial resolution and CPU time. In particular, the numerical integrations of the mapped regular systems produce robust estimates for the growth exponent and singularity time of the main blowup quantity (vorticity stretching rate), converging well to the analytically-predicted values even beyond the time at which the flow becomes under-resolved (i.e. the reliability time). In contrast, direct numerical integrations of the original systems develop unstable oscillations near the reliability time. We discuss the reasons for this improvement in accuracy, and explain how to extend the analysis to the full 3D case. Supported under the programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Cycle 5 and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

  10. Learning Benefits of Using 2D versus 3D Maps: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Ellder, Erik; Larsson, Anders; Thelin, Mikael; Jansund, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The traditional important role of maps used for educational purposes has gained further potential with recent advances in GIS technology. But beyond specific courses in cartography this potential seems little realized in geography teaching. This article investigates the extent to which any learning benefits may be derived from the use of such…

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic value of 3D NOGA mapping in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Dib, Nabil

    2011-07-01

    The three-dimensional NOGA(®) (Biologics Delivery Systems, a Johnson & Johnson company, Irwindale, CA, USA) electromechanical mapping system simultaneously registers the electrical and mechanical activities of the left ventricle, enabling online assessment of myocardial viability. The system distinguishes between viable, nonviable, stunned, and hibernating myocardium and can assess wall motion. The evaluation of the electrophysiological state of the tissue by NOGA(®) mapping has been validated by comparing the electroanatomical voltage and local linear shortening maps obtained with this technique with several noninvasive diagnostic tests. Bipolar signal analysis and determination of the existence and degree of transmural infarctions are also possible with NOGA(®). Immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention, an increased electromechanical discordance between voltage and local linear shortening maps indicates procedure-induced stunning that is caused by repetitive ischemia or microvascular compromise. Catheter-based direct intramyocardial injection of cells or gene constructs by NOGA(®) reduces the likelihood of systemic toxicity of the injected substance, resulting in minimal washout, limited exposure of nontarget organs, and precise localization to ischemic and peri-ischemic myocardial regions in patients with chronic myocardial ischemia. In addition, direct intramyocardial injection enables the treatment of chronic myocardial infarction by provoking a chemotactic signal at the injection-injury site that contributes to cell engraftment. By measuring the electrical activation pattern in delayed-motion areas, NOGA(®) might also be useful to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:21587214

  12. Hard Copy to Digital Transfer: 3D Models that Match 2D Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes technical drawing techniques applied in a project involving digitizing of existing hard copy subsurface mapping for the preparation of three dimensional graphic and mathematical models. The intent of this research was to identify work flows that would support the project, ensure the accuracy of the digital data obtained,…

  13. 3-D Mind Maps: Placing Young Children in the Centre of Their Own Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howitt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional mind maps are a highly effective tool for providing engaging, kinaesthetic and sensory experiences for young children, with real objects used to promote the sharing of knowledge and the creation of connections. The use of real objects allows children the opportunity to connect with those objects at a personal level, thus placing…

  14. Mapping tropical biodiversity using spectroscopic imagery : characterization of structural and chemical diversity with 3-D radiative transfer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J. B.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Lefèvre-Fonollosa, M. J.; Proisy, C.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity is a major environmental trend. Tropical ecosystems are particularly threatened due to climate change, invasive species, farming and natural resources exploitation. Recent advances in remote sensing of biodiversity confirmed the potential of high spatial resolution spectroscopic imagery for species identification and biodiversity mapping. Such information bridges the scale-gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. In order to produce fine-scale resolution maps of canopy alpha-diversity and beta-diversity of the Peruvian Amazonian forest, we designed, applied and validated a method based on spectral variation hypothesis to CAO AToMS (Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System) images, acquired from 2011 to 2013. There is a need to understand on a quantitative basis the physical processes leading to this spectral variability. This spectral variability mainly depends on canopy chemistry, structure, and sensor's characteristics. 3D radiative transfer modeling provides a powerful framework for the study of the relative influence of each of these factors in dense and complex canopies. We simulated series of spectroscopic images with the 3D radiative model DART, with variability gradients in terms of leaf chemistry, individual tree structure, spatial and spectral resolution, and applied methods for biodiversity mapping. This sensitivity study allowed us to determine the relative influence of these factors on the radiometric signal acquired by different types of sensors. Such study is particularly important to define the domain of validity of our approach, to refine requirements for the instrumental specifications, and to help preparing hyperspectral spatial missions to be launched at the horizon 2015-2025 (EnMAP, PRISMA, HISUI, SHALOM, HYSPIRI, HYPXIM). Simulations in preparation include topographic variations in order to estimate the robustness

  15. Real-time process monitoring and temperature mapping of a 3D polymer printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Love, Lonnie J.; Rowe, John C.

    2013-05-01

    An extended-range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation of the parts as they are being fabricated. The IR camera was also used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of build location within the oven. The observation of the temperature variation of a part during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself creates temperature distributions, which can lead to failure.

  16. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Love, Lonnie J; Rowe, John C

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  17. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  18. Radio triangulation - mapping the 3D position of the solar radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relative position of the sources of the radio emission and the associated solar eruptive phenomena (CME and the associated shock wave) has always been a challenge. While ground-based radio interferometer observations provide us with the 2D position information for the radio emission originating from the low corona (up to 2.5 Ro), this is not the case for the radio emission originating at larger heights. The radio triangulation measurements (also referred to as direction-finding or goniopolarimetric measurements) from two or more widely separated spacecraft can provide information on the 3D positions of the sources of the radio emission. This type of interplanetary radio observations are currently performed by STEREO WAVES and WIND WAVES instruments, providing a unique possibility for up to three simultaneous radio triangulations (using up to three different pairs of spacecraft). The recent results of the radio triangulation studies bring new insight into the causal relationship of the solar radio emission and CMEs. In this presentation I will discuss some of the most intriguing results on the source positions of: a) type III radio bursts indicating propagation of the fast electrons accelerated along the open field lines, b) type II radio bursts indicating interaction of the CME-driven shocks and other coronal structures e.g. streamers and c) type IV-like radio bursts possibly associated with CME-CME interaction.

  19. Evaluating the presentation and usability of 2D and 3D maps generated by unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jason; Baran, David; Evans, A. W.

    2013-05-01

    Currently fielded small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGVs) are operated via teleoperation. This method of operation requires a high level of operator involvement within, or near within, line of sight of the robot. As advances are made in autonomy algorithms, capabilities such as automated mapping can be developed to allow SUGVs to be used to provide situational awareness with an increased standoff distance while simultaneously reducing operator involvement. In order to realize these goals, it is paramount the data produced by the robot is not only accurate, but also presented in an intuitive manner to the robot operator. The focus of this paper is how to effectively present map data produced by a SUGV in order to drive the design of a future user interface. The effectiveness of several 2D and 3D mapping capabilities was evaluated by presenting a collection of pre-recorded data sets of a SUGV mapping a building in an urban environment to a user panel of Soldiers. The data sets were presented to each Soldier in several different formats to evaluate multiple factors, including update frequency and presentation style. Once all of the data sets were presented, a survey was administered. The questions in the survey were designed to gauge the overall usefulness of the mapping algorithm presentations as an information generating tool. This paper presents the development of this test protocol along with the results of the survey.

  20. Development of a numerical procedure to map a general 3-d body onto a near-circle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hommel, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Conformal mapping is a classical technique utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping is utilized in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. These shapes are transformed onto a near-circle image for which the equations of fluid motion are discretized on the mapped plane and solved numerically by utilizing the appropriate techniques. In comparison to other grid-generation techniques such as algerbraic or differential type, conformal mapping offers an analytical and accurate form even if the grid deformation is large. One of the most appealing features is that the grid can be constrained to remain orthogonal to the body after the transformation. Hence, the grid is suitable for analyzing the supersonic flow past a blunt object. The associated shock as a coordinate surface adjusts its position in the course of computation until convergence is reached. The present work applied conformal mapping to 3-D bodies with no axis of symmetry such as the Aerobraking Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, transforming the AFE shape onto a near-circle image. A numerical procedure and code are used to generate grids around the AFE body.

  1. γ-TEMPy: Simultaneous Fitting of Components in 3D-EM Maps of Their Assembly Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Vasishtan, Daven; Alber, Frank; Topf, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary We have developed a genetic algorithm for building macromolecular complexes using only a 3D-electron microscopy density map and the atomic structures of the relevant components. For efficient sampling the method uses map feature points calculated by vector quantization. The fitness function combines a mutual information score that quantifies the goodness of fit with a penalty score that helps to avoid clashes between components. Testing the method on ten assemblies (containing 3–8 protein components) and simulated density maps at 10, 15, and 20 Å resolution resulted in identification of the correct topology in 90%, 70%, and 60% of the cases, respectively. We further tested it on four assemblies with experimental maps at 7.2–23.5 Å resolution, showing the ability of the method to identify the correct topology in all cases. We have also demonstrated the importance of the map feature-point quality on assembly fitting in the lack of additional experimental information. PMID:26655474

  2. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  3. Earthquake relocation using a 3D a-priori geological velocity model from the western Alps to Corsica: Implication for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthoux, Nicole; Theunissen, Thomas; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Font, Yvonne; Thouvenot, François; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Simon, Soazig; Courrioux, Gabriel; Guillen, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The region between the inner zones of the Alps and Corsica juxtaposes an overthickened crust to an oceanic domain, which makes difficult to ascertain the focal depth of seismic events using routine location codes and average 1D velocity models. The aim of this article is to show that, even with a rather lose monitoring network, accurate routine locations can be achieved by using realistic 3D modelling and advanced location techniques. Previous earthquake tomography studies cover the whole region with spatial resolutions of several tens of kilometres on land, but they fail to resolve the marine domain due to the absence of station coverage and sparse seismicity. To overcome these limitations, we first construct a 3D a-priori P and S velocity model integrating known geophysical and geological information. Significant progress has been achieved in the 3D numerical modelling of complex geological structures by the development of dedicated softwares (e.g. 3D GeoModeller), capable at once of elaborating a 3D structural model from geological and geophysical constraints and, possibly, of refining it by inversion processes (Calcagno et al., 2008). Then, we build an arrival-time catalogue of 1500 events recorded from 2000 to 2011. Hypocentres are then located in this model using a numerical code based on the maximum intersection method (Font et al., 2004), updated by Theunissen et al. (2012), as well as another 3D location technique, the NonLinLoc software (Lomax and Curtis, 2001). The reduction of arrival-time residuals and uncertainties (dh, dz) with respect to classical 1D locations demonstrates the improved accuracy allowed by our approach and confirms the coherence of the 3D geological model built and used in this study. Our results are also compared with previous works that benefitted from the installation of dense temporary networks surrounding the studied epicentre area. The resulting 3D location catalogue allows us to improve the regional seismic hazard assessment

  4. Comprehensive 4D velocity mapping of the heart and great vessels by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is able to measure all three directional components of the velocities of blood flow relative to the three spatial dimensions and the time course of the heart cycle. In this article, methods used for the acquisition, visualization, and quantification of such datasets are reviewed and illustrated. Methods Currently, the acquisition of 3D cine (4D) phase contrast velocity data, synchronized relative to both cardiac and respiratory movements takes about ten minutes or more, even when using parallel imaging and optimized pulse sequence design. The large resulting datasets need appropriate post processing for the visualization of multidirectional flow, for example as vector fields, pathlines or streamlines, or for retrospective volumetric quantification. Applications Multidirectional velocity acquisitions have provided 3D visualization of large scale flow features of the healthy heart and great vessels, and have shown altered patterns of flow in abnormal chambers and vessels. Clinically relevant examples include retrograde streams in atheromatous descending aortas as potential thrombo-embolic pathways in patients with cryptogenic stroke and marked variations of flow visualized in common aortic pathologies. Compared to standard clinical tools, 4D velocity mapping offers the potential for retrospective quantification of flow and other hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions Multidirectional, 3D cine velocity acquisitions are contributing to the understanding of normal and pathologically altered blood flow features. Although more rapid and user-friendly strategies for acquisition and analysis may be needed before 4D velocity acquisitions come to be adopted in routine clinical CMR, their capacity to measure multidirectional flows throughout a study volume has contributed novel insights into cardiovascular fluid dynamics in health and disease. PMID:21235751

  5. 3D mapping of buried underworld infrastructure using dynamic Bayesian network based multi-sensory image data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Cohn, Anthony G.; Muggleton, Jen M.

    2013-05-01

    The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. In this paper a novel multi-sensor image fusion framework has been proposed and investigated using dynamic Bayesian network for automatic detection of buried underworld infrastructure. Experimental multi-sensors images were acquired for a known buried plastic water pipe using Vibro-acoustic sensor based location methods and Ground Penetrating Radar imaging system. Computationally intelligent conventional image processing techniques were used to process three types of sensory images. Independently extracted depth and location information from different images regarding the target pipe were fused together using dynamic Bayesian network to predict the maximum probable location and depth of the pipe. The outcome from this study was very encouraging as it was able to detect the target pipe with high accuracy compared with the currently existing pipe survey map. The approach was also applied successfully to produce a best probable 3D buried asset map.

  6. 3D modelling of soil texture: mapping and incertitude estimation in centre-France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Martin, Manuel P.; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Richer de Forges, Anne C.; Nehlig, Pierre; Martelet, Guillaume; Arrouays, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Soil texture is an important component of all soil physical-chemical processes. The spatial variability of soil texture plays a crucial role in the evaluation and modelling of all distributed processes. The object of this study is to determine the spatial variation of soil granulometric fractions (i.e., clay, silt, sand) in the region "Centre" of France in relation to the main controlling factors, and to create extended maps of these properties following GlobalSoilMap specifications. For this purpose we used 2487 soil profiles of the French soil database (IGCS - Inventory Management and Soil Conservation) and continuum depth values of the properties within the soil profiles have been calculated with a quadratic splines methodology optimising the spline parameters in each soil profile. We used environmental covariates to predict soil properties within the region at depth intervals 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-100, and 100-200 cm. Concerning environmental covariates, we used SRTM and ASTER DEM with 90m and 30m resolution, respectively, to generate terrain parameters and topographic indexes. Other covariates we used are Gamma Ray maps, Corine land cover, available geological and soil maps of the region at scales 1M, 250k and 50k. Soil texture is modeled with the application of the compositional data analysis theory namely, alr-transform (Aitchison, 1986) which considers in statistical calculation the complementary dependence between the different granulometric classes (i.e. 100% constraint). The prediction models of the alr-transformed variables have been developed with the use of boosting regression trees (BRT), then, using a LMM - Linear Mixed Model - that separates a fixed effect from a random effect related to the continuous spatially correlated variation of the property. In this case, the LMM is applied to the two co-regionalized properties (clay and sand alr-transforms). Model uncertainty mapping represents a practical way to describe efficiency and limits of

  7. Fusion of terrestrial LiDAR and tomographic mapping data for 3D karst landform investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, B.; Forbriger, M.; Siart, C.; Nowaczinski, E.

    2012-04-01

    Highly detailed topographic information has gained in importance for studying Earth surface landforms and processes. LiDAR has evolved into the state-of-the-art technology for 3D data acquisition on various scales. This multi-sensor system can be operated on several platforms such as airborne LS (ALS), mobile LS (MLS) from moving vehicles or stationary on ground (terrestrial LS, TLS). In karst research the integral investigation of surface and subsurface components of solution depressions (e.g. sediment-filled dolines) is required to gather and quantify the linked geomorphic processes such as sediment flux and limestone dissolution. To acquire the depth of the different subsurface layers, a combination of seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly applied. This multi-method approach allows modeling the extension of different subsurface media (i.e. colluvial fill, epikarst zone and underlying basal bedrock). Subsequent fusion of the complementary techniques - LiDAR surface and tomographic subsurface data - first-time enables 3D prospection and visualization as well as quantification of geomorphometric parameters (e.g. depth, volume, slope and aspect). This study introduces a novel GIS-based method for semi-automated fusion of TLS and geophysical data. The study area is located in the Dikti Mountains of East Crete and covers two adjacent dolines. The TLS data was acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 scanner from 12 scan positions located mainly at the doline divide. The scan positions were co-registered using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm of RiSCAN PRO. For the digital elevation rasters a resolution of 0.5 m was defined. The digital surface model (DSM) of the study was derived by moving plane interpolation of all laser points (including objects) using the OPALS software. The digital terrain model (DTM) was generated by iteratively "eroding" objects in the DSM by minimum filter, which additionally accounts for

  8. 3D Mapping of Polymer Crosslink Density with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J L; Gjersing, E L; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2005-03-11

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to detect areas of low crosslink density in damaged silicone parts in an effort to develop a QA/QC protocol to be used in the development of new parts. Model materials of varying crosslink density first demonstrated the applicability of the method. Analysis of damaged pads has been shown to be clearly distinguishable by MRI. It is our belief that both the T{sub 2} weighted SPI NMR and the T{sub 2} weighted water/fat suppression MRI experiments can be used to map out the location of different cross-linking densities, ultimately determining the quality or homogeneity in polymers.

  9. The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.G.; Davis, M.

    1996-11-01

    GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

  10. Crustal high-velocity anomaly at the East European Craton margin in SE Poland (TESZ) modelled by 3-D seismic tomography of refracted and reflected arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Środa, Piotr; Dec, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The area of Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland represents a contact of major tectonic units of different consolidation age - from the Precambrian East European Craton, through Palaeozoic West European Platform to Cenozoic Carpathian orogen. The region was built by several phases of crustal accretion, which resulted in a complex collage of tectonic blocks. In 2000, this region was studied by several seismic wide-angle profiles of CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, providing a dense coverage of seismic data in SE Poland and allowing for detailed investigations of the crustal structure and properties in this area. Beneath the marginal part of the EEC, the 2-D modelling of in-line data form several CELEBRATION profiles revealed a prominent high P-wave velocity anomaly in the upper crust, with Vp of 6.7-7.1 km/s, starting at 10-16 km depth (e.g., Środa et al., 2006). Anomalously high velocities are observed in the area located approximately beneath Lublin trough, to the NE of Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone. Based on 3-D tomography of first arrivals of in- and off-line CELEBRATION 2000 recordings (Malinowski et al., 2008), elevated velocities are also reported in the same area and seem to continue to the SW, off the craton margin. Gravimetric modelling also revealed anomalously high density in the same region at similar depths. High seismic velocities and densities are interpreted as indicative for a pronounced mafic intrusion, possibly related to extensional processes at the EEC margin. Previous 3-D models of the high-velocity intrusion were based on first arrivals (crustal refractions) only. In this study, also off-line reflections (not modelled up to now) are used, in order to enlarge the data set and to better constrain the geometry and properties of the velocity anomaly. A code for 3-D joint tomographic inversion of refracted and reflected arrivals, with model parametrization allowing for velocity discontinuities was used (Rawlinson, 2007). With this approach, besides the

  11. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  12. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  13. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  14. Scatterer size and concentration estimation technique based on a 3D acoustic impedance map from histologic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2001-05-01

    Accurate estimates of scatterer parameters (size and acoustic concentration) are beneficial adjuncts to characterize disease from ultrasonic backscatterer measurements. An estimation technique was developed to obtain parameter estimates from the Fourier transform of the spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). A 3D impedance map (3DZM) is used to obtain the SAF of tissue. 3DZMs are obtained by aligning digitized light microscope images from histologic preparations of tissue. Estimates were obtained for simulated 3DZMs containing spherical scatterers randomly located: relative errors were less than 3%. Estimates were also obtained from a rat fibroadenoma and a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor (MMT). Tissues were fixed (10% neutral-buffered formalin), embedded in paraffin, serially sectioned and stained with H&E. 3DZM results were compared to estimates obtained independently against ultrasonic backscatter measurements. For the fibroadenoma and MMT, average scatterer diameters were 91 and 31.5 μm, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 and 30 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the independent ultrasonic measurements. The 3D impedance maps show promise as a powerful tool to characterize ultrasonic scattering sites of tissue. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  15. Energy Dispersive X-ray Tomography for 3D Elemental Mapping of Individual Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Thomas J. A.; Lewis, Edward A.; Haigh, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides accurate elemental analysis with high spatial resolution, and is even capable of providing atomically resolved elemental maps. In this technique, a highly focused electron beam is incident upon a thin sample and the energy of emitted X-rays is measured in order to determine the atomic species of material within the beam path. This elementally sensitive spectroscopy technique can be extended to three dimensional tomographic imaging by acquiring multiple spectrum images with the sample tilted along an axis perpendicular to the electron beam direction. Elemental distributions within single nanoparticles are often important for determining their optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. Techniques such as X-ray tomography and slice and view energy dispersive X-ray mapping in the scanning electron microscope provide elementally sensitive three dimensional imaging but are typically limited to spatial resolutions of > 20 nm. Atom probe tomography provides near atomic resolution but preparing nanoparticle samples for atom probe analysis is often challenging. Thus, elementally sensitive techniques applied within the scanning transmission electron microscope are uniquely placed to study elemental distributions within nanoparticles of dimensions 10-100 nm. Here, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy within the STEM is applied to investigate the distribution of elements in single AgAu nanoparticles. The surface segregation of both Ag and Au, at different nanoparticle compositions, has been observed. PMID:27403838

  16. 3-D Shear Wave Velocity Model of Mexico and South US: Bridging Seismic Networks with Ambient Noise Cross-Correlations (C1) and Correlation of Coda of Correlations (C3).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Calò, Marco; Legrand, Denis; Córdoba Montiel, Francisco; Iglesias, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    This work presents an innovative strategy to enhance the resolution of surface wave tomography obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation (C1) by bridging asynchronous seismic networks through the correlation of coda of correlations (C3). Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves show consistent results between synchronous and asynchronous stations. Rayleigh wave group travel times are inverted to construct velocity-period maps with unprecedented resolution for a region covering Mexico and the southern United States. The resulting period maps are then used to regionalize dispersion curves in order to obtain local 1-D shear velocity models (VS) of the crust and uppermost mantle in every cell of a grid of 0.4°. The 1-D structures are obtained by iteratively adding layers until reaching a given misfit, and a global tomography model is considered as an input for depths below 150 km. Finally, a high-resolution 3-D VS model is obtained from these inversions. The major structures observed in the 3-D model are in agreement with the tectonic-geodynamic features and with previous regional and local studies. It also offers new insights to understand the present and past tectonic evolution of the region.

  17. 3-D shear wave velocity model of Mexico and South US: bridging seismic networks with ambient noise cross-correlations (C1) and correlation of coda of correlations (C3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Calò, Marco; Legrand, Denis; Córdoba-Montiel, Francisco; Iglesias, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an innovative strategy to enhance the resolution of surface wave tomography obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation (C1) by bridging asynchronous seismic networks through the correlation of coda of correlations (C3). Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves show consistent results between synchronous and asynchronous stations. Rayleigh wave group traveltimes are inverted to construct velocity-period maps with unprecedented resolution for a region covering Mexico and the southern United States. The resulting period maps are then used to regionalize dispersion curves in order to obtain local 1-D shear velocity models (VS) of the crust and uppermost mantle in every cell of a grid of 0.4°. The 1-D structures are obtained by iteratively adding layers until reaching a given misfit, and a global tomography model is considered as an input for depths below 150 km. Finally, a high-resolution 3-D VS model is obtained from these inversions. The major structures observed in the 3-D model are in agreement with the tectonic-geodynamic features and with previous regional and local studies. It also offers new insights to understand the present and past tectonic evolution of the region.

  18. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  19. 3D mapping of stellar populations in galaxies as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a6-year SDSS-IV survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600A to 10300 A for a representative sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. MaNGA will allow the internal kinematics and spatially-resolved properties of stellar populations and gas inside galaxies to be studied as a function of local environment and halo mass for the very first time. I will present results from our analysis of the first year MaNGA data. The main focus is on the 3-dimensional distribution of stellar population properties in galaxies - formation age, element abundance, IMF slope - studying how these vary spatially in galaxies as a function of galaxy environment and dark matter halo mass.

  20. Mapping electronic ordering in chromium in 3D with x-ray microdiffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ruqing

    2015-03-01

    In the antiferromagnetic state of chromium, electrons form spin-density waves and charge-density waves with wave vector along one of the lattice cubic axes; the spontaneous ordering of the electrons breaks the lattice symmetry and creates domains within a single crystal. We report the first 3-dimentional mapping of charge-density wave domains in bulk polycrystalline chromium samples using differential-aperture x-ray microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357

  1. 3D Vegetation Mapping Using UAVSAR, LVIS, and LIDAR Data Acquisition Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Denice

    2011-01-01

    The overarching objective of this ongoing project is to assess the role of vegetation within climate change. Forests capture carbon, a green house gas, from the atmosphere. Thus, any change, whether, natural (e.g. growth, fire, death) or due to anthropogenic activity (e.g. logging, burning, urbanization) may have a significant impact on the Earth's carbon cycle. Through the use of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) and NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), which are airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) remote sensing technologies, we gather data to estimate the amount of carbon contained in forests and how the content changes over time. UAVSAR and LVIS sensors were sent all over the world with the objective of mapping out terrain to gather tree canopy height and biomass data; This data is in turn used to correlate vegetation with the global carbon cycle around the world.

  2. High-Resolution 3D Bathymetric Mapping for Small Streams Using Low-Altitude Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.

  3. Source fields reconstruction with 3D mapping by means of the virtual acoustic volume concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, S.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.; Schaeffer, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the theoretical framework of the virtual acoustic volume concept and two related inverse Patch Transfer Functions (iPTF) identification methods (called u-iPTF and m-iPTF depending on the chosen boundary conditions for the virtual volume). They are based on the application of Green's identity on an arbitrary closed virtual volume defined around the source. The reconstruction of sound source fields combines discrete acoustic measurements performed at accessible positions around the source with the modal behavior of the chosen virtual acoustic volume. The mode shapes of the virtual volume can be computed by a Finite Element solver to handle the geometrical complexity of the source. As a result, it is possible to identify all the acoustic source fields at the real surface of an irregularly shaped structure and irrespective of its acoustic environment. The m-iPTF method is introduced for the first time in this paper. Conversely to the already published u-iPTF method, the m-iPTF method needs only acoustic pressure and avoids particle velocity measurements. This paper is focused on its validation, both with numerical computations and by experiments on a baffled oil pan.

  4. Multiple mapping conditioning of velocity in turbulent jet flames

    SciTech Connect

    Vaishnavi, P.; Kronenburg, A.

    2010-10-15

    Multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) has emerged as a new approach to model turbulent reacting flows. This study revises the standard MMC closure for velocity in turbulent jet flows from linearity in the reference space to linearity in the composition space. This modeling amendment ensures that the standard velocity model in conditional moment closure studies can now be used for MMC computation as well. A simplified model for the velocity-dependence of MMC drift coefficients is derived without loss of generality and is implemented for the revised velocity closure. Modeling results have been corroborated against the Direct Numerical Simulation database of a spatially evolving, planar turbulent jet flame. The revised model shows marked improvement over standard MMC closure in predicting velocity statistics close to the nozzle. (author)

  5. Development and application of a ray-tracing code integrating with 3D equilibrium mapping in LHD ECH experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.

  6. 3D Mapping of calcite and a demonstration of its relevance to permeability evolution in reactive fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to better understand reaction-induced changes in fluid transport in fractured shales, caprocks and reservoirs, especially in the context of emerging energy technologies, including geologic carbon sequestration, unconventional natural gas, and enhanced geothermal systems. We developed a method for 3D calcite mapping in rock specimens. Such information is critical in reactive transport modeling, which relies on information about the locations and accessible surface area of reactive minerals. We focused on calcite because it is a mineral whose dissolution could lead to substantial pathway alteration because of its high solubility, fast reactivity, and abundance in sedimentary rocks. Our approach combines X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and scanning electron microscopy. The method was developed and demonstrated for a fractured limestone core containing about 50% calcite, which was 2.5 cm in diameter and 3.5 cm in length and had been scanned using XCT. The core was subsequently sectioned and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to determine elemental signatures for mineral identification and mapping. Back-scattered electron microscopy was used to identify features for co-location. Finally, image analysis resulted in characteristic grayscale intensities of X-ray attenuation that identify calcite. This attenuation mapping ultimately produced a binary segmented 3D image of the spatial distribution of calcite in the entire core. To demonstrate the value of this information, permeability changes were investigated for hypothetical fractures created by eroding calcite from 2D rock surfaces. Fluid flow was simulated using a 2D steady state model. The resulting increases in permeability were profoundly influenced by the degree to which calcite is contiguous along the flow path. If there are bands of less reactive minerals perpendicular to the direction of flow, fracture permeability may be an order of magnitude smaller than when calcite is contiguous

  7. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments.

  8. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  9. Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional /3-D/ topographic mapping of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, M. D.; Altschuler, B. R.; Taboada, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the generic utility of a robot in a factory/assembly environment could be substantially enhanced by providing a vision capability to the robot. A standard videocamera for robot vision provides a two-dimensional image which contains insufficient information for a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of an object. Approaches which supply the additional information needed for the three-dimensional mapping of objects with complex surface shapes are briefly considered and a description is presented of a laser-based system which can provide three-dimensional vision to a robot. The system consists of a laser beam array generator, an optical image recorder, and software for controlling the required operations. The projection of a laser beam array onto a surface produces a dot pattern image which is viewed from one or more suitable perspectives. Attention is given to the mathematical method employed, the space coding technique, the approaches used for obtaining the transformation parameters, the optics for laser beam array generation, the hardware for beam array coding, and aspects of image acquisition.

  10. 3D unmanned aerial vehicle radiation mapping for assessing contaminant distribution and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. G.; Kwong, S.; Smith, N. T.; Yamashiki, Y.; Payton, O. D.; Russell-Pavier, F. S.; Fardoulis, J. S.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.

    2016-10-01

    Following the events of March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, significant quantities of radioactive material were released into the local and wider global environment. At five years since the incident, much expense is being currently devoted to the remediation of a large portion of eastern Japan contaminated primarily by radiocesium, yet further significant expenditure will be required over the succeeding decades to complete this clean-up. People displaced from their homes by the incident are now increasingly keen to return, making it more important than ever to provide accurate quantification and representation of any residual radiological contamination. Presented here is the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a laser rangefinder unit to generate a three dimensional point-cloud of an area onto which a radiation contamination map, also obtained concurrently via the unmanned aerial platform, can be rendered. An exemplar site of an un-remediated farm consisting of multiple stepped rice paddy fields with a dedicated irrigation system was used for this work. The results obtained show that heightened radiological contamination exists around the site within the drainage network where material is observed to have collected, having been transported by transient water runoff events. These results obtained in May 2014 suggest that a proportion of the fallout material is highly mobile within the natural environment and is likely to be transported further through the system over the succeeding years.

  11. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  12. Regional 3D Numerical Modeling of the Lithosphere-Mantle System: Implications for Continental Rift-Parallel Surface Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, S.; Bangerth, W.; Hager, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is an active divergent plate boundary with slow, approximately E-W extension rates ranging from <1-6 mm/yr. Previous work using thin-sheet modeling indicates lithospheric buoyancy dominates the force balance driving large-scale Nubia-Somalia divergence, however GPS observations within the Western Branch of the EARS show along-rift motions that contradict this simple model. Here, we test the role of mantle flow at the rift-scale using our new, regional 3D numerical model based on the open-source code ASPECT. We define a thermal lithosphere with thicknesses that are systematically changed for generic models or based on geophysical constraints in the Western branch (e.g. melting depths, xenoliths, seismic tomography). Preliminary results suggest existing variations in lithospheric thicknesses along-rift in the Western Branch can drive upper mantle flow that is consistent with geodetic observations.

  13. 3D Inversion of a Self-Potential Dataset for Contaminant Detection and Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Sogade, J.; Briggs, V.; Lambert, M.; Reppert, P.; Coles, D.; Morgan, F.; Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.; Shi, W.

    2003-12-01

    Due to the complicated nature of subsurface contaminant migration, it is difficult to determine the spatial extent and severity of contamination, which can provide essential information for efficient remediation efforts. Self-potential (SP) geophysics is employed to provide a minimally invasive, fast, and inexpensive method for remote in-situ detection and three-dimensional mapping of subsurface DNAPL (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) in conjunction with inverse methods. The self-potential method is commonly used to detect a variety of phenomena that are typically related to thermoelectric, electrochemical, or electrokinetic coupling processes. Surface self-potential surveys have been documented to show anomalies over areas known to be contaminated, but interpretation of these datasets is often mostly qualitative, and can be plagued with problems of non-uniqueness. In this study, oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, one of the mechanisms associated with the attenuation of chemicals released into the environment, provide an electrochemical source for the SP signal. Electrochemical potentials associated with subsurface zones of redox activity are analogous to localized 'batteries' buried within native earth materials, and produce an electric field that is remotely detected using electrodes placed at the surface and in nearby boreholes. Three-dimensional inversion of the self-potential data incorporating resistivity information is the necessary step in characterizing the source parameters, which are directly related to the redox activity, and therefore to the contaminant itself. Surface and borehole SP data are collected in order to help constrain the solution in depth, and resistivity information is taken from an induced polarization survey performed over the same area during this field excursion. Inversion results are correlated with contaminant concentration data sampled from a series of ground-truth boreholes within the region of interest.

  14. Influence of center of pressure estimation errors on 3D inverse dynamics solutions during gait at different velocities.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Junior, Franklin; Ackermann, Marko; Loss, Jefferson F; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors in the location of the center of pressure (5 and 10 mm) on lower limb joint moment uncertainties at different gait velocities (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s). Our hypotheses were that the absolute joint moment uncertainties would be gradually reduced from distal to proximal joints and from higher to lower velocities. Joint moments of five healthy young adults were calculated by inverse dynamics using the bottom-up approach, depending on which estimate the uncertainty propagated. Results indicated that there is a linear relationship between errors in center of pressure and joint moment uncertainties. The absolute moment peak uncertainties expressed on the anatomic reference frames decreased from distal to proximal joints, confirming our first hypothesis, except for the abduction moments. There was an increase in moment uncertainty (up to 0.04 N m/kg for the 10 mm error in the center of pressure) from the lower to higher gait velocity, confirming our second hypothesis, although, once again, not for hip or knee abduction. Finally, depending on the plane of movement and the joint, relative uncertainties experienced variation (between 5 and 31%), and the knee joint moments were the most affected.

  15. Mapping the Monoceros Ring in 3D with Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganson, Eric; Conn, Blair; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; Dolphin, Andrew; Draper, Peter W.; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Metcalfe, Nigel; Schlafly, Edward F.; Slater, Colin T.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher Z.

    2016-07-01

    Using the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we derive limiting magnitude, spatial completeness, and density maps that we use to probe the three-dimensional structure and estimate the stellar mass of the so-called Monoceros Ring. The Monoceros Ring is an enormous and complex stellar sub-structure in the outer Milky Way disk. It is most visible across the large Galactic Anticenter region, 120^\\circ \\lt l\\lt 240^\\circ , -30^\\circ \\lt b\\lt +40^\\circ . We estimate its stellar mass density profile along every line of sight in 2° × 2° pixels over the entire 30,000 deg2 Pan-STARRS1 survey using the previously developed match software. By parsing this distribution into a radially smooth component and the Monoceros Ring, we obtain its mass and distance from the Sun along each relevant line of sight. The Monoceros Ring is significantly closer to us in the south (6 kpc) than in the north (9 kpc). We also create 2D cross-sections parallel to the Galactic plane that show 135° of the Monoceros Ring in the south and 170° of the Monoceros Ring in the north. We show that the northern and southern structures are also roughly concentric circles, suggesting that they may be waves rippling from a common origin. Excluding the Galactic plane ˜ +/- 4^\\circ , we observe an excess mass of 4× {10}6{M}⊙ across 120^\\circ \\lt l\\lt 240^\\circ . If we interpolate across the Galactic plane, we estimate that this region contains 8× {10}6{M}⊙ . If we assume (somewhat boldly) that the Monoceros Ring is a set of two Galactocentric rings, its total mass is 6× {10}7{M}⊙ . Finally, if we assume that it is a set of two circles centered at a point 4 kpc from the Galactic center in the anti-central direction, as our data suggests, we estimate its mass to be 4× {10}7{M}⊙ .

  16. 3D seismic velocity structure in the rupture area of the 2014 M8.2 Iquique earthquake in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, Jack; Fuenzallida, Amaya; Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas; Ruiz, Sergio; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-04-01

    Seismic velocity tomography is one of the key tools in Earth sciences to image the physical properties of the subsurface. In recent years significant advances have been made to image the Chilean subductions zone, especially in the area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake (e.g. Hicks et al., 2014), providing much needed physical constraints for earthquakes source inversions and rupture models. In 2014 the M8.2 Iquique earthquake struck the northern part of the Chilean subduction zone in close proximity to the Peruvian boarder. The pre- and aftershock sequence of this major earthquake was recorded by a densified seismological network in Northern Chile and Southern Peru, which provides an excellent data set to study in depth the 3D velocity structure along the subduction megathrust. Based on an automatic event catalogue of nearly 10,000 events spanning the time period March to May 2014 we selected approximately 450 events for a staggered 3D inversion approach. Events are selected to guarantee an even ray coverage through the inversion volume. We only select events with a minimum GAP of 200 to improve depth estimates and therefore increase resolution in the marine forearc. Additionally, we investigate secondary arrivals between the P- and S-wave arrival to improve depth location. Up to now we have processed about 450 events, from which about 150 with at least 30 P- and S-wave observations have been selected for the subsequent 3D tomography. Overall the data quality is very high, which allows arrival time estimates better than 0.05s on average. We will show results from the 1D, 2D, and preliminary 3D inversions and discuss the results together with the obtained seismicity distribution.

  17. One specific velocity color mapping using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Proskurin, Sergey G; Potlov, Anton Yu; Frolov, Sergej V

    2015-05-01

    Depth resolved coherence gating along with Doppler shift detection of the carrier frequency is used for one predetermined velocity mapping in different flows. Bidirectional rapid scanning optical delay of optical coherence tomography system is applied in the reference arm. Tilted capillary entry is used as a hydrodynamic phantom to model a sign-variable flow with complex geometry. Structural and one specific velocity images are obtained from the scanning interferometer signal processing in the frequency domain using analog and digital filtering. A standard structural image is decomposed into three parts: stationary object, and positive and negative velocity distributions. The latter two show equivelocity maps of the flow. The final image is represented as the complexation of the three.

  18. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  19. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitz, F. F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-03-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18-125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the non-plane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ~200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high stress

  20. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  1. Mapping and characterizing endometrial implants by registering 2D transvaginal ultrasound to 3D pelvic magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Yavariabdi, Amir; Bartoli, Adrien; Samir, Chafik; Artigues, Maxime; Canis, Michel

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new deformable slice-to-volume registration method to register a 2D Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVUS) to a 3D Magnetic Resonance (MR) volume. Our main goal is to find a cross-section of the MR volume such that the endometrial implants and their depth of infiltration can be mapped from TVUS to MR. The proposed TVUS-MR registration method uses contour to surface correspondences through a novel variational one-step deformable Iterative Closest Point (ICP) method. Specifically, we find a smooth deformation field while establishing point correspondences automatically. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method by quantitative and qualitative tests on both semi-synthetic and clinical data. To generate semi-synthetic data sets, 3D surfaces are deformed with 4-40% degrees of deformation and then various intersection curves are obtained at 0-20° cutting angles. Results show an average mean square error of 5.7934±0.4615mm, average Hausdorff distance of 2.493±0.14mm, and average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.9750±0.0030.

  2. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  3. C2SM: a mobile system for detecting and 3D mapping of chemical, radiological, and nuclear contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Ng, Ho-Kong; Bondy, Michel; McDiarmid, C. H.

    2009-05-01

    CBRN Crime Scene Modeler (C2SM) is a prototype mobile CBRN mapping system for First Responders in events where Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear agents where used. The prototype operates on board a small robotic platform, increases situational awareness of the robot operator by providing geo-located images and data, and current robot location. The sensor suite includes stereo and high resolution cameras, a long wave infra red (thermal) camera and gamma and chemical detectors. The system collects and sends geo-located data to a remote command post in near real-time and automatically creates 3D photorealistic model augmented with CBRN measurements. Two prototypes have been successfully tested in field trials and a fully ruggedised commercial version is expected in 2010.

  4. 3D statistical parametric mapping of EEG source spectra by means of variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA).

    PubMed

    Bosch-Bayard, J; Valdés-Sosa, P; Virues-Alba, T; Aubert-Vázquez, E; John, E R; Harmony, T; Riera-Díaz, J; Trujillo-Barreto, N

    2001-04-01

    This article describes a new method for 3D QEEG tomography in the frequency domain. A variant of Statistical Parametric Mapping is presented for source log spectra. Sources are estimated by means of a Discrete Spline EEG inverse solution known as Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA). Anatomical constraints are incorporated by the use of the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) probabilistic brain atlas. Efficient methods are developed for frequency domain VARETA in order to estimate the source spectra for the set of 10(3)-10(5) voxels that comprise an EEG/MEG inverse solution. High resolution source Z spectra are then defined with respect to the age dependent mean and standard deviations of each voxel, which are summarized as regression equations calculated from the Cuban EEG normative database. The statistical issues involved are addressed by the use of extreme value statistics. Examples are shown that illustrate the potential clinical utility of the methods herein developed.

  5. The Utility of 3D Left Atrial Volume and Mitral Flow Velocities as Guides for Acute Volume Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Claudia M; Rose, David D; Fleming, Neal W

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is the foundation of cardiac function assessment. Because of difficulties and risks associated with its direct measurement, correlates of LVEDP derived by pulmonary artery (PA) catheterization or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are commonly adopted. TEE has the advantage of being less invasive; however TEE-based estimation of LVEDP using correlates such as left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) has technical difficulties that limit its clinical usefulness. Using intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a controlled hemorrhagic model, we examined various mitral flow parameters and three-dimensional reconstructions of left atrial volume as surrogates of LVEDP. Our results demonstrate that peak E wave velocity and left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) correlated with known changes in intravascular volume associated with ANH. Although left atrial volumetric analysis was done offline in our study, recent advances in echocardiographic software may allow for continuous display and real-time calculation of LAEDV. Along with the ease and reproducibility of acquiring Doppler images of flow across the mitral valve, these two correlates of LVEDP may justify a more widespread use of TEE to optimize intraoperative fluid management. The clinical applicability of peak E wave velocity and LAEDV still needs to be validated during uncontrolled resuscitation.

  6. Shear wave velocity for the upper 30 m: Combining a 3D voxel model and seismic CPTS for the Groningen gas field, the Netherlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambrink, Roula; Gunnink, Jan; Stafleu, Jan; de Lange, Ger; Kruiver, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Groningen gas field in the Netherlands is one of the largest gas fields of Europe and has been in production since the 1960's. Due to the progressive depletion of the reservoir, induced seismic activity has increased in recent years. In 2012, an earthquake of magnitude 3.6 initiated further research in prediction and management of risks related to man-induced earthquakes. Last year the government decided to reduce the gas extraction for this reason. One of the topics of concern is the large difference in earthquake-related damage to buildings which, in addition to the distance to the epicenter, appears to be also related to the composition of the shallow subsurface. To improve the spatial distribution of Shear Wave Velocities (Vs) in the shallow subsurface, used for hazard prediction, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands and Deltares constructed a Vs30 map of the upper 30 m of the gas field. In this map a high-resolution geological model (GeoTOP) is combined with seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) from the area. The GeoTOP model is a 3D voxel model of the upper 50 m, in which each voxel (100x100x0.5 m) is attributed with lithostratigraphy and the most likely lithological class (peat, clay, fine sand, etc.). To obtain statistical distributions (with mean and standard deviation) of Vs for each combination of lithostratigraphical unit and lithoclass, 60 SCPTs were analyzed. In this way, it was possible to assign a specific Vs to each voxel in the model. For each voxel in the stack of voxels that covers the upper 30 m (i.e. 60 voxels), a Vs value was randomly drawn from the statistical distribution of the lithostratigraphical - lithoclass combination it belongs to. The Vs30 for each voxelstack is then calculated using the harmonic mean of the Vs of the 60 voxels. By repeating this procedure 100 times, an (average) Vs30 map and the uncertainty in Vs30 has been constructed. Using the procedure described above we were able to delineate zones with distinct Vs30

  7. Combined interpretation of 3D seismic reflection attributes for geothermal exploration in the Polish Basin using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Klaus; Pussak, Marcin; Stiller, Manfred; Bujakowski, Wieslaw

    2014-05-01

    Self-organizing maps (SOM) are neural network techniques which can be used for the joint interpretation of multi-disciplinary data sets. In this investigation we apply SOM within a geothermal exploration project using 3D seismic reflection data. The study area is located in the central part of the Polish basin. Several sedimentary target horizons were identified at this location based on fluid flow rate measurements in the geothermal research well Kompina-2. The general objective is a seismic facies analysis and characterization of the major geothermal target reservoir. A 3D seismic reflection experiment with a sparse acquisition geometry was carried out around well Kompina-2. Conventional signal processing (amplitude corrections, filtering, spectral whitening, deconvolution, static corrections, muting) was followed by normal-moveout (NMO) stacking, and, alternatively, by common-reflection-surface (CRS) stacking. Different signal attributes were then derived from the stacked images including root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude, instantaneous frequency and coherency. Furthermore, spectral decomposition attributes were calculated based on the continuous wavelet transform. The resulting attribute maps along major target horizons appear noisy after the NMO stack and clearly structured after the CRS stack. Consequently, the following SOM-based multi-parameter signal attribute analysis was applied only to the CRS images. We applied our SOM work flow, which includes data preparation, unsupervised learning, segmentation of the trained SOM using image processing techniques, and final application of the learned knowledge. For the Lower Jurassic target horizon Ja1 we derived four different clusters with distinct seismic attribute signatures. As the most striking feature, a corridor parallel to a fault system was identified, which is characterized by decreased RMS amplitudes and low frequencies. In our interpretation we assume that this combination of signal properties can be

  8. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  9. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  10. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  11. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  12. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry. PMID:25847969

  13. Preliminary result of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes in the Molucca collision zone with a 3D velocity model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash E-mail: h.a.shiddiqi@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-24

    We have relocated hypocenters of earthquakes occurring in the Molucca collision zone and surrounding region taken from the BMKG catalog using teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD). We used P-wave arrival times of local, regional, and teleseismic events recorded at 304 recording stations. Over 7,000 earthquakes were recorded by the BMKG seismographicnetworkin the study region from April, 2009 toJune, 2014. We used a 3D regional-global nested velocity modelresulting fromprevious global tomographystudy. In this study, the3D seismic velocity model was appliedto theIndonesian region, whilethe1D seismicvelocity model (ak135)wasused for regions outside of Indonesia. Our relocation results show a better improvement in travel-time RMS residuals comparedto those of the BMKG catalog.Ourresultsalso show that relocation shifts were dominated intheeast-west direction, whichmaybeinfluenced by theexistingvelocity anomaly related to the reversed V-shaped slabbeneaththestudy region. Our eventrelocation results refine the geometry of slabs beneath the Halmahera and Sangihe arcs.

  14. Calculation of three-dimensional (3-D) internal flow by means of the velocity-vorticity formulation on a staggered grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to accurately compute the viscous flow in three-dimensional (3-D) enclosures. This method is the 3-D extension of a two-dimensional (2-D) method developed for the calculation of flow over airfoils. The 2-D method has been tested extensively and has been shown to accurately reproduce experimental results. As in the 2-D method, the 3-D method provides for the non-iterative solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of a fully coupled implicit technique. The solution is calculated on a body fitted computational mesh incorporating a staggered grid methodology. In the staggered grid method, the three components of vorticity are defined at the centers of the computational cell sides, while the velocity components are defined as normal vectors at the centers of the computational cell faces. The staggered grid orientation provides for the accurate definition of the vorticity components at the vorticity locations, the divergence of vorticity at the mesh cell nodes and the conservation of mass at the mesh cell centers. The solution is obtained by utilizing a fractional step solution technique in the three coordinate directions. The boundary conditions for the vorticity and velocity are calculated implicitly as part of the solution. The method provides for the non-iterative solution of the flow field and satisfies the conservation of mass and divergence of vorticity to machine zero at each time step. To test the method, the calculation of simple driven cavity flows have been computed. The driven cavity flow is defined as the flow in an enclosure driven by a moving upper plate at the top of the enclosure. To demonstrate the ability of the method to predict the flow in arbitrary cavities, results will he shown for both cubic and curved cavities.

  15. Validation of a CFD model by using 3D sonic anemometers to analyse the air velocity generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, F Javier; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A Javier; Boné, Antonio; Puyuelo, Javier; Vidal, Mariano

    2015-01-22

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans was developed and validated by practical experiments in the laboratory. The CFD model was developed by considering the total air flow supplied by the sprayer fan to be the main parameter, rather than the outlet air velocity. The model was developed for three air flows corresponding to three fan blade settings and assuming that the sprayer is stationary. Actual measurements of the air velocity near the sprayer were taken using 3D sonic anemometers. The workspace sprayer was divided into three sections, and the air velocity was measured in each section on both sides of the machine at a horizontal distance of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m from the machine, and at heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m above the ground The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated and measured values was 0.859, which demonstrates a good correlation between the simulated and measured data. Considering the overall data, the air velocity values produced by the CFD model were not significantly different from the measured values.

  16. Validation of a CFD Model by Using 3D Sonic Anemometers to Analyse the Air Velocity Generated by an Air-Assisted Sprayer Equipped with Two Axial Fans

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, F. Javier; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A. Javier; Boné, Antonio; Puyuelo, Javier; Vidal, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans was developed and validated by practical experiments in the laboratory. The CFD model was developed by considering the total air flow supplied by the sprayer fan to be the main parameter, rather than the outlet air velocity. The model was developed for three air flows corresponding to three fan blade settings and assuming that the sprayer is stationary. Actual measurements of the air velocity near the sprayer were taken using 3D sonic anemometers. The workspace sprayer was divided into three sections, and the air velocity was measured in each section on both sides of the machine at a horizontal distance of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m from the machine, and at heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m above the ground The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated and measured values was 0.859, which demonstrates a good correlation between the simulated and measured data. Considering the overall data, the air velocity values produced by the CFD model were not significantly different from the measured values. PMID:25621611

  17. The LLNL-G3D global P-wave velocity model and the significance of the BayesLoc multiple-event location procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2011-12-01

    LLNL-G3D is a global-scale model of P-wave velocity designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The underlying goal of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. Previous versions of LLNL-G3D (versions 1 and 2) provide substantial improvements in event location accuracy via 3-D ray tracing. The latest models are based on ~2.7 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multi-event locator known as BayesLoc. Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability distribution across multiple-event location parameters, including hypocenters, travel time corrections, pick precision, and phase labels. Modeling the whole multiple-event system results in accurate locations and an internally consistent data set that is ideal for tomography. Our recently developed inversion approach (called Progressive Multi-level Tessellation Inversion or PMTI) captures regional trends and fine details where data warrant. Using PMTI, we model multiple heterogeneity scale lengths without defining parameter grids with variable densities based on some ad hoc criteria. LLNL-G3Dv3 (version 3) is produced with data generated with the BayesLoc procedure, recently modified to account for localized travel time trends via a multiple event clustering technique. We demonstrate the significance of BayesLoc processing, the impact on the resulting tomographic images, and the application of LLNL-G3D to seismic event location. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-491805.

  18. 3D seismic imaging, example of 3D area in the middle of Banat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antic, S.

    2009-04-01

    3D seismic imaging was carried out in the 3D seismic volume situated in the middle of Banat region in Serbia. The 3D area is about 300 km square. The aim of 3D investigation was defining geology structures and techtonics especially in Mesozoik complex. The investigation objects are located in depth from 2000 to 3000 m. There are number of wells in this area but they are not enough deep to help in the interpretation. It was necessary to get better seismic image in deeper area. Acquisition parameters were satisfactory (good quality of input parameters, length of input data was 5 s, fold was up to 4000 %) and preprocessed data was satisfied. GeoDepth is an integrated system for 3D velocity model building and for 3D seismic imaging. Input data for 3D seismic imaging consist of preprocessing data sorted to CMP gathers and RMS stacking velocity functions. Other type of input data are geological information derived from well data, time migrated images and time migrated maps. Workflow for this job was: loading and quality control the input data (CMP gathers and velocity), creating initial RMS Velocity Volume, PSTM, updating the RMS Velocity Volume, PSTM, building the Initial Interval Velocity Model, PSDM, updating the Interval Velocity Model, PSDM. In the first stage the attempt is to derive initial velocity model as simple as possible as.The higher frequency velocity changes are obtained in the updating stage. The next step, after running PSTM, is the time to depth conversion. After the model is built, we generate a 3D interval velocity volume and run 3D pre-stack depth migration. The main method for updating velocities is 3D tomography. The criteria used in velocity model determination are based on the flatness of pre-stack migrated gathers or the quality of the stacked image. The standard processing ended with poststack 3D time migration. Prestack depth migration is one of the powerful tool available to the interpretator to develop an accurate velocity model and get

  19. The 3-D distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in southwestern Japan and the western part of the Nankai subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    waves at high frequencies (>1 Hz) show collapsed and broadened wave trains caused by multiple scattering in the lithosphere. This study analyzed the envelopes of direct S waves in southwestern Japan and on the western side of the Nankai trough and estimated the spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities by assuming a von Kármán type power spectral density function (PSDF). Strongly inhomogeneous media have been mostly imaged at shallow depth (0-20 km depth) in the onshore area of southwestern Japan, and their PSDF is represented as P(m) ≈ 0.05m-3.7 km3, with m being the spatial wave number, whereas most of the other area shows weak inhomogeneities of which PSDF is P(m) ≈ 0.005m-4.5 km3. At Hyuga-nada in Nankai trough, there is an anomaly of inhomogeneity of which PSDF is estimated as P(m) ≈ 0.01m-4.5 km3. This PSDF has the similar spectral gradient with the weakly inhomogeneous media, but has larger power spectral density than other offshore areas. This anomalous region is broadly located in the subducted Kyushu Palau ridge, which was identified by using velocity structures and bathymetry, and it shows no clear correlation with the fault zones of large earthquakes in past decades. These spatial correlations suggest that possible origins of inhomogeneities at Hyuga-nada are ancient volcanic activity in the oceanic plate or deformed structures due to the subduction of the Kyushu Palau ridge.

  20. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    utilities were mostly undetectable. Through a ground-truthing program of test holes to expose utilities, the depth values derived from the enhanced GPR were fairly consistent and within 15 cm of actual depth. The incomplete underground picture determined by the enhanced GPR reinforces previous studies that show that the mapping of existing underground utilities is a multi-tool effort that takes highly trained and skilled field technicians and data interpreters. The addition of a new GPR tool is valuable in determining continuous depth profiles of imaged utilities. A second and significant benefit is the interpretation of other geotechnical data that benefit project designers. This might include showing geometry, location, intensity, and depths of either areas of anomalies, or of known structures, such as paving thickness, substrate thickness, voids, water table, soil lenses, boulders, bedrock, and so forth. The Florida Department of Transportation has decided to take advantage of this new technology and has entered into an experimental contract with Cardno TBE to incorporate several enhanced GPR arrays with traditional utility detection tools. The goal of this contract will be to provide a 3-D model of existing underground utilities for use in automated construction. The GPR 3-D data model will be melded with conventional subsurface utility engineering and mapping practices and will be required to follow the ASCE 38 standard for utility data reliability.

  1. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva

    2016-09-01

    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  2. Screening Method for the Discovery of Potential Bioactive Cysteine-Containing Peptides Using 3D Mass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosten, Luuk N.; Pieterse, Mervin; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Animal venoms and toxins are a valuable source of bioactive peptides with pharmacologic relevance as potential drug leads. A large subset of biologically active peptides discovered up till now contain disulfide bridges that enhance stability and activity. To discover new members of this class of peptides, we developed a workflow screening specifically for those peptides that contain inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds by means of three-dimensional (3D) mass mapping. Two intrinsic properties of the sulfur atom, (1) its relatively large negative mass defect, and (2) its isotopic composition, allow for differentiation between cysteine-containing peptides and peptides lacking sulfur. High sulfur content in a peptide decreases the normalized nominal mass defect (NMD) and increases the normalized isotopic shift (NIS). Hence in a 3D plot of mass, NIS, and NMD, peptides with sulfur appear in this plot with a distinct spatial localization compared with peptides that lack sulfur. In this study we investigated the skin secretion of two frog species; Odorrana schmackeri and Bombina variegata. Peptides from the crude skin secretions were separated by nanoflow LC, and of all eluting peptides high resolution zoom scans were acquired in order to accurately determine both monoisotopic mass and average mass. Both the NMD and the NIS were calculated from the experimental data using an in-house developed MATLAB script. Candidate peptides exhibiting a low NMD and high NIS values were selected for targeted de novo sequencing, and this resulted in the identification of several novel inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bond containing peptides.

  3. 3D-QSAR AND CONTOUR MAP ANALYSIS OF TARIQUIDAR ANALOGUES AS MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEIN-1 (MRP1) INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Kakarla, Prathusha; Inupakutika, Madhuri; Devireddy, Amith R.; Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Willmon, Thomas Mark; Ranjana, KC; Shrestha, Ugina; Ranaweera, Indrika; Hernandez, Alberto J.; Barr, Sharla; Varela, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful chemotherapy towards several cancers is multidrug resistance of human cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs. An important contributor to multidrug resistance is the human multidrug resistance protein-1 transporter (MRP1), which is an efflux pump of the ABC (ATP binding cassette) superfamily. Thus, highly efficacious, third generation MRP1 inhibitors, like tariquidar analogues, are promising inhibitors of multidrug resistance and are under clinical trials. To maximize the efficacy of MRP1 inhibitors and to reduce systemic toxicity, it is important to limit the exposure of MRP1 inhibitors and anticancer drugs to normal tissues and to increase their co-localization with tumor cells. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) associated with 3D-Quantitiative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed on a series of tariquidar analogues, as selective MDR modulators. Best predictability was obtained with CoMFA model r2(non-cross-validated square of correlation coefficient) = 0.968, F value = 151.768 with five components, standard error of estimate = 0.107 while the CoMSIA yielded r2 = 0.982, F value = 60.628 with six components, and standard error of estimate = 0.154. These results indicate that steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic (lipophilic), and hydrogen bond donor substituents play significant roles in multidrug resistance modulation of tariquidar analogues upon MRP1. The tariquidar analogue and MRP1 binding and stability data generated from CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D–contour maps may further aid in study and design of tariquidar analogues as novel, potent and selective MDR modulator drug candidates. PMID:26913287

  4. A nearly complete longitude-velocity map of neutral hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldes, F.

    1978-01-01

    A longitude-velocity map based on two recent 21-cm neutral hydrogen surveys and covering all but 42 deg of galactic longitude is presented. Latitude information between -2 and +2 deg is included as an integrated quantity by averaging the observed brightness temperatures over latitude at constant longitude and velocity to produce intensity information corresponding to a surface density distribution of neutral hydrogen in the galactic plane. The northern and southern rotation curves of the Galaxy within the solar galactic orbit are derived from the maximum radial velocities by the usual tangent-point method. Five interesting features of the map are discussed: (1) the scale of density variations in the neutral hydrogen; (2) a region of very high brightness centered at 81 deg and 0 km/s which is probably due to the spiral arm with which the sun is associated; (3) a region of very low brightness centered at 242 deg and 39 km/s; (4) negative-velocity features visible in the anticenter direction; and (5) a strong absorption feature at 289 deg having a kinematic distance of about 4 kpc.

  5. A global 3D P-Velocity model of the Earth%3CU%2B2019%3Es crust and mantle for improved event location.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) version 1.4, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is > 55%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model

  6. First report of image integration of cine-angiography with 3D electro-anatomical mapping of the right ventricle in postoperative tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mario Salvatore; Righi, Daniela; Di Mambro, Corrado; Ruoppolo, Valentina; Silvetti, Massimo Stefano; Drago, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia and, more rarely, sudden cardiac death are potential complications affecting the long-term outcome after Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) repair. Intraventricular septal scar, fibro-fatty substitution around infundibular resection and patchy myocardial fibrosis may provide anatomical substrates of abnormal depolarization and repolarization causing reentrant ventricular arrhythmias. Recently, three-dimensional electro-anatomical mapping (3D EAM) has allowed to investigate the electro-anatomical status of the right ventricle. Radiation exposure during cardiac electrophysiological procedures is still a major concern. We report the first case of 3D mapping of the right ventricle in a postoperative ToF patient performed with a new module of the CARTO® 3 System-the CARTOUnivu™ Module-that combines, simultaneously, fluoroscopic images or cine-angiographic sequences with 3D cardiac mapping to allow real-time visualization of the electrocatheter during the 3D EAM reconstruction. The same volume, previously evaluated with cardiac MRI, was mapped. A perfect match of the diastolic edges of the RV obtained either by cine-loop acquisition during contrast fluoroscopy and by the 3D EAM, was observed. The fluoroscopy time for 3D EAM was 10 s. In conclusion, CARTOUnivu™ Module can integrate, in real time, fluoroscopic images/cine-angiography in virtual biplane view and the 3D EAM allowing a contextual visualization of position and movement of all electrocatheters. This can further increase the accuracy of the 3D EAM in very complex-operated congenital heart diseases, even decreasing radiation exposure.

  7. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system. PMID:26690174

  8. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  9. A high-resolution 3D seismic velocity model of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake rupture zone using land & OBS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. P.; Rietbrock, A.; Ryder, I. M.; Miller, M.; Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of seismic properties along a subduction megathrust can shed light on the composition and structure of rocks along the fault. By comparing seismic velocity structure with models of interseismic locking, co-seismic slip and afterslip, we can begin to understand how physical properties may affect fault dynamics throughout the subduction seismic cycle. The Maule earthquake, which hit the coast of central Chile in 2010, is the 6th largest earthquake ever recorded, rupturing a 500 x 80 km area of the Chilean megathrust. Published models demonstrate a complex bilateral rupture, with most co-seismic slip occurring to the north of the mainshock epicentre, although significant slip likely stopped short of the trench and the continental Moho. Here, we show a new high-resolution 3D velocity model (vp and vp/vs ratio) of the central Chilean margin Our velocity model is based on manually picked P- and S-wave arrival times from 670 aftershocks recorded by the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD) network. Seismic properties of the marine forearc are poorly understood in subduction zones, but by incorporating picks from two ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) networks, we can resolve the velocity structure of the megathrust as far as the trench. In total, the catalogue used for the tomographic inversion yields a total of ~50,000 high quality P- and S-wave picks. We analyse the quality of our model by analysis of the resolution matrix and by testing characteristic models. The 3D velocity model shows the main structures associated within a subduction forearc: the marine forearc basin (vp < 6.0 km/s), continental mantle (vp > 7.5 km/s), and subducting oceanic crust (vp ~ 7.7 km/s). The plate interface is well defined by relocated aftershock seismicity. P-wave velocities along the megathrust range from 6.5 km/s beneath the marine forearc to 7.7 km/s at the intersection of the megathrust with the continental Moho. We infer several high vp anomalies within the South

  10. Dynamics of pickup ion velocity distribution function in Titan's plasma environment (TA encounter): 3D hybrid kinetic modeling and comparison with CAPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function dynamics from 3D hybrid modeling. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our model the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere model with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our modeling shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and modeling due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic modeling with other hybrid and MHD modeling of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds

  11. Application of the H/V and SPAC Method to Estimate a 3D Shear Wave Velocity Model, in the City of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, L. E. A. P.; Aguirre, J.; Vazquez Rosas, R.; Suarez, G.; Contreras Ruiz-Esparza, M. G.; Farraz, I.

    2014-12-01

    Methods that use seismic noise or microtremors have become very useful tools worldwide due to its low costs, the relative simplicity in collecting data, the fact that these are non-invasive methods hence there is no need to alter or even perforate the study site, and also these methods require a relatively simple analysis procedure. Nevertheless the geological structures estimated by this methods are assumed to be parallel, isotropic and homogeneous layers. Consequently precision of the estimated structure is lower than that from conventional seismic methods. In the light of these facts this study aimed towards searching a new way to interpret the results obtained from seismic noise methods. In this study, seven triangular SPAC (Aki, 1957) arrays were performed in the city of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, varying in sizes from 10 to 100 meters. From the autocorrelation between the stations of each array, a Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curve was calculated. Such dispersion curve was used to obtain a S wave parallel layers velocity (VS) structure for the study site. Subsequently the horizontal to vertical ratio of the spectrum of microtremors H/V (Nogoshi and Igarashi, 1971; Nakamura, 1989, 2000) was calculated for each vertex of the SPAC triangular arrays, and from the H/V spectrum the fundamental frequency was estimated for each vertex. By using the H/V spectral ratio curves interpreted as a proxy to the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curve, a series of VS structures were inverted for each vertex of the SPAC array. Lastly each VS structure was employed to calculate a 3D velocity model, in which the exploration depth was approximately 100 meters, and had a velocity range in between 206 (m/s) to 920 (m/s). The 3D model revealed a thinning of the low velocity layers. This proved to be in good agreement with the variation of the fundamental frequencies observed at each vertex. With the previous kind of analysis a preliminary model can be obtained as a first

  12. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D reddening map for stars from 2MASS phot. (Gontcharov, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional reddening map for stars within 1100pc of the Sun are presented. Analysis of the distribution of 70 million stars from the 2MASS catalog with the most accurate photometry on the (J-Ks)-Ks diagram supplemented with Monte Carlo simulations has shown that one of the maxima of this distribution corresponds to F-type dwarfs and subgiants with a mean absolute magnitude MKs=2.5m. The shift of this maximum toward large (J-Ks) with increasing Ks reflects the reddening of these stars with increasing heliocentric distance. The distribution of the sample of stars over Ks, l, and b cells with a statistically significant number of stars in each cell corresponds to their distribution over three-dimensional spatial cells. As a result, the reddening E(J-Ks) has been determined with an accuracy of 0.03m for spatial cells with a side of 100pc. All of the known large absorbing clouds within 1100pc of the Sun have manifested themselves in the results obtained. The absorbing matter of the Gould Belt is shown to manifest itself at latitudes up to 40° and within 600pc of the Sun. The size and influence of the Gould Belt may have been underestimated thus far. The absorbing matter at latitudes up to 60° and within 1100pc of the Sun has been found to be distributed predominantly in the first and second quadrants in the southern hemisphere and in the third and fourth quadrants in the northern hemisphere. Also the data of the Rv (2012AstL...38...12G) and Av (2012AstL...38...87G) 3D maps are added. (1 data file).

  14. Multigrid mapping and box relaxation for simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Liu, Z.

    1994-12-31

    A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.

  15. Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.

    2015-11-01

    Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.

  16. New constraints on the 3D shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle underneath Southern Scandinavia revealed from non-linear tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawerzinek, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Roy, C.

    2013-08-01

    We analyse travel times of shear waves, which were recorded at the MAGNUS network, to determine the 3D shear wave velocity (vS) structure underneath Southern Scandinavia. The travel time residuals are corrected for the known crustal structure of Southern Norway and weighted to account for data quality and pick uncertainties. The resulting residual pattern of subvertically incident waves is very uniform and simple. It shows delayed arrivals underneath Southern Norway compared to fast arrivals underneath the Oslo Graben and the Baltic Shield. The 3D upper mantle vS structure underneath the station network is determined by performing non-linear travel time tomography. As expected from the residual pattern the resulting tomographic model shows a simple and continuous vS perturbation pattern: a negative vS anomaly is visible underneath Southern Norway relative to the Baltic Shield in the east with a contrast of up to 4% vS and a sharp W-E dipping transition zone. Reconstruction tests reveal besides vertical smearing a good lateral reconstruction of the dipping vS transition zone and suggest that a deep-seated anomaly at 330-410 km depth is real and not an inversion artefact. The upper part of the reduced vS anomaly underneath Southern Norway (down to 250 km depth) might be due to an increase in lithospheric thickness from the Caledonian Southern Scandes in the west towards the Proterozoic Baltic Shield in Sweden in the east. The deeper-seated negative vS anomaly (330-410 km depth) could be caused by a temperature anomaly possibly combined with effects due to fluids or hydrous minerals. The determined simple 3D vS structure underneath Southern Scandinavia indicates that mantle processes might influence and contribute to a Neogene uplift of Southern Norway.

  17. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  18. Constructing a starting 3D shear velocity model with sharp interfaces for SEM-based upper mantle tomography in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.

    2013-12-01

    this work we propose instead to directly tackle the non-linearity of the inverse problem by using stochastic methods to construct a 3D starting model with a good estimate of the depths of the main layering interfaces. We present preliminary results of the construction of such a starting 3D model based on: (1) Regionalizing the study area to define provinces within which lateral variations are smooth; (2) Applying trans-dimensional stochastic inversion (Bodin et al., 2012) to obtain accurate 1D models in each province as well as the corresponding error distribution, constrained by receiver function and surface wave dispersion data as well as the previously constructed 3D model (name), and (3) connecting these models laterally using data-driven smoothing operators to obtain a starting 3D model with errors. References Bodin, T.,et al. 2012, Transdimensional inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B02301, doi:10.1029/2011JB008560. Yuan and Romanowicz, 2013, in revison. Yuan, H., et al. 2011, 3-D shear wave radially and azimuthally anisotropic velocity model of the North American upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International, 184: 1237-1260. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04901.x Yuan, H. & Romanowicz, B., 2010. Lithospheric layering in the North American Craton, Nature, 466, 1063-1068.

  19. Contribution of a 3D velocity model and of beam forming method for the location of microseismic sources generated in soft rock landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Floriane; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Helmstetter, Agnès; Doubre, Cécile; Gance, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Microseismicity monitoring has proven to be an important tool for a better understanding of the deformation occurring in slow-sliding landslides. However locating the seismic sources generated by a landslide remains a challenging problem due to (1) the small sizes of the landslide, (b) the heterogenous and time-changing petro-physical properties of the landslide material, (c) the complexity of the recorded signals with unclear discriminations of the wave onsets, and (d) the difficulties to install and maintain a dense seismological network on-site close to the seismic sources. We studied the seismic sources generated by the deformation of the clay-rich Super-Sauze landslide (South French Alps). Previous studies show that the most active zone is the uphill part of the landslide within a zone of 300x300m2. Two seismic antennas have been installed on the sides of this zone and a seismic campaign was conducted to build a 3D velocity model of the area. Calibration shots were performed to test the performance of the location method. We show that the use of a 3D velocity model integrated in a beam forming location method slightly improves the accuracy of the shot location epicenter. However, this approach does not help to interpret with confidence the location of the natural events because the horizontal error remains larger than 50m for more than 50% of the shots. Nevertheless, adding station corrections and constraining the grid search area with additional informations based on the signal and the landslide behavior such as SNR, seismic event typology, and surface kinematics of the landslide allow obtaining reliable results. More than 70% of the calibration shots could be located with a horizontal error of less than 40m. The lack of sensor installed in depth as well as the the lack of calibration shots realized at different depths does not permit us to identify the depth of the sources.

  20. 3D Anisotropic Velocity Structure beneath the Kii Peninsula from P-wave Traveltime Tomography: Diagnostics of Seismic Anisotropy in a Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is one of key elements to understand geodynamics such as mantle convection, plate tectonics, and evolutional process of the crust. Thus, it is crucial to investigate seismic anisotropy in the subduction zone where various phenomena are attributed to dynamic processes caused by interaction among adjacent plates. Actually, recent studies of seismic anisotropy show that the determination of a 3D seismic anisotropy structure can be potential diagnostics of a geological lineament structure inside the crust, and probe earthquake rupture areas and rupture nucleation points. In this study, we have evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) P-wave anisotropic velocity structure in the Kii Peninsula, southwest Japan, as well as the isotropic velocity structure by P-wave travel times tomography. The study area lies on the Eurasian (Amulian) plate above the subducting Philippine Sea Plate. This belongs to an accretionary prism, which is being developed at the margin of the Asian Continent, and is characterized by E-W trending metamorphic belts including a segment of the active faults zone called the Median Tectonic Line (MTL). Additionally, the Kii Peninsula region is presumed to be source regions of megathrust earthquakes along the Nankai trough. The resultant images of both the isotropic and anisotropic tomography show that the upper crust is characterized by E-W trending structure similar to that of the geological structure over the peninsula region. Because deformation of the crust such as preferred mineral alignment and recrystallization associated with planar structures produces significant seismic anisotropy, the plausible factor of the crustal feature is interpreted as E-W orientation of the regional metamorphic belt. Furthermore, in the resultant tomographic image, the E-W trending pattern is found within the deeper crust. This fact indicates that the lineament structure is sustained in the deeper crust. Since our tomography has good resolution in the

  1. Using twelve years of USGS refraction lines to calibrate the Brocher and others (1997) 3D velocity model of the Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, John; Blair, Luke; Catchings, Rufus; Goldman, Mark; Perosi, Fabio; Steedman, Clare

    2004-01-01

    Campbell (1983) demonstrated that site amplification correlates with depths to the 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 km/s S-wave velocity horizons. To estimate these depths for the Bay Area stations in the PEER/NGA database, we compare the depths to the 3.2 and 4.4 km/s P-wave velocities in the Brocher and others (1997) 3D velocity model with the depths to these horizons determined from 6 refraction lines shot in the Bay Area from 1991 to 2003. These refraction lines range from two recent 20 km lines that extend from Los Gatos to downtown San Jose, and from downtown San Jose into Alum Rock Park, to two older 200 km lines than run axially from Hollister up the San Francisco Peninsula to Inverness and from Hollister up the East Bay across San Pablo Bay to Santa Rosa. Comparison of these cross-sections with the Brocher and others (1997) model indicates that the 1.5 km/s S-wave horizon, which we correlate with the 3.2 km/s P-wave horizon, is the most reliable horizon that can be extracted from the Brocher and others (1997) velocity model. We determine simple adjustments to bring the Brocher and others (1997) 3.2 and 4.4 km/s P-wave horizons into an average agreement with the refraction results. Then we apply these adjustments to estimate depths to the 1.5 and 2.5 km/s S-wave horizons beneath the strong motion stations in the PEER/NGA database.

  2. Velocity Map Imaging Studies of Non-Conventional Methanethiol Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulson, Benjamin W.; Alaniz, Jonathan; Murray, Craig

    2014-06-01

    Velocity map imaging (VMI) in combination with state-selective resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) has been used to study the photodissociation dynamics of methanethiol following excitation to the first and second singlet electronically excited states. Formation of sulfur atoms, in both the singlet and triplet manifolds, is observed and can be attributed to primary dissociation of the parent molecule. We will report the nascent photofragment velocity distributions, and hence the internal energy of the methane co-fragment. Sulfur atom quantum yields are benchmarked against a known standard to evaluate the significance of this pathway. The role of non-conventional photochemical mechanisms such as roaming-mediated intersystem crossing, previously observed in methylamine photochemistry, will be discussed. James O. Thomas, Katherine E. Lower, and Craig Murray, The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2012, 3 (10), 1341-1345.

  3. NMR velocity mapping of gas flow around solid objects.

    PubMed

    Han, Song-I; Pierce, Kimberly L; Pines, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    We present experimental visualizations of gas flow around solid blunt bodies by NMR imaging. NMR velocimetry is a model-free and tracer-free experimental means for quantitative and multi-dimensional flow visualization. Hyperpolarization of (129)Xe provided sufficient NMR signal to overcome the low density of the dilute gas phase, and its long coherence time allows for true velocity vector mapping. In this study, the diverging gas flow around and wake patterns immediately behind a sphere could be vectorally visualized and quantified. In a similar experiment, the flow over an aerodynamic model airplane body revealed a less disrupted flow pattern.

  4. NMR velocity mapping of gas flow around solid objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Song-I.; Pierce, Kimberly L.; Pines, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    We present experimental visualizations of gas flow around solid blunt bodies by NMR imaging. NMR velocimetry is a model-free and tracer-free experimental means for quantitative and multi-dimensional flow visualization. Hyperpolarization of Xe129 provided sufficient NMR signal to overcome the low density of the dilute gas phase, and its long coherence time allows for true velocity vector mapping. In this study, the diverging gas flow around and wake patterns immediately behind a sphere could be vectorally visualized and quantified. In a similar experiment, the flow over an aerodynamic model airplane body revealed a less disrupted flow pattern.

  5. Velocity-map imaging at low extraction fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horke, Daniel A.; Roberts, Gareth M.; Lecointre, Julien; Verlet, Jan R. R.

    2012-06-01

    We present a velocity-map imaging (VMI) setup for photoelectron imaging that utilizes low electric extraction fields. This avoids any complications that could arise from electrostatic interactions between the extraction field and the molecular properties that are probed and has a minimal effect on the trajectory of ions in ion beam experiments. By using an attractive potential supplied to the detector, and keeping the electrodes at ground (zero) potential, we show that fringe fields between the VMI arrangement and the vacuum chamber can be eliminated, which is important in experiments on ions.

  6. 3D velocity structure of the outer forearc of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone; implications for the 1958 megathrust earthquake rupture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Garcia Cano, L.; Marcaillou, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2005, we conducted an onshore-offshore 3D refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic experiment over the rupture zone of the 1958 subduction earthquake that occurred near the border between Colombia and Ecuador. This earthquake was part of a sequence of 3 large ruptures (1942, Mw=7.8; 1958, Mw=7.7; 1979, Mw=8.2), which successively broke from south to north the segments of the megathrust that had been ruptured in 1906 by a single, very large magnitude (8.8) earthquake. Using first arrival traveltime inversion, we constructed a well-defined Vp velocity model of the plate boundary and of the upper and lower plates, down to 25 km depth. The model reveals a 5-km thick, low velocity zone in the upper plate, located immediately above the interplate contact. Because similar low-velocity zones are commonly observed along margins made of oceanic or island-arc accreted terranes, we suggest that the low-velocity zone might result from the alteration and hydration of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the upper plate basement, rather than from hydrofracturing alone. Sediments underplated beneath the inner wedge might contribute to the low-velocity zone but it is unlikely that they are several kilometers thick. Nevertheless, fluids expelled by the compaction and dehydration of those underplated sediments possibly favor the alteration of the overlying rocks. The low-velocity zone is spatially coincident with the 1958 rupture area. Near the toe of the margin, the model shows a low velocity gradient in the outer wedge that we interpret as a zone of highly faulted and fractured rocks or of poorly consolidated sediments. This low velocity/low gradient region forms the oceanward limit of the rupture zones of both the 1958 and the 1979 earthquakes. We suggest that the two earthquake ruptures were arrested by the low velocity zone because its low rigidity contributed to dissipate most of the seismic energy and of the coseismic strain/stress. This might be the reason why the 1958

  7. Characterization of a subwavelength-scale 3D void structure using the FDTD-based confocal laser scanning microscopic image mapping technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyongsik; Chon, James W; Gu, Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2007-08-20

    In this paper, a simple confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) image mapping technique based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) calculation has been proposed and evaluated for characterization of a subwavelength-scale three-dimensional (3D) void structure fabricated inside polymer matrix. The FDTD simulation method adopts a focused Gaussian beam incident wave, Berenger's perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition, and the angular spectrum analysis method. Through the well matched simulation and experimental results of the xz-scanned 3D void structure, we first characterize the exact position and the topological shape factor of the subwavelength-scale void structure, which was fabricated by a tightly focused ultrashort pulse laser. The proposed CLSM image mapping technique based on the FDTD can be widely applied from the 3D near-field microscopic imaging, optical trapping, and evanescent wave phenomenon to the state-of-the-art bio- and nanophotonics.

  8. Rapid inversion of velocity map images for adaptive femtosecond control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallis, C.; Andrews, P.; Averin, R.; Jochim, B.; Gregerson, N.; Wells, E.; Zohrabi, M.; de, S.; Gaire, B.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-05-01

    We report techniques developed to utilize three dimensional momentum information as feedback in adaptive femtosecond control of molecular systems. Velocity map imaging of the dissociating ions following interaction with an intense ultrafast laser pulse provides raw data. In order to recover momentum information, however, the two-dimensional image must be inverted to reconstruct the three-dimensional photofragment distribution. Using a variation of the onion-peeling technique, we invert 1054 × 1040 pixel images in under 1 second. This rapid inversion allows a slice of the momentum distribution to be used as feedback in a closed-loop adaptive control scheme. We report techniques developed to utilize three dimensional momentum information as feedback in adaptive femtosecond control of molecular systems. Velocity map imaging of the dissociating ions following interaction with an intense ultrafast laser pulse provides raw data. In order to recover momentum information, however, the two-dimensional image must be inverted to reconstruct the three-dimensional photofragment distribution. Using a variation of the onion-peeling technique, we invert 1054 × 1040 pixel images in under 1 second. This rapid inversion allows a slice of the momentum distribution to be used as feedback in a closed-loop adaptive control scheme. This work supported by National Science Foundation award PHY-0969687 and the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Science, Office of Science, US Department of Energy.

  9. Mapping the 3D Geometry of the San Leandro Block of the Hayward Fault Zone Using Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data, California State University, East Bay Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvilly, A.; Abimbola, A.; Chan, J. H.; Strayer, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), located in Hayward, California, lies atop the San Leandro block (SLB) in the Hayward fault zone. The SLB is a J-K aged lithotectonic assemblage dominated by gabbro and intercalated with minor volcanics and sediments. It is bound by the subparallel northwest-trending western Hayward and eastern Chabot (CF) faults and pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary faults. The block itself is ~30 km along strike and 2-3 km wide. Previous studies suggest the block dips steeply to the northeast and extends to a depth of at least 7 km. In May of 2015, as part of an ongoing collaborative effort led by the USGS to create a 3D velocity model of the San Francisco Bay Area, researchers from CSUEB and the USGS conducted a seismic survey on the CSUEB campus. The primary goal of this pilot study was to locate the trace of the CF on the CSUEB campus and to determine bedrock depth. We deployed a 60-channel, 300m profile using 4.5Hz sensors spaced at 5m intervals. Active seismic sources were used at each geophone location. A 226kg accelerated weight-drop was used to generate P and Rayleigh waves for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), and a 3.5kg sledgehammer and block were used to generate S and Love waves for S-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of Love waves (MALW). Preliminary P-wave tomography, MASW, and MALW results from this pilot study suggest the location of an eastward-dipping CF as well as the presence of a high-velocity unit at about 20m depth, presumably an unmapped sliver of bedrock from the San Leandro block. Further studies planned for the fall of 2015 include additional seismic lines and surface mapping along the Chabot fault on and near the CSUEB campus. These new geophysical, GPS, and field geological data will be integrated with LiDAR imagery and existing geological, gravity and magnetic maps to create a 3-dimensional model of the portion of the SLB that contains the CSUEB campus.

  10. Ice Velocity Map of Antarctica measured with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice velocity is fundamental characteristic of the dynamics of ice sheet and is essential to know for measuring the mass budget of ice sheet and for controlling ice sheet numerical models with realistic boundary conditions. Until recently, data were mostly available on a discrete basis over small areas with variable precision. Here, we report on our results of processing ice velocity from he interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired by ALOS PALSAR in 2007, 2008 and 2009 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and distributed by NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF). The goal of our project is to produce a new set of Earth Science Data Record (ESDR): high-resolution digital maps of ice velocity of the Antarctic ice sheet. This new ESDR will be based on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from multiple missions. It will be distributed to the scientific community via institutional links already in place at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The EDSR will benefit glaciologists and ice sheet modelers, but also climate modelers interested in how ice sheets are evolving, physical oceanographers studying sea level change and changes in oceanic circulation, solid earth scientists interested in post-glacial rebound, atmospheric scientists interested in surface mass balance in Antarctica. This effort will establish a long-term legacy for quantitative measurements of the dynamics of polar ice sheets. Areas north of 78 degrees south were first covered by RADARSAT-1 during the RAMP campaign. ALOS PALSAR and ENVISAT ASAR were tasked to cover the area in 2007, 2008 and 2009. PALSAR 46-day speckle tracking works well even in areas where C-band sensors lose signal coherence, which helps us to complete a full coverage of Antarctica's coastal regions. One challenge for L-band data is the sensitivity to ionosphere disturbances and another is to lower data noise in vast interior where flow velocities drop to below a few meters per year. We

  11. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Chemical Characteristics at Micrometric Scale by Combining 2D SEM-EDX Data and 3D X-Ray CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Hapca, Simona; Baveye, Philippe C.; Wilson, Clare; Lark, Richard Murray; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample, the regression-tree model provides a good prediction, explaining as much as 90% of the variability in some of the data. However, for chemical elements that are more homogenously distributed, such as carbon, silicon, or oxygen, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction with an increase in the R2 value from 0.221 to 0.324 for carbon, 0.312 to 0.423 for silicon, and 0.218 to 0.374 for oxygen, respectively. The present research develops for the first time an integrated experimental and theoretical framework, which combines geostatistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3-D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales. The methodology presented

  12. A Detailed 3D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Subducting Pacific Slab Beneath Hokkaido, Tohoku and Kanto, Japan, by Double-Difference Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Nakajima, J.; Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional heterogeneous structure beneath northeastern (NE) Japan has been investigated by previous studies and an inclined seismic low-velocity zone is imaged in the mantle wedge sub-parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab (Zhao et al., 1992, Nakajima et al., 2001). However, the heterogeneous structure within the slab has not been well studied even though it is very important to understand the whole process of water transportation from the slab to the surface. Here we show a detailed 3D seismic velocity structure within the subducted Pacific slab around Japan and propose a water-transportation path from the slab to the mantle wedge. In this study, we estimated 3D velocity structure within the Pacific slab by the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We divided the study area, from Hokkaido to Kanto, into 6 areas due to the limitation of memory and computation time. In each area, arrival-time data of 7,500-17,000 events recorded at 70-170 stations were used in the analysis. The total number of absolute travel-time data was about 140,000-312,000 for P wave and 123,000-268,000 for S wave, and differential data were about 736,000-1,920,000 for P wave and 644,000-1,488,000 for S wave. Horizontal and vertical grid separations are 10-25 km and 6.5 km, respectively. RMS residuals of travel times for P wave decreased from 0.23s to 0.09s and for S wave from 0.35s to 0.13s. The obtained results are as follows: (1) a remarkable low-Vs zone exists in the uppermost part of the subducting slab, (2) it extends down to a depth of about 80 km, (3) the termination of this low-Vs zone almost corresponds to the "seismic belt" recently detected in the upper plane of the double seismic zone (Kita et al.,2006; Hasegawa et al., 2007), (4) at depths deeper than 80 km, a low-Vs and high-Vp/Vs zone is apparently distributed in the mantle wedge, immediately above the slab crust. We consider that these features reflect water-transportation processes

  13. A DETAILED KINEMATIC MAP OF CASSIOPEIA A'S OPTICAL MAIN SHELL AND OUTER HIGH-VELOCITY EJECTA

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting material in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). These Doppler maps have the highest spectral and spatial resolutions of any previous survey of Cas A and represent the most complete catalog of its optically emitting material to date. We confirm that the bulk of Cas A's optically bright ejecta populate a torus-like geometry tilted approximately 30 Degree-Sign with respect to the plane of the sky with a -4000 to +6000 km s{sup -1} radial velocity asymmetry. Near-tangent viewing angle effects and an inhomogeneous surrounding circumstellar material/interstellar medium environment suggest that this geometry and velocity asymmetry may not be faithfully representative of the remnant's true 3D structure or the kinematic properties of the original explosion. The majority of the optical ejecta are arranged in several well-defined and nearly circular ring-like structures with diameters between approximately 30'' (0.5 pc) and 2' (2 pc). These ejecta rings appear to be a common phenomenon of young core-collapse remnants and may be associated with post-explosion input of energy from plumes of radioactive {sup 56}Ni-rich ejecta that rise, expand, and compress non-radioactive material. Our optical survey encompasses Cas A's faint outlying ejecta knots and exceptionally high-velocity NE and SW streams of S-rich debris often referred to as ''jets''. These outer knots, which exhibit a chemical make-up suggestive of an origin deep within the progenitor star, appear to be arranged in opposing and wide-angle outflows with opening half-angles of Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign.

  14. 3D maps from multiple MRI illustrate changing atrophy patterns as subjects progress from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Przybelski, Scott A; Weigand, Stephen D; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R

    2007-07-01

    temporoparietal association cortices and, for the first time, substantial involvement of the frontal lobes. This pattern of progression fits well with the Braak and Braak neurofibrillary pathological staging scheme in AD. It suggests that the earliest changes occur in the anterior medial temporal lobe and fusiform gyrus, and that these changes occur at least 3 years before progression to the diagnosis of AD. These results also suggest that 3D patterns of grey matter atrophy may help to predict the time to the first diagnosis of AD in subjects with aMCI.

  15. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  16. A free software for pore-scale modelling: solving Stokes equation for velocity fields and permeability values in 3D pore geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Khirevich, Siarhei; Karsanina, Marina; Collins, Daniel; Korost, Dmitry; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy's equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software's applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.

  17. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl: Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinas, A. F.; Gurgiolo, C. A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Wendel, D. E.; Goldstein, M. L.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    The current hypothesis of the formation of the solar wind halo electrons is that they are produced from scattering of the strahl. This hypothesis is strengthened by direct observations of the strahl electrons being scattered into the halo in an isolated event. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions, a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a limited energy range. The observation implies that the formation of the halo is not a continuous process but occurs in bursts in regions where conditions for wave growth providing the scattering are optimum. Sometimes, observations indicates that the strahl component is anisotropic (Tper/Tpal ~ 2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism, however this condition is not always observed. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  18. Mapping 3D Strains with Ultrasound Speckle Tracking: Method Validation and Initial Results in Porcine Scleral Inflation.

    PubMed

    Cruz Perez, Benjamin; Pavlatos, Elias; Morris, Hugh J; Chen, Hong; Pan, Xueliang; Hart, Richard T; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a high frequency ultrasound method for measuring distributive, 3D strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure. A 3D cross-correlation based speckle-tracking algorithm was implemented to compute the 3D displacement vector and strain tensor at each tracking point. Simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data from a sclera-like structure at undeformed and deformed states with known strains were used to evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of strain estimation. An experimental high frequency ultrasound (55 MHz) system was built to acquire 3D scans of porcine eyes inflated from 15 to 17 and then 19 mmHg. Simulations confirmed good strain estimation accuracy and SNR (e.g., the axial strains had less than 4.5% error with SNRs greater than 16.5 for strains from 0.005 to 0.05). Experimental data in porcine eyes showed increasing tensile, compressive, and shear strains in the posterior sclera during inflation, with a volume ratio close to one suggesting near-incompressibility. This study established the feasibility of using high frequency ultrasound speckle tracking for measuring 3D tissue strains and its potential to characterize physiological deformations in the posterior eye. PMID:26563101

  19. Velocity-map imaging study of the photodissociation of acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, H.A.; Softley, T.P.

    2005-03-22

    Velocity-map imaging studies are reported for the photodissociation of acetaldehyde over a range of photolysis wavelengths (317.5-282.5 nm). Images are obtained for both the HCO and CH{sub 3} fragments. The mean rotational energy of both fragments increases with photodissociation energy, with a lesser degree of excitation in the CH{sub 3} fragment. The CH{sub 3} images demonstrate that the CH{sub 3} fragments are rotationally aligned with respect to the recoil direction and this is interpreted, and well modeled, on the basis of a propensity for forming CH{sub 3} fragments with M{approx}K, where M is the projection of the rotational angular momentum along the recoil direction. The origin of the CH{sub 3} rotation is conserved motion from the torsional and methyl-rocking modes of the parent molecule. Nonstatistical vibrational distributions for the CH{sub 3} fragment are obtained at higher energies.

  20. Velocity-map imaging study of the photodissociation of acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, H. A.; Softley, T. P.

    2005-03-01

    Velocity-map imaging studies are reported for the photodissociation of acetaldehyde over a range of photolysis wavelengths (317.5-282.5 nm). Images are obtained for both the HCO and CH3 fragments. The mean rotational energy of both fragments increases with photodissociation energy, with a lesser degree of excitation in the CH3 fragment. The CH3 images demonstrate that the CH3 fragments are rotationally aligned with respect to the recoil direction and this is interpreted, and well modeled, on the basis of a propensity for forming CH3 fragments with M ˜K, where M is the projection of the rotational angular momentum along the recoil direction. The origin of the CH3 rotation is conserved motion from the torsional and methyl-rocking modes of the parent molecule. Nonstatistical vibrational distributions for the CH3 fragment are obtained at higher energies.

  1. Ice Velocity Mapping Using TOPS SAR Data and Offset Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall, Jorgen; Kusk, Anders; Nielsen, Ulrik; Merryman Boncori, John Peter

    2015-05-01

    Feature tracking and speckle tracking, are robust techniques to measure the velocity of glaciers and ice sheets. Displacement maps based on TOPS data may have small gaps if the bursts are not handled properly. Ice moving from one burst to a consecutive burst between two observations is not observed under the same squint angle, and hence speckle tracking is supposed to fail when cross-correlating consecutive bursts, whereas feature tracking provides the same result as when cross-correlating corresponding bursts. The size of the potential gaps depends on the ice displacement and the choice of Sentinel-1 product, as consecutive bursts overlap in the SLC product but not in the GRD product. An analysis of Sentinel-1 data from Greenland confirms the results expected from theory.

  2. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2013-04-01

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO2 at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to ±5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  3. Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments

    SciTech Connect

    Ryazanov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna

    2013-04-14

    Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of {approx}5 ns out of a cloud stretched to Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H{sub 2}S, and the CH{sub 2}OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from <0.4 eV to >3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1%-2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

  4. Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments.

    PubMed

    Ryazanov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna

    2013-04-14

    Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of ∼5 ns out of a cloud stretched to ⩾50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H2S, and the CH2OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from <0.4 eV to >3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution ≲1%-2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

  5. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  6. A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Network for Online 3-D Temperature and Neutron Fluence Mapping in a VHTR Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Dickerson, Bryan; French, Joseph; McEachern, Donald; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-04-30

    Robust sensing technologies allowing for 3D in-core performance monitoring in real time are of paramount importance for already established LWRs to enhance their reliability and availability per year, and therefore, to further facilitate their economic competitiveness via predictive assessment of the in-core conditions.

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  9. Reduction of Fluoroscopic Exposure Using a New Fluoroscopy Integrating Technology in a 3D-Mapping System During Pulmonary Vein Isolation With a Circular Multipolar Irrigated Catheter.

    PubMed

    Blockhaus, Christian; Schmidt, Jan; Kurt, Muhammed; Clasen, Lukas; Brinkmeyer, Christoph; Katsianos, Efstratios; Müller, Patrick; Gerguri, Shqipe; Kelm, Malte; Shin, Dong-In; Makimoto, Hisaki

    2016-05-25

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). With increasing numbers of PVI procedures, demand arises to reduce the cumulative fluoroscopic radiation exposure for both the physician and the patient. New technologies are emerging to address this issue. Here, we report our first experiences with a new fluoroscopy integrating technology in addition to a current 3D-mapping system. The new fluoroscopy integrating system (FIS) with 3D-mapping was used prospectively in 15 patients with AF. Control PVI cases (n = 37) were collected retrospectively as a complete series. Total procedure time (skin to skin), fluoroscopic time, and dose-area-product (DAP) data were analyzed. All PVI procedures were performed by one experienced physician using a commercially available circular multipolar irrigated ablation catheter. All PVI procedures were successfully undertaken without major complications. Baseline characteristics of the two groups showed no significant differences. In the group using the FIS, the fluoroscopic time and DAP were significantly reduced from 571 ± 187 seconds versus 1011 ± 527 seconds (P = 0.0029) and 4342 ± 2073 cGycm(2) versus 6208 ± 3314 cGycm(2) (P = 0.049), respectively. Mean procedure time was not significantly affected and was 114 ± 31 minutes versus 104 ± 24 minutes (P = 0.23) by the FIS.The use of the new FIS with the current 3D-mapping system enables a significant reduction of the total fluoroscopy time and DAP compared to the previous combination of 3D-mapping system plus normal fluoroscopy during PVI utilizing a circular multipolar irrigated ablation catheter. However, the concomitant total procedure time is not affected. Thus, the new system reduces the radiation exposure for both the physicians and patients.

  10. A methodology to accurately quantify patellofemoral cartilage contact kinematics by combining 3D image shape registration and cine-PC MRI velocity data.

    PubMed

    Borotikar, Bhushan S; Sipprell, William H; Wible, Emily E; Sheehan, Frances T

    2012-04-01

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis and its potential precursor patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) are common, costly, and debilitating diseases. PFPS has been shown to be associated with altered patellofemoral joint mechanics; however, an actual variation in joint contact stresses has not been established due to challenges in accurately quantifying in vivo contact kinematics (area and location). This study developed and validated a method for tracking dynamic, in vivo cartilage contact kinematics by combining three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, cine-phase contrast (CPC), multi-plane cine (MPC), and 3D high-resolution static imaging. CPC and MPC data were acquired from 12 healthy volunteers while they actively extended/flexed their knee within the MRI scanner. Since no gold standard exists for the quantification of in vivo dynamic cartilage contact kinematics, the accuracy of tracking a single point (patellar origin relative to the femur) represented the accuracy of tracking the kinematics of an entire surface. The accuracy was determined by the average absolute error between the PF kinematics derived through registration of MPC images to a static model and those derived through integration of the CPC velocity data. The accuracy ranged from 0.47 mm to 0.77 mm for the patella and femur and from 0.68 mm to 0.86 mm for the patellofemoral joint. For purely quantifying joint kinematics, CPC remains an analytically simpler and more accurate (accuracy <0.33 mm) technique. However, for application requiring the tracking of an entire surface, such as quantifying cartilage contact kinematics, this combined imaging approach produces accurate results with minimal operator intervention.

  11. A methodology to accurately quantify patellofemoral cartilage contact kinematics by combining 3D image shape registration and cine-PC MRI velocity data

    PubMed Central

    Borotikar, Bhushan S.; Sipprell, William H.; Wible, Emily E.; Sheehan, Frances T.

    2012-01-01

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis and its potential precursor patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) are common, costly, and debilitating diseases. PFPS has been shown to be associated with altered patellofemoral joint mechanics; however, an actual variation in joint contact stresses has not been established due to challenges in accurately quantifying in vivo contact kinematics (area and location). This study developed and validated a method for tracking dynamic, in vivo cartilage contact kinematics by combining three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, cine-phase contrast (CPC), multi-plane cine (MPC), and 3D high-resolution static imaging. CPC and MPC data were acquired from 12 healthy volunteers while they actively extended/flexed their knee within the MRI scanner. Since no gold standard exists for the quantification of in vivo dynamic cartilage contact kinematics, the accuracy of tracking a single point (patellar origin relative to the femur) represented the accuracy of tracking the kinematics of an entire surface. The accuracy was determined by the average absolute error between the PF kinematics derived through registration of MPC images to a static model and those derived through integration of the CPC velocity data. The accuracy ranged from 0.47mm–0.77mm for the patella and femur and 0.68mm–0.86 mm for the patellofemoral joint. For purely quantifying joint kinematics, CPC remains an analytically simpler and more accurate (accuracy < 0.33mm) technique. However, for application requiring the tracking of an entire surface, such as quantifying cartilage contact kinematics, this combined imaging approach produces accurate results with minimal operator intervention. PMID:22284428

  12. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  13. MCPIP1 regulates fibroblast migration in 3D collagen matrices downstream of MAP kinases and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jie; Dai, Xiaoniu; Peña, Tiffany; Doyle, David A.; Guenther, Timothy M.; Carlson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The fibroblast-populated 3D collagen matrix has been used to model matrix contraction, cell motility, and general fibroblast biology. MCPIP1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1) has been shown to regulate inflammation, angiogenesis, and cellular motility. In the present study, we demonstrated induction of MCPIP1 in human fibroblasts embedded in the stress-released 3D collagen matrix, which occurred through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and NF-κB. Furthermore, MCPIP1 induction was associated with inhibition of fibroblast migration out of the nested collagen matrix. MCPIP1 induction or ectopic expression also upregulated p53. RNA interference of p53 prevented the inhibition of migration produced by induction or ectopic expression of MCPIP1. Our findings suggest a new role for MCPIP1 as a molecular switch that regulates fibroblast migration in the nested collagen matrix model. PMID:26399696

  14. Web-based 3D digital pathology framework for large-mapping data scanned by FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, ChiaKai; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Chien, Meng-Ting; Li, Yu-I.; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a high resolution instrument in 3 dimensional (3D) space, including lateral and longitudinal direction. With FF-OCT, we can perform 3D scanning for excised biopsy or cell culture sample to obtain cellular information. In this work, we have set up a high resolution FF-OCT scanning instrument that can perform cellular resolution tomography scanning of skin tissue for histopathology study. In a scan range of 1cm(x), 1cm(y), 106μm(z), for example, digital data occupies 253 GB capacity. Copying these materials is time consuming, not to mention efficient browsing and analyzing of these data. To solve the problem of information delivery, we have established a network service to browse and analyze the huge volume data.

  15. 3D Mapping of plasma effective areas via detection of cancer cell damage induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yueing; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for irradiation of oral cancer cells. Since cancer cells are very susceptible to plasma treatment, they can be used as a tool for detection of APPJ-effective areas, which extended much further than the visible part of the APPJ. An immunofluorescence assay was used for DNA damage identification, visualization and quantification. Thus, the effective damage area and damage level were determined and plotted as 3D images.

  16. 3D map of the plant photosystem II supercomplex obtained by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Nield, J; Orlova, E V; Morris, E P; Gowen, B; van Heel, M; Barber, J

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe the first 3D structure of the photosystem II (PSII) supercomplex of higher plants, constructed by single particle analysis of images obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This large multisubunit membrane protein complex functions to absorb light energy and catalyze the oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone. The resolution of the 3D structure is 24 A and emphasizes the dimeric nature of the supercomplex. The extrinsic proteins of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) are readily observed as a tetrameric cluster bound to the lumenal surface. By considering higher resolution data, obtained from electron crystallography, it has been possible to relate the binding sites of the OEC proteins with the underlying intrinsic membrane subunits of the photochemical reaction center core. The model suggests that the 33 kDa OEC protein is located towards the CP47/D2 side of the reaction center but is also positioned over the C-terminal helices of the D1 protein including its CD lumenal loop. In contrast, the model predicts that the 23/17 kDa OEC proteins are positioned at the N-terminus of the D1 protein incorporating the AB lumenal loop of this protein and two other unidentified transmembrane helices. Overall the 3D model represents a significant step forward in revealing the structure of the photosynthetic OEC whose activity is required to sustain the aerobic atmosphere on our planet.

  17. Noo Peroxy Isomer Exposed with Velocity-Map Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Benjamin A.; Cavanagh, Steven J.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Gibson, Stephen T.

    2016-06-01

    O2, a toxic gas formed in most combustion processes, plays an important role in the Earth's atmosphere due to its role in the production of both photochemical smog and tropospheric ozone. The existence of the peroxy radial, NOO, has been proposed, both as a collision reaction intermediate, and as a negative-ion in some discharge sources, in order to account for extended tails seen in some photoelectron spectra. In this work a velocity-mapped image of NO2- photodetachment measured at 519 nm, shown, reveals high-energy electron structure, that persists at detachment energies lower than the electron affinity of ONO, 2.273 eV. {b} The central ring has the spectral signature of O^-, while the outer-ripples, that appear in character to be similar to NO- detachment, are, we propose due to the NOO- peroxy radical, which is also responsible for the presence of O-. The photoelectron spectrum resolves the vibrational structure to characterize the neutral peroxy radical. The identification is further supported by ab initio calculations. The photoelectron angular distributions associated with the peroxy radical have a negative anisotropy parameter, opposite in sign to detachment from ONO^-. K. M. Ervin and J. Ho and W. C. Lineberger, J. Phys. Chem. 92, 5405 (1988). doi:10.1021/j100330a017 Research supported by the ARC DP160102585.

  18. System and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-06-02

    A system and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.

  19. Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagowski, Jordan M.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

  20. Imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH): Details of passive-source seismic deployment and preliminary 3-D velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Denlinger, R. P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schultz, A.

    2014-12-01

    The imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment aims to delineate the extent of the magmatic system beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH) in Washington State. The experiment involves active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics, and geochemistry/petrology. Seventy passive-source broadband seismometers were deployed in a 100-km-diameter array centered on MSH, with an average spacing of 10 km, and a planned duration of two years. The deployment over two weeks in June 2014 involved a group of 18 people split into 6 teams. Approximately half of the seismic stations have aircell batteries and/or pole-mounted solar panels in order to maintain power through deep snow at higher elevations during the winter months. Data will be retrieved 2-4 times a year throughout the duration of the experiment. The first service run performed in mid-July 2014 had a 98.4% data recovery. This is one of the largest wide-aperture two-dimensional arrays covering a volcano anywhere. The active-source portion of the experiment successfully set off 23 shots in late-July 2014. These were recorded clearly at permanent stations run by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network up to 200 km away, and are expected to be well-recorded on many of the 70 broadband seismometers in addition to the 2500 Reftek "Texans" deployed temporarily for this purpose. For the 2-4 weeks of broadband data collected in July, local earthquakes down to magnitude 0 are recorded across the array, with clear P- and S- arrivals. Earthquakes of this size occur daily within 50 km of MSH. We are keeping a careful catalog of all activity in the region for the duration of the iMUSH experiment. We will pick P- and S-wave travel times at the 70 broadband stations from local earthquakes and active shots, for available data from between June and October 2014. We will also use a tomographic code (Preston et al, 2003, Science) to invert the travel times to obtain preliminary earthquake location and 3-D velocity structure.

  1. The ATLAS3D project - XXI. Correlations between gradients of local escape velocity and stellar populations in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    We explore the connection between the local escape velocity, Vesc, and the stellar population properties in the ATLAS3D survey, a complete, volume-limited sample of nearby early-type galaxies. We make use of ugriz photometry to construct Multi-Gaussian Expansion models of the surface brightnesses of our galaxies. We are able to fit the full range of surface brightness profiles found in our sample, and in addition we reproduce the results of state-of-the-art photometry in the literature with residuals of 0.04 mag. We utilize these photometric models and SAURON integral-field spectroscopy, combined with Jeans dynamical modelling, to determine the local Vesc derived from the surface brightness. We find that the local Vesc is tightly correlated with the Mg b and Fe5015 line strengths and optical colours, and anti-correlated with the Hβ line strength. In the case of the Mg b and colour-Vesc relations we find that the relation within individual galaxies follows the global relation between different galaxies. We intentionally ignored any uncertain contribution due to dark matter since we are seeking an empirical description of stellar population gradients in early-type galaxies that is ideal for quantitative comparison with model predictions. We also make use of single stellar population (SSP) modelling to transform our line strength index measurements into the SSP-equivalent parameters age (t), metallicity ([Z/H]) and α-enhancement [α/Fe]. The residuals from the relation are correlated with age, [α/Fe], molecular gas mass and local environmental density. We identify a population of galaxies that occur only at low Vesc that exhibit negative gradients in the Mg b- and Colour-Vesc relations. These galaxies typically have young central stellar populations and contain significant amounts of molecular gas and dust. Combining these results with N-body simulations of binary mergers we use the Mg b-Vesc relation to constrain the possible number of dry mergers experienced by

  2. MRI technique for the snapshot imaging of quantitative velocity maps using RARE.

    PubMed

    Shiko, G; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F

    2012-03-01

    A quantitative PGSE-RARE pulse sequence was developed and successfully applied to the in situ dissolution of two pharmaceutical formulations dissolving over a range of timescales. The new technique was chosen over other existing fast velocity imaging techniques because it is T(2) weighted, not T(2)(∗) weighted, and is, therefore, robust for imaging time-varying interfaces and flow in magnetically heterogeneous systems. The complex signal was preserved intact by separating odd and even echoes to obtain two phase maps which are then averaged in post-processing. Initially, the validity of the technique was shown when imaging laminar flow in a pipe. Subsequently, the dissolution of two drugs was followed in situ, where the technique enables the imaging and quantification of changes in the form of the tablet and the flow field surrounding it at high spatial and temporal resolution. First, the complete 3D velocity field around an eroding salicylic acid tablet was acquired at a resolution of 98×49 μm(2), within 20 min, and monitored over ∼13 h. The tablet was observed to experience a heterogeneous flow field and, hence a heterogeneous shear field, which resulted in the non-symmetric erosion of the tablet. Second, the dissolution of a fast dissolving immediate release tablet was followed using one-shot 2D velocity images acquired every 5.2 s at a resolution of 390×390 μm(2). The quantitative nature of the technique and fast acquisition times provided invaluable information on the dissolution behaviour of this tablet, which had not been attainable previously with conventional quantitative MRI techniques.

  3. MRI technique for the snapshot imaging of quantitative velocity maps using RARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiko, G.; Sederman, A. J.; Gladden, L. F.

    2012-03-01

    A quantitative PGSE-RARE pulse sequence was developed and successfully applied to the in situ dissolution of two pharmaceutical formulations dissolving over a range of timescales. The new technique was chosen over other existing fast velocity imaging techniques because it is T2 weighted, not T2∗ weighted, and is, therefore, robust for imaging time-varying interfaces and flow in magnetically heterogeneous systems. The complex signal was preserved intact by separating odd and even echoes to obtain two phase maps which are then averaged in post-processing. Initially, the validity of the technique was shown when imaging laminar flow in a pipe. Subsequently, the dissolution of two drugs was followed in situ, where the technique enables the imaging and quantification of changes in the form of the tablet and the flow field surrounding it at high spatial and temporal resolution. First, the complete 3D velocity field around an eroding salicylic acid tablet was acquired at a resolution of 98 × 49 μm2, within 20 min, and monitored over ˜13 h. The tablet was observed to experience a heterogeneous flow field and, hence a heterogeneous shear field, which resulted in the non-symmetric erosion of the tablet. Second, the dissolution of a fast dissolving immediate release tablet was followed using one-shot 2D velocity images acquired every 5.2 s at a resolution of 390 × 390 μm2. The quantitative nature of the technique and fast acquisition times provided invaluable information on the dissolution behaviour of this tablet, which had not been attainable previously with conventional quantitative MRI techniques.

  4. Optical display of magnified, real and orthoscopic 3-D object images by moving-direct-pixel-mapping in the scalable integral-imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for reconstruction of the magnified, real and orthoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) object images by using the moving-direct-pixel-mapping (MDPM) method in the MALT(moving-array-lenslet-technique)-based scalable integral-imaging system. In the proposed system, multiple sets of elemental image arrays (EIAs) are captured with the MALT, and these picked-up EIAs are computationally transformed into the depth-converted ones by using the proposed MDPM method. Then, these depth-converted EIAs are combined and interlaced together to form an enlarged EIA, from which a magnified, real and orthoscopic 3-D object images can be optically displayed without any degradation of resolution. Good experimental results finally confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  5. Mapping the entire universe: a goal for gigapixel arrays, 3D spectro-imagers, and large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Kilston, Steven

    2002-11-01

    Visual-wavelength focal plane mosaics with 10 to 100 gigapixels may become available within the next several decades. Silicon sensor read-outs may also enable the reliable detection of individual visual wavelength photons in the near future. Such solid-state photon-counting mosaics, fed by integral-field spectrographs (IFSs) which simultaneously record the spectrum of every image element, may enable astronomers to chart the 3D structure of the entire visible Universe, and trace its physical and chemical evolution from soon after the birth of the first stars to the present. We explore the requirements of a 'cosmic atlas' sensitive to objects having 0.1 times the luminosity of the Milky Way. The proposed cosmic survey has a spatial resolution of about 0.1", a spectral resolution of R ≍ 102 to 103, and cover the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR.

  6. About Non-Line-Of-Sight satellite detection and exclusion in a 3D map-aided localization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, Sébastien; Bétaille, David; Renault, Stéphane; Ortiz, Miguel; Mougel, Florian; Meizel, Dominique; Peyret, François

    2013-01-01

    Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results.

  7. About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Peyraud, Sébastien; Bétaille, David; Renault, Stéphane; Ortiz, Miguel; Mougel, Florian; Meizel, Dominique; Peyret, François

    2013-01-01

    Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results. PMID:23344379

  8. Development, Calibration and Evaluation of a Portable and Direct Georeferenced Laser Scanning System for Kinematic 3D Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Erik; Eling, Christian; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, kinematic laser scanning has become increasingly popular because it offers many benefits compared to static laser scanning. The advantages include both saving of time in the georeferencing and a more favorable scanning geometry. Often mobile laser scanning systems are installed on wheeled platforms, which may not reach all parts of the object. Hence, there is an interest in the development of portable systems, which remain operational even in inaccessible areas. The development of such a portable laser scanning system is presented in this paper. It consists of a lightweight direct georeferencing unit for the position and attitude determination and a small low-cost 2D laser scanner. This setup provides advantages over existing portable systems that employ heavy and expensive 3D laser scanners in a profiling mode. A special emphasis is placed on the system calibration, i. e. the determination of the transformation between the coordinate frames of the direct georeferencing unit and the 2D laser scanner. To this end, a calibration field is used, which consists of differently orientated georeferenced planar surfaces, leading to estimates for the lever arms and boresight angles with an accuracy of mm and one-tenth of a degree. Finally, point clouds of the mobile laser scanning system are compared with georeferenced point clouds of a high-precision 3D laser scanner. Accordingly, the accuracy of the system is in the order of cm to dm. This is in good agreement with the expected accuracy, which has been derived from the error propagation of previously estimated variance components.

  9. Quantification of ultrasound correlation-based flow velocity mapping and edge velocity gradient measurement.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Woo; Kruger, Grant H; Rubin, Jonathan M; Hamilton, James; Gottschalk, Paul; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J; Weitzel, William F

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the use of ultrasound speckle decorrelation- and correlation-based lateral speckle-tracking methods for transverse and longitudinal blood velocity profile measurement, respectively. By studying the blood velocity gradient at the vessel wall, vascular wall shear stress, which is important in vascular physiology as well as the pathophysiologic mechanisms of vascular diseases, can be obtained. Decorrelation-based blood velocity profile measurement transverse to the flow direction is a novel approach, which provides advantages for vascular wall shear stress measurement over longitudinal blood velocity measurement methods. Blood flow velocity profiles are obtained from measurements of frame-to-frame decorrelation. In this research, both decorrelation and lateral speckle-tracking flow estimation methods were compared with Poiseuille theory over physiologic flows ranging from 50 to 1000 mm/s. The decorrelation flow velocity measurement method demonstrated more accurate prediction of the flow velocity gradient at the wall edge than the correlation-based lateral speckle-tracking method. The novelty of this study is that speckle decorrelation-based flow velocity measurements determine the blood velocity across a vessel. In addition, speckle decorrelation-based flow velocity measurements have higher axial spatial resolution than Doppler ultrasound measurements to enable more accurate measurement of blood velocity near a vessel wall and determine the physiologically important wall shear.

  10. Automated quantification of DNA demethylation effects in cells via 3D mapping of nuclear signatures and population homogeneity assessment.

    PubMed

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wawrowsky, Kolja A; Lindsley, Erik; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Farkas, Daniel L; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2009-07-01

    Today's advanced microscopic imaging applies to the preclinical stages of drug discovery that employ high-throughput and high-content three-dimensional (3D) analysis of cells to more efficiently screen candidate compounds. Drug efficacy can be assessed by measuring response homogeneity to treatment within a cell population. In this study, topologically quantified nuclear patterns of methylated cytosine and global nuclear DNA are utilized as signatures of cellular response to the treatment of cultured cells with the demethylating anti-cancer agents: 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and octreotide (OCT). Mouse pituitary folliculostellate TtT-GF cells treated with 5-AZA and OCT for 48 hours, and untreated populations, were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei (n = 163). Cell images were processed utilizing an automated 3D analysis software that we developed by combining seeded watershed segmentation to extract nuclear shells with measurements of Kullback-Leibler's (K-L) divergence to analyze cell population homogeneity in the relative nuclear distribution patterns of MeC versus DAPI stained sites. Each cell was assigned to one of the four classes: similar, likely similar, unlikely similar, and dissimilar. Evaluation of the different cell groups revealed a significantly higher number of cells with similar or likely similar MeC/DAPI patterns among untreated cells (approximately 100%), 5-AZA-treated cells (90%), and a lower degree of same type of cells (64%) in the OCT-treated population. The latter group contained (28%) of unlikely similar or dissimilar (7%) cells. Our approach was successful in the assessment of cellular behavior relevant to the biological impact of the applied drugs, i.e., the reorganization of MeC/DAPI distribution by demethylation. In a comparison with other metrics, K-L divergence has proven to be a more

  11. STUDY OF THE 3D GEOMETRIC STRUCTURE AND TEMPERATURE OF A CORONAL CAVITY USING THE LIMB SYNOPTIC MAP METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, N.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Webber, S. A. Hess; Zhang, J.

    2015-09-10

    We present the three-dimensional geometric structure and thermal properties of a coronal cavity deduced from limb synoptic maps. The observations are extreme ultraviolet images from the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA) and magnetic images from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We describe a limb synoptic-map method used to effectively identify and measure cavities from annuli of radiance above the solar limb. We find that cavities are best seen in the 211, 193, and 171 Å passbands. The prominence associated with each cavity is best seen in the 304 Å synoptic maps. We also estimate the thermal properties of the cavity and surrounding plasma by combining the AIA radiances with a differential emission measure analysis. This paper focuses on one long cavity from a catalog of coronal cavities that we are developing. Cavities in this catalog are designated by a coded name using the Carrington Rotation number and position. Cavity C211347177N was observed during Carrington Rotation 2113 at the northwestern limb of the solar disk with an average latitude of 47° N and a central longitude of 177°. We showed the following. (1) The cavity is a long tube with an elliptical cross-section with ratios of the length to width and the length to height of 11:1 and 7:1, respectively. (2) The cavity is about 1360 Mm long, or 170° in longitude. (3) It is tilted in latitude. (4) And it is slightly hotter than its surroundings.

  12. A system for high resolution 3D mapping using laser radar and requiring no beam scanning mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, Paul

    1988-06-01

    The inherently high angular and range resolution capabilities associated with radar systems operating at optical frequencies are at once a blessing and a curse. Standard implementations consist of very narrow field of view optical receivers operating in conjunction with laser transmitters or even narrower illumination beamwidth. While high angular resolution is thus achieved, mechanical scanning is required to gather data over extended fields of view. The many laser pulse transmissions necessary to cover the entire field of view increase the detectability of the system by enemy sensors. A system concept is proposed which, through the use of a single laser transmitter and multiple optical receivers, largely eliminate these deficiencies. Complete 3D data over a broad angular field of view and depth of field can be gathered based upon the reflections from a single transmitted laser pulse. Covert operation is enhanced as a result of the sparse laser transmissions required. The eye safety characteristics of the system are also enhanced. Proprietary coding of optical shutters in each of the multiple optical receivers permits the number of such receivers to be reduced to a very practical few. An alternative configuration of the system reduces the number of receivers required to one, at the expense of increased data acquisition time. The multiple receiver configuration is simply a parallel processing implementation of the single receiver approach. While data rate is reduced by the single receiver configuration, it still greatly exceeds that of scanning systems, and hardware complexity is also reduced significantly.

  13. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ.

  14. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  15. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K; Lemos, Jose A; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  16. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K; Lemos, Jose A; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-08

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ.

  17. 3D chemical mapping: application of scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) in combination with angle-scan tomography in bio-, geo-, and environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Schmid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of environmental processes and mechanisms often requires information on the organochemical and inorganic composition of specimens at high spatial resolution. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) performed in the soft X-ray range (100-2,200 eV) provides chemical speciation information for elements that are of high biogeochemical relevance such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but also includes transition metals such as iron, manganese, or nickel. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combines XAS with high resolution mapping on the 20-nm scale. This provides two-dimensional (2D) quantitative information about the distribution of chemical species such as organic macromolecules, metals, or mineral phases within environmental samples. Furthermore, the combination of STXM with angle-scan tomography allows for three-dimensional (3D) spectromicroscopic analysis of bio-, geo-, or environmental samples. For the acquisition of STXM tomography data, the sample is rotated around an axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Various sample preparation approaches such as stripes cut from TEM grids or the preparation of wet cells allow for preparing environmentally relevant specimens in a dry or in a fully hydrated state for 2D and 3D STXM measurements. In this chapter we give a short overview about the principles of STXM, its application to environmental sciences, different preparation techniques, and the analysis and 3D reconstruction of STXM tomography data.

  18. 3D chemical mapping: application of scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) in combination with angle-scan tomography in bio-, geo-, and environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Schmid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of environmental processes and mechanisms often requires information on the organochemical and inorganic composition of specimens at high spatial resolution. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) performed in the soft X-ray range (100-2,200 eV) provides chemical speciation information for elements that are of high biogeochemical relevance such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but also includes transition metals such as iron, manganese, or nickel. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combines XAS with high resolution mapping on the 20-nm scale. This provides two-dimensional (2D) quantitative information about the distribution of chemical species such as organic macromolecules, metals, or mineral phases within environmental samples. Furthermore, the combination of STXM with angle-scan tomography allows for three-dimensional (3D) spectromicroscopic analysis of bio-, geo-, or environmental samples. For the acquisition of STXM tomography data, the sample is rotated around an axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Various sample preparation approaches such as stripes cut from TEM grids or the preparation of wet cells allow for preparing environmentally relevant specimens in a dry or in a fully hydrated state for 2D and 3D STXM measurements. In this chapter we give a short overview about the principles of STXM, its application to environmental sciences, different preparation techniques, and the analysis and 3D reconstruction of STXM tomography data. PMID:24357389

  19. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    PubMed

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pseudo-3D maps of DIB at 862nm (Kos+ 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, J.; Zwitter, T.; Wyse, R.; Bienayme, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Sharma, S.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M. E. K.

    2015-05-01

    Equivalent widths of DIB 8620 and reddening is presented as calculated from the RAVE survey. Data represent pseudo-3-dimensional map given as values in 1292 bins for the northern and 2212 bins for the southern galactic hemisphere, covering a wide range of galactic longitudes and distances up to 3kpc. Only two layers represent the dimension along the galactic latitude, thus the name pseudo. Perpendicular to the galactic plane a scale height is calculated. The value is 117.7+/-4.7pc for the dust absorption and 209.0+/-11.9pc for the DIB's equivalent width. The values of the equivalent width and reddening are not direct measurements, but are projected values into the galactic plane according to the exponential law with the mentioned scale height. The maps represent measurements made in spectra of stars at different galactic latitudes, so for the measurements to be comparable, the values must be rescaled. The mapped values are therefore the values one would measure if the observer and the source both lied in the galactic plane. Note that the observations do not cover the galactic plane and the measured values might not reflect the state of the ISM in the plane. Each bin represents a column stretching from the galactic plane, symetricaly to the south and to the north. The cross section of the bin has a shape of a slice of an annulus. The nearest annulus has 3 slices and the following ones so many that they have as equal area as possible. See paper for easier visualization. (2 data files).

  1. 3D Mapping of Safe and Danger Zones in the Maxilla and Mandible for the Placement of Intermaxillary Fixation Screws

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Pohchi, Abdullah; Abdul Razak, Noor Hayati

    2013-01-01

    Intermaxillary (IMF) screws feature several advantages over other devices used for intermaxillary fixation, but using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to determine the safe and danger zones to place these devices for all patients can be expensive. This study aimed to determine the optimal interradicular and buccopalatal/buccolingual spaces for IMF screw placement in the maxilla and mandible. The CBCT volumetric data of 193 patients was used to generate transaxial slices between the second molar on the right to the second molar on the left in both arches. The mean interradicular and buccopalatal/buccolingual distances and standard deviation values were obtained at heights of 2, 5, 8 and 11 mm from the alveolar bone crest. An IMF screw with a diameter of 1.0 mm and length of 7 mm can be placed distal to the canines (2 - 11 mm from the alveolar crest) and less than 8 mm between the molars in the maxilla. In the mandible, the safest position is distal to the first premolar (more than 5 mm) and distal to the second premolar (more than 2 mm). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the right and left quadrants. The colour coding 3D template showed the safe and danger zones based on the mesiodistal, buccopalatal and buccolingual distances in the maxilla and mandible.The safest sites for IMF screw insertion in the maxilla were between the canines and first premolars and between the first and second molars. In the mandible, the safest sites were between the first and second premolars and between the second premolar and first molar. However, the IMF screw should not exceed 1.0 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length. PMID:24367643

  2. Mapping the 3-D extent of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld layered mafic intrusion from geophysical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Cole, Janine; Khoza, Tshepo David; Webb, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Geophysical models image the 3D geometry of the mafic portion of the Bushveld Complex north of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament (TML), critical for understanding the origin of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion and platinum group element deposits. The combination of the gravity and magnetic data with recent seismic, MT, borehole and rock property measurements powerfully constrains the models. The intrusion north of the TML is generally shallowly buried (generally <1500 m) with a modeled area of ∼160 km × ∼125 km. The modeled thicknesses are not well constrained but vary from ∼<1000 to >12,000 m, averaging ∼4000 m. A feeder, suggested by a large modeled thickness (>10,000 m) and funnel shape, for Lower Zone magmas could have originated near the intersection of NS and NE trending TML faults under Mokopane. The TML has been thought to be the feeder zone for the entire Bushveld Complex but the identification of local feeders and/or dikes in the TML in the models is complicated by uncertainties on the syn- and post-Bushveld deformation history. However, modeled moderately thick high density material near the intersection of faults within the central and western TML may represent feeders for parts of the Bushveld Complex if deformation was minimal. The correspondence of flat, high resistivity and density regions reflect the sill-like geometry of the Bushveld Complex without evidence for feeders north of Mokopane. Magnetotelluric models indicate that the Transvaal sedimentary basin underlies much of the Bushveld Complex north of the TML, further than previously thought and important because the degree of reaction and assimilation of the Transvaal rocks with the mafic magmas resulted in a variety of mineralization zones.

  3. Integrating proximal soil sensing techniques and terrain indexes to generate 3D maps of soil restrictive layers in the Palouse region, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Matteo; Brown, David J.; Gasch, Caley K.; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    In the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho (USA), spatially discontinuous restrictive layers impede rooting growth and water infiltration. Consequently, accurate maps showing the depth and spatial extent of these restrictive layers are essential for watershed hydrologic modeling appropriate for precision agriculture. In this presentation, we report on the use of a Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) penetrometer fore optic to construct detailed maps of three wheat fields in the Palouse region. The VisNIR penetrometer was used to deliver in situ soil reflectance to an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Boulder, CO, USA) spectrometer and simultaneously acquire insertion force. With a hydraulic push-type soil coring systems for insertion (e.g. Giddings), we collected soil spectra and insertion force data along 41m x 41m grid points (2 fields) and 50m x 50m grid points (1 field) to ≈80cm depth, in addition to interrogation points at 36 representative instrumented locations per field. At each of the 36 instrumented locations, two soil cores were extracted for laboratory determination of clay content and bulk density. We developed calibration models of soil clay content and bulk density with spectra and insertion force collected in situ, using partial least squares regression 2 (PLSR2). Applying spline functions, we delineated clay and bulk density profiles at each points (grid and 24 locations). The soil profiles were then used as inputs in a regression-kriging model with terrain indexes and ECa data (derived from an EM38 field survey, Geonics, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) as covariates to generate 3D soil maps. Preliminary results show that the VisNIR penetrometer can capture the spatial patterns of restrictive layers. Work is ongoing to evaluate the prediction accuracy of penetrometer-derived 3D clay content and restriction layer maps.

  4. Hip and knee joints are more stabilized than driven during the stance phase of gait: an analysis of the 3D angle between joint moment and joint angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Dumas, R; Cheze, L

    2008-08-01

    Joint power is commonly used in orthopaedics, ergonomics or sports analysis but its clinical interpretation remains controversial. Some basic principles on muscle actions and energy transfer have been proposed in 2D. The decomposition of power on 3 axes, although questionable, allows the same analysis in 3D. However, these basic principles have been widely criticized, mainly because bi-articular muscles must be considered. This requires a more complex computation in order to determine how the individual muscle force contributes to drive the joint. Conversely, with simple 3D inverse dynamics, the analysis of both joint moment and angular velocity directions is essential to clarify when the joint moment can contribute or not to drive the joint. The present study evaluates the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity and investigates when the hip, knee and ankle joints are predominantly driven (angle close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees ) or stabilized (angle close to 90 degrees ) during gait. The 3D angle curves show that the three joints are never fully but only partially driven and that the hip and knee joints are mainly stabilized during the stance phase. The notion of stabilization should be further investigated, especially for subjects with motion disorders or prostheses.

  5. Co-incident 3D mapping of sea ice surface elevation and ice draft in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, M. J.; Forsberg, R.; Haas, C.; Hanson, S.; Hendriks, S.; Martin, T.; Skourup, H.; Wadhams, P.

    2007-12-01

    Co-incident measurements of sea ice freeboard, thickness and draft were made during the Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station (APLIS), in April 2007. The campaign was the first time that full three-dimensional mapping of sea ice freeboard and sea ice draft have been achieved simultaneously. Freeboard was measured across a swath width of 300 m at 1 m spatial resolution, using a laser profilometer flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Ice draft was measured across a swath width of approximately 80 m at 0.5 m spatial resolution, using a Gavia AUV fitted with a GeoAcoustics phase-measuring swath sonar. Ice thickness was also measured along co-incident tracks using a helicopter-borne electromagnetic sounding instrument (HEM bird). The laser profilometer and AUV-mounted sonar rely on the assumption of isostatic balance when deriving ice thickness estimates from the ice surface and underside profiles, while the HEM bird records both surfaces simultaneously and independently, though averaging over a significant footprint (30 m) for the underside of the ice. Though the extent of the APLIS dataset was limited by the radius of AUV operations, the dataset will significantly improve our understanding of ice volume in deformed ice areas, particularly our understanding of the contribution of ridges and rubble fields to total Arctic ice volume, their isostatic balance and questions of block-scale porosity. The data will serve to better constrain the effects of porosity and footprint on the operational HEM measurements and, conversely, the HEM measurements will allow conclusions about the impact of the isostatic balance assumption on ice thickness estimates derived from mapping of one surface.

  6. Phenotypic transition maps of 3D breast acini obtained by imaging-guided agent-based modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jonathan; Enderling, Heiko; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Chen, Chen-Yi; Costes, Sylvain V

    2011-02-18

    We introduce an agent-based model of epithelial cell morphogenesis to explore the complex interplay between apoptosis, proliferation, and polarization. By varying the activity levels of these mechanisms we derived phenotypic transition maps of normal and aberrant morphogenesis. These maps identify homeostatic ranges and morphologic stability conditions. The agent-based model was parameterized and validated using novel high-content image analysis of mammary acini morphogenesis in vitro with focus on time-dependent cell densities, proliferation and death rates, as well as acini morphologies. Model simulations reveal apoptosis being necessary and sufficient for initiating lumen formation, but cell polarization being the pivotal mechanism for maintaining physiological epithelium morphology and acini sphericity. Furthermore, simulations highlight that acinus growth arrest in normal acini can be achieved by controlling the fraction of proliferating cells. Interestingly, our simulations reveal a synergism between polarization and apoptosis in enhancing growth arrest. After validating the model with experimental data from a normal human breast line (MCF10A), the system was challenged to predict the growth of MCF10A where AKT-1 was overexpressed, leading to reduced apoptosis. As previously reported, this led to non growth-arrested acini, with very large sizes and partially filled lumen. However, surprisingly, image analysis revealed a much lower nuclear density than observed for normal acini. The growth kinetics indicates that these acini grew faster than the cells comprising it. The in silico model could not replicate this behavior, contradicting the classic paradigm that ductal carcinoma in situ is only the result of high proliferation and low apoptosis. Our simulations suggest that overexpression of AKT-1 must also perturb cell-cell and cell-ECM communication, reminding us that extracellular context can dictate cellular behavior.

  7. Constrained NBMPR Analogue Synthesis, Pharmacophore Mapping and 3D-QSAR Modeling of Equilibrative nucleoside Transporter 1 (ENT1) Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhengxiang; Buolamwini, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Conformationally constrained analogue synthesis was undertaken to aid in pharmacophore mapping and 3D QSAR analysis of nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) congeners as equilibriative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) inhibitors. In our previous study (Zhu et al., J. Med. Chem. 46, 831–837, 2003), novel regioisomeric nitro-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline conformationally constrained analogues of NBMPR were synthesized and evaluated as ENT1 ligands. 7-NO2-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroisoquino-2-yl purine riboside was identified as the analogue with the nitro group in the best orientation at the NBMPR binding site of ENT1. In the present study, further conformational constraining was introduced by synthesizing 5′-O, 8-cyclo derivatives. The flow cytometrically determined binding affinities indicated that the additional 5′-O, 8-cyclo constraining was unfavorable for binding to the ENT1 transporter. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) acquired was applied to pharmacophore mapping using the PHASE program. The best pharmacophore hypothesis obtained embodied an anti-conformation with three H-bond acceptors, one hydrophobic center, and two aromatic rings involving the 3′-OH, 4′-oxygen, the NO2 group, the benzyl phenyl and the imidazole and pyrimidine portions of the purine ring, respectively. A PHASE 3D-QSAR model derived with this pharmacophore yielded an r2 of 0.916 for four (4) PLS components, and an excellent external test set predictive r2 of 0.78 for 39 compounds. This pharmacophore was used for molecular alignment in a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) 3D-QSAR study that also afforded a predictive model with external test set validation predictive r2 of 0.73. Thus, although limited, this study suggests that the bioactive conformation for NBMPR at the ENT1 transporter could be anti. The study has also suggested an ENT1 inhibitory pharmacophore, and established a predictive CoMFA 3D-QSAR model that might be useful for novel ENT1 inhibitor

  8. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  9. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    DOE PAGES

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; Gaston, Derek R.

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reducemore » the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.« less

  10. A high performance biometric signal and image processing method to reveal blood perfusion towards 3D oxygen saturation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imms, Ryan; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Trico, Michaël.; Summers, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) is a recent development in the field of physiological data acquisition, currently undergoing a large amount of research to characterize and define the range of its capabilities. Contact-based PPG techniques have been broadly used in clinical scenarios for a number of years to obtain direct information about the degree of oxygen saturation for patients. With the advent of imaging techniques, there is strong potential to enable access to additional information such as multi-dimensional blood perfusion and saturation mapping. The further development of effective opto-physiological monitoring techniques is dependent upon novel modelling techniques coupled with improved sensor design and effective signal processing methodologies. The biometric signal and imaging processing platform (bSIPP) provides a comprehensive set of features for extraction and analysis of recorded iPPG data, enabling direct comparison with other biomedical diagnostic tools such as ECG and EEG. Additionally, utilizing information about the nature of tissue structure has enabled the generation of an engineering model describing the behaviour of light during its travel through the biological tissue. This enables the estimation of the relative oxygen saturation and blood perfusion in different layers of the tissue to be calculated, which has the potential to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  11. Mapping 3D thin shale and permeability pathway within a reservoir system: Case study from the Sleipner Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponfa Bitrus, Roy; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Reservoir architecture plays an integral part of seismic reservoir characterization. The characteristics of a reservoir which includes its external and internal geometry are important as they influence the production and development strategy employed in the oil and gas sector. Reservoir architecture is defined by the interpretation of seismic data, thus identifying the basic structural and stratigraphic geometrical framework of a trapping and flow system for hydrocarbon and fluids. One major issue though is the interpretation of thin shales and identification of permeability pathways within the reservoir system. This paper employs a method using attributes to map thin shales and identify permeability pathways or transmissitives that exist within a reservoir taking into consideration the seismic resolution and available data. Case study is the Utsira Formation in the Sleipner field, Norwegian North sea. The Utsira formation presents a classic case of thin beds within a sandstone formation and transmissitives that exist as chimneys within the formation. A total of 10 intra reservoir horizon units of shales where interpreted using complex trace seismic attributes. These interpreted horizons where further analysed through spectral decomposition to reveal possible facies distribution and unit thickness within the horizon. Reservoir transmissitives identified as vertical curvilinear structures were also analysed using unique seismic attributes in other to delineate their extent and characterise their occurrence These interpreted shales and pathway transmissitives illuminate the geometry of the formation, the reservoir heterogeneities on a finer-scale and, in the long term, constrain the migration prediction of reservoir fluids, hydrocarbons and injected CO2 when matched across a 4D seismic data survey. As such, useful insights into the key elements operating within the reservoir can be provided, giving a good indication of the long and short term reservoir performance.

  12. Volcano-tectonic implications of 3-D velocity structures derived from joint active and passive source tomography of the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.; Morgan, J.K.; Zelt, C.A.; Okubo, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a velocity model of the onshore and offshore regions around the southern part of the island of Hawaii, including southern Mauna Kea, southeastern Hualalai, and the active volcanoes of Mauna Loa, and Kilauea, and Loihi seamount. The velocity model was inverted from about 200,000 first-arrival traveltime picks of earthquakes and air gun shots recorded at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Reconstructed volcanic structures of the island provide us with an improved understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes and their interactions. The summits and upper rift zones of the active volcanoes are characterized by high-velocity materials, correlated with intrusive magma cumulates. These high-velocity materials often do not extend the full lengths of the rift zones, suggesting that rift zone intrusions may be spatially limited. Seismicity tends to be localized seaward of the most active intrusive bodies. Low-velocity materials beneath parts of the active rift zones of Kilauea and Mauna Loa suggest discontinuous rift zone intrusives, possibly due to the presence of a preexisting volcanic edifice, e.g., along Mauna Loa beneath Kilauea's southwest rift zone, or alternatively, removal of high-velocity materials by large-scale landsliding, e.g., along Mauna Loa's western flank. Both locations also show increased seismicity that may result from edifice interactions or reactivation of buried faults. New high-velocity regions are recognized and suggest the presence of buried, and in some cases, previously unknown rift zones, within the northwest flank of Mauna Loa, and the south flanks of Mauna Loa, Hualalai, and Mauna Kea. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Emission line eclipse mapping of velocity fields in dwarf nova accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, M.; Mineshige, S.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new method, emission-line eclipse mapping, to map the velocity fields in an accretion disc. We apply the usual eclipse mapping technique to the light curves at each of 12-24 wavelengths across the line center to map the region with same line-of-sight velocity, from which we are able to plot the rotational velocity as a function of radius on the assumption of axisymmetric disc. We calculate time changes of the emission line profiles, assuming Keplerian rotation fields (vvarphi propto r-1/2) and the emissivity distribution of j propto r-3/2, and reconstruct emissivity profiles. The results show typically a `two-eye' pattern for high line-of-sight velocities and we can recover the relation, vvarphi propto d-1/2, where d is the separation of two lq eyes.'

  14. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  15. A fusion of actual motion pictures of scenery and the 3D image constructed from GPS and gyro data and map database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiya, Yasuto; Shirakawa, Masayuki; Ozeki, Shigeru

    2003-09-01

    EVS (Enhanced Vision System) and SVS (Synthesized Vision System) are known as effective tools for pilots to improve situation awareness. ENRI has developed an integrated EVS/SVS experimenta system to study the potential of both EVS and SVS in Japan. This paper presents the results of ground and flight experiments of the experimental system. It produces the three-dimensional (3D)artificial images. They are synthesized with the position data of GPS,the attitude data obtained by the gyro sensor and the digital map database,which is supplied from GSI (the Geographical Survey Institute)in Japan. The produced image is compared with the actual motion picture of scenery through HUD (Head Up Display) or a computer screen.The image uses the grid lines' expression for the simultaneous recognition of both the 3D image and the real picture. The picture is obtained from two sensors, that is, a visible ray co or sensor and an infrared sensor. These two kinds of the picture are recorded into respective video recorder. The image recording subsystems are equipped to the ENRI"s experimental aircraft with additional sensors for position and attitude data. The GPS receiver and gyro unit are chosen for additional sensors. Two methods are examined in the simulation of the fusion system.One is a method that the 3D image is overlapped with the picture of the time to acquire the image from video recorders and display it on a computer screen. The other is a method that the observer watches the image through HUD,where both the image and the picture are overlapped.This paper also discusses the difference of two methods for fusion systems and shows the results

  16. Enhancing the Contrast of ApoB to Locate the Surface Components in the 3D Density Map of Human LDL

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhang; Atkinson, David

    2010-01-01

    A 26Å resolution map of the structure of human LDL was obtained from cryo-EM and single particle image reconstruction. The structure showed a discoidal shaped LDL particle with high-density regions mainly distributed at the edge of the particle and low-density regions at the flat surface that covers the core region. To determine the chemical components that correspond to these density regions and to delineate the distribution of protein and phospholipid located at the particle surface at the resolution of the map, we used Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Undecagold labeling to increase preferentially the contrast of the apoB protein component on the LDL particle. In the 3D maps from the image reconstruction of the undecagold labeled LDL particles, the high-density region from the undecagold label was distributed mainly at the edge of the particle and lower density regions were found at the flat surfaces that cover the neutral lipid core. This suggests that apoB mainly encircles LDL at the edge of the particle and the phospholipid monolayers are located at the flat surfaces, which are parallel to the cholesterol ester layers in the core and may interact with the core lipid layers through the acyl-chains. PMID:21029740

  17. Commissioning and Implementation of an EPID Based IMRT QA System "Dosimetry Check" for 3D Absolute Dose Measurements and Quantitative Comparisons to MapCheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jalpa A.

    The software package "Dosimetry Check" by MathResolutions, LLC, provides an absolute 3D volumetric dose measurement for IMRT QA using the existing Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) mounted on most linear accelerators. This package provides a feedback loop using the patient's treatment planning CT data as the phantom for dose reconstruction. The aim of this work is to study the difference between point, planar and volumetric doses with MapCheck and Dosimetry Check via the use of the EPID and the diode array respectively. Evaluating tools such as point doses at isocenter, 1-D profiles, gamma volume histograms, and dose volume histograms are used for IMRT dose comparison in three types of cases: head and neck, prostate, and lung. Dosimetry Check can be a valuable tool for IMRT QA as it uses patient specific attenuation corrections and the superiority of the EPID as compared to the MapCheck diode array. This helps reduce the uncertainty in dose for less variability in delivery and a more realistic measured vs computed dose verification system as compared to MapCheck.