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Sample records for 3h flunitrazepam binding

  1. Partial chemical characterization of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone) and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam) binding site: Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.; Julou, L.

    1985-06-10

    Rat hippocampus membranes were treated with several protein modifying reagents (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole). The effects of these treatments on the binding sites of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone), a new chemical family of minor tranquilizers, and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam) were investigated. Here the authors show that both ligands are similarly sensitive to cysteine alkylation: (/sup 3/H) suriclone and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding are reduced by iodoacetamide and slightly increased by N-ethylmaleimide. On the contrary they are clearly differentiated by tyrosine modification: (/sup 3/H) suriclone binding is not changed whereas (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding is increased by tetranitromethane and decreased by N-acetylimidazole. The present findings and published evidence suggest cyclopyrrolones and benzodiazepines bind to distinct sites or to different allosteric forms of the benzodiazepine receptor. 28 references, 6 figures.

  2. In vivo (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding: imaging of receptor regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B. Jr.; Young, A.B.

    1986-08-01

    The use of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam as a ligand to measure alterations in benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in rats was investigated. Animals were injected with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam i.v., arterial samples of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam were obtained and, later, the animals were sacrificed to assay brain binding. (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam enters the brain rapidly and binds to benzodiazepine receptors. About two-thirds of this binding is blocked by predosing the animals with 5 mg/kg of clonazepam. The amount of remaining (nonspecific) binding correlates very well (r = 0.88) with the amount of radioactivity found in plasma at the time of death. A series of rats were lesioned unilaterally with kainic acid in the caudate-putamen several months before the infusion of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam. In vivo autoradiography in lesioned rats showed that benzodiazepine binding in globus pallidus and substantia nigra on the side of the lesion was increased significantly as compared to the intact side. The observed changes in benzodiazepine binding were similar to those observed previously in lesioned rats using in vitro techniques. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor regulation can be imaged quantitatively using in vivo binding techniques.

  3. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding and imaging using (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliax, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam as a ligand to image and measure alterations in benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in rat was investigated. Animals were injected with (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam intravenously, arterial samples of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam were obtained and later the animals were sacrificed to assay brain binding. (/sup 3/H)-Flunitrazepam entered brain rapidly and bound to benzodiazepine receptors. A series of rats were lesioned unilaterally with kainic acid in the caudate-putamen several months prior to the infusion of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam. In vivo autoradiography in lesioned rats showed that benzodiazepine binding in the lesioned striatum was significantly decreased compared to the control side and that benzodiazepine binding in globus pallidus and substantia nigra on the side of the lesion was significantly increased as compared to the intact side. The observed changes in benzodiazepine binding were similar to those observed previously in lesioned rats using in vitro techniques. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor regulation could be imaged quantitatively using in vivo binding techniques.

  4. [[superscript 3]H]-Flunitrazepam-Labeled Benzodiazepine Binding Sites in the Hippocampal Formation in Autism: A Multiple Concentration Autoradiographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guptill, Jeffrey T.; Booker, Anne B.; Gibbs, Terrell T.; Kemper, Thomas L.; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blatt, Gene J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the GABAergic system in cerebellar and limbic structures is affected in autism. We extended our previous study that found reduced [[superscript 3]H] flunitrazepam-labeled benzodiazepine sites in the autistic hippocampus to determine whether this reduction was due to a decrease in binding site number (B [subscript…

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by ( sup 3 H)flunitrazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassin, J.; Tephly, T.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepines have been shown to competitively inhibit morphine glucuronidation in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Flunitrazepam exerted a potent competitive inhibition of rat hepatic morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activity (Ki = 130 microM). It has no effect on the activity of p-nitrophenol, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid, or 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGTs. Because flunitrazepam is an effective photoaffinity label for benzodiazepine receptors, studied were performed in solubilized rat hepatic microsomes and with partially purified preparations of morphine UDPGT to determine the enhancement of flunitrazepam inhibition and binding to morphine UDPGT promoted by exposure to UV light. Under UV light, flunitrazepam inhibition was markedly enhanced. UV light exposure also led to a marked increase in binding of (3H)flunitrazepam to microsomal protein, which was protected substantially by preincubation with morphine. Testosterone, androsterone, and UDP-glucuronic acid did not protect against UV-enhanced flunitrazepam binding, and morphine did not reverse flunitrazepam binding once binding had occurred. As morphine UDPGT was purified, a good correlation was found between the increases in specific activity of morphine UDPGT and flunitrazepam binding to protein. Chromatofocusing chromatography showed that flunitrazepam bound only to fractions containing active morphine UDPGT, and no binding to 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGT was observed. Fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel of solubilized hepatic microsomes that had been treated with (3H) flunitrazepam under UV light revealed a band with a monomeric molecular weight between 54,000 and 58,000. This monomeric molecular weight compares favorably with the reported monomeric molecular weight of homogeneous morphine UDPGT (56,000).

  6. 3H-nicotine, 3H-flunitrazepam, and 3H-cocaine incorporation into melanin: a model for the examination of drug-melanin interactions.

    PubMed

    Claffey, D J; Stout, P R; Ruth, J A

    2001-10-01

    To explore drug-melanin interactions, we examined the in vitro tyrosinase-mediated formation of melanin from tyrosine in the presence of the 3H-cocaine (3H-COC), 3H-flunitrazepam (3H-FLU), and 3H-nicotine (3H-NIC) at 10-100,000 ng/mL. Polymerization in the presence of 10 or 100 ng/mL of each drug resulted in almost complete drug incorporation into the melanin pellet. Only 12% (3H-NIC) to 28% (3H-FLU) of the pellet-associated radioactivity could be released upon treatment with 6 M HCl. At 1000-100,000 ng/mL, between 20 and 50% of label became melanin-associated. In each case a significant percentage of melanin-associated radioactivity was resistant to treatment with 6 M HCl. Nicotine-associated radioactivity in the polymer was subject to much greater quenching than was 3H-COC or 3H-FLU, suggesting a much tighter association with the melanin. The subsequent demonstration of a covalent adduct of a melanin intermediate and nicotine has demonstrated the utility of this polymerization system as a model for further chemical characterization of drug-melanin interactions.

  7. Correlation between the enhancement of flunitrazepam binding by GABA and seizure susceptibility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.; Wehner, J.M.

    1987-06-08

    Various populations of mice exhibit differential sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents. The relationship of seizure susceptibility to alterations in the GABA receptor complex was investigated in six different populations of mice consisting of four inbred strains (C57BL, DBA, C3H, and BALB) and two selected lines (long sleep and short sleep). Seizure activity was induced by intraperitoneal administration of the GAD inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and latencies to seizure onset and tonus were measured. In naive mice of the same populations, GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding was measured in extensively washed whole brain membranes at several GABA concentrations. Both differential seizure sensitivity to 3-mercaptopropionic acid and differential enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding by GABA were observed in these six populations of mice. Correlational analyses indicated a positive correlation between the degree of GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding and resistance to the seizure-inducing properties of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. These data suggest that genetic differences in sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents that disrupt the GABAergic system may be related to differences in coupling between the various receptors associated with the GABA receptor complex.

  8. Parallel changes in brain flunitrazepam binding and density of noradrenergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Medina, J H; Novas, M L

    1983-04-01

    The neonatal injection of neurotoxic compounds such as 6-hydroxydopa (6-OH-DOPA) and DSP 4 (N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride) produces marked changes in the development of central noradrenergic neurons, i.e. permanent denervation of the cerebral cortex and hyperinnervation of the brain stem and the cerebellum. Adult animals treated at birth with both neurotoxins were used to study the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam (FNZ) to membranes isolated from these regions. The administration of both toxins produced a marked and similar increase in the number of FNZ binding sites in the cerebellum. In the brain stem, 6-OH-DOPA increased the density of these receptors much more than DSP 4 (33% vs. 13%), a difference similar to that observed between the effects of both compounds on brain stem NA. In the cerebral cortex, both compounds reduced the maximal number of FNZ binding sites. No changes were observed in the affinity of FNZ binding sites in the different structures. When adult rats treated at birth with 6-OH-DOPA received an injection of DSP 4 7 days later, the number of FNZ binding sites was reduced by 43% in the cerebellum, 53% in the brain stem and 11% in the cerebral cortex. In these structures, DSP 4 reduced the absolute number of FNZ binding sites to the same level both in rats treated at birth with 6-OH-DOPA and in non-treated animals receiving DSP 4 7 days before killing. These results are further support for the existence of close parallelism between the density of benzodiazepine receptors, as demonstrated by FNZ binding, and the density of brain noradrenergic innervation.

  9. Changes in [3H]-PK 11195 and [3H]-8-OH-DPAT binding following forebrain ischaemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, B. A.; MacKinnon, A. C.; Spedding, M.; Brown, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    1. A high density of [3H]-PK 11195 binding sites was present in gerbil cortical membranes (Bmax [3H]-PK 11195 1360 +/- 71 fmol mg-1 protein) in comparison to rat cortical membranes (254 +/- 21 fmol mg-1 protein). This effect was species-specific as similar findings were obtained with hippocampal membranes (Bmax 1430 +/- 111 fmol mg-1 protein in gerbil, compared to 196 +/- 31 in rat). 2. RO 5-4864, also a peripheral type benzodiazepine compound, displayed low affinity for the [3H]-PK 11195 site in the gerbil (pKi 6.57 +/- 0.02 and 6.70 +/- 0.12 in hippocampus and cortex respectively) compared to rat (pKi 8.16 +/- 0.07 and 8.48 +/- 0.02). Central benzodiazepine compounds, diazepam and flunitrazepam, also displayed this trend. 3. RO 5-4864 displaced [3H]-PK 11195 binding from gerbil and rat cortical membranes through a competitive interaction with Hill slopes close to unity. In both tissues, saturation isotherms of [3H]-PK 11195 binding indicated that the presence of RO 5-4864 caused changes in Kd without any effect on Bmax. In kinetic experiments, the presence of RO 5-4864 failed to modify the rate of dissociation of [3H]-PK 11195 from equilibrium in both rat and gerbil cortical membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395288

  10. Characteristics of [3H]sultopride binding to rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mizuchi, A; Kitagawa, N; Saruta, S; Miyachi, Y

    1982-10-15

    The binding of [3H]sultopride, a benzamide drug, to rat brain was investigated in vitro. Specific [3H]sultopride binding was observed in dopaminergic regions: striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, substantia nigra, frontal cortex and anterior pituitary. Specific [3H]sultopride binding to striatum was saturable and had one high affinity binding site with a KD of 5.8 nM and a total density of receptors 25.7 pmol/g. [3H]Sultopride binding was stereoselectively displaced by (-)- and (+)-sultopride. Inhibition studies indicated that all neuroleptic drugs and dopamine were capable of displacing sultopride from its binding sites. A highly significant correlation was observed between IC50 values against [3H]sultopride and those against [3H]spiperone binding. Specific [3H]sultopride binding was highly dependent on the presence of sodium ions. The results suggest that the characteristics of sultopride binding sites seem to be similar to those of the D2-receptor labeled by spiperone and haloperidol. The sultopride binding site was highly dependent on the presence of sodium ions and may thus be characterized as a sodium-dependent D2-receptor.

  11. (/sup 3/H) clonidine binding to rat hippocampal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.R.

    1982-02-01

    Alpha adrenergic receptor subtypes in rat hippocampal membranes were studied, using (/sup 3/H) clonidine as the radioactive ligand. On the basis of competitive binding studies, using the selective antagonist-prazosin, WB-4101, and yohimbine, (/sup 3/H) clonidine appeared to bind to a population of presynaptic sites that are pharmacologically similar to receptors previously classified as alpha 2. A computerized model that linearized and produced the best possible fit to the experimental data points indicated that (/sup 3/H) clonidine binds to a single population of receptors possessing equal affinity for the ligand. Binding data also indicated that rat hippo-campus contains significantly fewer (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding sites than rat cortex.

  12. Differential binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbrille-Ross, A.; Tang, S.W.; Coscina, D.V.

    1981-11-16

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of /sup 3/H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H/sub 1/) potently displaced /sup 3/H-mianserin binding. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing /sup 3/H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but did not alter binding of /sup 3/H-mianserin. Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but not /sup 3/H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin bind to different receptors. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S/sub 2/ and histamine H/sub 1/ receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent.

  13. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.

    1985-06-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine and that of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine.

  14. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  15. Autoradiographic 3H-Gaboxadol Receptor Binding Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Lynne; Caspary, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol, THIP), a GABAA receptor δ-subunit specific agonist, when present at low (μM) concentrations, preferentially binds and activates extrasynaptic (non-γ2, δ-subunit-containing) GABAARs (Storustovu and Ebert, 2006; Richardson et al., 2011, 2013). In this prototype saturation binding experiment, a series of concentrations of [3H]gaboxadol (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 250 and 400 nM) will be used. GABA at 200 μM will be added into binding mixtures as a cold displacer for [3H]gaboxadol. Slide mailers are used and each requires 7 ml binding mixture. Pre-, post-washing and binding buffer is 50 mM Tris-Citrate (pH 7.1). The detailed procedure is outlined below.

  16. Specific [(3)H]tryptophan binding sites in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wong, P T; Lee, H S; Tan, C H; Teo, W L

    1989-01-01

    [(3)H]Tryptophan binds to a single population of sites in the rat cortical synaptosomal membranes. The binding is reversible and follows the law of mass action. By saturation studies using increasing concentration of [(3)H]tryptophan with decreasing specific radioactivity, the apparent K(d) obtained was approx. 0.8 ?M and the B(max) 110 pmol/mg protein. However, the IC(50) obtained for unlabelled tryptophan in displacing [(3)H]tryptophan binding (3.5 nM) was 0.26 ?M. All six naturally occurring aromatic amino acids studied displaced [(3)H]tryptophan binding with tryptophan and phenylalanine showing higher apparent affinity than histidine, tyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan. These binding sites are proteins in nature as they are sensitive to trypsin and ?-chymotrypsin. It is observed that about 37% of the sites seem to be protected from the proteolytic enzymes by the membrane structure. Furthermore, they are extremely sensitive to phospholipase A(2) presumably because altered membrane phospholipids conduce a conformational change in the binding protein. A considerable degree of stereospecificity was demonstrated with the affinity for l-tryptophan about 90 times higher than that for d-tryptophan. The affinity for l-phenylalanine was 8 times higher than that for d-phenylalanine. Ligand specificity for the aromatic amino acids is remarkable as hydrocinnamic acid, 2-phenylethylamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, dopamine, ?-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and taurine did not displace [(3)H]tryptophan binding. Therefore, these sites are termed aromatic amino acid binding sites (AABS). Whether or not AABS are involved in neuromodulation at the synapse awaits clarification. If so, the endogenous ligand for the AABS may well be tryptophan.

  17. (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to adrenal capsular membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, M.S.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.; Keiser, H.R.

    1984-08-20

    The physiologic regulation of aldosterone secretion is dependent on extracellular calcium and appears to be mediated by increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration in the zona glomerulosa cell. A specific role for voltage-dependent calcium channels was suggested by previous studies with the calcium channel antagonist verapamil. The authors therefore studied the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine calcium channel binding site in adrenal capsules. These studies revealed a single class of saturable, high affinity sites with K/sub D/ = .26 +/- .04 nM and B/sub max/ = 105 +/- 5.7 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine was inhibited by calcium channel antagonists with potencies nitrendipine = nifedipine >> verapamil, while diltiazem had no inhibitory effect. In the rat, binding sites for (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine were located in the adrenal capsule and medulla and were undetectable in the zona fasciculata. Physiologic studies with collagenase-dispersed adrenal glomerulosa cells demonstrated that nifedipine selectively inhibited angiotensin-II and potassium-stimulated steroidogenesis. These observations suggest both a pharmacologic and physiologic role for the nitrendipine binding site in aldosterone production. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Binding of [3H]palmitate to BSA.

    PubMed

    Elmadhoun, B M; Wang, G Q; Templeton, J F; Burczynski, F J

    1998-10-01

    Determination of the BSA-palmitate high-affinity binding constant (Ka) traditionally relied on the heptane-water partitioning technique. We used this technique to calculate Ka for the BSA-[3H]palmitate complex, to determine if Ka was independent of protein concentration, and to determine if the unbound [3H]palmitate concentration is constant at different BSA concentrations using constant BSA-to-palmitate molar ratios (range 1:1 to 1:4). After extensive extraction of non-[3H]palmitate radiolabeled substances, the heptane-to-buffer partition ratio, in the absence of BSA, was 702 +/- 19 (mean +/- SD, n = 6). This value was much lower than the predicted value of 1,376 and was highly dependent on which phase (organic or aqueous) initially contained the [3H]palmitic acid. The data were consistent with the notion of self-association of [3H]palmitate in the aqueous phase. Ka for the BSA-[3H]palmitate complex was determined to be similar (2.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(8) M-1 (mean +/- SD, P > 0.05) at all BSA concentrations studied. At each BSA-to-palmitate molar ratio, the equilibrium unbound ligand concentration was constant only at low BSA concentrations (<10 microM) and at low BSA-to-palmitate molar ratios (i.e., 1:1 and 1:2). At higher BSA concentrations and molar ratios, the unbound ligand concentration increased with an increase in protein concentration. Hepatocyte uptake using the manufacturer-supplied radiolabeled product was significantly higher than with the purified product, suggesting that a non-[3H]palmitate radiolabel is also a substrate for the uptake process.

  19. Lack of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate binding to biologically relevant binding sites on mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, E M; Lubrano, T M; Gordon, J; Fields, J Z

    1992-09-01

    We analyzed the binding characteristics of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate ([3H]QNB), a muscarinic cholinergic ligand, to rat and human mononuclear cells (MNC). Under various assay conditions, atropine-sensitive, saturable binding occurred with an apparent Kd of 10 nM. Conditions which disrupted the MNC membrane reduced total binding and eliminated specific binding. Muscarinic agonists were unable to inhibit [3H]QNB binding to MNC at concentrations up to 10(-2) M. Stereoisomers dexetimide and levetimide were equipotent inhibitors of binding (IC50 2 x 10(-5) M). We conclude that, although atropine-sensitive binding of [3H]QNB to MNC occurs, the binding is not consistent with the presence of a biologically relevant muscarinic cholinergic receptor. PMID:1392105

  20. Parkinson's disease: decreased density of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites in putamen

    SciTech Connect

    Raisman, R.; Cash, R.; Agid, Y.

    1986-04-01

    The density of high-affinity /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites (two serotonin-uptake blockers) was decreased in the putamen of parkinsonian patients. The correlation between serotonin levels and the number of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites suggests that they are located on serotoninergic nerve terminals and could be used to study serotoninergic innervation in the human brain. Since imipramine and paroxetine are powerful antidepressants, these results furthermore suggest that decreased serotoninergic transmission may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in Parkinson's disease.

  1. Localization of [3H]nicotine, [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the brain of Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Zoli, Michele; Cardona, Ana; Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2003-06-16

    We determined the localization of [(3)H]nicotine, [(3)H]cytisine, [(3)H]epibatidine, and [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the brain of rhesus monkey by means of receptor autoradiography. The labelings by [(3)H]nicotine, [(3)H]cytisine, and [(3)H]epibatidine were highly concordant, except for epibatidine. Layer IV of some cortical areas, most thalamic nuclei, and presubiculum displayed high levels of labeling for the three ligands. Moderate levels of binding were detected in the subiculum, the septum, and the mesencephalon. Low levels were present in layers I-II and VI of the cortex, the cornu Ammonis, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala. In addition, the level of epibatidine labeling was very high in the epithalamic nuclei and the interpeduncular nucleus, whereas labeling by nicotine and cytisine was very weak in the same regions. The distribution of [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding differed from the binding of the three agonists. The labeling was dense in layer I of most cortical areas, dentate gyrus, stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 field, several thalamic nuclei, and medial habenula. A moderate labeling was found in layers V and VI of the prefrontal and frontal cortices, layer IV of primary visual cortex, amygdala, septum, hypothalamus, and some mesencenphalic nuclei. A weak signal was also detected in subiculum, claustrum, stratum oriens, and stratum lucidum of cornu Ammonis and also in some mesencephalic nuclei. The distribution of nicotine, cytisine, and epibatidine bindings corresponds broadly to the patterns observed in rodents, with the marked exception of the epithalamus. However, in monkey, those distributions match the distribution of alpha2 messenger RNA, rather than that of alpha4 transcripts as it exists in rodent brains. The distribution of the binding sites for alpha-bungarotoxin is larger in the brain of rhesus monkeys than in rodent brain, suggesting a more important role of alpha7 receptors in primates.

  2. Comparison of ( sup 3 H)Phencyclidine (( sup 3 H)PCP) and ( sup 3 H) N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl)piperidine (( sup 3 H)TCP) binding properties to rat and human brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vignon, J.; Chaudieu, I.; Allaoua, H.; Journod, L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.; Chicheportiche, R.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation of ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP binding properties to rat cerebrum and cerebellum resulted in the demonstration of multiple binding sites for the two drugs. In the two tissue preparations PCP had a lower affinity than TCP. In membranes from the cerebrum an equal number of high affinity binding sites were present for ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP. However, low affinity binding sites were two times more numerous for ({sup 3}H)PCP than for ({sup 3}H)TCP. In the cerebellum, the number of high and low affinity sites labeled by the two radioligands was identical, but the number of high affinity sites was about 7 fold lower than in cerebrum. In human cerebral cortex samples ({sup 3}H)TCP also bound to two different sites. The number of high and low affinity sites were 12 and 3 times, respectively, less abundant than in the rat cerebrum. Low affinity sites were of higher affinity than corresponding sites in the rat brain. In the human cerebellum ({sup 3}H)TCP binding parameters were identical to those measured in the same region in the rat.

  3. Bindings of /sup 3/H-prazosin and /sup 3/H-yohimbine to alpha adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, T.; Nishikawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha adrenoceptor subtypes have been investigated by radioligand binding study in guinea-pig stomach using /sup 3/H-prazosin and /sup 3/H-yohimbine. The specific /sup 3/H-prazosin binding to guinea-pig stomach was saturable and of high affinity with a Bmax of 33 fmol/mg protein. Specific /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding to the tissue was also saturable and of high affinity with a Bmax of 150 fmol/mg protein. Adrenergic drugs competed for /sup 3/H-prazosin binding in order of prazosin > phentolamine > methoxamine > norepinephrine > clonidine > epinephrine > yohimbine. These drugs competed for /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding in order of yohimbine > phentolamine > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > prazosin > methoxamine. They also examined whether dopamine receptors exist in guinea-pig stomach, using radioligand binding study. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone, /sup 3/H-apomorphine, /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-domperidone was not detectable in the stomach. Dopaminergic drugs such as dopamine, haloperidol, domperidone and sulpiride competed for /sup 3/H-prazosin binding in order of haloperidol > domperidone > dopamine > sulpiride. Metoclopramide, sulpiride and dopamine competed for /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding in order of metoclopramide > sulpiride > dopamine.

  4. Two nucleotide binding sites modulate ( sup 3 H) glyburide binding to rat cortex membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Triggle, D.J.; Janis, R.A. State Univ. of New York, Buffalo )

    1991-03-11

    The effects of nucleotides on the binding of the ATP-dependent K{sup +}-channel antagonist ({sup 3}H)glyburide (GLB) to rat cortex membranes were examined. Nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) and nucleotide diphosphate (NDPs) inhibited the binding of GLB. This effect was dependent on the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Inhibition of binding by NTPs, with the exception of ATP{gamma}S, was dependent on the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. GLB binding showed a biphasic response to ADP: up to 3 mM, ADP inhibited binding, and above this concentration GLB binding increased rapidly, and was restored to normal levels by 10 mM ADP. In the presence of Mg{sup 2+}, ADP did not stimulate binding. Saturation analysis in the presence of Mg{sup 2+} and increasing concentrations of ADP showed that ADP results primarily in a change of the B{sub max} for GLB binding. The differential effects of NTPS and NDPs indicate that two nucleotide binding sites regulate GLB binding.

  5. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    El-Maghrabi, E.A.; Calligaro, D.O.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    )/sup 3/H)cocaine bound reversible, with high affinity and stereospecificity to rat liver microsomes. Little binding was detected in the lysosomal, mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. The binding kinetics were slow and the kinetically calculated K/sub D/ was 2 nM. Induction of mixed function oxidases by phenobarbital did not produce significant change in (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding. On the other hand, chronic administration of cocaine reduced (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding drastically. Neither treatment affected the affinity of the liver binding protein for cocaine. Microsomes from mouse and human livers had less cocaine-binding protein and lower affinity for cocaine than those from rat liver. Binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to rat liver microsomes was insensitive to monovalent cations and > 10 fold less sensitive to biogenic amines than the cocaine receptor in rat striatum. However, the liver protein had higher affinity for cocaine and metabolites except for norcocaine. Amine uptake inhibitors displaced (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding to liver with a different rank order of potency than their displacement of (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding to striatum. This high affinity (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding protein in liver is not likely to be monooxygenase, but may have a role in cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity

  6. ( sup 3 H)cytisine binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pabreza, L.A.; Dhawan, S.; Kellar, K.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Cytisine, a ganglionic agonist, competes with high affinity for brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors labeled by any of several nicotinic {sup 3}H-agonist ligands. Here we have examined the binding of ({sup 3}H)cytisine in rat brain homogenates. ({sup 3}H)Cytisine binds with high affinity (Kd less than 1 nM), and specific binding represented 60-90% of total binding at all concentrations examined up to 15 nM. The nicotinic cholinergic agonists nicotine, acetylcholine, and carbachol compete with high affinity for ({sup 3}H)cytisine binding sites, whereas among nicotinic receptor antagonists only dihydro-beta-erythroidine competes with high affinity (in the nanomolar range). Comparison of binding in several brain regions showed that ({sup 3}H)cytisine binding is higher in the thalamus, striatum, and cortex than in the hippocampus, cerebellum, or hypothalamus. The pharmacology and brain regional distribution of ({sup 3}H)cytisine binding sites are those predicted for neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist recognition sites. The high affinity and low nonspecific binding of ({sup 3}H)cytisine should make it a very useful ligand for studying neuronal nicotinic receptors.

  7. Binding (of /sup 3/H-spiperone) in the mouse brain after intraperitoneal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1985-08-01

    In this investigation, the binding of/sup 3/H-spiperone was studied after intraperitoneal injection into mice. The results of these experiments show that after intraperitoneal injection /sup 3/H-spiperone binds specifically with receptors of the cortex and basal ganglia of the mouse brain. Neuroleptics with varied chemical structure displace /sup 3/H-spiperone from its binding sites. Although after intraperitoneal injection the level of specific binding is rather lower than after intravenous injection, the authors maintain that the relative simplicity, reproducibility, and economy of the method make it more acceptable.

  8. Use and abuse of flunitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Cupp, M J

    1998-01-01

    Flunitrazepam is not available in the US, and it is presently illegal to import it. Flunitrazepam has no therapeutic advantage over benzodiazepines presently marketed in the US. Its quick onset of sedation, amnesic properties, and additive effects with alcohol have led to its reputation as a party drug, club drug, or date rape drug. Several measures have been undertaken to curb its illicit use. It is unclear whether flunitrazepam poses a greater public health risk than other benzodiazepines. PMID:9475831

  9. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets sup 3 H-paroxetine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P. ); Ernouf, D. ); Breton, P. ); Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding. When binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology.

  10. Clinical and treatment effects on /sup 3/H-clonidine and /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in elderly depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Georgotas, A.; Schweitzer, J.; McCue, R.E.; Armour, M.; Friedhoff, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    /sup 3/H-clonidine and /sup 3/H-imipramine binding were measured in depressed patients, 55 years and older. There was no significant difference in either /sup 3/H-clonidine or /sup 3/H-imipramine binding between depressed patients and age- and sex-matched controls. There was no significant correlation between /sup 3/H-clonidine or /sup 3/H-imipramine binding and severity of depression before treatment. There was a significant negative correlation between the K/sub D/ of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites and Hamilton score over seven weeks of antidepressant treatment. There was no significant difference between receptor data of responders and nonresponders to antidepressant treatment. 19 references, 2 tables.

  11. Purification of L-( sup 3 H) Nicotine eliminates low affinity binding

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, E.; Marks, M.J.; Collins, A.C. ); Lippiello, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Some studies of L-({sup 3}H) nicotine binding to rodent and human brain tissue have detected two binding sites as evidenced by nonlinear Scatchard plots. Evidence presented here indicated that the low affinity binding site is not stereospecific, is not inhibited by low concentrations of cholinergic agonists and is probably due to breakdown products of nicotine since purification of the L-({sup 3}H)nicotine eliminates the low affinity site.

  12. In vivo binding of /sup 3/H-N-methylspiperone to dopamine and serotonin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.J.; Smith, A.C.; Kuhar, M.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1987-03-09

    /sup 3/H-N-methylspiperone (/sup 3/H-NMSP) was used to label dopamine-2 and serotonin-2 in vivo in the mouse. The striatum/cerebellum binding ratio reached a maximum of 80 eight hours after intravenous administration of /sup 3/H-NMSP. The frontal cortex/cerebellum ratio was 5 one hour after injection. The binding of /sup 3/H-NMSP was saturable in the frontal cortex and cerebellum between doses of 10 and 1000 ..mu..g/kg. Between 0.01 and 10 ..mu..g/kg the ratio total/nonspecific binding increased from 14 to 21. Inhibition of /sup 3/H-NMSP binding in the frontal cortex and striatum by ketanserin, a selective serotonin-2 antagonist, demonstrated that 20% of the total binding in the striatum was to serotonin-2 rectors and 91% of the total binding in the frontal cortex was to serotonin-2 receptors. Compared to /sup 3/H-spiperone, /sup 3/H-NMSP 1) results in a much higher specific/nonspecific binding ratio in the striatum and frontal cortex and 2) displays more than a two-fold higher brain uptake. 18 references, 4 figures.

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Scatton, B.; Dubois, A.; Dubocovich, M.L.; Zahniser, N.R.; Fage, D.

    1985-03-04

    The distribution of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of /sup 3/H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the /sup 3/H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the /sup 3/H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that /sup 3/H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-naloxone with isolated rat enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, K.N.; Shitin, A.G.; Suiridov, D.D.; Titov, M.I.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1985-12-01

    This paper presents data on the specific binding of naloxone with isolated rat enterocytes. Naloxone was bound with the cells in medium 199 containing 1 mg/ml of BSA. The incubation mixture contained 5 x 100 mM /sup 3/H-naloxone and, if indicated, other substances also. Dose dependence of binding of naloxone with rat enterocytes is shown. The kinetics of specific binding of naloxone with enterocytes at different temperatures is also shown, as is the irreversibility of binding of /sup 3/H-naloxone with isolated rat enterocytes. It was found that different ligands of opioid receptors can inhibit binding of naloxone competitively.

  15. sigma opiates and certain antipsychotic drugs mutually inhibit (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 and (/sup 3/H)haloperidol binding in guinea pig brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, S.W.; Cook, L.

    1984-09-01

    The relationship between binding of antipsychotic drugs and sigma psychotomimetic opiates to binding sites for the sigma agonist (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 (N-allylnormetazocine) and to dopamine D/sub 2/ sites was investigated. In guinea pig brain membranes, (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 bound to single class of sites with a K/sub d/ of 4 x 10/sup -8/ M and a B/sub max/ of 333 fmol/mg of protein. This binding was different from ..mu.., kappa, or delta opiate receptor binding. It was inhibited by opiates that produce psychotomimetic activities but not by opiates that lack such activities. Some antipsychotic drugs inhibited (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding with high to moderate affinities in the following order of potency: haloperidol > perphenazine > fluphenazine > acetophenazine > trifluoperazine > molindone greater than or equal to pimozide greater than or equal to thioridazine greater than or equal to chlorpromazine greater than or equal to triflupromazine. However, there were other antipsychotic drugs such as spiperone and clozapine that showed low affinity for the (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding sites. Affinities of antipsychotic drugs for (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding sites did not correlate with those for (/sup 3/H)spiperone (dopamine D/sub 2/) sites. (/sup 3/H)-Haloperidol binding in whole brain membranes was also inhibited by the sigma opiates pentazocine, cyclazocine, and (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047. In the striatum, about half of the saturable (/sup 3/H)haloperidol binding was to (/sup 3/H)spiperone (D/sub 2/) sites and the other half was to sites similar to (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding sites. 15 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. 3H[2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline] (BFI) binding in human platelets: modulation by tranylcypromine.

    PubMed

    Wiest, S A; Steinberg, M I

    1999-08-01

    2-(2-Benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (BFI) is a highly selective ligand for imidazoline-type 2 (I2) binding sites that are known to be associated with monoamine oxidase (MAO). Recently we demonstrated a potentiation of 3H-BFI binding in human but not in rat brain by the nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. In the present studies, we evaluated the effect of tranylcypromine on the binding of 3H-BFI to human platelet inner membranes. Membranes were incubated with 3H-BFI at 22 degrees C in 50 mM Tris, 1.5 mM EDTA, pH 7.5. Saturation experiments with 3H-BFI (0.5-80 nM) were analyzed using non-linear curve fitting. Addition of tranylcypromine (0.1 mM) increased the number of 3H-BFI binding sites (Bmax=0.35+/-0.06 vs. 1.87+/-0.15 pmol/mg protein for vehicle and tranylcypromine, respectively) and increased 3H-BFI affinity slightly (KD =16.0+/-4.1 vs. 6.5+/-0.3 nM for vehicle and tranylcypromine, respectively). In competitive binding experiments using the less selective I2 ligand, 3H-idazoxan, tranylcypromine only weakly inhibited binding. Preincubation of platelet membranes with tranylcypromine (1 nM-10 microM) enhanced the Bmax of 3H-BFI binding in a concentration-dependent manner peaking at 1 microM (13 x control) and returning to near baseline at 100 microM. 3H-BFI binding was displaced monophasically (in order of decreasing potency) by BFI > or = 2-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (BU224) > or = cirazoline >idazoxan >(1,4-benzodioxan-2-methoxy-2-yl)-2-imidazoline (RX821002)= moxonidine. Amiloride, clorgyline, guanabenz and clonidine displayed biphasic curves with nanomolar high affinity components. Tranylcypromine altered the competition curves for all ligands (except BFI) by increasing the affinities for clonidine and RX821002 and decreasing affinities for BU224, cirazoline, guanabenz, idazoxan, clorgyline, moxonidine, and amiloride. Thus, in human platelets tranylcypromine exposes a high capacity 3H-BFI binding site distinct from previously described I2 sites

  17. Quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding to mu opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, K.N.; Knapp, R.J.; Gehlert, D.R.; Lui, G.K.; Yamamura, M.S.; Roeske, L.C.; Hruby, V.J.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 ((/sup 3/H)CTOP), a potent and highly selective mu opioid antagonist, was used to localize the mu receptors in rat brain by light microscopic autoradiography. Radioligand binding studies with (/sup 3/H)CTOP using slide-mounted tissue sections of rat brain produced a Kd value of 1.1 nM with a Bmax value of 79.1 fmol/mg protein. Mu opioid agonists and antagonists inhibited (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding with high affinity (IC50 values of 0.2-2.4nM), while the delta agonist DPDPE, delta antagonist ICI 174,864, and kappa agonist U 69,593 were very weak inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding. Light microscopic autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding sites revealed regions of high density and regions of moderate labeling. The cerebral cortex showed a low density of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding.

  18. Characterization of ( sup 3 H)alprazolam binding to central benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.T.; Mahan, D.R.; Smith, R.B.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1990-10-01

    The binding of the triazolobenzodiazepine ({sup 3}H)alprazolam was studied to characterize the in vitro interactions with benzodiazepine receptors in membrane preparations of rat brain. Studies using nonequilibrium and equilibrium binding conditions for ({sup 3}H)alprazolam resulted in high specific to nonspecific (signal to noise) binding ratios. The binding of ({sup 3}H)alprazolam was saturable and specific with a low nanomolar affinity for benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. The Kd was 4.6 nM and the Bmax was 2.6 pmol/mg protein. GABA enhanced ({sup 3}H)alprazolam binding while several benzodiazepine receptor ligands were competitive inhibitors of this drug. Compounds that bind to other receptor sites had a very weak or negligible effect on ({sup 3}H)alprazolam binding. Alprazolam, an agent used as an anxiolytic and in the treatment of depression, acts in vitro as a selective and specific ligand for benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. The biochemical binding profile does not appear to account for the unique therapeutic properties which distinguish this compound from the other benzodiazepines in its class.

  19. Binding of dexetimide and levetimide to [3H](+)pentazocine- and [3H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine-defined sigma recognition sites.

    PubMed

    DeHaven-Hudkins, D L; Hudkins, R L

    1991-01-01

    The potent antimuscarinic benzetimide and its resolved stereoisomers dexetimide and levetimide were tested for their affinities at sigma sites labelled by [3H](+)pentazocine or [3H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine. Levetimide was a potent and stereoselective inhibitor of [3H](+)pentazocine binding, with a Ki of 2.2 nM, while dexetimide was nine-fold less potent (Ki = 19 nM). Dexetimide and levetimide potently inhibited [3H]DTG binding although without stereoselectivity (Ki values of 65 and 103 nM, respectively). Levetimide may be a useful tool with which to investigate sigma recognition sites and sigma subtypes. PMID:1656155

  20. Demonstration of specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (/sup 3/H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for /sup 3/H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane.

  1. Phylogenetic distribution of (/sup 3/H)cyclohexyladenosine binding sites in nervous tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenaller, J.F.; Murray, T.F.

    1986-05-29

    The specific binding of the A/sub 1/ adenosine receptor ligand. (/sup 3/H)CHA, was investigated in membrane fractions prepared from brains of eleven vertebrate species and ganglia of four invertebrate species. Substantial amounts of specific (/sup 3/H)CHA binding sites were demonstrated in brain membranes of all vertebrate species examined; however, (/sup 3/H)CHA binding sites were not detectable in nervous sites in vertebrate brains increase in higher vertebrates. Moreover, the pharmacological characteristics of the site labeled by (/sup 3/H)CHA in two divergent classes of vertebrates were similar. The broad phylogenetic distribution of A/sub 1/ adenosine receptors in primitive as well as advanced vertebrate species suggests a fundamental role for adenosine in neuronal modulation.

  2. Autoradiographic analysis of the in vivo distribution of 3H-imipramine and 3H-desipramine in brain: Comparison to in vitro binding patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, G.E.; Paul, I.A.; Fassberg, J.B.; Powell, K.R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Breese, G.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Using high resolution autoradiographic techniques, the distribution of radioactivity in forebrain and brainstem was assessed after 4 injection of 3H-impramine or 3H-desipramine. Results were compared with regional binding of the drugs to brain sections in vitro. Similar topographic binding of 3H-imipramine and 3H-desipramine was observed in vitro among brain regions, except in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus, where binding was greater for 3H-desipramine. For both 3H-desipramine and 3H-imipramine, some brain regions that exhibited high binding in vitro also showed high accumulation after in vivo injection. However, certain regions that contained high densities of binding sites for the antidepressant drugs as measured by in vitro binding showed very low accumulation of radioactivity after in vivo treatment. Such regions included the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, layer 1 of piriform cortex, caudate-putamen, pontine and midbrain central gray, and cerebellar granular layer. Compared to in vitro binding of the drugs, the distribution of imipramine and desipramine in vivo appears more anatomically selective. For imipramine, primary sites of action in vivo, as indicated by the topographic distribution in brain, appear to be the locus coeruleus, hippocampus, lateral septal nucleus, and amygdala. For desipramine, the greatest accumulation in vivo was found in the locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and anterior thalamic nuclei.

  3. Affinities and densities of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)muscimol (GABA-A) binding sites and of central benzodiazepine receptors are unchanged in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, R.F.; Lavoie, J.; Giguere, J.F.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    1988-09-01

    The integrity of GABA-A receptors and of central benzodiazepine receptors was evaluated in membrane preparations from prefrontal cortex and caudate nuclei obtained at autopsy from nine cirrhotic patients who died in hepatic coma and an equal number of age-matched control subjects. Histopathological studies revealed Alzheimer Type II astrocytosis in all cases in the cirrhotic group; controls were free from neurological, psychiatric or hepatic diseases. Binding to GABA-A receptors was studied using (/sup 3/H)muscimol as radioligand. The integrity of central benzodiazepine receptors was evaluated using (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788. Data from saturation binding assays was analyzed by Scatchard plot. No modifications of either affinities (Kd) or densities (Bmax) of (/sup 3/H)muscimol of central benzodiazepine binding sites were observed. These findings do not support recent suggestions that alterations of either high-affinity GABA or benzodiazepine receptors play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  4. Effect of membrane protein concentration on binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Barkai, A.I.; Kowalik, S.; Baron, M.

    1985-02-01

    Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine to platelet membranes has been implicated as a marker for depression. Comparing /sup 3/H-IMI binding between depressed patients and normal subjects we observed an increase in the dissociation constant Kd with increasing membrane protein. This phenomenon was studied more rigorously in five normal subjects. Platelet membranes were prepared and adjusted to four concentrations of protein ranging from 100 to 800 micrograms/ml. The /sup 3/H-IMI binding parameters of maximum binding sites number (Bmax) and Kd were obtained by Scatchard analysis at each membrane concentration. A positive linear relationship was found between K/sub d/ values and the concentration of membrane protein in the assay, but no change was observed in Bmax. The variability in Kd values reported in the literature may be accounted for in part by the different concentrations of membrane protein used in various studies.

  5. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine and (/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding in human stellate ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, H.I.; Watson, M.; Wamsley, J.K.; Johnson, P.C.; Roeske, W.R.

    1984-08-13

    The LKB Ultrofilm method of autoradiography has been utilized to anatomically localize putative M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptor subtypes in human stellate ganglia. Ten micron sections were labeled in vitro with either 1 nM of the classical antagonist (/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)QNB) or 20 nM of the non-classical antagonist (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ), using 1 ..mu..M atropine sulfate to define non-specific binding for both ligands. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ binding sites are distributed within the principal ganglion cells and nerve bundles.

  6. Binding of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine to cholinergic receptors in bovine cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohama, S.; Tsukahara, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Fujiwara, M.

    1985-11-18

    Cholinergic receptor sites in bovine cerebral arteries were analyzed using radioligand binding techniques with the cholinergic agonist, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (ACh), as the ligand. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh to membrane preparations of bovine cerebral arteries was saturable, of two binding sites, with dissociation constant (K/sub D/) values of 0.32 and 23.7 nM, and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 67 and 252 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh was displaced effectively by muscarinic cholinergic agents and less effectively by nicotinic cholinergic agents. IC/sub 50/ values of cholinergic drugs for /sup 3/H-ACh binding were as follows: atropine, 38.5 nM; ACh, 59.8 nM; oxotremorine, 293 nM; scopolamine 474 nM; carbamylcholine, 990 nM. IC/sub 50/ values of nicotinic cholinergic agents such as nicotine, cytisine and ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin exceeded 50 ..mu..M. Choline acetyltransferase activity was 1.09 nmol/mg protein/hour in the cerebral arteries. These findings suggest that the cholinergic nerves innervate the bovine cerebral arteries and that there are at least two classes of ACh binding sites of different affinities on muscarinic reporters in these arteries. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. ( sup 3 H)idazoxan binding to the ovine myometrium. Binding characteristics and changes due to steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Vass-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Villar, R.; Lafontan, M.; Toutain, P.L. )

    1990-05-01

    (3H)idazoxan binding to myometrial membranes was investigated in four groups of ewes under different steroid hormone status: control, estradiol-treated and progesterone plus estradiol-treated ovariectomized ewes and pregnant ewes. (3H)idazoxan binding to myometrial membrane fractions was saturable, reversible, specific and of high affinity. The affinity did not vary significantly between the four groups of ewes (2.8 less than KD less than 4.7 nM). Maximal binding capacity varied significantly among groups: binding of (3H)idazoxan was lower in control ovariectomized ewes than in either estradiol or progestagen plus estrogen-treated ewes (maximal binding capacity, 73 +/- 11 fmol/mg of protein vs. 108 +/- 16 and 318 +/- 65, respectively). The highest (3H)idazoxan binding was measured in pregnant ewes (maximal binding capacity, 1302 +/- 256 fmol/mg of protein). Based on the saturation studies with accurate nonspecific binding definition (phentolamine vs. epinephrine), and on the relative order of potency for selected adrenergic drugs, it could be stated that the binding sites labeled by (3H)idazoxan in our study exhibited most of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor properties. Nevertheless, these alpha-2 adrenoceptors obviously differed from the standard alpha-2A-subtype based on Ki values obtained with yohimbine and prazosin in competition studies of (3H)idazoxan binding. The increase in the number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors under progesterone domination, and especially during gestation, supported the hypothesis that this adrenoceptor subtype could play a major role in the control of the motility pattern of the ovine pregnant uterus.

  8. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, (/sup 3/H)nicotine, and (/sup 125/I)-alpha-bungarotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-05-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine ((/sup 3/H)ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, (/sup 125/I)-alpha-bungarotoxin((/sup 125/I)BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)ACh differ from that of (/sup 125/I)BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of (/sup 3/H)nicotine, (/sup 3/H)ACh, and (/sup 125/I)BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of (/sup 125/I)BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. (/sup 125/I)BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors.

  9. Characterization of [3H]-imidazenil binding to rat brain membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Lipartiti, M; Arban, R; Fadda, E; Zanotti, A; Giusti, P

    1995-01-01

    1. The binding of [3H]-imidazenil, an imidazobenzodiazepine carboxamide, to rat cerebellar membranes was characterized at different temperatures. 2. Specific binding was linear with tissue concentrations and reached maximum after 90, 30 and 5 min incubation at 0, 21 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The binding was of high affinity, specific and saturable; non linear regression and Scatchard analysis of the data was compatible with the presence of a single population of receptor sites with Bmax of 0.74 +/- 0.020, 0.90 +/- 0.011 and 1.0 +/- 0.036 pmol mg-1 protein at 0, 21 and 27 degrees C, respectively. Binding affinity decreased with increasing temperature: Kd were 0.29 +/- 0.051 nM (0 degrees C), 1.0 +/- 0.080 nM (21 degrees C) and 2.4 +/- 0.38 nM (37 degrees C). 3. At all tested temperatures, [3H]-imidazenil binding was reversible and the Kd calculated from the dissociation and association rate constants approximated the equilibrium Kd. 4. In the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), Kd increased 4 fold at 0 degrees C, whereas Bmax increased, albeit slightly, at all temperatures. 5. Benzodiazepines (BZDs), imidazopyridines and methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCM) were effective inhibitors of [3H]-imidazenil binding. Conversely, GABAA antagonists, barbiturates, picrotoxin and peripheral BZD receptor ligands were devoid of any activity. 6. Comparing [3H]-imidazenil to [3H]-flumazenil binding in various brain areas, similar densities of recognition sites as well as like regional differences in the distribution of binding sites for both radioligands were observed (cortex = striatum > cerebellum > spinal cord).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620705

  10. Autoradiographic localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding in fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Beer, D G; Butley, M S; Cunha, G R; Malkinson, A M

    1984-10-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding was examined in fetal mouse lung at various stages of development and in human fetal lung at 8 weeks of gestation using a rapid in vitro steroid incubation technique followed by thaw-mount autoradiography. Competition studies with unlabeled steroids demonstrate the specificity of [3H]dexamethasone labeling, and indicate that fetal lung mesenchyme is a primary glucocorticoid target during lung development. Quantitative binding studies, involving incubation of intact tissue with competing ligand and subsequent subcellular fractionation, show this to be specific, nuclear binding characteristic of glucocorticoid receptors. Autoradiographs of [3H]dexamethasone binding in lung tissue at early stages of development demonstrate that the mesenchyme directly adjacent to the more proximal portions of the bronchiolar network is heavily labeled. In contrast, the epithelium which will later differentiate into bronchi and bronchioles, is relatively unlabeled. Distal portions of the growing epithelium, destined to become alveolar ducts and alveoli, do show nuclear localization of [3H]dexamethasone. Because of the known importance of the mesenchyme in controlling lung development and the ability of glucocorticoids to stimulate lung development, these results suggest that many of the growth-promoting effects of glucocorticoids may be mediated through the mesenchyme. In addition, by utilizing a technique which allows the simultaneous examination of extracellular matrix components and [3H]dexamethasone binding, a relationship is observed between extensive mesenchymal [3H]dexamethasone binding and extensive extracellular matrix accumulation. Since glucocorticoids stimulate the synthesis of many extracellular matrix components, these results suggest a role for these hormones in affecting mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during lung morphogenesis.

  11. Inhibition of platelet (/sup 3/H)- imipramine binding by human plasma protein fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Strijewski, A.; Chudzik, J.; Tang, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)-imipramine binding to platelet membranes by human plasma fractions and isolated plasma proteins was investigated. Several plasma proteins were found to contribute to the observed apparent inhibition and this contribution was assessed in terms of inhibitor units. Alpha/sub 1/ acid glycoprotein, high density and low density lipoprotein, IgG and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin were identified as effective non-specific inhibitors. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein was confirmed to be the most potent plasma protein inhibitor. Cohn fractions were evaluated for the presence of the postulated endocoid of (/sup 3/H)-imipramine binding site.

  12. Unconjugated bilirubin effect on 3H-ouabain binding to human fetal red cells.

    PubMed

    Corchs, J L; Corchs, M J; Serrani, R E

    1994-03-01

    Human fetal red cells show heterogeneity of 3H-ouabain binding sites. These cells were chosen as a model to look into unconjugated bilirubin effects on the primary active Na(+)-K+ transport mechanism. Evidences are presented suggesting that unconjugated bilirubin affects 3H-ouabain binding but not through a direct effect. This is supported by the fact that the "low affinity" subgroup sites of the last mentioned ligand persists after unconjugated bilirubin treatment of cells, whereas the "high-affinity" subgroup disappears.

  13. [3H]LY341495 binding to group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Arnold, M B; Wheeler, W J; Ornstein, P L; Schoepp, D D

    2001-08-01

    [3H]LY341495 is a highly potent and selective antagonist for group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3), which has been used to label these receptors in cells expressing recombinant receptor subtypes. In this study, we characterized the kinetics, pharmacology, and distribution of [3H]LY341495 binding to mGlu receptors in rat brain tissue. Equilibrium experiments in the rat forebrain demonstrated binding to a single site that was saturable, reversible, and of high affinity (Bmax, 3.9 +/- 0.65 pmol/mg of protein, Kd, 0.84 +/- 0.11 nM). The relative order of potencies for displacement of [3H]LY341495 by mGlu receptor ligands was LY341495 > L-glutamic acid > LY354740 > (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine > 4-(2R,4R)-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate > (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid > (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine > (R,S)3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine > L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid. [3H]LY341495 was not displaced by the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, (R,S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, or kainate at concentrations up to 1 mM. Comparison of [3H]LY341495 binding in rat brain with recombinant mGlu receptor subtypes demonstrated a very high correlation with mGlu3 receptor binding (r2 = 0.957), a significant, but lower, correlation with mGlu2 receptor binding (r2 = 0.869), but no significant correlation to mGlu8 receptor binding (r2 = 0.284). Regional studies using autoradiography showed a similar distribution of [3H]LY341495 binding to that for group II mGlu receptors previously reported by others using immunocytochemical techniques. These studies indicate that [3H]LY341495 selectively labels group II (mGlu2/3) receptors, but under the conditions used, [3H]LY341495 may bind predominately to mGlu3 receptor populations in the rat forebrain. PMID:11454905

  14. Cholecystokinin-8 suppressed /sup 3/H-etorphine binding to rat brain opiate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Fan, S.G.; Ren, M.F.; Han, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Radioreceptor assay (RRA) was adopted to analyze the influence of CCK-8 on /sup 3/H-etorphine binding to opiate receptors in rat brain synaptosomal membranes (P2). In the competition experiment CCK-8 suppressed the binding of /sup 3/H-etorphine. This effect was completely reversed by proglumide at 1/mu/M. Rosenthal analysis for saturation revealed two populations of /sup 3/H-etorphine binding sites. CCK-8 inhibited /sup 3/H-etorphine binding to the high affinity sites by an increase in Kd and decrease in Bmax without significant changes in the Kd and Bmax of the low affinity sites. This effect of CCK-8 was also completely reversed by proglumide at 1/mu/M. Unsulfated CCK-8 produced only a slight increase in Kd of the high affinity sites without affecting Bmax. The results suggest that CCK-8 might be capable of suppressing the high affinity opioid binding sites via the activation of CCK receptor.

  15. Interaction of pyracetam with specific /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites and GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex of brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhanets, V.V.; Chakhbra, K.K.; Danchev, N.D.; Malin, K.M.; Rusakov, D.Yu.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-06-01

    This paper studies the effect of pyracetam on parameters of specific binding of tritium-imipramine and GABA-activated binding of tritium-flunitrazepam with rat brain membranes. The experimental method is described and it is shown that pyracetam and mebicar in experiments in vivo on normal animals can exert their anxiolytic action without the participation of bensodiazepine receptors. Either the interaction of pyracetam and mebicar with benzodiazeprine receptors has a different interpretation than competition of these compounds with specific binding sites of tritium-flunitrazepam, or in experiments on normal animals in vivo GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex does not accept pyracetam and mebicar, for it contains endogenous inhibitors of GABA-modulating action.

  16. Binding of [3H] methyltrienolone (R 1881) in rat prostate and human benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH).

    PubMed

    Asselin, J; Labrie, F; Gourdeau, Y; Bonne, C; Raynaud, J P

    1976-10-01

    Methyltrienolone (R 1881 - 17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-estra-4, 9, 11-trien-3-one) binding to rat ventral prostate cytosol has a specificity typical of an androgen receptor. In human benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) tissue, the specificity of [3H] R 1881 binding is different from that measured in rat prostate: progesterone and R 5020 (17, 21-dimethyl-19-nor-4, 9-pregnadiene-3, 20-dione) being more potent while 19-nortestosterone is less potent competitor. Moreover, the synthetic progestin [3H] R 5020 binds to BPH tissue with a similar specificity. These data suggest the presence of progestin binding components or of an atypical androgen receptor in human BPH cytosol.

  17. Multiple sup 3 H-oxytocin binding sites in rat myometrial plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Crankshaw, D.; Gaspar, V.; Pliska, V. )

    1990-01-01

    The affinity spectrum method has been used to analyse binding isotherms for {sup 3}H-oxytocin to rat myometrial plasma membranes. Three populations of binding sites with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.6-1.5 x 10(-9), 0.4-1.0 x 10(-7) and 7 x 10(-6) mol/l were identified and their existence verified by cluster analysis based on similarities between Kd, binding capacity and Hill coefficient. When experimental values were compared to theoretical curves constructed using the estimated binding parameters, good fits were obtained. Binding parameters obtained by this method were not influenced by the presence of GTP gamma S (guanosine-5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate) in the incubation medium. The binding parameters agree reasonably well with those found in uterine cells, they support the existence of a medium affinity site and may allow for an explanation of some of the discrepancies between binding and response in this system.

  18. (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1987-01-19

    (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of (/sup 3/H)muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of buspirone as determined by ex vivo (/sup 3/H)-DPAT binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sethy, V.H.; Francis, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Ex vivo (/sup 3/H)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetraline ((/sup 3/H)-DPAT) binding to the hippocampus has been utilized to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of buspirone after i.v. and oral administration of this drug to rats. Intravenous buspirone rapidly penetrated the brain as demonstrated by a maximum inhibition of (/sup 3/H)-DPAT binding at 1 min. Elimination of drug from the brain was biphasic, with a first component half-life of 24.8 min and a second component half-life of 96 min. Oral buspirone at 3 times the i.v. dose produced less than one-third the maximum inhibition of (/sup 3/H)-DPAT binding compared to that observed with i.v. buspirone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of buspirone observed in the present study are in agreement with those reported previously. Thus, the ex vivo binding assay could be utilized to determine the bioavailability of the drug to the brain, and its duration of action. 20 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in epileptic El mice: A quantitative autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaka, Y.; Ito, M.; Tsuda, H.; Shiraishi, H.; Oguro, K.; Mutoh, K.; Mikawa, H. )

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors and subtypes were examined in El mice and normal ddY mice with a quantitative autoradiographic technique. Specific (3H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice, which had experienced repeated convulsions, was significantly lower in the cortex and hippocampus than in ddY mice and unstimulated El mice. In the amygdala, specific ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice was lower than in ddY mice. There was a tendency for the ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in these regions in unstimulated El mice to be intermediate between that in stimulated El mice and that in ddY mice, but there was no significant difference between unstimulated El mice and ddY mice. ({sup 3}H)Flunitrazepam binding displaced by CL218,872 was significantly lower in the cortex of stimulated El mice than in that of the other two groups, and in the hippocampus of stimulated than of unstimulated El mice. These data suggest that the decrease in ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice may be due mainly to that of type 1 receptor and may be the result of repeated convulsions.

  1. Human platelet dense granules: Improved isolation preliminary characterization of ( sup 3 H)-serotonin uptake and tetrabanazine-displaceable ( sup 3 H)-ketanserin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, D.; Anderson, G.M.; Chakraborty, M.; Cohen, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    An improved method for the isolation of human platelet dense granules was developed. A good yield of highly enriched dense granules was obtained after mild sonication and Percoll gradient centrifugation. The method has facilitated characterization of the granule, permitting the first report of K{sub m} and V{sub max} values for ({sup 3}H)-serotonin uptake, as well as the first determination of K{sub d} and B{sub max} values for tetrabenazine-displaceable ({sup 3}H)-ketanserin binding, in the human platelet dense granule. The rates and affinities of ({sup 3}H)-serotonin uptake were similar to those previously reported for porcine dense granules. Tetrabenazine-displaceable ({sup 3}H)-ketanserin binding was observed with a K{sub d} similar to, and a B{sub max} approximately 10-fold lower than, that previously seen in bovine chromaffin granules.

  2. Binding of dexetimide and levetimide to ( sup 3 H)(+)pentazocine- and ( sup 3 H)1,3-Di(2-tolyl)guanidine-defined. sigma. recognition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dehaven-Hudkins, D.L.; Hudkins, R.L. Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA )

    1991-01-01

    The potent antimuscarinic benzetimide and its resolved stereoisomers dexetimide and levetimide were tested for their affinities at {sigma} sites labelled by ({sup 3}H)(+)pentazocine or ({sup 3}H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine. Levetimide was a potent and stereoselective inhibitor of ({sup 3}H)(+)pentazocine binding, with a K{sub i} of 2.2 nM, while dexetimide was nine-fold less potent (K{sub i} = 19 nM). Dexetimide and levetimide potently inhibited ({sup 3}H)DTG binding although without stereoselectivity (K{sub i} values of 65 and 103 nM, respectively). Levetimide may be a useful tool with which to investigate {sigma} recognition sites and {sigma} subtypes.

  3. Neural regulation of [3H]saxitoxin binding site numbers in rat neonatal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Bambrick, L L; Gordon, T

    1988-01-01

    1. Neural regulation of the density of sodium (Na+) channels in rat muscle was studied by measuring specific binding of tritiated saxitoxin ([3H]STX) to muscles from rat hindlimbs during normal development and in rats in which neuromuscular function was interrupted by sciatic nerve section or neuromuscular blockade with botulinum toxin (BoTX). 2. The normal developmental increase in [3H]STX binding site numbers followed a simple exponential with a time constant of 12 days. The most rapid incorporation of channels coincided with the onset of accelerated muscle growth and increased neuromuscular activity at 2 weeks of age. 3. Elimination of neuromuscular activity retarded muscle growth and inhibited the normal incorporation of Na+ channels into neonatal muscle. Muscles denervation was more effective than BoTX paralysis: denervation at 2 weeks of age prevented the normal 3-fold increase in the binding site density between 2 and 3 weeks of age while age-matched BoTX-treated muscles incorporated an average of 66% of the normal Na+ channel incorporation. 4. Denervation and BoTX treatment were equally effective in reducing the numbers of [3H]STX binding sites in adult muscle. A reduction of 30% in binding sites brought the numbers to levels which corresponded with levels normally seen in muscles at 3 weeks of neonatal development. 5. It was concluded that the neural influence on incorporation of Na+ channels into membranes of neonatal muscle is, at least in part, mediated by neuromuscular activity. PMID:2855740

  4. Characteristics of central binding sites for ( sup 3 H) DAMGO in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO, a highly selective ligand for {mu}-opiate receptors, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. ({sup 3}H) DAMGO bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site. The receptor density (B{sub max} value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO to bind to membranes of hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rats did not differ. The B{sub max} value of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO in membranes of hypothalamus and midbrain of SHR rats was significantly higher than in WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. On the other hand, the B{sub max} value of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO in membranes of amygdala of SHR rats was lower than that of WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains were similar.

  5. Reduced binding of 3H-spiroperidol to lymphocyte in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Członkowski, A; Członkowska, A

    1984-05-01

    Biochemical studies of CSF from patients with Wilson's disease (WD) have increased that alterations in the state of dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems are similar to those manifested in Parkinson's disease. Recently, the density of dopaminergic receptors on lymphocytes has been found to be diminished in Parkinson's disease. In the present study, 3H-spiroperidol binding was evaluated in lymphocytes acquired from 12 patients suffering from WD, as compared to blood donors. A significant decrease in the number of binding sites (Bmax) was observed in the lymphocytes of the WD patients. There was no clear relationship between clinical status, age and duration of the disease and the alterations in receptor density. The mechanism underlying the decrease in lymphocyte 3H-spiroperidol binding sites in WD demands clarification.

  6. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)neurotensin of rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, D.J.; Totaro, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 3/H)Neurotensin (NT) was found to bind specifically and with high affinity to crude membranes prepared from rat uterus. Scatchard analysis of saturation binding studies indicated that (/sup 3/H)NT apparently binds to two sites (high affinity Kd 0.5 nM; low affinity Kd 9 nM) with the density of high affinity sites (41 fmoles/mg prot.) being about one-third that of the low affinity sites (100 fmoles/mg prot.). In competition studies, NT and various fragments inhibited (/sup 3/H)NT binding with the following potencies (approximately IC50): NT 8-13 (0.4 nM), NT 1-13 (4 nM), NT 9-13 (130 nM), NT 1-11, NT 1-8 (greater than 100 microM). Quantitatively similar results were obtained using brain tissue. These findings raise the possibility of a role for NT in uterine function.

  7. Stereoselective L-(3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.F.; Mpitsos, G.J.; Siebenaller, J.F.; Barker, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-(/sup 3/H)QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution.

  8. Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Murray, T F; Mpitsos, G J; Siebenaller, J F; Barker, D L

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-[3H]QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-[3H]QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-[3H]QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-[3H]QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-[3H]QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-[3H]QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-[3H]QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-[3H]QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution. PMID:4078624

  9. Enhanced binding of /sup 3/H-arginine8-vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat

    SciTech Connect

    Shewey, L.M.; Dorsa, D.M.

    1986-07-01

    Specific binding sites for 3(H)-arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) were characterized using membrane preparations of liver, renal medulla and brain (septal) tissue of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous (HO) Brattleboro (BB) rats. Measurement of binding sites indicated that significantly greater numbers of AVP receptors are present in the liver and septum of HO-BB rats. Similar numbers of AVP receptors were present in renal medullary tissue from HO-BB and HE-BB rats. Higher equilibrium dissociation constants were measured in the HO-BB septal tissue indicating a lower affinity of the brain receptor for 3(H)-AVP than in heterozygotes. No significant differences in AVP receptor affinity were noted in liver or kidney tissue. It is concluded that up-regulation of AVP receptor number and, in the brain, alterations in AVP receptor affinity may occur in the absence of endogenous AVP.

  10. Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

    1986-06-01

    Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

  11. Binding of ( sup 3 H)idazoxan and of its methoxy derivative ( sup 3 H) RX821002 in human fat cells: ( sup 3 H)idazoxan but not ( sup 3 H) RX821002 labels additional non-alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Langin, D.; Paris, H.; Lafontan, M. )

    1990-06-01

    Binding studies were carried out in human fat cell membranes with two alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, (3H)idazoxan and its methoxy derivative (3H)RX821002. Inhibition studies with epinephrine enantiomers indicate that (3H)RX821002 only binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, whereas (3H)idazoxan labels alpha 2-adrenoceptors and additional nonadrenergic sites (NAIBS). NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors display different affinities towards drugs from various chemical families. Imidazoline and some guanidine derivatives exhibit a high affinity for NAIBS. Pharmacological studies of human NAIBS indicate that they are slightly different from those previously reported in the rabbit, suggesting the existence of several subtypes of NAIBS. Furthermore, NAIBS are different from the previously described imidazoline-preferring sites. (3H)idazoxan and (3H)RX821002 saturation analyses were performed in human adipocytes from different anatomical locations, in order to compare the number of NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Although there was an important variation in NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptor numbers in the studied samples, a very poor correlation was obtained between the Bmax values of the two sites. Moreover, alkylation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by phenoxybenzamine produces a 90% reduction in accessible (3H)RX821002 binding sites, without modification of (3H)idazoxan binding. These data show that NAIBS are not closely related to the alpha 2-adrenergic molecule. In addition, benextramine appears to be a reversible competitor at NAIBS. (3H)idazoxan binding, but not (3H)RX821002 binding, is sensitive to K+, suggesting that the domains involved in the ligand-NAIBS interaction are different from those involved in the ligand-alpha 2-adrenoceptor interaction.

  12. Benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with (/sup 3/)-Ro 15-1788

    SciTech Connect

    Goeders, N.E.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1985-07-29

    In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding has generally been studied by ex vivo techniques. In this investigation, the authors identify the conditions where (/sup 3/H)-Ro 15-1788 labels benzodiazepine receptors by true in vivo binding, i.e. where workable specific to nonspecific ratios are obtained in intact tissues without homogenization or washing. (/sup 3/H)-Flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)-clonazepam did not exhibit useful in vivo receptor binding. 39 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  13. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  14. Effects of bromocriptine on (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding in cytosol of anterior pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    De Nicola, A.F.; Weisenberg, L.S.; Arakelian, M.C.; Libertun, C.

    1981-07-01

    The hypothalamus may control hormone receptors in the anterior pituitary either by a direct trophic effect or indirectly by regulation of serum pituitary hormone levels. Rats whose medial basal hypothalamus had been destroyed in order to suppress neural control of the gland showed a reduction in (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding in the anterior pituitary and high serum PRL levels; both changes were reversed by treatment of the lesioned rats with daily injections of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist. In nonlesioned animals, the same treatment did not modify significantly those parameters. In another hyperprolactinemic model (rats with anterior pituitaries transplanted under the kidney capsule), (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding by the in situ pituitaries of the host rats was similar to that in the nongrafted controls. These results suggest that changes due to median eminence lesion are reversible and that bromocriptine is able to act as a substitutive therapy which restores binding of estradiol in glands whose receptors have been decreased by the effect of the lesion. High PRL levels due to pituitary transplant do not account for the observed changes in the pituitary estradiol binding.

  15. Endogenous dopamine (DA) modulates (3H)spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Krauss, J.; Grunenwald, C.; Gunst, F.; Heinrich, M.; Schaub, M.; Stoecklin, K.V.; Vassout, A.; Waldmeier, P.; Maitre, L. )

    1991-01-01

    (3H)spiperone (SPI) binding in vivo, biochemical parameters and behavior were measured after modulating DA levels by various drug treatments. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA, serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the same rats. The increased SPI binding in striatum was parallel to the locomotor stimulation with the following rank order: amfonelic acid greater than nomifensine greater than D-amphetamine greater than or equal to methylphenidate greater than amineptine greater than bupropion. Decreasing DA levels with reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine reduced SPI binding by 45% in striatum only when both drugs were combined. In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. Thus, the amount of releasable DA seems to modulate SPI binding characteristics. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA.

  16. Correlation between (/sup 3/H)dopamine specific uptake and (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 specific binding during the maturation of rat striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, J.J.; Costentin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the specific uptake of dopamine in the rat striatum during the early postnatal period is compared with the ontogenetic changes of the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 to the site of uptake inhibition. During maturation, the increase in the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 parallels the increase in the specific uptake of dopamine. (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 specific binding sites increase in number from day 1 postpartum until 40 days, when they reach the adult level. In 40 day-old rats, the weight of the striatum represents 80% of adult values. The affinity of (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 for the inhibition site is similar in membrane preparations obtained from 6 day-old pups and adults; this results in a same ability of the inhibitor to block the specific uptake of dopamine into synaptosomes obtained from pups or adult rats. These data support the hypothesis of the existence of a single molecular entity including both the inhibition site and the carrier itself.

  17. Asymmetry of /sup 3/H- imipramine binding may predict psychiatric illness

    SciTech Connect

    Demeter, E.; Tekes, K.; Majorossy, K.; Palkovits, M.; Soos, M.; Magyar, K.; Somogyl, E.

    1989-01-01

    The B/sub max/ and Kd values for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding were measured in post-mortem human brains from drug-free selected psychiatric subject homicide victims and normal controls. The two groups were comparable in age and gender. The number of imipramine binding sites in the frontal cortices of psychiatric subjects had significantly higher B/sub max/ values in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. Inversely, the number of imipramine binding sites in the frontal cortices of normal controls were significantly higher in the right brain than in the left brain. It was postulated that the inhibiting effect of central serotonin has weakened in psychiatric cases, therefore the changes of presynaptic serotonergic activity might be associated with psychiatric illness in the left hemisphere of human brain.

  18. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  19. ( sup 3 H)rauwolscine binding to myometrial. alpha. sub 2 -adrenoceptors in pregnant guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Arkinstall, S.J.; Jones, C.T. )

    1988-09-01

    Uterine sympathetic nerves can exert an excitatory influence in late pregnancy and during parturition. Neuronal norepinephrine release is increased at these times and a diminished {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor-mediated prejunctional inhibition could account for this. To assess whether an altered receptor population may contribute, ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine was used to measure {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in myometrial membranes at time intervals throughout pregnancy. High affinity ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine binding yielded linear Scatchard plots that in nonpregnant myometrium indicated a maximum binding density B{sub max} of 217 {plus minus} 42.4 fmol/mg protein. {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenoceptor density was increased twofold at midpregnancy (31 days) and thereafter fell sharply by up to 90% toward term (67 {plus minus} 2 days). When uterine growth is accounted for and data are expressed in terms of total myometrial population, {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor number was eightfold (midpregnancy) and fourfold (term) greater than the nonpregnant value of 804 {plus minus} 322.4 fmol/uterus. {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenoceptors were also found to bind dopamine with high affinity. These observations could indicate a pregnancy-related change in uterine sympathetic autoinhibitory capacity and, since {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors appear also to be located postjunctionally, explain in part reports of altered myometrial responsiveness to norepinephrine infusion and also the uterotonic actions of dopamine.

  20. Allosteric modulation of ligand binding to [3H](+)pentazocine-defined sigma recognition sites by phenytoin.

    PubMed

    DeHaven-Hudkins, D L; Ford-Rice, F Y; Allen, J T; Hudkins, R L

    1993-01-01

    The allosteric modulation of sigma recognition sites by phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) has been demonstrated by the ability of phenytoin to stimulate binding of various [3H] sigma ligands, as well as to slow dissociation from sigma sites and to shift sigma sites from a low- to a high-affinity state. Phenytoin stimulated the binding of the sigma 1- selective ligand [3H](+)pentazocine in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of binding at a final concentration of 250 microM phenytoin was associated with a decrease in the KD. The affinities of the sigma reference compounds caramiphen, dextromethorphan, dextrophan, (+)3-PPP and (+)SKF-10,047 were three- to eight-fold higher, while the affinities of benzetimide, BMY-14802, carbetapentane, DTG and haloperidol were unchanged in the presence of 250 microM phenytoin. The relative sensitivity of sigma compounds to allosteric modulation by phenytoin is not a property of all sigma ligands, and may provide an in vitro basis for distinguishing actions of sigma compounds and predicting sigma effects in vivo. PMID:8515681

  1. Characterization of binding sites for [3H]-DTG, a selective sigma receptor ligand, in the sheep pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P; Sugden, D

    1990-09-14

    Specific binding sites for [3H]-1,3 di-ortho-tolylguanidine ([3H]-DTG), a selective radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand, were detected and characterized in sheep pineal gland membranes. The binding of [3H]-DTG to sheep pineal membranes was rapid and reversible with a rate constant for association (K+1) at 25 degrees C of 0.0052 nM-1.min-1 and rate constant for dissociation (K-1) 0.0515 min-1, giving a Kd (K-1/K+1) of 9.9 nM. Saturation studies demonstrated that [3H]-DTG binds to a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 27 +/- 3.4 nM, and a total binding capacity (Bmax) of 1.39 +/- 0.03 pmol/mg protein. Competition experiments showed that the relative order of potency of compounds for inhibition of [3H]-DTG binding to sheep pineal membranes was as follows: trifluoperazine = DTG greater than haloperidol greater than pentazocine greater than (+)-3-PPP greater than (+/-)SKF 10,047. Some steroids (testosterone, progesterone, deoxycorticosterone) previously reported to bind to the sigma site in brain membranes were very weak inhibitors of [3H]-DTG binding in the present study. The results indicate that [3H]-DTG binding sites having the characteristics of sigma receptors are present in sheep pineal gland. The physiological importance of these sites in regulating the synthesis of the pineal hormone melatonin awaits further study. PMID:2169739

  2. /sup 3/H-ouabain binding and sodium-pump activity measured in myocytes isolated from guinea-pig heart

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the toxicity of millimolar ouabain, non-specific /sup 3/H-ouabain binding was assessed by monitoring the dissociation of the bound drug. Analysis of specific /sup 3/H-ouabain binding to myocytes yielded non-linear Scatchard plots. Nonlinearity appears to result from reduced /sup 3/H-ouabain binding due to low intracellular Na/sup 2/ concentration. Addition of 2 ..mu..M monensin, A Na/sup +/ ionophore, significantly increased /sup 3/H-ouabain binding. Incubation in Ca/sup 2 +/-free solution (0.25 mM EGTA) stimulated /sup 3/H-ouabain binding to a greater degree than monensin and caused Scatchard plots to have two distinct linear components. Monensin had no significant effects when /sup 3/H-ouabain binding occurred in Ca/sup 2 +/-free solution. Effects of Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation to increase /sup 3/H-ouabain binding suggest that Ca/sup 2 +/ has a direct effect on /sup 3/H-ouabain binding. Alternatively, Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation may increase Na/sup +/ permeability of the sarcolemma. Isoproterenol, phenylephrine, TPA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), La/sup 3 +/, and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore A23187 failed to cause significant changes in /sup 3/H-ouabain binding when myocytes were incubated in a solution containing 0.5 or 2.5 ..mu..M /sup 3/H-ouabain, 0.1 mM Ca/sup 2 +/ and 1 mM K/sup +/.

  3. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H-Tyr8)physalaemin to rat submaxillary gland substance P receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahouth, S.W.; Lazaro, D.M.; Brundish, D.E.; Musacchio, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Physalaemin ((/sup 3/H)PHY) binds to a single class of noninteracting sites on rat submaxillary gland membranes suspended in high ionic strength media with a KD of 2.7 nM, a Bmax of 240 fmol/mg of protein, and low nonspecific binding. The relative potencies of substance P (SP) and its fragments in competing with (/sup 3/H)PHY correlate with their relative salivation potencies. This indicates that (/sup 3/H)PHY interacts with a physiologically relevant SP receptor. In low ionic strength media, the KD of (/sup 3/H)PHY does not change, but SP and some of its fragments are more potent than PHY in competing with (/sup 3/H) PHY. Computer-assisted analysis of (/sup 3/H)PHY and (/sup 3/H)SP binding in high and low ionic strength media demonstrated that both peptides are equipotent in high ionic strength but that the affinity of SP increases by 70-fold in low ionic strength. The SP fragments that contain a basic residue in positions 1 and/or 3 also display an increased affinity in low ionic strength. These findings document that (/sup 3/H)PHY binding in high ionic strength (mu . 0.6) accurately reflects the pharmacological potencies of agonists on the SP-P receptor. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PHY, like that of (/sup 3/H)SP, increases by the addition of divalent cations (Mg2+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Mn2+). Guanine nucleotides decrease (/sup 3/H)PHY binding by decreasing the Bmax to the same level (160 fmol/mg of protein), in the presence or absence of Mg2+.

  4. Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic receptor binding in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)methylcarbamylcholine, a novel radioligand

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Gehlert, D.R.; Hawkins, K.N.; Nakayama, K.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-12-28

    Light microscopic autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical distribution of nicotinic receptors in rat brain using a novel radioligand, (/sup 3/H)methylcarbamylcholine (MCC). Specific (/sup 3/H)MCC binding to slide-mounted tissue sections of rat brain was saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Data analysis revealed a single population of (/sup 3/H)MCC binding sites with a K/sub d/ value or 1.8 nM and B/sub max/ of 20.1 fmol/mg protein. Nicotinic agonists and antagonists competed for (/sup 3/H)MCC binding sites in slide-mounted brain sections with much greater potency than muscarinic drugs. The rat brain areas containing the highest densities of (/sup 3/H)MCC binding were in thalamic regions, the medial habenular nucleus and the superior colliculus. Moderate densities of (/sup 3/H)MCC binding were seen over the anterior cingulate cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the zona compacta of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Low densities of (/sup 3/H)MCC binding were found in most other brain regions. These data suggest that (/sup 3/H)MCC selectively labels central nicotinic receptors and that these receptors are concentrated in the thalamus, the medial habenular nucleus and the superior colliculus of the rat brain. 29 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. High affinity ( sup 3 H)glibenclamide binding sites in rat neuronal and cardiac tissue: Localization and developmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.; Velayo, N.L.; Dage, R.C.; Rampe, D. )

    1991-01-01

    We examined the binding of the antidiabetic sulfonylurea (3H) glibenclamide to rat brain and heart membranes. High affinity binding was observed in adult rat forebrain (Kd = 137.3 pM, maximal binding site density = 91.8 fmol/mg of protein) and ventricle (Kd = 77.1 pM, maximal binding site density = 65.1 fmol/mg of protein). Binding site density increased approximately 250% in forebrain membranes during postnatal development but was constant in ventricular membranes. Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the regional distribution of (3H) glibenclamide binding sites in sections from rat brain, spinal cord and heart. The greatest density of binding in adult brain was found in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, whereas the other areas displayed heterogenous binding. In agreement with the membrane binding studies, 1-day-old rat brain had significantly fewer (3H)glibenclamide binding sites than adult brain. Additionally, the pattern of distribution of these sites was qualitatively different from that of the adult. In adult rat spinal cord, moderate binding densities were observed in spinal cord gray and displayed a rostral to caudal gradient. In adult rat heart, moderate binding densities were observed and the sites were distributed homogeneously. In conclusion, significant development of (3H)glibenclamide binding sites was seen in the brain but not the heart during postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a heterogeneous distribution of binding sites was observed in both the brain and spinal cord of adult rats.

  6. Binding sites for L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate in hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Werling, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    Three binding sites for L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate on freshly-prepared hippocampal synaptic membranes were identified on the basis of their differing affinities for L-glutamate or quisqualate. The high affinity site yielded K/sub D/ and B/sub max/ values of 12 nM and 2.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Binding sites of lower affinity had K/sub D/ values of 200 nM (GLU A) and 1 ..mu..M (GLU B) and B/sub max/ values of about 30 and 60 pmol/mg protein, respectively. GLU A sites bound quisqualate with about 70 times the affinity fo GLU B sites, and thus quisoqualate could be used as a tool to discriminate them. Hill slopes indicated that each site represented a single population of non-interacting binding sites. Freezing drastically decreased GLU A binding, but nearly tripled GLU B binding. Both sites bound L-glutamate with 10-30 times the affinity of D-glutamate. The GLU A site also bound L-glutamate with about 10 times the affinity of L-asparate and discriminated poorly between L- and D-asparate. In contrast, the GLU B site bound L-aspartate with similar affinity to L-gluamate, and with much higher affinity than it bound D-aspartate. Both lesions of perforant path and destruction of the granule cells with colchicine markedly reduced radioligand binding to the GLU A site in the fascia dentata, but only the perforant path lesion significantly reduced binding to the GLU B site. The structural specificity of the GLU A site is consistent with its identification as a type of quisqualate receptor.

  7. Selective opioid agonist and antagonist competition for [3H]-naloxone binding in amphibian spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Leslie C.; Wallace, David R.; Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    Opioids elicit antinociception in mammals through three distinct types of receptors designated as μ, κ and δ. However, it is not clear what type of opioid receptor mediates antinociception in non-mammalian vertebrates. Radioligand binding techniques were employed to characterize the site(s) of opioid action in the amphibian, Rana pipiens. Naloxone is a general opioid antagonist that has not been characterized in Rana pipiens. Using the non-selective opioid antagonist, [3H]-naloxone, opioid binding sites were characterized in amphibian spinal cord. Competitive binding assays were done using selective opioid agonists and highly-selective opioid antagonists. Naloxone bound to a single-site with an affinity of 11.3 nM and 18.7 nM for kinetic and saturation studies, respectively. A Bmax value of 2725 fmol/mg protein in spinal cord was observed. The competition constants (Ki) of unlabeled μ, κ and δ ranged from 2.58 nM to 84 μM. The highly-selective opioid antagonists yielded similar Ki values ranging from 5.37 to 31.1 nM. These studies are the first to examine opioid binding in amphibian spinal cord. In conjunction with previous behavioral data, these results suggest that non-mammalian vertebrates express a unique opioid receptor which mediates the action of selective μ, κ and δ opioid agonists. PMID:11082500

  8. Decreased seasonal mesor of platelet sup 3 H-imipramine binding in depression

    SciTech Connect

    DeMet, E.M.; Reist, C.; Bell, K.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Chicz-DeMet, A.; Warren, S.; Wu, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Seasonal cycles of platelet {sup 3}H-imipramine binding were compared in 49 endogenous unipolar depressed patients and 20 normal volunteers. A significant sinusoidal component was detected in the Bmax of binding in both patients and controls with similar amplitudes and seasonal peaks. However, the yearly average (mesor) of the patient group was significantly lower (20.0%) than that of the normal controls. The results support earlier claims of a diminished platelet binding in endogenous depression and indicate that this decrease was still evident in the presence of a 48.2% (controls) to 65.8% (patients) seasonal variation. Control Bmax values were normally distributed about a best-fit mean (cosinor fit). In contrast, patient values appeared to be bimodally distributed with one mode that was similar to controls and one mode that was substantially lower. In general, psychiatric symptoms failed to distinguish between patients with high and low platelet binding and no correlation was found between Bmax and severity of illness (HAM-D).

  9. Biochemical characterization of high-affinity 3H-opioid binding. Further evidence for Mu1 sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.L.; Recht, L.D.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    In saturation studies with (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine, unlabeled D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (1 nM) inhibited the high-affinity binding component far more potently than the lower-affinity one. Similarly, morphine (1 nM) inhibited the higher-affinity binding of /sup 3/H-D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin to a greater extent than its lower-affinity binding component, consistent with a common high-affinity binding site for opiates and enkephalins. Treatment of tissue with either trypsin (1 microgram/ml) or N-ethylmaleimide (25 microM) effectively eliminated the high-affinity binding component of a series of /sup 3/H-opiates and opioid peptides. Competition studies following both treatments were consistent with a common high-affinity binding site. Both treatments also eliminated the ability of low morphine concentrations (less than 1 nM) to inhibit /sup 3/H-D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin binding and of low D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin concentrations (less than 1 nM) to inhibit (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine binding. Protection experiments examining N-ethylmaleimide (25 microM) inhibition of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine binding showed significant protection (p less than 0.002) by both unlabeled D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin and morphine (both at 1 nM). When studied together, both naloxonazine and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine binding to a similar extent. Equally important, tissue previously treated with naloxonazine was far less sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide than was untreated control tissue, consistent with the possibility that both treatments affected the same site. Together, these results support the concept of a common high-affinity binding site for opiates and opioid peptides.

  10. Changes in BQCA Allosteric Modulation of [(3)H]NMS Binding to Human Cortex within Schizophrenia and by Divalent Cations.

    PubMed

    Dean, Brian; Hopper, Shaun; Conn, P Jeffrey; Scarr, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Stimulation of the cortical muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) is proposed as a treatment for schizophrenia, a hypothesis testable using CHRM1 allosteric modulators. Allosteric modulators have been shown to change the activity of CHRMs using cloned human CHRMs and CHRM knockout mice but not human CNS, a prerequisite for them working in humans. Here we show in vitro that BQCA, a positive allosteric CHRM1 modulator, brings about the expected change in affinity of the CHRM1 orthosteric site for acetylcholine in human cortex. Moreover, this effect of BQCA is reduced in the cortex of a subset of subjects with schizophrenia, separated into a discrete population because of a profound loss of cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding. Surprisingly, there was no change in [(3)H]NMS binding to the cortex from this subset or those with schizophrenia but without a marked loss of cortical CHRM1. Hence, we explored the nature of [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]NMS binding to human cortex and showed total [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]NMS binding was reduced by Zn(2+), acetylcholine displacement of [(3)H]NMS binding was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+), acetylcholine displacement of [(3)H]pirenzepine was reduced by Mg(2+) and enhanced by Zn(2+), whereas BQCA effects on [(3)H]NMS, but not [(3)H]pirenzepine, binding was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+). These data suggest the orthosteric and allosteric sites on CHRMs respond differently to divalent cations and the effects of allosteric modulation of the cortical CHRM1 is reduced in a subset of people with schizophrenia, a finding that may have ramifications for the use of CHRM1 allosteric modulators in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  11. Imipramine treatment differentially affects platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding and serotonin uptake in depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Suranyi-Cadotte, B.E.; Quirion, R.; Nair, N.P.V.; Lafaille, F.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-02-25

    Uptake of serotonin and /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in platelets of depressed patients were investigated simultaneously with changes in clinical state. Both V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake and B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding were significantly lower in unmedicated depressed patients with respect to normal subjects. Successful treatment with imipramine led to a significant increase in B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding, without significant change in V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake. B/sub max/ values increased to the normal range following complete, rather than partial clinical improvement. These data indicate that successful antidepressant treatment may increase the density of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites on platelets by a process which is independent of the uptake of serotonin. 29 references, 1 table.

  12. Pentamidine analogs as inhibitors of [3H]MK-801 and [3H]ifenprodil binding to rat brain NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael L.; Maciejewska, Dorota; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Żabiński, Jerzy; Kaźmierczak, Paweł; Rezler, Mateusz; Jarak, Ivana; Piantanida, Ivo; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Mayence, Annie; Rebernik, Patrick; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Boykin, David W.; Huang, Tien L.

    2016-01-01

    The anti-protozoal drug pentamidine is active against opportunistic Pneumocystis pneumonia, but in addition has several other biological targets, including the NMDA receptor (NR). Here we describe the inhibitory potencies of 76 pentamidine analogs at 2 binding sites of the NR, the channel binding site labeled with [3H]MK-801 and the [3H]ifenprodil binding site. Most analogs acted weaker at the ifenprodil than at the channel site. The spermine-sensitivity of NR inhibition by the majority of the compounds was reminiscent of other long-chain dicationic NR blockers. The potency of the parent compound as NR blocker was increased by modifying the heteroatoms in the bridge connecting the 2 benzamidine moieties and also by integrating the bridge into a seven-membered ring. Docking of the 45 most spermine-sensitive bisbenzamidines to a recently described acidic interface between the N-terminal domains of GluN1 and GluN2B mediating polyamine stimulation of the NR revealed the domain contributed by GluN1 as the most relevant target. PMID:26117647

  13. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites in the iris-ciliary body of the albino rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.E.; Mallorga, P.; Pettibone, D.J.; Sugrue, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites were identified using membranes prepared from the iris-ciliary body of adult, albino rabbits. Scatchard analysis of saturation binding experiments demonstrated that (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to a single population of high affinity sites. The K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ values were 8.7 +- 0.9 nM and 119.0 +- 30.9 fmolmg prot. using membranes prepared from frozen tissue and 17.0 +- 6.2 nM and 184.4 +- 47.2 fmolmg prot. using fresh tissue. The binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin was magnesium-dependent. The B/sub max/ was enhanced by sodium fluoride and Gpp(NH)p, a nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analog. Forskolin was the most potent inhibitor of (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding; two commercially-available analogs were weaker inhibitors. In an adenylate cyclase assay, there was the same rank order of potency to enhance enzyme activity. Based upon binding affinities, magnesium-dependence, sensitivity to sodium fluoride and Gpp(NH)p, rank order of potencies of analogs and correlation of binding with adenylate cyclase activity, these studies suggest that the (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding site in the iris-ciliary body is similar to the binding site in other tissues

  14. Adenosine receptor binding of the A1-selective antagonist (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948

    SciTech Connect

    Fergus, J.H.; Bruns, R.F.; Badger, E.W.; Bristol, J.A.; Hartman, J.D.; Santay, L.A.; Hays, S.J.; Huang, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    PD 116,948 (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) is a potent adenosine (ado) antagonist which is highly selective for the A1 subtype of ado receptor, with an IC50 of 0.8 nM in (/sup 3/H)CHA binding to A1 receptors and 500 nM in (/sup 3/H)NECA binding to A2 receptors. (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948 (117 Ci/mmol) was prepared by reduction of the diallyl analog, and binding was performed at 25/sup 0/C in 2 ml of 50 mM Tris pH 7.7 for 60 min using membranes from 10 mg wet weight of rat whole brain, with 100 ..mu..M N/sup 6/-cyclopentylado used to define nonspecific binding. Under these conditions, (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948 bound to a single site with a K/sub d/ of 0.4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 46 pmol/g wet weight. Under optimal conditions, more than 99% of the binding of (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948 was specific. Affinities of ado agonists and antagonists versus 0.1 nM (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948 were highly consistent with binding to an A1 ado receptor. Substantial amounts of specific binding of (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948 were detected in testes and spleen, and smaller amounts were found in heart. (/sup 3/H)PD 116,948 should be a useful tool for labeling A1 receptors in the brain and other organs.

  15. Effects of some beta lactam antibiotics on (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding to intact human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, S.E.; Hui, K.K.; Conolly, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    Several antibiotics have been reported to cause a bleeding diathesis in man, characterized by reduced platelet aggregation. The authors investigated the effects of several of the penicillins and of moxalactam on the binding of (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine to intact human platelets. The (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding met the criteria for interaction at an alpha2 adrenergic binding site and showed low interindividual variability. Penicillin G, ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin and moxalactam all inhibited (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding, but at concentrations far in excess of clinically achievable plasma levels. They conclude that these compounds exert their antiplatelet effects by a mechanism other than competitive inhibition of catecholamine binding.

  16. Quinolyl analogues of norlobelane: novel potent inhibitors of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Ding, Derong; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that quinolyl moieties are attractive structural replacements for the phenyl groups in lobelane. These quinolyl analogues had improved water-solubility over lobelane and retained the potent vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) inhibitory properties of the parent compound, with quinlobelane (4) exhibiting potent inhibition of uptake at VMAT-2 (Ki=51nM). However, the VMAT-2 inhibitory properties of quinolyl analogues of norlobelane, which is equipotent with lobeline as an inhibitor of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake at VMAT-2, have not been reported. In the current communication, we describe the synthesis of some novel des-methyl quinolyl analogues of lobelane that exhibit greater affinity (Ki=178-647nM) for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site located on VMAT-2 compared with lobelane (Ki=970nM), norlobelane (Ki=2310nM) and quinlobelane (Ki=2640nM). The most potent compounds, 14 and 15, also exhibited inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake at VMAT-2 (Ki=42nM) which was comparable to both lobelane (Ki=45nM) and norlobelane (Ki=43nM). Results reveal that binding affinity at VMAT-2 serves as an accurate predictor of inhibition of the function of VMAT-2 for the majority of these analogues. These novel analogues are under consideration for further development as treatments for methamphetamine abuse.

  17. Effects of NaCl and sultopride on striatal [(3)H]spiperone binding in neonatal, adult and senescent rats.

    PubMed

    Makihata, J; Nomura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Effects of NaCl, (+)-and (-)-sultopride on striatal [(3)H]spiperone binding was investigated in 7-day, 70-day and 2-year-old rats. The amount of specific [(3)H]spiperone binding was the highest at 70 days and the value at adult stage was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those at 7 days and 2 years. NaCl (100 mM) significantly increased [(3)H]spiperone binding in neonatal (P < 0.01), adult (P < 0.05) and senescent (P < 0.05) animals. Scatchard analysis showed that the Bmax of low-affinity [(3)H]spiperone binding was significantly elevated by 100 mM NaCl compared to the value in control of adult animals. More potent inhibition of (-)-sultopride for [(3)H]spiperone binding than that of the (+)-enantiomer at adult stage was also observed at neonatal and senescent stages. NaCl (100 mM) significantly enhanced inhibitory activities of (+)- and (-)-sultopride at every stage. It is suggested that stabilizing effect of Na(+) on dopamine (DA) receptor complexes and increasing effect of Na(+) on binding affinity of benzamide to DA2 receptors keep functions through development and aging.

  18. Evidence that the (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding protein in pancreas is localized in exocrine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A.; Richardson, S.B.; Altszuler, N.; Lane, B.

    1985-06-01

    Extracts of rat pancreas contain significant amounts of an (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding protein. The amount of steroid-binding activity that could be measured varied considerably depending on the tonicity of the homogenizing medium. High speed supernatants of homogenates initially prepared in isotonic buffer contained about 10% of the binding activity as homogenates prepared in hypotonic buffer. Extraction with hypotonic buffer of pellets obtained by the isotonic procedure yielded most of the remaining (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding activity. In an attempt to avoid errors resulting from incomplete homogenization and to detect possible changes in intracellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding activity, pancreata were initially homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at high speed (100,000 X g; 1 hr). The pellet was then extracted with hypotonic buffer and centrifuged again at high speed, and both supernatants were analyzed for (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding and amylase activities. Two or 14 days after treatment of male rats with streptozotocin, no apparent decline or redistribution of (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding activity to the cytosol was noted despite extensive alteration of beta-islet cells, as determined by electron microscopic examination of sections of these pancreata and significant loss of insulin, as measured by RIA. Amylase activity was unaffected 2 days after streptozotocin treatment, but was depressed to about 1% of control levels at 14 days. Administration of insulin to the latter group of animals resulted in return of amylase to normal levels and a modest increase (approximately 50%) in (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding activity.

  19. Competition for in vitro ( sup 3 H)gibberellin A sub 4 binding in cucumber by substituted phthalimides

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F. ); Rodaway, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) have gibberellin (GA)-like activity in a number of GA bioassays. The interaction between representative NSPs and a protein fraction from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls that has GA-binding characteristics consistent with those expected of GA receptors was studied. Analysis of in vitro equilibrium saturation data indicated the presence of only one class of high affinity ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding sites (K{sub d} {approximately}30 nanomolar, n = 0.25 picomole per milligram of protein). In the presence of 6 or 60 micromolar 1-(3-chlorophthalimido)-cyclohexanecarboximide (AC-94,377), the K{sub d} for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} increased, whereas the maximum number of saturable ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding sites did not change significantly. The dissociation of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} from its binding sites was complex and was best described by a bi-exponential equation. AC-94,377 did not affect the rates of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} dissociation from its binding sites. These results implied that AC-94,377 and ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} compete for binding to the same sites. A correlation was observed between the activity of over 20 NSPs in the cucumber hypocotyl bioassay and their in vitro affinity for the GA binding sites. Our observations lend further support to the notion that certain GA binding proteins in cucumber cytosol are GA receptors and also provide a molecular explanation for the GA-like in vivo activity of some NSPs.

  20. Binding of (3H)dihydroergocryptine to an alpha-adrenergic site in the stalk median eminence of the steer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.T.; Roberts, J.M.; Weiner, R.I.

    1981-12-01

    Dihydroergocryptine (DHE), a potent dopamine agonist and alpha-adrenergic antagonist, has been used as a radioligand to characterize both dopamine and alpha-adrenergic receptors. In the present study, the binding of (3H)DHE to particulate fractions of the steer stalk median eminence was characterized using a filtration assay. Specific binding was defined by the presence of 10 microM phentolamine or by an iterative nonlinear hyperbolic curve-fitting program. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium isotherms of specific binding defined a single high affinity (Kd . 1.78 +/- 0.22 nM), saturable (maximum binding, 481 +/- 39 fmol/mg protein), stereoselective binding site. The Kd, calculated from the ratio of the rate constants k2 and k1, was 2.8 +/- 0.14 nM. The rank order of potency of agonists to compete for (3H)DHE binding (l-epinephrine greater than l-norepinephrine greater than dopamine greater than l-isoproterenol) was consistent with interactions at an alpha-adrenergic site. The rank order of potency of alpha-antagonists (phentolamine greater than yohimbine greater than prazosin) suggested that this was an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. The affinity of dopamine agonists for the (3H)DHE-binding site was 10-fold lower relative to their potency at known dopamine receptors, while the affinity of dopaminergic antagonists was 100-fold lower. Furthermore, Scatchard analysis of specific (3H)DHE binding in the presence of a concentration of spiperone which should saturate dopamine receptors, only decreased the number of binding sites by 9%. These data demonstrate the presence of large numbers of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the stalk median eminence of the steer. Only a small number of dopaminergic binding sites for (3H)DHE appeared to be present.

  1. Down-regulation of sup 3 H-imipramine binding sites in rat cerebral cortex prenatal exposure to antidepressants

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, D.; de Ceballos, M.L. ); Del Rio, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs were given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and {sup 3}H-imipramine binding ({sup 3}H-IMI) was subsequently measured in the cerebral cortex of the offspring. The selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blockers chlorimipramine and fluoxetine as well as the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl induced, after prenatal exposure, a down-regulation of {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites at postnatal day 25. The density of these binding sites was still reduced at postnatal day 90 in rats exposed in utero to the MAO inhibitors. The antidepressants desipramine and nomifensine were ineffective in this respect. After chronic treatment of adult animals, only chlorimipramine was able to down-regulate the {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. Consequently, prenatal exposure of rats to different antidepressant drugs affecting predominantly the 5-HT systems induces more marked and long-lasting effects on cortical {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. The results suggest that the developing brain is more susceptible to the actions of antidepressants.

  2. [(3)H]-girisopam, a novel selective benzodiazepine for the 2, 3-benzodiazepine binding site.

    PubMed

    Horváth, E J; Salamon, C; Bakonyi, A; Fekete, M I; Palkovits, M

    1999-07-01

    Several members of the 2,3-benzodiazepine family, such as tofisopam (Grandaxin((R))) nerisopam (GYKI-52 322) [F. Andrási, K. Horváth, E. Sineger, P. Berzsenyi, J. Borsy, A. Kenessey, M. Tarr, T. Láng, J. Korösi, T. Hámori, Neuropharmacology of a new psychotropic 2, 3-benzodiazepine, Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug. Res., 37 (1987) 1119-1124.] [1] or girisopam (GYKI-51 189) [K. Horváth, F. Andrási, P. Berzsenyi, M. Pátfalusi, M. Patthy, G. Szabó, L. Sebestyén, J. Korösi, P. Botka, T. Hámori, T. Láng, A new psychoactive 5H-2, 3-benzodiazepine with a unique spectrum of activity, Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug. Res., 39 (1989) 894-899.] [2] proved anxiolytic in man and various animal models. Moreover, girisopam could also be characterized as an atypical neuroleptic agent. In spite of the structural similarity, their pharmacological profiles differ significantly from that of the 'classical' 1,4-benzodiazepines. Importantly, according to the data obtained so far these drugs do not have an addiction potential. The novel 2,3-benzodiazepine antagonist girisopam binds with high affinity (K(d)=10.3+/-1.21 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=6.94+/-1.8 pmol/mg protein) to a single class of recognition sites in rat striatum [J.E. Horváth, J. Hudák, M. Palkovits, Zs. Lenkei, M.I.K. Fekete, P. Arányi, A novel specific binding site for homophthalazines (formerly 2, 3-benzodiazepines) in the rat brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 236 (1993) 151-153.]. This protocol describes the use of [(3)H]-girisopam as a specific radioligand for the 2,3-benzodiazepines receptor.

  3. Preservation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors: differential effects of freezing on (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 and (3H)PK 11195 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Skolnick, P.

    1987-04-01

    A statistically significant decrease in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed in renal membranes of rats beginning 2 weeks after adrenalectomy when compared with sham-operated controls. This decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was manifest as a decrease in the Bmax of two ligands (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 and (/sup 3/H)PK 11195, without accompanying changes in their apparent affinity (Kd) for this site. Similar changes were not seen in another aldosterone-sensitive organ, the submandibular salivary gland. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in observed in adrenalectomized rat renal membranes was restored to control levels after 1 week of aldosterone administration using a dose (12.5 micrograms/kg/day) that had no effect on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in sham-operated animals. In contrast, dexamethasone administration (50 micrograms/kg/day, 1 week) had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density when administered to either adrenalectomized or sham-operated rats. Further, adrenal demedullation had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density or affinity. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was localized to the renal cortex and the outer stripe of the medulla by gross dissection of renal slices and renal tissue section autoradiography. The specific effect of adrenalectomy on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density, the lack of direct effect of aldosterone on (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding, and the localization of the change in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density to the renal cortex and outer stripe suggests that these changes may reflect an adaptation of the renal nephron (possibly the distal convoluted tubule, intermediate tubule and/or the collecting duct) to the loss of mineralocorticoid hormones.

  4. Effect of fluvoxamine on platelet 5-HT2A receptors as studied by [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-09-01

    Alterations in platelet 5-HT2A receptor characteristics have been reported in major depression as well as in other psychiatric diseases, and some effort has been made to utilize platelet 5-HT2A receptor status as a biological correlate to antidepressant drug response. In order to investigate whether treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects platelet 5-HT2A receptors, we have studied platelet [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy subjects treated with fluvoxamine in increasing dosage once weekly for 4 weeks. After 1 week of fluvoxamine treatment (25 mg/day), both Bmax and Kd were significantly lower than before the start of the treatment (19.9 versus 25.5 fmol/mg protein, P = 0.005 for Bmax; 0.45 versus 0.93 nM, P = 0.006 for Kd). Bmax returned to baseline during week 2, whereas Kd was lower than the baseline value throughout the treatment period. After discontinuation of fluvoxamine treatment, there was a significant increase in Kd (0.50 nM before discontinuation vs. 1.14 nM after discontinuation; P = 0.001), but not in Bmax. The study demonstrates that fluvoxamine affects platelet 5-HT2A receptor status irrespective of underlying psychiatric disease, and that this effect is evident already after 1 week at a subtherapeutic fluvoxamine dose.

  5. /sup 3/H-PAF-acether displacement and inhibition of binding in intact human platelets by BN 52021

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, R.; Le Couedic, J.P.; Benveniste, J.

    1986-03-05

    Intact washed human platelets incubated at 20/sup 0/C in Tyrode's buffer containing 0.25% (w/v) bovine serum albumin bound /sup 3/H paf-acether in a concentration (0-6.5 nM) and time (0-60 min) dependent manner (n=3). BN 52021 (60 ..mu..M) a chemically defined extract from Ginkgo biloba inhibited the binding of increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H paf-acether. Calculated differences between /sup 3/H paf-acether binding in the presence or absence of BN 52021 (60 ..mu..M) reached nearly a plateau in concentrations higher than 0.65 nM /sup 3/H paf-acether. Increasing concentrations of BN 52021 (0-60 ..mu..M) as well as of unlabelled paf-acether (0-50 nM) prevented within 15 min /sup 3/H paf-acether binding (0.65 nM) to platelets in a concentration-dependent way. Increasing BN 52021 concentrations (0-60 ..mu..M) also displaced platelet-bound /sup 3/H paf-acether (0.65 nM) in a concentration-dependent way. Displacement increased with the time length of platelet incubation with BN 52021 and reached a plateau at 15 min. Platelet-bound /sup 3/H paf-acether displacement of 28.3 +/- 6.3%, 31.1 +/- 4.0% and 26.7 +/- 5.6% was observed using 50 nM unlabelled paf-acether, 60 ..mu..M BN 52021 or both substances together (vs 4.3 +/- 7.2% for vehicle alone). No degradation of /sup 3/H paf-acether occurred as assessed by high pressure liquid chromatography. These results demonstrate that BN 52021 competes directly with paf-acether binding sites on human platelets.

  6. Flunitrazepam: psychomotor impairment, agitation and paradoxical reactions.

    PubMed

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Mørland, Jørg

    2006-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are sedatives used for anxiolysis, hypnosis, muscle relaxation and the treatment of epilepsy. Paradoxical reactions including agitation, talkativeness, confusion, disinhibition, aggression, violent behavior and loss of impulse control may, however, occur in some subjects. It has been claimed that high doses of flunitrazepam may cause aggression on a more regular basis in all individuals. The present study makes use of a Norwegian forensic toxicological database containing analytical results from drivers suspected of driving under the influence and suspects of violent crime to analyze the relationship between behavior and blood flunitrazepam concentration. Four-hundred and fifteen cases of drivers suspected of driving under the influence and seven cases of suspects of violent crime were studied. These selected cases had flunitrazepam as the only drug in blood samples and had been evaluated by a clinical test for impairment (CTI) performed by a police physician at the time of blood sampling. The impaired drivers had higher blood flunitrazepam concentrations than the not impaired drivers. Multivariate analysis revealed that both blood flunitrazepam concentration and age of the suspected drivers had independent impact on impairment, indicating tolerance with age. Most of the effects measured were sedative effects of flunitrazepam and these effects were related to flunitrazepam level. Possible paradoxical reactions were observed in a subgroup of 23 individuals (6%), but these reactions did not relate to blood flunitrazepam concentration. The suspects of violent crime showed similar degree impairment and had not more paradoxical reactions than the suspected drugged drivers. The findings were in agreement with other research that claims paradoxical reactions should be viewed as a reaction in certain individuals, and does not support the notion that flunitrazepam in high concentration produces aggression in all individuals taking the drug.

  7. Elevation of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine binding in hippocampal formation of genetically epilepsy-prone rats

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.D.; Mills, S.A.; Jobe, P.C.; Reigel, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 3/H-Dihydromorphine (DHM) binding sites were measured in the brain of non-epileptic control and GEPR rats using in vitro autoradiographic techniques. The number of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-DHM binding sites was increased 38-57% in the pyramidal cell layer of ventral hippocampal CA/sub 3/ and CA/sub 1/ of GEPR-3 and GEPR-9 rats compared to non-epileptic controls. No significant differences in /sup 3/H-DHM binding were observed in dorsal hippocampal formation, lateral entorhinal cortex, lateral geniculate or cerebellum. The results suggest that an increase in the number of opioid receptors in ventral hippocampus of GEPR rats may be one factor contributing to the enhanced sensitivity of GEPR-9 rats to the proconvulsant effects of morphine.

  8. Binding interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant gamma-butyrolactones and gamma-thiobutyrolactones with the picrotoxin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, K.D.; McKeon, A.C.; Covey, D.F.; Ferrendelli, J.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Alkyl-substituted gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) and gamma-thiobutyrolactones (TBLs) are neuroactive chemicals. beta-Substituted compounds are convulsant, whereas alpha-alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs are anticonvulsant. The structural similarities between beta-alkyl GBLs and the convulsant picrotoxinin suggested that alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs act at the picrotoxin receptor. To test this hypothesis we examined the interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs with the picrotoxin, benzodiazepine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding sites of the GABA receptor complex. All of these convulsants and anticonvulsants studied competitively displaced 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS), a ligand that binds to the picrotoxin receptor. This inhibition of 35S-TBPS binding was not blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline methobromide. The convulsant GBLs and TBLs also partially inhibited (3H)muscimol binding to the GABA site and (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine site, but they did so at concentrations substantially greater than those that inhibited 35S-TBPS binding. The anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs had no effect on either (3H)muscimol or (3H)flunitrazepam binding. In contrast to the GBLs and TBLs, pentobarbital inhibited TBPS binding in a manner that was blocked by bicuculline methobromide, and it enhanced both (3H)flunitrazepam and (3H)muscimol binding. Both ethosuximide and tetramethylsuccinimide, neuroactive compounds structurally similar to GBLs, competitively displaced 35S-TBPS from the picrotoxin receptor and both compounds were weak inhibitors of (3H) muscimol binding. In addition, ethosuximide also partially diminished (3H)flunitrazepam binding. These data demonstrate that the site of action of alkyl-substituted GBLs and TBLs is different from that of GABA, barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

  9. Characterization of specific binding sites for (/sup 3/H)(d)-N-allylnormetazocine in rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Itzhak, Y.; Hiller, J.M.; Simon, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of (/sup 3/H)(d)-N-allylnormetazocine ((/sup 3/H)(d)-NANM) to rat brain membranes is stereospecific, reversible, and saturable (Bmax . 260 fmol/mg of protein) and manifests moderately high affinity (Kd . 20 nM). The rank order of potency among opioidbenzomorphans and phencyclidine (PCP) analogs for competition for (/sup 3/H)(d)-NANM-binding sites is as follows: (d)-NANM . PCP-3-OH greater than (d)-cyclazocine greater than N-ethylphenylcyclohexylamine greater than PCP greater than (l)-cyclazocine . dextrorphan greater than (d/l)-ethylketocyclazocine greater than (d/l)-bremazocine greater than (1)-NANM greater than 1-phenylcyclohexylamine greater than levorphanol. Other opioid ligands, relatively selective for each of the types of opioid binding sites other than sigma, such as morphine (mu), H-Tyr-D-Ala(Me)Phe-NH-CH2-OH (mu), D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (delta), tifluadom (kappa), and U 50488 (kappa) as well as etorphine and naloxone were all unable to compete with (/sup 3/H)(d)-NANM for specific binding even at a concentration of 1 microM. Regional distribution studies of (/sup 3/H)(d)-NANM-binding sites show high density in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala and low density in cerebellum and nonfrontal neocortex membranes of the rat brain. These binding sites are very sensitive to protein-modifying enzymes and reagents such as trypsin and N-ethylmaleimide and to heat denaturation. These results provide direct biochemical evidence for the existence of distinct (d)-NANM-binding sites in rat brain.

  10. Presence of a low molecular weight endogenous inhibitor on 3H-muscimol binding in synaptic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Yukio; Kuriyama, Kinya

    1980-06-01

    The specific binding of 3H-muscimol to synaptic membrane preparations obtained from the rat brain has been thought to reflect the association of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potential candidate as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), with its synaptic receptors1,2. Treatment of synaptic membranes with Triton X-100 significantly increases the specific binding of 3H-muscimol2. Several reports also indicate the presence of endogenous substances, such as GABA3, acidic protein4 and phosphatidylethanolamine5, which inhibit Na-independent binding of 3H-GABA in the synaptic membranous fractions from the rat brain. We report here that in the supernatant obtained from Triton-treated synaptic membranes there exists a new type of endogenous inhibitor of 3H-muscimol binding which is apparently different from the inhibitory substances described previously3-5. The new inhibitor has a low molecular weight (MW) and probably originated from neurones rather than glial cells. We have termed this endogenous inhibitor the GABA receptor binding inhibitory factor (GRIF).

  11. Preferential affinity of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quazepam for type I benzodiazepine recognition sites in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Corda, M.G.; Giorgi, O.; Longoni, B.; Ongini, E.; Montaldo, S.; Biggio, G.

    1988-01-01

    The hypnotic drug quazepam and its active metabolite 2-oxo-quazepam (2-oxo-quaz) are two benzodiazepines (BZ) containing a trifluoroethyl moiety on the ring nitrogen at position 1, characterized by their preferential affinity for Type I BZ recognition sites. In the present study we characterized the binding of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz in discrete areas of the human brain. Saturation analysis demonstrated specific and saturable binding of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz to membrane preparations from human cerebellum. Hill plot analysis of displacement curves of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding by 2-oxo-quaz yielded Hill coefficients of approximately 1 in the cerebellum and significantly less than 1 in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and pons. Self and cross displacement curves for /sup 3/H-FNT and /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz binding in these brain areas indicated that 2-oxo-quaz binds with different affinities to two populations of binding sites. High affinity binding sites were more abundant in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, whereas low affinity sites were predominant in the caudate nucleus and pons. Competition studies of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz and /sup 3/H-FNT using unlabelled ligands indicated that compounds which preferentially bind to Type I sites are more potent at displacing /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz than /sup 3/H-FNT from cerebral cortex membrane preparations. 26 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Characterization of A2A adenosine receptors in human lymphocyte membranes by [3H]-SCH 58261 binding

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Ongini, Ennio; Andrea Borea, Pier

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes for the first time the characterization of the adenosine A2A receptor in human lymphocyte membranes with the new potent and selective antagonist radioligand, [3H]-5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo [4,3-e]-1,2,4 triazolo [1,5-c] pyrimidine, ([3H]-SCH 58261). In addition, both receptor affinity and potency of reference adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists were determined in binding and adenylyl cyclase studies. Saturation experiments revealed a single class of binding sites with Kd and Bmax values of 0.85 nM and 35 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively. A series of adenosine receptor ligands were found to compete for the binding of 0.8 nM [3H]-SCH 58261 to human lymphocyte membranes with a rank order of potency consistent with that typically found for interactions with the A2A-adenosine receptor. In the adenylyl cyclase assay the same compounds exhibited a rank order of potency similar to that observed in binding experiments. Thermodynamic data indicate that [3H]-SCH 58261 binding to human lymphocytes is entropy and enthalpy-driven, a finding in agreement with the thermodynamic behaviour of antagonists for rat striatal A2A-adenosine receptors. It is concluded that in human lymphocyte membranes [3H]-SCH 58261 directly labels binding sites showing the characteristic properties of the adenosine A2A-receptor. The presence of A2A-receptors in peripheral tissue such as human lymphocytes strongly suggests an important role for adenosine in modulating immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:9313951

  13. Binding sites for /sup 3/H-LTC4 in membranes from guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nicosia, S.; Crowley, H.J.; Oliva, D.; Welton, A.F.

    1984-03-01

    Leutriene (LTC4) is one of the components of Slow Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis (SRS-A) and is a potent constrictor of guinea pig ilea. The contraction is likely to be a receptor-mediated process. Here the authors report the existence of specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-LTC4 in a crude membrane preparation from guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle. At 4 degrees C in the presence of 20 mM Serine-borate, binding increases linearly with protein concentration, reaches equilibrium in 10 minutes, and is reversible upon addition of 3 x 10(-5) M unlabelled LTC4. The dissociation curve is consistent with the existence of more than one class of binding site. Ca++ and Mg++ greatly enhance the binding of /sup 3/H-LTC4 at equilibrium. In the presence of 5 mM CaCl/sub 2/ and MgCl/sub 2/ not only LTC4 (IC50 10(-7)M), but also LTD4 and the SRS-A antagonist FPL 55712 can compete with /sup 3/H-LTC4 for its binding sites. FPL 55712 only displaces 60-70% of the total amount bound, while LTC4 displaces 90-95%. These studies indicate that multiple classes of binding sites exist for /sup 3/H-LTC4 in guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle, and that at least part of these binding sites might be related to the ability of LTC4 to contract guinea pig ilea.

  14. Binding of [3H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites and of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide to 5-HT2A receptors in platelets from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during gonadotropin releasing hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Bixo, M; Allard, P; Bäckström, T; Mjörndal, T; Nyberg, S; Spigset, O; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2001-08-01

    Changes in serotonergic parameters have been reported in psychiatric conditions such as depression but also in the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In addition, hormonal effects on serotonergic activity have been established. In the present study, binding of [3H]paroxetine to platelet serotonin uptake sites and binding of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) to platelet serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors were studied in patients with PMDD treated with a low dose of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (buserelin) or placebo and compared to controls. The PMDD patients were relieved of premenstrual symptoms like depression and irritability during buserelin treatment. The number of [3H]paroxetine binding sites (Bmax) were significantly higher in the follicular phase in untreated PMDD patients compared to controls. When treated with buserelin the difference disappeared. No differences in [3H]LSD binding between the three groups were shown. The present study demonstrated altered platelet [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics in women with PMDD compared to controls. Furthermore, [3H]paroxetine binding was affected by PMDD treatment with a low dose of buserelin. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in serotonergic transmission could be a trait in the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

  15. Binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sigurdh, J; Spigset, O; Allard, P; Mjörndal, T; Hägglöf, B

    1999-11-01

    Possible age effects on binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites were studied in platelets from healthy children (11-12 years of age), adolescents (16-17 years of age) and adults. Significant overall age effects were found both for the number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), the affinity constant (K(d)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), B(max) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding (p < 0.001) and K(d) for [(3)H] paroxetine binding (p = 0.006). In general, there was a decrease in B(max) with increasing age, which predominantly occurred between the ages 11-12 years and 16-17 years for the 5-HT(2A) receptor, and after 16-17 years of age for the serotonin uptake site. These developmental changes might have an impact on the effect of treatment with serotonergic drugs in children and adolescents. When the platelet serotonin variables investigated are employed in studies in children or adolescents, age matching or, alternatively, introduction of age control in the statistical analysis should be performed.

  16. Downregulation of (3H)Ro5-4864 binding sites after exposure to peripheral-type benzodiazepines in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Wang, J.K.; Morgan, J.I.; Spector, S.

    1986-09-01

    Peripheral-type benzodiazepine (BZD) binding sites undergo a rapid and pronounced downregulation after exposure to these compounds in vitro. Friend erythroleukemia cells were incubated with micromolar concentrations of BZD after which they were washed thoroughly and the binding of the specific peripheral-type BZD radioligand (/sup 3/H)Ro5-4864 was determined. Exposure to the peripheral-type BZD Ro7-3351 decreased the number of (/sup 3/H)Ro5-4864 binding sites from 324 to 41 fmol/10(6) cells with no change in affinity. Downregulation appears to require active cellular processes because it is blocked when exposure to BZD is at 4/sup 0/C rather than at 37/sup 0/C. Furthermore, whereas (/sup 3/H)Ro5-4864 binding is decreased substantially in membrane preparations made from downregulated cells, it is not altered when membrane preparations from control cells are exposed to BZD. The time course of downregulation is quite rapid, as it occurs within minutes. In contrast, the return of sites requires days and there is a close relationship between return of sites and growth of new cells. The ability of BZDs to downregulate correlates more closely with affinity for the peripheral-type site than with biological activity. The ability to undergo downregulation is characteristic of receptors and its occurrence suggests that peripheral-type BZD binding sites are functional receptors.

  17. Different components of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in rat brain membranes: relation to serotonin uptake sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gobbi, M.; Taddei, C.; Mennini, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors confirm and extend previous studies showing heterogeneous /sup 3/H-imipramine (/sup 3/H-IMI) binding sites. Inhibition curves of various drugs (serotonin, imipramine, desmethyl-imipramine, d-fenfluramine, d-norfenfluramine and indalpine, a potent serotonin uptake inhibitor) obtained using 2 nM /sup 3/H-IMI and in presence of 120 mM NaCl, confirmed the presence of at least three /sup 3/H-IMI binding sites: two of these were serotonin-insensitive while the third one was selectively inhibited by serotonin and indalpine with nanomolar affinities. Moreover this last component was found to be selectively modulated by chronic imipramine treatment thus suggesting a close relation to serontonin uptake mechanism. These data indicate that the use of a more selective inhibitors of the serotonin-sensitive component (like indalpine or serotonin itself) to define non specific /sup 3/H-IMI, may be of help in understanding its relation with serotonin uptake system. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Pharmacological characterization of binding sites identified in rat brain following in vivo administration of [3H]-spiperone.

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, J.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.

    1987-01-01

    [3H]-spiperone is commonly used to label dopamine receptors in vitro in brain tissue. However, spiperone also interacts with brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline receptors. In vivo, [3H]-spiperone has been used for identifying dopamine receptors in both animals and man but the nature of the sites identified is unknown. The in vivo administration of [3H]-spiperone to rats leads to a selective accumulation of radioactivity in the olfactory lobes, tuberculum olfactorium, nucleus accumbens, striatum, substantia nigra, hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus, when compared to the cerebellum. In vivo drug displacement studies suggest that the binding of [3H]-spiperone in these areas may be to dopamine, 5-HT or noradrenaline receptors. [3H]-spiperone in vivo mainly labels dopamine receptors in striatum, tuberculum olfactorium, hypothalamus, substantia nigra and olfactory lobes. However, in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens specific binding involves not only dopamine receptors but also 5-HT and/or noradrenaline receptors. Interpretation of in vivo studies in man using radioactive spiperone and its derivatives must take into account the fact that this ligand only labels dopamine receptors in some brain areas. PMID:2882801

  19. ( sup 3 H)phenamil binding protein of the renal epithelium Na+ channel. Purification, affinity labeling, and functional reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, P.; Chassande, O.; Marsault, R.; Lazdunski, M.; Frelin, C. )

    1990-01-30

    This paper describes a large-scale purification procedure of the amiloride binding component of the epithelium Na+ channel. (3H)Phenamil was used as a labeled ligand to follow the purification. The first two steps are identical with those previously described. A third step was a hydroxyapatite column. The purified material consisted of a homodimer of two 88-kDa proteins that migrated anomalously in SDS-PAGE to give an apparent Mr of 105,000. Deglycosylation by treatment with neuraminidase and endoglycosidase F or with neuraminidase and glycopeptidase F indicated that less than 5% of the mass of the native receptor was carbohydrate. Sedimentation analysis of the purified Na+ channel in H2O and D2O sucrose gradients and gel filtration experiments led to an estimated molecular weight of the (3H)phenamil receptor protein-detergent-phospholipid complex of 288,000 and of the native (3H)phenamil receptor protein of 158,000. (3H)Br-benzamil is another labeled derivative of amiloride that recognized binding sites that had the same pharmacological properties as (3H)phenamil binding sites and that copurified with them. Upon irradiation of kidney membranes, (3H)Br-benzamil incorporated specifically into a 185-kDa polypeptide chain under nonreducing electrophoretic conditions and a 105-kDa protein under reducing conditions. The same labeling pattern was observed at the different steps of the purification. Reconstitution of the purified phenamil receptor into large unilamellar vesicles was carried out. A low but significant phenamil- and amiloride-sensitive electrogenic Na+ transport was observed.

  20. Analysis of (/sup 3/H) Kainic acid binding with rat and Frog brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyzes the binding of (H 3)-KA with membrances in vitro and the effect of various neuroactive amino acids, suggested as endogenous ligands for binding sites of (H 3)-KA, on binding. Experiments were carried out on male albino rats and on winter frogs. Choice of the frog's brain was determined by the high density of high-affinity binding sites of (H 3)-KA. The concentrations of substances inhibiting binding (H 3)-KA by 50% were calculated by logit-probit analysis, and inhibition constants were also calculated. It is shown that although L-glutamate and folic acid inhibit binding of (H 3)-KA, they do not satisfy the criteria to be met by endogenous ligands, and this inhibition of binding is noncompetitive in character. This suggests that KA binding sites and glutamate receptors are not identical, although they may perhaps be subunits of a single complex.

  1. The binding of [3H]oestradiol-receptor complex to hypothalamic chromatin of male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Burgos, J; Ventanas, J

    1985-01-01

    Histones and masking acidic proteins were removed from hypothalamic chromatin in order to evaluate/measure the number of available acceptor sites for the [3H]oestradiol-receptor complex. This number increases after dehistonizing and unmasking and is lower than published values for comparable preparations. No sex-related difference in [3H]oestradiol-receptor binding to hypothalamic chromatin in vitro was observed. Failure to observe such a difference suggests that sexual differentiation and steroid sensitivity cannot be attributed to marked differences in the degree of chromatin masking.

  2. Displacement of /sup 3/H-EKC binding by opioids in rat kidney: A correlate to diuretic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Slizgi, G.R.; Ludens, J.H.

    1985-06-10

    Multiple opioid binding sites have been documented in brain tissue. In this study the authors report on the presence of binding sites for that opioid ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) in a membrane fraction of rat kidney. Binding appeared to be selective in the opioids varied markedly in their capacities to displace /sup 3/ -EKC. Correlating with the capacity of an opioid to displace /sup 3/H-EKC was the ability to produce diuresis. Although the studies cannot assign a particular physiological or pharmacological role for the renal EKC binding sites, binding studies of this nature may, nonetheless, be a means by which diuretic activity of opioids can be predicted. 15 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) and [3H]dFBr-Labeled Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Wang, Ze-Jun; Stewart, Deirdre S; Jain, Atul D; Glennon, Richard A; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2015-07-01

    Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α4β2 and α2β2 nAChRs that, at concentrations >1 µM, also inhibits these receptors and α7 nAChRs. However, its interactions with muscle-type nAChRs have not been characterized, and the locations of its binding site(s) in any nAChR are not known. We report here that dFBr inhibits human muscle (αβεδ) and Torpedo (αβγδ) nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes with IC50 values of ∼ 1 μM. dFBr also inhibited the equilibrium binding of ion channel blockers to Torpedo nAChRs with higher affinity in the nAChR desensitized state ([(3)H]phencyclidine; IC50 = 4 μM) than in the resting state ([(3)H]tetracaine; IC50 = 60 μM), whereas it bound with only very low affinity to the ACh binding sites ([(3)H]ACh, IC50 = 1 mM). Upon irradiation at 312 nm, [(3)H]dFBr photoincorporated into amino acids within the Torpedo nAChR ion channel with the efficiency of photoincorporation enhanced in the presence of agonist and the agonist-enhanced photolabeling inhibitable by phencyclidine. In the presence of agonist, [(3)H]dFBr also photolabeled amino acids in the nAChR extracellular domain within binding pockets identified previously for the nonselective nAChR PAMs galantamine and physostigmine at the canonical α-γ interface containing the transmitter binding sites and at the noncanonical δ-β subunit interface. These results establish that dFBr inhibits muscle-type nAChR by binding in the ion channel and that [(3)H]dFBr is a photoaffinity probe with broad amino acid side chain reactivity. PMID:25870334

  4. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia; Hödl, Martina; Strandsby, Anne; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Chen, Shoudeng; Groth, Anja; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-08-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, chaperones histones H3-H4. Our first structure shows an H3-H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3-H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling histones genome wide during DNA replication.

  5. GBR-12909 and fluspirilene potently inhibited binding of ( sup 3 H) (+) 3-PPP to sigma receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, P.C.; Bremer, M.E.; Rao, T.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Fluspirilene and GBR-12909, two compounds structurally similar to BMY-14802 and haloperidol, were assessed for their ability to interact with sigma receptors. Fluspirilene, an antipsychotic agent that interacts potently with dopamine receptors, inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(+)3-PPP (IC{sub 50} = 380 nM) more potently than rimcazole, a putative sigma antagonist that was tested clinically for antipsychotic activity. GBR-12909, a potent dopamine uptake blocker, also inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(+)3-PPP with an IC{sub 50} of 48 nM. However, other compounds that block the re-uptake of catecholamines, such as nomifensine, desipramine, imipramine, xylamine, benztropine and cocaine, were much weaker than GBR-12909as sigma ligands. Thus, GBR-12909 and fluspirilene, compounds structurally similar to BMY-14802, are potent sigma ligands.

  6. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  7. Kindled seizures selectively reduce a subpopulation of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in rat dentate gyrus

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.D.; McNamara, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    Amygdala-kindled seizures reduced significantly the total number of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in both dentate and hippocampal gyri compared to electrode implanted unstimulated controls. Both high and low affinity carbachol displaceable binding site populations were significantly reduced in hippocampal gyrus. By contrast, a selective decline of low affinity sites was found in dentate gyrus membranes. The selectivity of the decline in dentate but not hippocampus gyrus underscores the specificity of this molecular response to amygdala-kindled seizures. We suggest that these receptor alterations underlie adaptive mechanisms which antagonize kindled epileptogenesis.

  8. Reductions in (/sup 3/H)nicotinic acetylcholine binding in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, P.J.; Martino, A.M.; Wagster, M.V.; Price, D.L.; Mayeux, R.; Atack, J.R.; Kellar, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), dysfunction in the basal forebrain cholinergic system is accompanied by a consistent loss of presynaptic cholinergic markers in cortex, but changes in cholinergic receptor binding sites are poorly understood. In the present study, we used receptor autoradiography to map the distribution of nicotinic (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding sites in cortices of individuals with AD and PD and matched control subjects. In both diseases, a profound loss of nicotinic receptors occurs in all cortical layers, particularly the deepest layers.

  9. Ropizine concurrently enhances and inhibits ( sup 3 H) dextromethorpan binding to different structures of the guinea pig brain: Autoradiographic evidence for multiple binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Canoll, P.D.; Smith, P.R.; and Musacchio, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Ropizine produces a simultaneous enhancement and inhibition of ({sup 3}H) dextromethorphan (DM) high-affinity binding to different areas of the guinea pig brain. These results imply that there are two distinct types of high-affinity ({sup 3}H)DM binding sites, which are present in variable proportions in different brain structures. The ropizine-enhances ({sup 3}H)DM binding type was preferentially inhibited by (+)-pentazocine. This is consistent with the presumption that the (+)-pentazocine-sensitive site is identical with the common site for DM and 3-(-3-Hydroxphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine ((+)-3-PPP). The second binding type, which is inhibited by ropizine and is not so sensitive to (+){minus} pentazocine, has not been fully characterized. This study demonstrates that the biphasic effects to ropizine are due, at least in part, to the effects of ropizine on two different types of ({sup 3}H)DM binding sites. However, this study does not rule out that the common DM/(+)-3-PPP site also might be inhibited by higher concentrations of ropizine.

  10. Increased /sup 3/H-spiperone binding sites in mesolimbic area related to methamphetamine-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, K.; Sato, M.; Otsuki, S.

    1982-02-01

    The specific /sup 3/H-spiperone binding to membrane homogenates of the striatum, mesolimbic area, and frontal cortex was examined in two groups of rats pretreated once daily with saline or 4 mg/kg of methamphetamine (MAP) for 14 days. At 7 days following cessation of chronic pretreatment, all rats received an injection of 4 mg/kg of MAP and were decapitated 1 hr after the injection. In the chronic saline-pretreatment group, the single administration of MAP induced significant changes in the number (Bmax) of specific /sup 3/H-spiperone binding sites (a decrease in the striatum and an increase in the mesolimbic area and frontal cortex), but no significant changes in the affinity (KD) in any brain area. The chronic MAP pretreatment markedly augmented the changes in Bmax in the striatum and mesolimbic area. The increase in specific /sup 3/H-spiperone binding sites in the mesolimbic area is discussed in relation to MAP-induced behavioral hypersensitivity.

  11. Effects of nucleotides on [3H]bradykinin binding in guinea pig: further evidence for multiple B2 receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Seguin, L; Widdowson, P S

    1993-02-01

    We have suggested recently the existence of three subtypes of B2 bradykinin receptors in tissues of guinea pigs. We have classified these B2 bradykinin receptors into B2a, B2b, and B2c subtypes depending on their affinity for various bradykinin antagonists. Because the actions of bradykinin in different cell systems appear to be both dependent on and independent of G proteins, we sought to determine whether the binding of [3H]bradykinin to the B2 subtypes is sensitive to guanine nucleotides and, therefore, possibly coupled to G proteins. In the ileum, where we have demonstrated B2a and B2b subtypes, specific [3H]bradykinin binding was reduced with GDP (100 microM) and the nonmetabolized analogue of GTP, guanyl-5'-yl-imidodiphosphate (GppNHp; 100 microM). Competition studies with bradykinin and with [Hyp3]bradykinin, which shows approximately 20-fold greater selectivity for the B2a subtype than bradykinin, were performed in the presence or absence of GppNHp (100 microM). The competition experiments demonstrated that binding to the B2a subtype, which has higher affinity for [Hyp3]bradykinin and bradykinin than the B2b subtype, was lost in the presence of GppNHp, whereas binding to the B2b subtype was unaffected. In contrast, GppNHp (100 microM) and GDP (100 microM) failed to alter specific [3H]bradykinin binding to B2b and B2c subtypes in lung. [3H]Bradykinin binding was unaffected by AMP, ADP, ATP, and GMP (100 microM each). Based on this evidence, we suggest that the B2a bradykinin subtype is coupled to G proteins. The B2b and B2c subtypes are either not coupled to G proteins, or may be coupled to the Go-type GTP binding proteins, which have been suggested to be less sensitive to guanine nucleotides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Subcellular distribution of ( sup 3 H)-dexamethasone mesylate binding sites in Leydig cells using electron microscope radioautography

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.; Hermo, L.; Antakly, T. )

    1991-01-01

    The present view is that glucocorticoid hormones bind to their cytoplasmic receptors before reaching their nuclear target sites, which include specific DNA sequences. Although it is believed that cytoplasmic sequestration of steroid receptors and other transcription factors (such as NFKB) may regulate the overall activity of these factors, there is little information on the exact subcellular sites of steroid receptors or even of any other transcription factors. Tritiated (3H)-dexamethasone 21-mesylate (DM) is an affinity label that binds covalently to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thereby allowing morphological localization of the receptor at the light and electron microscope levels as well as for quantitative radioautographic (RAG) analysis. After injection of 3H-DM into the testis, a specific radioautographic signal was observed in Leydig cells, which correlated with a high level of immunocytochemically demonstrable GR in these cells at the light-microscope level. To localize the 3H-DM binding sites at the electron microscope (EM) level, the testes of 5 experimental and 3 control adrenalectomized rats were injected directly with 20 microCi 3H-DM; control rats received simultaneously a 25-fold excess of unlabeled dexamethasone; 15 min later, rats were fixed with glutaraldehyde and the tissue was processed for EM RAG analysis combined with quantitative morphometry. The radioautographs showed that the cytosol, nucleus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), and mitochondria were labeled. Since the cytosol was always adjacent to tubules of the sER, the term sER-rich cytosol was used to represent label over sER networks, which may also represent cytosol labeling due to the limited resolution of the radioautographic technique. Labeling was highest in sER-rich cytosol and mitochondria, at 53% and 31% of the total, respectively.

  13. ( sup 3 H)opipramol labels a novel binding site and sigma receptors in rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, C.D.; Hirsch, D.J.; Brooks, B.P.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Opipramol (OP), a clinically effective antidepressant with a tricyclic structure, is inactive as an inhibitor of biogenic amine uptake. ({sup 3}H)Opipramol binds saturably to rat brain membranes (apparent KD = 4 nM, Bmax = 3 pmol/mg of protein). ({sup 3}H)Opipramol binding can be differentiated into haloperidol-sensitive and -resistant components, with Ki values for haloperidol of 1 nM (Bmax = 1 pmol/mg of protein) and 350 nM (Bmax = 1.9 pmol/mg of protein), respectively. The drug specificity of the haloperidol-sensitive component is the same as that of sigma receptors labeled with (+)-({sup 3}H)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperdine. The haloperidol-resistant component does not correspond to any known neurotransmitter receptor or uptake recognition site. It displays high affinity for phenothiazines and related structures such as perphenazine, clopenthixol, and flupenthixol, whose potencies are comparable to that of opipramol. Because certain of these drugs are more potent at the haloperidol-resistant opipramol site than in exerting any other action, it is possible that this opipramol-selective site may mediate their therapeutic effects.

  14. Characterization of muscarinic receptor binding by the novel radioligand, [(3)H]imidafenacin, in the bladder and other tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Shiori; Ito, Yoshihiko; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to directly characterize specific binding sites of tritium ([(3)H])-labeled imidafenacin, a new radioligand for labeling muscarinic receptors, in the bladder and other peripheral or central nervous tissues of rats. Muscarinic receptors in rat tissues were measured by radioligand binding assay using [(3)H]imidafenacin. Specific [(3)H]imidafenacin binding in rat tissues was saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. Estimated dissociation constants (Kd values) were significantly lower in submaxillary gland and prostate and higher in heart than in bladder, indicating lower Kd values in M1 and M3 subtype- than M2 subtype-dominating tissues. Unlabeled imidafenacin and clinically used antimuscarinic agents competed with [(3)H]imidafenacin for binding sites in bladder and other tissues in a concentration-dependent manner, which indicated pharmacological specificity of [(3)H]imidafenacin binding sites. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-piperidinyl diphenylacetate (4-DAMP mustard), an irreversible inactivating agent of M3 subtype, significantly decreased the number of [(3)H]imidafenacin binding sites in bladder, submaxillary gland, and colon, but not in heart. [(3)H]imidafenacin labeled muscarinic receptors in M1 and M3 subtype-dominating tissues with higher affinity than [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS). [(3)H]imidafenacin is a useful radioligand to label muscarinic receptors in M1- and M3-dominating tissues with high affinity.

  15. Correlation between catecholamine secretion from bovine isolated chromaffin cells and [3H]-ouabain binding to plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aunis, Dominique; García, Antonio G.

    1981-01-01

    1 Secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by ouabain, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), phenoxybenzamine (Pbz) and vanadate, four agents known to inhibit Na+, K+-dependent Mg2+-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity has been studied in suspensions of bovine isolated adrenal medullary cells. 2 Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked a 5 fold increase of the basal CA secretion from isolated cells suspended in oxygenated Krebs-bicarbonate solution kept at 27°C. Secretion was antagonized by Ca2+-deprivation or hexamethonium, indicating good functional viability of the cells. 3 Ouabain (10-7 to 10-4 M) evoked a progressive, dose-dependent release of CA from cell suspensions. Study of the time course of the secretory response for 2 h allowed the separation of two components in the secretory response at all doses studied: a slow initial component (0.011 pg/min CA) and a second faster component (0.032 pg/min CA). 4 CMA evoked a clear-cut CA secretory response. The ED50 for CMA was 10-4 M, as compared to 3 × 10-6 M for ouabain. Pbz and vanadate did not induce CA release. 5 [3H]-ouabain was taken up and bound to intact isolated cells by a non-saturable binding process. However, in semi-purified plasma membranes from bovine adrenal medulla a saturable specific [3H]-ouabain binding process was observed with a KD of 8.1 nM. Binding to the membranes was ATP-dependent and antagonized by K+. 6 [3H]-ouabain specific binding to membranes was antagonized by ouabain and CMA, but not by Pbz or vanadate; the ID50 for ouabain and CMA were 10-6 and 10-5 M respectively. 7 Ouabain partially inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, Na+, K+-Mg2+ ATPase activity of the semi-purified plasma membranes. 8 The results demonstrate a good correlation between the ability of different drugs, known to inhibit ATPase activity, to displace [3H]-ouabain binding to adreno—medullary plasma membranes and their capacity to evoke a CA secretory response from isolated chromaffin cells. The data also suggest that

  16. Glucostatic regulation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding in the hypothalamus: correlation with Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, I.; Hauger, R.L.; Luu, M.D.; Giblin, B.; Skolnick, P.; Paul, S.M.

    1985-09-01

    Preincubation of rat hypothalamic slices in glucose-free Krebs-Ringer buffer (37/sup 0/C) resulted in a time-dependent decrease in specific (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding in the crude synaptosomal fraction prepared from these slices. The addition of D-glucose resulted in a dose- and time-dependent stimulation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding, whereas incubations with L-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, or 3-O-methyl-D-glucose failed to increase the number of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding sites. Ouabain potently inhibited the glucose-induced stimulation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding, suggesting the involvement of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. Preincubation of hypothalamic slices with glucose also resulted in an increase in Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase activity and the number of specific high-affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)ouabain, and a good correlation was observed between the glucose-stimulated increase in (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine and (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding. These data suggest that the (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding site in hypothalamus, previously linked to the anorectic actions of various phenylethylamines, is regulated both in vitro and in vivo by physiological concentrations of glucose. Glucose and amphetamine appear to interact at common sites in the hypothalamus to stimulate Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase activity, and the latter may be involved in the glucostatic regulation of appetite.

  17. Identification and characterization of (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine binding to alpha2-adrenoceptors in the canine saphenous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, B.

    1988-01-01

    The biochemical exploration of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors was investigated in the canine saphenous vein using the highly selective alpha2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine as a tritiated ligand. Following an enzymatic digestive pretreatment, the authors isolated a purified smooth muscle cell membranes fraction from saphenous veins in quantity sufficient to permit them to study the venous alpha2-adrenoreceptor content. The binding of tritiated rauwolscine was rapid, specific, saturable and reversible. The presence of high affinity sites with a density of binding Bmax of 125.2 /+ -/ 43.1 fmol/mg protein was demonstrated on a unique class of non interacting sites. The kinetically derived Kd was 1.28 nM, in good agreement with the value obtained from saturation isotherms. The pharmacological profile of these sites was assessed by the comparison of the potency of alpha-adrenergic agonists and antagonists to inhibit 1 nM (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine. Their efficacy was respectively: rauwolscine > phentolamine > RX 781094 > clonidine >> prazosin > (-)-phenylephrine > (-)-noradrenaline. The results showed that (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine bound specifically to sites in their membranal preparation, which had the pharmacological characteristics of the alpha2-adrenoceptors. The correlation between biochemical and pharmacological data revealed the usefulness of binding methods in the further study of adrenergic mechanisms in the canine saphenous vein.

  18. Effect of inhibitory avoidance training on [3H]-glutamate binding in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Schröder, N; De-Paris, F; Roesler, R; Medina, J H; Souza, D O; Izquierdo, I

    2000-02-01

    Glutamate receptors have been implicated in memory formation. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibitory avoidance training on specific [3H]-glutamate binding to membranes obtained from the hippocampus or parietal cortex of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were trained (0.5-mA footshock) in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task and were sacrificed 0, 5, 15 or 60 min after training. Hippocampus and parietal cortex were dissected and membranes were prepared and incubated with 350 nM [3H]-glutamate (N = 4-6 per group). Inhibitory avoidance training induced a 29% increase in glutamate binding in hippocampal membranes obtained from rats sacrificed at 5 min (P<0.01), but not at 0, 15, or 60 min after training, and did not affect glutamate binding in membranes obtained from the parietal cortex. These results are consistent with previous evidence for the involvement of glutamatergic synaptic modification in the hippocampus in the early steps of memory formation.

  19. Up-regulation of serotonergic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H) WB4101 following fimbrial transection and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-induced lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, A.L.; Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Loy, R.; Creese, I.

    1985-11-18

    Lesions of the serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus, by fimbrial transection or by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine treatment, produce an increase in the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 to its nanomolar affinity binding site, with no effect on its picomolar affinity binding site or on (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding. The nanomolar site is serotonergic as the serotonergic agonists, serotonin and 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT) have nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding when studied in the presence of a prazosin mask (30nM) of the alpha-1 component of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding. The serotonin receptor antagonists metergoline, lysergic acid diethylamide and lisuride also have high nanomolar affinities while ketanserin, yohimbine, prazosin and noradrenergic agonists have affinities in the micromolar range. Fimbrial transection or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections produced 32% and 44% increases in the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding in the presence of a prazosin mask. Serotonin competition for (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding was identical in control and experimental tissues from each lesion experiment. Although specific binding of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 was increased, there was no change in the affinities or the percentages of the two binding components for serotonin competition with (/sup 3/H)WB4101. These data suggest that removal of the serotonergic input to the hippocampus produces an increase in the Bmax of serotonin receptor binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)WB4101. 33 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. The metabolism and binding properties of 3H-aldosterone in plasma and its sex dependence in adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Morris, D J; Graham, W C; Davis, R P

    1975-01-01

    The rates of clearance of plasma 3-H radioactivitivity following intravenous injection of 3-H aldosterone was demonstrated to be sex-dependent in adrenalectomized rats. The perchantage plasma radioactivity which is CH-2CL-2extractable is greater in female than in male rats from 5 min to 90 min postinjection; however the quantities of CH2-CL2-extractable label are not significantly different until 60 min postinjection. The quantities of nonextractable, water-soluble metabolites of adosterone (NEPD), which are markedly greater in the plasma of males, reach peak levels 30 min after injections of aldosterone, during the latent period of the hormone.N females, these polar metabolites (NEPD)are rapidly cleared from the blood. The quantities of 3-H-radioactivity associated with the plasma binding proteins are similar in both males and females. The unbound levels of aldosterone and its metabolities are significantly greater in the plasma of males. These findings indicate that the sex hormones may influence not only the metabolism of aldosterone in rats, but also the plasma levels of unmetabolized aldosterone and its metabolites. PMID:1109901

  1. Changes of the striatal 3H-spiperone binding 3-6 weeks after nigrostriatal denervation and after two years.

    PubMed

    Guerin, B; Silice, C; Mouchet, P; Feuerstein, C; Demenge, P

    1985-09-01

    A complete unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway by 6-hydroxydopamine injection in the substantia nigra induced a drastic increase in striatal dopaminergic binding sites labelled by 3H-spiperone, 30 days after the lesion. This increase (75% over controls) was time restricted: it was only 39% and 34% over control values at respectively 25 and 35 days after the lesion. Furthermore, 45 days after the destruction of the substantia nigra, the density of labelled sites returned close to the homolateral control values, but remained higher than the contralateral ones, according to the right-left difference found in control animals. Quite later (2 years after the lesion), there was a decrease in the density of labelled sites as compared to the respective homolateral control levels. However, such binding sites tend to remain higher in the striatum of the lesioned side than in the striatum of the intact one, although such a difference was not statistically significant, being very close to the right-left asymmetry observed in control animals. Contrary to our previous results with 3H-Haloperidol, the apparent dissociation constant did not vary significantly, whatever the considered delay after the lesion. These results are discussed in the light of previous results obtained by others and by us.

  2. Demonstration of non-opioid sigma binding with (d)/sup 3/H-SKF 10047 in guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mickelson, M.M.; Lahti, R.A.

    1985-02-01

    A non-opioid binding site to (d)/sup 3/H-SKF 10047 (N-allyl-normetazocine), the prototypic ligand for the sigma or PCP-like receptor, was demonstrated. The (d) isomer of /sup 3/H-SKF 10047 was used to demonstrate a stereospecific low affinity binding site with a K/sub d/ of 173nM. It was naloxone insensitive with an IC/sup 50/ of greater than 10,000nM, which defined it as non-opioid. Traditional mu compounds like morphine and FK 33824 were also inactive, with IC/sup 50/'s of greater than 10,000nM. Kappa compounds such as ethylketocyclazocine and U-50,488H were active as were all of the benzmorphans tested, with butorphanol the least active. The known antipsychotic haloperidol was the most active compound tested, with an IC/sup 50/ of 11nM. Other antipsychotics which demonstrated activity were chlorpromazine and pimozide. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine was inactive.

  3. Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-06-01

    (+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.

  4. HIV-1 Tat Protein-Induced Rapid and Reversible Decrease in [3H]Dopamine Uptake: Dissociation of [3H]Dopamine Uptake and [3H]2β-Carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN 35,428) Binding in Rat Striatal Synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Mactutus, Charles F.; Wallace, David R.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Tat protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both HIV-1-associated cognitive-motor disorder and drug abuse. Dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function is strikingly altered in patients with HIV-1-associated dementia and a history of chronic drug abuse. This study is the first in vitro evaluation of potential mechanisms underlying the effects of Tat protein on DAT function. Rat striatal synaptosomes were incubated with recombinant Tat1–86 protein, and [3H]DA uptake and the binding of [3H]2β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN 35,428) and [3H]1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)-piperazine (GBR 12935) were determined. Tat decreased [3H]DA uptake, [3H]WIN 35,428 binding, and [3H]GBR 12935 binding in a time-dependent manner. The potency of Tat for inhibiting [3H]DA uptake (Ki = 1.2 μM) was the same as that for inhibiting [3H]GBR 12935 binding but 3-fold less than that for inhibiting [3H]WIN 35,428 binding. Mutant Tat proteins did not alter [3H]DA uptake. Kinetic analysis of [3H]DA uptake revealed that Tat (1 or 10 μM) decreased the Vmax value and increased the Km value in a dose-dependent manner. The Vmax value, decreased by Tat (1 μM), returned to the control level after washout of Tat, indicating that the inhibitory effect of Tat on DA uptake was reversible. Saturation studies revealed that Tat decreased the Bmax value and increased the Kd value of [3H]WIN 35,428 binding, whereas Tat decreased the Bmax value of [3H]GBR 12935 binding, without a change in the Kd value. These findings provide new insight into understanding the pharmacological mechanisms of Tat-induced dysfunction of the DAT in the dopaminergic system in HIV-infected patients. PMID:19325033

  5. Characterization and autoradiographic visualization of (+)-(3H)SKF10,047 binding in rat and mouse brain: further evidence for phencyclidine/sigma opiate receptor commonality

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, R.; Nichtenhauser, R.; Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    The binding specificity of (+)-(/sup 3/H)N-allylnormetazocine, the dextrorotatory isomer of the prototypical sigma opiate SKF10,047, was determined in rat and mouse brain and the neuroanatomical distribution of its binding sites elucidated by quantitative autoradiography in sections of rat brain. Computer-assisted Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent two-site fit of the binding data in both species and in all rat brain regions examined. In whole rat brain, the Kd values were 3.6 and 153 nM and the maximum binding values were 40 fmol and 1.6 pmol/mg of protein for the apparent high- and low-affinity binding sites, respectively. (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol and pentazocine were among the most potent inhibitors of 7 nM (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF10,047 binding to the higher affinity sites; rank orders of ligand potencies at these sites differ sharply from those that have been reported for the (/sup 3/H)phencyclidine (PCP) site, or for eliciting PCP-like or SKF10,047-like behaviors. By contrast, rank orders of potency of sigma opiods, PCP derivatives and dioxolanes for displacement of 100 nM (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF10,047 from the more numerous lower affinity sites in the presence of 100 nM haloperidol agreed closely with their potencies in the (/sup 3/H)PCP binding assay as well as their potencies in exerting PCP- or SKF10,047-like behavioral effects. In order to compare directly the anatomical localizations of PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 binding sites, quantitative light microscopy autoradiography utilizing tritium-labeled PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 was carried out in rat brain sections. (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF10,047 binding was observed to follow the regional pattern of (3H)PCP binding but also to bind in other regions not associated with PCP receptors.

  6. Lithium: effect on (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding, ionic content, and amino acid levels in the brain of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Banay-Schwartz, M.; Wajda, I.J.; Manigault, I.; DeGuzman, T.; Lajtha, A.

    1982-02-01

    After prolonged treatment of rats with lithium (pellets, 0.21% lithium carbonate, or 0.5 mg/ml lithium chloride in drinking water) for three months, the level of lithium in plasma was 0.87 meq/liter; in several brain regions, between 1.06-1.39 mueq/g wet weight. The content of sodium and potassium in the plasma was normal. The level of potassium in the brain regions tested increased by 13-30% and that of sodium by about 10%. Glycine levels increased significantly in all the regions (cerebral cortex, midbrain, cerebellum, and spinal cord). In the cerebellum GABA was also increased, while glutamine was decreased. In midbrain, apart from increases in glycine levels, alanine, valine, GABA and lysine were also increased. In the spinal cord, glutamic acid was also increased. Changes were largely in the putative neurotransmitters. Long-term treatment with lithium also influenced the high-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H) spiperone in the cerebral cortex and corpus striatum. Two specific binding sites were found in both brain regions; the main change was the reduction in the lower affinity binding site (B max 2).

  7. Reduced platelet [3H]paroxetine binding in anorexia nervosa: relationship to eating symptoms and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Israel, Mimi

    2006-06-15

    Alterations in serotonin function have been implicated in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and previous studies suggest associations between serotonin function and variations in pathological personality traits. Women meeting DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN, 16 with the restricting subtype and 14 with the binge-purge subtype) and 49 healthy control women (CW) provided blood samples for analyses of platelet [(3)H]paroxetine binding. Participants also filled out questionnaires tapping eating disorder symptoms, depression, and personality pathology. Compared with CW, women with restricting and binge-purge AN had significantly lower levels of paroxetine binding (respectively: 1012 + 487 vs. 560 + 253 vs. 618 + 217 fmol/mg protein). Simple correlation analyses showed that, within AN but not within controls, paroxetine binding was inversely related to dieting preoccupations, affective instability, anxiousness, compulsivity, restricted expression and social avoidance but independent of age, body mass index, depression, and other eating symptoms. Findings suggest that reduced peripheral serotonin transporter density in AN relates to increased dieting preoccupations, affective instability and anxiousness-fearfulness.

  8. (/sup 3/H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine binding to A1 adenosine receptors of intact rat ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, D.; Lohse, M.J.; Schwabe, U.

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was the identification of A1 adenosine receptors in intact rat ventricular myocytes, which are thought to mediate the negative inotropic effects of adenosine. The adenosine receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine was used as radioligand. Binding of the radioligand to intact myocytes was rapid, reversible, and saturable with a binding capacity of 40,000 binding sites per cell. The dissociation constant of the radioligand was 0.48 nM. The adenosine receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, xanthine amine congener, and theophylline were competitive inhibitors with affinities in agreement with results obtained for A1 receptors in other tissues. Competition experiments using the adenosine receptor agonists R-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, and S-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine gave monophasic displacement curves with Ki values of 50 nM, 440 nM, and 4,300 nM, which agreed well with the GTP-inducible low affinity state in cardiac membranes. The low affinity for agonists was not due to agonist-induced desensitization, and correlated well with the corresponding IC50 values for the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation by isoprenaline. It is suggested that only a low affinity state of A1 receptors can be detected in intact rat myocytes due to the presence of high concentrations of guanine nucleotides in intact cells.

  9. Characterization of [3H]-nitrendipine binding to uterine smooth muscle plasma membrane and its relevance to inhibition of calcium entry.

    PubMed Central

    Batra, S.

    1985-01-01

    Specific, high affinity (KD = 164 pM) binding of the Ca channel inhibitor [3H]-nitrendipine was identified in plasma membrane-enriched fractions from the rat myometrium. Although dihydropyridines effectively competed for [3H]-nitrendipine binding sites, both verapamil and D600 were poor competitors. Diltiazem (10 microM) increased [3H]-nitrendipine binding by about 40%, but had no effect on binding affinity. Among several other drugs tested, diethylstilboestrol (DES) caused a considerable inhibition of binding, with an IC50 value of 4 microM. Both La3+ and EDTA (or EGTA) inhibited binding. The inhibition by the latter could be overcome by the addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+. A clear relationship was found between [3H]-nitrendipine binding and 5-nucleotidase activity in the various subcellular fractions. Data on K+-stimulated Ca2+ influx in the intact uterine strips showed a good agreement between the inhibition by both nitrendipine and DES of stimulated Ca influx and their inhibitory effect on [3H]-nitrendipine binding to plasma membrane. This type of correlation was lacking in the case of D600. These results suggest that Ca channels in the myometrial membrane possess multiple sites at which different drugs can act to block these channels. PMID:2412621

  10. The (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding to rat adipocyte membranes: an explanation of curvilinear Scatchard plots and implications for quantitation of beta-adrenergic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dax, E.M.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1982-09-01

    In rat adipocyte membranes, both beta-adrenergic agonists and beta-adrenergic antagonists competed with (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol for high affinity (KD 2-4 nM) and low capacity binding sites. The antagonists but not the agonists competed with (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol for lower affinity and higher capacity sites. The present studies were performed in order to characterize the adipocyte beta-adrenergic receptor and distinguish it from low affinity, higher capacity sites which were heat-labile and not stereoselective. When isoproterenol was used to define the nonspecific binding, saturation studies showed a single binding site with a capacity of approximately 100 fmol/mg membrane protein (corresponding to approximately 50,000 sites/adipocyte). Binding was saturated by 10 nM (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol. Approximate KD's of 204 nM were observed. Kinetic analysis of (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding provided an independent measurement of KD between 0.75 and 1.1 nM. This binding site had the characteristics of a beta 1-adrenergic receptor with the potency of isoproterenol greater than norepinephrine greater than or equal to epinephrine as competitors of binding. Furthermore, the KD of inhibition of (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding correlated with the Ki of inhibition by antagonists or Ka of activation by agonists of glycerol release in isolated adipocytes (r . 0.968, P less than 0.001). These results suggest that beta-adrenergic agonists compete with (--)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol for the high affinity binding site which represents the physiological site. Furthermore, the use of antagonists (propranolol, alprenolol) to define specific beta-binding includes nonspecific site(s) as well as the beta-adrenergic site. Previous characterization and quantitation of beta receptors in rat fat cell membranes may have been in error by incorporating both types of binding in their measurement.

  11. Interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with dopaminergic D3 binding sites in rat striatum. Evidence that (/sup 3/H)dopamine can label a high affinity agonist-binding state of the D1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.E.; Creese, I.

    1985-02-01

    The interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with /sup 3/H-agonist labeled D3 dopaminergic binding sites of rat striatum have been characterized by radioligand-binding techniques. When the binding of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)apomorphine to D2 dopamine receptors is blocked by the inclusion of D2 selective concentrations of unlabeled spiroperidol or domperidone, these ligands appear to label selectively the previously termed D3 binding site. Antagonist/(/sup 3/H)dopamine competition curves are of uniformly steep slope (nH . 1.0), suggesting the presence of a single D3 binding site. The relative potencies of antagonists to inhibit D3 specific (/sup 3/H)dopamine binding are significantly correlated with their potencies to block D1 dopamine receptors as measured by the inhibition of both dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase and (/sup 3/H)flupentixol-binding activities. The affinities of agonists to inhibit D3 specific (/sup 3/H)dopamine binding are also correlated with estimates of these agonists affinities for the high affinity binding component of agonist/(/sup 3/H)flupentixol competition curves. Both D3 specific (/sup 3/H) dopamine binding and the high affinity agonist-binding component of dopamine/(/sup 3/H)flupentixol competition curves show a similar sensitivity to guanine nucleotides. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the D3 binding site is related to a high affinity agonist-binding state of the D1 dopamine receptor.

  12. Prolonged administration of antidepressant drugs leads to increased binding of [(3)H]MPEP to mGlu5 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Gabriel; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Siwek, Agata; Niedzielska, Ewa; Pomierny, Bartosz; Pałucha-Poniewiera, Agnieszka; Pilc, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are functionally connected with NMDA receptors. The antidepressant activity of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in both preclinical and clinical studies, along with the antidepressant-like activities of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of mGlu5, led us to investigate if prolonged administration of various antidepressant drugs or the mGlu5 NAM, MTEP, causes changes in mGlu5 receptor availability or protein expression or in expression of Homer proteins in the rat brain. Our results clearly show that prolonged treatment with antidepressants with various mechanisms of action (such as escitalopram, reboxetine, milnacipran, moclobemide and imipramine) or with MTEP led to significant increases in [(3)H]MPEP binding in homogenates of the hippocampus and/or cerebral cortex. Increases in mGlu5 expression were also observed, though they did not always parallel the increase in binding. The results indicate that adaptive up-regulation of mGlu5 receptors may be a common change induced by antidepressant drugs. PMID:24796254

  13. Low density and high affinity of platelet [3H]paroxetine binding in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Agneta; Sundblad-Elverfors, Charlotta; Landén, Mikael; Eriksson, Tomas; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-06-15

    Impaired serotonin transmission has been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa. As an indirect measure of brain serotonergic activity, the binding of tritiated ligands to platelet serotonin transporters has been studied in bulimia nervosa as well as in other putatively serotonin-related psychiatric disorders. In this study, the density and affinity of platelet serotonin transporters were assessed in 20 women meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa and in 14 controls without previous or ongoing eating disorder using [(3)H]paroxetine as a ligand. In comparison to controls, women with bulimia nervosa had a significantly reduced number of platelet binding sites (B(max) = 721 +/- 313 vs. 1145 +/- 293 fmol/mg protein) and an increase in the affinity for the ligand demonstrated by a lower dissociaton constant (K(d) = 33 +/- 10 vs. 44 +/- 10 pM). A significant correlation between B(max) and K(d) values was found in patients but not in controls. Our results support the notion that bulimia nervosa is associated with a reduction in platelet serotonin transporter density. In addition, our study is the first to report that this reduced transporter density in women with bulimia nervosa is accompanied by an increase in the affinity of the transporter for the ligand.

  14. Rat behavior in two models of anxiety and brain [3H]muscimol binding: pharmacological, correlation, and multifactor analysis.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Helena; Szyndler, Janusz; Członkowska, Agnieszka I; Siemiatkowski, Marek; Maciejak, Piotr; Wisłowska, Aleksandra; Zienowicz, Małgorzata; Lehner, Małgorzata; Turzyńska, Danuta; Bidziński, Andrzej; Płaźnik, Adam

    2003-10-17

    The contribution of GABAergic mechanisms to rat emotional behavior in two animal models of anxiety (open field test of neophobia and aversively conditioned freezing reaction), was confirmed by pharmacological analysis, using anxiolytic (midazolam) and anxiogenic (picrotoxin) compounds. Both substances are known to modulate GABA(A) receptors' activity in a positive or negative manner, respectively. It seemed, therefore, worthwhile to check whether the behavioral parameters measured in these animal models of anxiety correlate with [3H]muscimol binding (a highly selective GABA(A) receptor ligand) in different brain structures of nai;ve rats, with a view to establish the role of genetically determined expression of local GABA(A) receptors in the organization of rat emotional and motor behavior. Correlation analysis revealed no links between individually determined expression of GABA(A) receptors (quantitative receptor autoradiography) in the brain structures, and the emotional behavior of nai;ve, drug-free animals, in both tests. Factor analysis confirmed that animal behavior in both tests was under control of different central processes. Moreover, none of the behavioral and ligand binding parameters loaded on the same factor, confirming the negative results of the correlation study. The present results indicate that the origin of emotions is a complex phenomenon, probably involving the interaction between GABA-ergic innervation of many brain structures. PMID:14529801

  15. Binding of [3H](2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(9-xanthylmethyl)-2-(2'-carboxycyclopropyl) glycine ([3H]LY341495) to cell membranes expressing recombinant human group III metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Arnold, M B; Wheeler, W J; Ornstein, P L; Schoepp, D D

    2000-12-01

    LY341495 is a highly potent and selective antagonist for group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3). High affinity binding of [3H]LY341495 to recombinant human group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3), and in rat brain homogenates (Kd approximately 1 nM), has been previously described. Although LY341495 is a very selective nM-potent antagonist for group II mGlu receptors, it is also a relatively potent antagonist for group III mGlu receptors at high nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations. In this study we examined and characterized the binding of [3H]LY341495 to membranes of cells expressing recombinant human group III mGlu receptors. Using up to 100 nM of [3H]LY341495, the level of specific binding in human mGlu4a receptor-expressing cell membranes was not appreciable and binding to this site was not examined further. In contrast, we demonstrated sufficient specific binding of [3H]LY341495 to human mGlu6, mGlu7a and mGlu8a receptor-expressing cell membranes to allow for further characterizations. [3H]LY341495 binding was saturable and rapidly reversible. [3H]LY341495 bound to a single site in each cell line, with Kd and Bmax values of 31.6+/-6.8 nM and 3.3+/-0.7 pmol/mg protein (mGlu6), 72.7+/-22.0 nM and 3.7+/-0.4 pmol/mg protein (mGlu7a), and 14.0+/-1.1 nM and 3.0+/-0.2 pmol/mg protein (mGlu8a). [3H]LY341495 binding to mGlu6, 7a and 8a was displaceable by compounds which interact functionally with group III mGlu receptors. For example, L-AP4 displaced [3H]LY341495 with Ki values of 6.8+/-3.1 microM (mGlu6), 211+/-43 microM (mGlu7a) and 1.6+/-0.3 microM (mGlu8a). With L-glutamate, we obtained Ki values of 12.3+/-3.5, 869+/-154 and 4.5+/-0.83 microM, for mGlu6, mGlu7a and mGlu8a, respectively. Ki values for unlabelled LY341495 were 0.058+/-0.008, 0.22+/-0.05 and 0.029+/-0.008 microM, respectively. These studies demonstrated that [3H]LY341495 is a useful radioligand for studying the pharmacology and expression of recombinant mGlu6, 7a and 8a receptors in cell

  16. Effect of cannabinoids on the binding of /sup 3/H-(3-MeHis/sup 2/)TRH to rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matwyshyn, G.A.; Das, S.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1986-03-05

    Cannabinoids, particularly ..delta../sup 9/-THC is known to affect thyroid function. The effect of naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids on brain TRH receptors labeled with /sup 3/H-(3-MeHis/sup 2/)TRH(MeTRH) was determined. /sup 3/H-MeTRH bound to brain membranes at a single high affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 48 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein and K/sub d/ of 4.2 +/- 0.4 nM. At 2 nM concentration the amount of /sup 3/H-MeTRH bound specifically was 10.9 +/- 0.6 fmol/mg protein. ..delta.. /sup 9/-THC (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ M) stimulated the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH with maximal stimulation of 60% at 10/sup -4/M concentration. Cannabinol (10/sup -6/-/sup -4/M) also enhanced the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH with maximal (58%) stimulation occurring at 10/sup -5/M concentration. Cannabidiol, on the other hand, had no effect on the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH up to 10/sup -5/M concentration. However, at 10/sup -4/M concentration of cannabidiol, the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH was decreased by 65%. The water soluble synthetic cannabinoids, naboctate, menabitan and SP 111 A inhibited the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH only at 10/sup -4/ or 10/sup -3/M concentration. These results suggest differential interaction of cannabinoids with brain TRH receptors.

  17. Characterization of the binding of (3H)-(+/-)-L-364,718: a new potent, nonpeptide cholecystokinin antagonist radioligand selective for peripheral receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.S.; Lotti, V.J.; Chen, T.B.; Kunkel, K.A.

    1986-09-01

    (3H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 a new, potent and selective nonpeptide peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist bound saturably and reversibly to rat pancreatic membranes. The radioligand recognized a single class of binding sites with a high affinity (Kd = 0.23 nM). The binding of (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 was stereospecific in that the more biologically active (-)-enantiomer demonstrated greater potency than the (+)-enantiomer. The rank order of potency of various CCK agonists and antagonists in displacing (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 correlated with their ability to displace (/sup 125/I)CCK-8 and their known pharmacological activities in peripheral tissues. However, the absolute potencies of agonists were greater in displacing (/sup 125/I)CCK-8 than (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718. As described for other physiologically relevant receptor systems, the potency for displacement of (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 binding by CCK agonists, but not antagonists, was reduced by guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate and NaCl and enhanced by MgCl/sub 2/. (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 also demonstrated specific binding to bovine gall bladder tissue but not guinea pig brain or gastric glands, consistent with its selectivity as a peripheral CCK antagonist. (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 binding to pancreatic membranes was not affected by various pharmacological agents known to interact with other common peptide and nonpeptide receptor systems. These data indicate that (/sup 3/H)-(+/-)-L-364,718 represents a new potent nonpeptide antagonist radioligand for the study of peripheral CCK receptors which may allow differentiation of agonist and antagonist interactions.

  18. A novel 4 S [3H]beta-naphthoflavone-binding protein in liver cytosol of female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Brauze, D; Malejka-Giganti, D

    2000-01-01

    beta-Naphthoflavone (beta-NF) is a widely used inducer of phase-I and phase-II enzymes controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Studies of competitive binding with (3)H-labelled 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have shown that beta-NF is a high-affinity ligand for AhR and also for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-binding protein, both soluble proteins of rat liver in 8 S and 4 S fractions, respectively, of sucrose gradients. This study examined binding of [(3)H]beta-NF to liver cytosolic proteins of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of rats with beta-NF, 3-MC, TCDD or alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) increased the specific [(3)H]beta-NF binding to liver cytosol up to 125-fold that of vehicle (corn oil)-treated rats (<100 fmol/mg of protein). Sucrose gradients revealed a large 4 S and a small 8 S peak of radioactivity from [(3)H]beta-NF binding to cytosols of beta-NF-, 3-MC-, TCDD- or alpha-NF-treated rats. Whereas co-incubation with the unlabelled beta-NF eliminated both peaks, co-incubation with 2,3, 7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) eliminated only the 8 S peak. The sucrose density gradient from [(3)H]TCDD binding to cytosol of beta-NF- or TCDD-treated rats yielded a small 4 S and a larger 8 S peak; only the latter was abolished by co-incubation with TCDF. Thus, the patterns of sedimentation, distribution and elimination of radioactivity from the 8 S fraction of the liver cytosols from beta-NF-, 3-MC-, TCDD- or alpha-NF-treated rats were characteristic for the AhR, whereas those from the 4 S fraction appeared specific for [(3)H]beta-NF binding. The data indicate that potent AhR agonists, TCDD, 3-MC and beta-NF, and to a lesser extent alpha-NF, a weak AhR agonist, induce a 4 S [(3)H]beta-NF-binding protein in liver cytosol of female rats. alpha-NF, beta-NF and 3-MC were effective competitors (80-85% inhibition) of the [(3)H]beta-NF-specific binding to the beta-NF-, 3 MC- or TCDD

  19. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  20. Glutamate and glycine modulation of 3H-MK801 binding to the NMDA receptor-ion channel complex in the vitamin B-6 deficient neonatal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Guilarte, T.R. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the concentrations of the neuroactive amino acids glutamate (GLU) and glycine (GLY) are significantly altered in the seizure-prone vitamin B-6 deficient neonatal rat brain. Recently, it has been shown that GLU and GLY modulate the binding of {sup 3}H-MK801 to the ion channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor subtype. The present investigation was undertaken to determine if GLU or GLY modulation of {sup 3}H-MK801 binding was altered in B-6 deficient neonatal rat brain. Preparation of cortical membranes from control and deficient 14 day old rats and {sup 3}H-MK801 binding assay were done as described by Ransom and Stec. The results show a significant reduction in the potency and efficacy of GLU modulation of {sup 3}H-MK801 binding, as well as a reduction in the efficacy of GLY, in membrane preparations from deficient rats compared to controls. These results indicate a reduced ability of GLU and GLY to potentiate the binding of {sup 3}H-MK801 to the NMDA receptor-ion channel in the B-6 deficient neonatal rat brain.

  1. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of purified A2a adenosine receptors in human platelet membranes by [3H]-CGS 21680 binding.

    PubMed Central

    Varani, K.; Gessi, S.; Dalpiaz, A.; Borea, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The binding properties of human platelet A2a adenosine receptors, assayed with the A2a-selective agonist, [3H]-2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoad enosine ([3H]-CGS 21680), are masked by a non-receptorial component, the adenotin site. In order to separate A2a receptors from adenotin sites, human platelet membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propanesulphonate (CHAPS). The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. 2. The present paper describes the binding characteristics of the selective A2a agonist, [3H]-CGS 21680, to this purified platelet membrane preparation. In addition, receptor affinity and potency of several adenosine agonists and antagonists were determined in binding and adenylyl cyclase studies. 3. Saturation experiments revealed a single class of binding site with Kd and Bmax values of 285 nM and 2.07 pmol mg-1 of protein respectively. Adenosine receptor ligands competed for the binding of 50 nM [3H]-CGS 21680 to purified protein, showing a rank order of potency consistent with that typically found for interactions with the A2a adenosine receptors. In the adenylyl cyclase assay the compounds examined exhibited a rank order of potency very close to that observed in binding experiments. 4. Thermodynamic data indicated that [3H]-CGS 21680 binding to the purified receptor is totally entropy-driven in agreement with results obtained in rat striatal A2a adenosine receptors. 5. It is concluded that in the purified platelet membranes there is a CGS 21680 binding site showing the characteristic properties of the A2a receptor. This makes it possible to use this compound for reliable radioligand binding studies on the A2a adenosine receptor of human platelets. PMID:8732278

  2. In vitro binding assays using (3)H nisoxetine and (3)H WIN 35,428 reveal selective effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement in adult male rats on norepinephrine but not dopamine transporter sites in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Meyers, B; Kritzer, M F

    2009-03-01

    The prefrontal cortices mediate cognitive functions that critically depend on local dopamine levels. In male rats, many prefrontal tasks where performance is disrupted by changes in dopamine signaling are also impaired by gonadectomy, a manipulation that increases cortical dopamine concentration, prefrontal dopamine axon density and possibly extracellular prefrontal dopamine levels as well. Because these actions could be responsible for the impairing effects of gonadectomy on prefrontal function, the question of how they might arise comes to the fore. Accordingly, the present studies asked whether dopamine levels might be increased via a hormone sensitivity of transporter-mediated dopamine uptake. Specifically, (3)H WIN 35,428 and (3)H nisoxetine, ligands selective for the dopamine (DAT)- and norepinephrine transporter (NET) respectively, were used in in vitro binding assays to ask whether gonadectomy altered transporter affinity (Kd) and/or binding site number (Bmax) in prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex and/or caudate. Assays performed on tissues dissected from sham-operated, gonadectomized and gonadectomized rats supplemented with testosterone propionate or estradiol for 4 or 28 days revealed no significant group differences or obvious trends in Kd or Bmax for DAT binding or in measures of Bmax for NET binding. However, affinity constants for (3)H nisoxetine were found to be significantly higher in sensorimotor and/or prefrontal cortex of rats gonadectomized and gonadectomized and supplemented with estradiol for 4 or 28 days but similar to control in gonadectomized rats given testosterone. Because the NET contributes substantially to extracellular prefrontal dopamine clearance, these androgen-mediated effects could influence prefrontal dopamine levels and might thus be relevant for observed effects of gonadectomy on dopamine-dependent prefrontal behaviors. A hormone sensitivity of the NET could also have bearing on the prefrontal dopamine dysfunction seen in

  3. Ethanol fails to modify [3H]GR65630 binding to 5-HT3 receptors in NCB-20 cells and in rat cerebral membranes.

    PubMed

    Hellevuo, K; Hoffman, P L; Tabakoff, B

    1991-10-01

    Low concentrations of ethanol have been found to enhance the electrophysiologic effect of serotonin (5-HT) acting at 5-HT3 receptors on NCB-20 cells. To determine whether this action of ethanol reflects a change in the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of ethanol (100 mM) on agonist and antagonist binding to 5-HT3 receptor was studied in vitro in membrane from NCB-20 cells and from cortex plus hippocampus of rat. The antagonist [3H]GR65630 was used to label 5-HT3 recognition sites. Ethanol did not change the characteristics of saturable [3H]GR65630 binding in either membrane preparation. In competition studies, the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT completely inhibited the binding of [3H]GR65630 to NCB-20 cell membranes, while in brain membranes the maximum displacement of specific [3H]GR65630 binding by 5-HT was approximately 30%. Ethanol decreased the affinity of the receptor for 2-methyl-5-HT, but not to 5-HT in NCB-20 cells, and had no effect on agonist binding in brain membranes. The results indicate that enhancement of 5-HT responses at 5-HT3 receptors by ethanol is not a result of changes in the equilibrium binding characteristics of the agonist.

  4. Covalent labeling of opioid receptors with /sup 3/H-D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin chloromethyl ketone. II. Binding characteristics in frog brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Szucs, M.; Benyhe, S.; Toth, G.; Hepp, J.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.; Medzihradszky, K.

    1987-07-13

    /sup 3/H-D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin chloromethyl ketone (/sup 3/H-DALECK) was used to label opioid receptors of frog brain membranes. The authors have previously shown that 70% of the opioid receptors are of kappa type in this preparation. The binding of /sup 3/H-DALECK was of high affinity, half maximal binding being achieved by 0.9 nM of the radioligand. The number of sites labeled was calculated to be 108 fmol/mg protein. Opioid ligands, incubated with the membranes prior to the label, inhibited /sup 3/H-DALECK binding with the following rank order: etorphine > EKC > DAGO > DALECK > DADLE. Dissociation experiments showed that 70% of the binding is irreversible. Fluorography performed after SDS-PAGE revealed specific covalent labeling of protein subunits of 90, 58 and 20 kD molecular weights. Results will be compared to those obtained in rat brain. The authors two studies demonstrate that /sup 3/H-DALECK is a useful probe for investigation the subunit structure of opioid receptors. 23 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  5. Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: ( sup 3 H)nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, R.E.; Cohen, J.B. )

    1991-07-16

    The agonist ({sup 3}H)nicotine was used as a photoaffinity label for the acetylcholine binding sties on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). ({sup 3}H)Nicotine binds at equilibrium with K{sub eq} = 0.6 {mu}M to the agonist binding sites. Irradiation with 254-nm light of AChR-rich membranes equilibrated with ({sup 3}H)nicotine resulted in covalent incorporation into the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits, which was inhibited by agonists and competitive antagonists but not by noncompetitive antagonists. Inhibition of labeling by d-tubocurarine demonstrated that the {alpha}-subunit was labeled via both agonist sites but the {gamma}-subunit was labeled only via the site that binds d-tubocurarine with high affinity. Chymotryptic digestion of the {alpha}-subunit confirmed that Try-198 was the principal amino acid labeled by ({sup 3}H)nicotine. This confirmation required a novel radiosequencing strategy employing o-phthalaldehyde ({sup 3}H)Nicotine, which is the first photoaffinity agonist used, labels primarily Tyr-198 in contrast to competitive antagonist affinity labels, which label primarily Tyr-190 and Cys-192/Cys-193.

  6. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with ( sup 3 H)PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of (3H)PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in (3H)PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration.

  7. Characterization of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain from rat, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Tanibuchi, Yuko; Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun; Fujita, Yuko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-08-12

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Currently, there are no suitable small molecule radioligands for alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, although [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin has been widely used as a radioligand for alpha7 nAChRs. In the present study, we characterized a new radioligand, 4-[(3)H]methylphenyl 2,5-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylate ([(3)H]CHIBA-1001), a derivative of the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist SSR180711, in brain membranes from rat, monkey, and human. Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 193.4nM in rat brain membranes at 4 degrees C, and the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) was 346.2fmol/mg protein. The order of drugs for the inhibition of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to rat brain membranes is SSR180711>A-844606>MG624>epibatidine>DMAB>A-582941, suggesting a similarity of alpha7 nAChR pharmacological profiles. In contrast, alpha-bungarotoxin, MLA, and nicotine were found to be very weak. The distribution of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to crude membranes from dissected regions of rat, monkey, and human brain was different from that of [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding, suggesting that [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding sites may not be identical to [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding in the brain. In summary, [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 would be a useful radioligand for alpha7 nAChRs in the brains of rodents, non-human primates, and humans. PMID:20537987

  8. Inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding by NMDA receptor open channel blockers and GluN2B antagonists in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alda; Wojcik, Trevor; Baireddy, Praveena; Pieschl, Rick; Newton, Amy; Tian, Yuan; Hong, Yang; Bristow, Linda; Li, Yu-Wen

    2015-11-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, including open channel blockers and GluN2B receptor subtype selective antagonists, have been developed for the treatment of depression. The current study investigated effects of systemically administered NMDA channel blockers and GluN2B receptor antagonists on NMDA receptor activity in rodents using in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding. The receptor occupancy of GluN2B antagonists was measured using ex vivo [(3)H]Ro 25-6981 binding. Ketamine, a NMDA receptor channel blocker, produced a dose/exposure- and time-dependent inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding that was maximal at ~100%. The complete inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding was also observed with NMDA receptor channel blockers, AZD6765 (Lanicemine) and MK-801 (Dizocilpine). CP-101,606 (Traxoprodil), a GluN2B antagonist, produced a dose/exposure- and time-dependent inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding that was maximal at ~60%. Partial inhibition was also observed with other GluN2B antagonists including MK-0657 (CERC-301), EVT-101, Ro 25-6981 and radiprodil. For all GluN2B antagonists tested, partial [(3)H]MK-801 binding inhibition was achieved at doses saturating GluN2B receptor occupancy. Combined treatment with ketamine (10mg/kg, i.p.) and Ro 25-6981(10mg/kg, i.p.) produced a level of inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding that was similar to treatment with either agent alone. In conclusion, this in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding study shows that NMDA receptor activity in the rodent forebrain can be inhibited completely by channel blockers, but only partially (~60%) by GluN2B receptor antagonists. At doses effective in preclinical models of depression, ketamine may preferentially inhibit the same population of NMDA receptors as Ro 25-6981, namely those containing the GluN2B subunit. PMID:26325093

  9. Soaping the NMDA receptor: Various types of detergents influence differently [(3)H]MK-801 binding to rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Membranes prepared from rat brain were treated with increasing concentrations of cationic, neutral, anionic and zwitterionic surfactants. Potent inactivation of [(3)H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors (NRs) was provided by the cation cetyl pyridinium (IC50 25 μM) and the neutral digitonin (IC50 37 μM). A 2 h incubation of rat brain membranes at 24°C with 100 μM of the neutral Triton X-100 resulted in about 50% reversible inhibition (without inactivation). Reversible inhibition was also effected by the anion deoxycholate (IC50 700 μM), and by the zwitterions N-lauryl sulfobetaine (12-SB(±), 400 μM) and CHAPS (1.5 mM), with inactivation at higher concentrations. Keeping the NR cation channel in the closed state significantly protected against inactivation by cations and by 12-SB(±), but not by the other detergents. Inactivation depended differentially on the amount of the membranes, on the duration of the treatment, and on the temperature. Varying the amount of membranes by a factor 8 yielded for cetyl trimethylammonium (16-NMe3(+)) IC50s of inactivation from 10 to 80 μM, while for deoxycholate the IC50 of inactivation was 1.2 mM for all tissue quantities. Some compounds inactivated within a few min (16-NMe3(+), digitonin, CHAPS), while inactivation by others took at least half an hour (Triton X-100, deoxycholate, 12-SB(±)). These last 3 ones also exhibited the steepest temperature dependence. Knowledge about the influence of various parameters is helpful in selecting appropriate conditions allowing the treatment of brain membranes with amphiphiles without risking irreversible inactivation. PMID:26518518

  10. Soaping the NMDA receptor: Various types of detergents influence differently [(3)H]MK-801 binding to rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Membranes prepared from rat brain were treated with increasing concentrations of cationic, neutral, anionic and zwitterionic surfactants. Potent inactivation of [(3)H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors (NRs) was provided by the cation cetyl pyridinium (IC50 25 μM) and the neutral digitonin (IC50 37 μM). A 2 h incubation of rat brain membranes at 24°C with 100 μM of the neutral Triton X-100 resulted in about 50% reversible inhibition (without inactivation). Reversible inhibition was also effected by the anion deoxycholate (IC50 700 μM), and by the zwitterions N-lauryl sulfobetaine (12-SB(±), 400 μM) and CHAPS (1.5 mM), with inactivation at higher concentrations. Keeping the NR cation channel in the closed state significantly protected against inactivation by cations and by 12-SB(±), but not by the other detergents. Inactivation depended differentially on the amount of the membranes, on the duration of the treatment, and on the temperature. Varying the amount of membranes by a factor 8 yielded for cetyl trimethylammonium (16-NMe3(+)) IC50s of inactivation from 10 to 80 μM, while for deoxycholate the IC50 of inactivation was 1.2 mM for all tissue quantities. Some compounds inactivated within a few min (16-NMe3(+), digitonin, CHAPS), while inactivation by others took at least half an hour (Triton X-100, deoxycholate, 12-SB(±)). These last 3 ones also exhibited the steepest temperature dependence. Knowledge about the influence of various parameters is helpful in selecting appropriate conditions allowing the treatment of brain membranes with amphiphiles without risking irreversible inactivation.

  11. Flunitrazepam: an evaluation of use, abuse and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Ahlner, J

    2001-11-01

    The benzodiazepine flunitrazepam is extensively prescribed to patients with insomnia in many countries, but has also become popular among alcohol- and drug abusers. Several reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. Furthermore, flunitrazepam is involved in many fatal intoxications in Sweden. This study was designed and conducted to explore the negative consequences of flunitrazepam abuse in Sweden, and to assess the trends in its use and abuse. The occurrence of flunitrazepam in cases referred to the Department of Forensic Chemistry in Linköping, Sweden 1992-1998, was investigated in detail. The detections were studied separately for different groups; medicolegal death investigations, drug abuse cases, driving under influence cases, and other medicolegal cases. These data were further compared with the sales, and seizures by the Swedish Customs and the Swedish Police. During 1992-1998, 641 fatalities occurred, where the cause of death was attributed to intoxication with flunitrazepam solely (130) or in combination with other drugs, or concomitant conditions (511). In 78% of all driving under influence cases, where flunitrazepam was detected, the analyses also disclosed the presence of illicit drugs. A similar association was seen in drug abuse cases. The seizures reported by the Swedish Customs revealed a substantial and increasing illegal trade. Cases, where flunitrazepam seemingly induced violent behavior were identified, and one of these is described in some detail. It is concluded that the abuse pattern and the toxicity of flunitrazepam should be kept in mind by forensic investigators and that this panorama also should be considered when decisions about the registration and classification of flunitrazepam are made in different countries. PMID:11672967

  12. Isolation and identification in bovine cerebral cortex of n-butyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, a potent benzodiazepine binding inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Peña, C; Medina, J H; Novas, M L; Paladini, A C; De Robertis, E

    1986-07-01

    A substance having benzodiazepine-binding inhibitory activity has been extracted from 18 kg of gray matter of bovine cerebral cortex and purified to homogeneity. This substance inhibits competitively [3H]flunitrazepam and ethyl beta-[3H]carboline-3-carboxylate binding with high affinity (Ki, 3 nM), but it is inactive upon 3H-labeled Ro 5-4864, [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate, [3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol, and upon high-affinity [3H]muscimol binding. This inhibitor has been identified as n-butyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCB) by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (Mr, 268) and electron bombardment fragmentography, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra, coelution in HPLC with standard beta-CCB, and by the exact correspondence in Ki with beta-CCB on the displacement of [3H]flunitrazepam binding. The possible artificial formation of beta-CCB has been discarded by a series of control experiments including addition of tryptophan to the starting homogenate, extraction from liver, isolation and purification by an alternative procedure avoiding organic solvents, and by the impossibility of making beta-CCB from beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid or its methyl ester in the conditions of our extraction and purification procedures.

  13. Isolation and identification in bovine cerebral cortex of n-butyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, a potent benzodiazepine binding inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, C; Medina, J H; Novas, M L; Paladini, A C; De Robertis, E

    1986-01-01

    A substance having benzodiazepine-binding inhibitory activity has been extracted from 18 kg of gray matter of bovine cerebral cortex and purified to homogeneity. This substance inhibits competitively [3H]flunitrazepam and ethyl beta-[3H]carboline-3-carboxylate binding with high affinity (Ki, 3 nM), but it is inactive upon 3H-labeled Ro 5-4864, [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate, [3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol, and upon high-affinity [3H]muscimol binding. This inhibitor has been identified as n-butyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCB) by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (Mr, 268) and electron bombardment fragmentography, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra, coelution in HPLC with standard beta-CCB, and by the exact correspondence in Ki with beta-CCB on the displacement of [3H]flunitrazepam binding. The possible artificial formation of beta-CCB has been discarded by a series of control experiments including addition of tryptophan to the starting homogenate, extraction from liver, isolation and purification by an alternative procedure avoiding organic solvents, and by the impossibility of making beta-CCB from beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid or its methyl ester in the conditions of our extraction and purification procedures. PMID:3014522

  14. Irreversible blockade of the high and low affinity ( sup 3 H) naloxone binding sites by C-6 derivatives of morphinane-6-ones

    SciTech Connect

    Krizsan, D. ); Varga, E.; Benyhe, S.; Szucs, M.; Borsodi, A. ); Hosztafi, S. )

    1991-01-01

    C-6 derivatives-hydrazones, phenylhydrazones, dinitrophenylhydrazones, oximes and semicarbazones - of morphinane-6-ones were synthesized and their binding characteristics were studied on rat brain membranes. The dihydromorphinone and oxymorphone derivatives compete for the ({sup 3}H)naloxone binding sites with high affinity, while the dihydrocodeinone and oxycodone derivatives are less potent. The affinity of the new compounds is decreased for the delta sites as compared to the parent ligands. The ligands bearing bulky substituents also bind with low affinity to the kappa sites. The modification decreased the Na{sup +}-index of compounds indicating their mixed agonist-antagonist character. The dihydromorphinone derivatives are all capable to block irreversibly the high affinity binding site of ({sup 3}H)naloxone, whereas the dihydrocodeinone derivatives block irreversibly the low affinity site. A possible mechanism for the inhibition is suggested.

  15. Effect of aspartame on N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive L-[3H]glutamate binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes.

    PubMed

    Pan-Hou, H; Suda, Y; Ohe, Y; Sumi, M; Yoshioka, M

    1990-06-18

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester), an artificial low-calorie sweetener, was shown to dose-dependently inhibit L-[3H]glutamate binding to its N-methyl-D-aspartate-specific receptors. L-Aspartic acid, a major endogenous metabolite of aspartame, inhibited the binding more stronger than aspartame, while the other metabolites, L-phenylalanine and methanol, had no effect at the same concentration. Aspartame caused a significant change in the affinities of L-[3H]glutamate binding without altering the Vmax values of the binding, suggesting the inhibition is competitive. These in vitro findings suggested that aspartame may act directly on the N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate recognition sites in the brain synaptic membranes.

  16. Covalent labeling of opioid receptors with /sup 3/H-D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin chloromethyl ketone I. Binding characteristics in rate brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Szuecs, M.; Belcheva, M.; Simon, J.; Benyhe, S.; Toth, G.; Hepp, J.; Wollemann, M.; Medzihradszky, K.

    1987-07-13

    The chloromethyl ketone derivative of D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin was synthesized in a radioactive form, and the resulting compound (/sup 3/H-DALECK) was used to label opioid receptors. /sup 3/H-DALECK binds with high affinity, specificity and saturability to rat brain membranes. The number of sites labeled is 130 fmoles/mg protein. Unlabeled opioids inhibited the binding of /sup 3/H-DALECK; etorphine and DAGO being most potent. A 10-fold preference for mu sites over delta was seen in site-specific competition experiments; while DALECK displayed low affinity for kappa sites of rat brain DALECK irreversibly blocked a certain population of sites. Approximately 40% of /sup 3/H-DALECK binding at 15 min, and 60% at 60 min association time did not dissociate in the presence of a large excess of unlabeled DALECK and was resistant to washing. Autoradiography performed after SDS-PAGE revealed specific alkylation of proteins with molecular weights of 74, 65, 56, 43 and 34 kD. These results demonstrate the applicability of using /sup 3/H-DALECK to covalently label opioid receptors. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  17. Mutation of the conserved polyadenosine RNA binding protein, ZC3H14/dNab2, impairs neural function in Drosophila and humans

    PubMed Central

    Pak, ChangHui; Garshasbi, Masoud; Kahrizi, Kimia; Gross, Christina; Apponi, Luciano H.; Noto, John J.; Kelly, Seth M.; Leung, Sara W.; Tzschach, Andreas; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Mohseni, Marzieh; Jensen, Lars R.; Hu, Hao; Huang, Brenda; Stahley, Sara N.; Liu, Guanglu; Williams, Kathryn R.; Burdick, Sharon; Feng, Yue; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Bassell, Gary J.; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Najmabadi, Hossein; Corbett, Anita H.; Moberg, Kenneth H.; Kuss, Andreas W.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report a human intellectual disability disease locus on chromosome 14q31.3 corresponding to mutation of the ZC3H14 gene that encodes a conserved polyadenosine RNA binding protein. We identify ZC3H14 mRNA transcripts in the human central nervous system, and we find that rodent ZC3H14 protein is expressed in hippocampal neurons and colocalizes with poly(A) RNA in neuronal cell bodies. A Drosophila melanogaster model of this disease created by mutation of the gene encoding the ZC3H14 ortholog dNab2, which also binds polyadenosine RNA, reveals that dNab2 is essential for development and required in neurons for normal locomotion and flight. Biochemical and genetic data indicate that dNab2 restricts bulk poly(A) tail length in vivo, suggesting that this function may underlie its role in development and disease. These studies reveal a conserved requirement for ZC3H14/dNab2 in the metazoan nervous system and identify a poly(A) RNA binding protein associated with a human brain disorder. PMID:21734151

  18. Histamine H(2) -like receptors in chick cerebral cortex: effects on cyclic AMP synthesis and characterization by [(3) H]tiotidine binding.

    PubMed

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Woldan-Tambor, Agata; Nowak, Jerzy Z

    2002-06-01

    In this study, histamine (HA) receptors in chick cerebral cortex were characterized using two approaches: (1) analysis of the effects of HA-ergic drugs on the cAMP-generating system, and (2) radioreceptor binding of [(3) H]tiotidine, a selective H(2) antagonist. HA was a weak activator of adenylyl cyclase in a crude membrane preparation of chick cerebrum. On the other hand, HA (0.1-1000 microm) potently and concentration dependently stimulated cAMP production in [(3) H]adenine pre-labelled slices of chick cerebral cortex, displaying an EC(50) value (concentration that produces 50% of maximum response) of 2.65 microm. The effect of HA was mimicked by agonists of HA receptors with the following rank order of potency: HA >or= 4-methylHA (H(2)) >or= N alpha,N alpha-dimethylHA (H(3) > H(2) = H(1)) > 2-methylHA (H(1)) > 2-thiazolylethylamine (H(1)) >or= R alpha-methylHA (H(3)) > amthamine, dimaprit (H(2)), immepip (H(3), H(4)). The HA-evoked increase in cAMP production in chick cerebral cortex was antagonized by selective H(2) receptor blockers (aminopotentidine >or= tiotidine > ranitidine > zolantidine), and not significantly affected by mepyramine and thioperamide, selective H(1) and H(3) /H(4) receptor blockers, respectively. A detailed analysis of the antagonistic action of aminopotentidine (vs. HA) revealed a non-competitive mode of action. The binding of [(3) H]tiotidine to chick cortical membranes was rapid, stable and reversible. Saturation analysis resulted in a linear Scatchard plot, suggesting binding to a single class of receptor binding site with high affinity [equilibrium dissociation constant (K (d)) = 4.42 nm] and high capacity [maximum number of binding sites (B (max) ) = 362 fmol/mg protein]. The relative rank order of HA-ergic drugs to inhibit [(3) H]tiotidine binding to chick cerebrum was: antagonists - tiotidine > aminopotentidine = ranitidine >or= zolantadine > thioperamide - triprolidine; agonists - HA >or= 4-methylHA > 2-methylHA >or=R alpha

  19. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    SciTech Connect

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom )

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  20. Characterization of rat brain opioid receptors by (Tyr-3,5-/sup 3/H)1, D-Ala2, Leu5-enkephalin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Toth, G.; Kevei, J.; Szuecs, M.B.; Borsodi, A.; Di Gleria, K.; Szecsi, J.; Sueli-Vargha, H.M.; Medzihradszky, K.

    1985-05-01

    (Tyr-3,5-/sup 3/H)1, D-Ala2, Leu5-enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DALA) was used for labeling the opioid receptors of rat brain plasma membranes. The labeled ligand was prepared from (Tyr-3,5-diiodo)1, D-Ala2, Leu5-enkephalin by catalytic reductive dehalogenation in the presence of Pd catalyst. The resulting (Tyr-3,5-/sup 3/H)1, D-Ala2, Leu5-enkephalin had a specific activity of 37.3 Ci/mmol. In the binding experiments steady-state level was reached at 24 degrees C within 45 min. The pseudo first order association rate constant was 0.1 min-1. The dissociation of the receptor-ligand complex was biphasic with k-1-s of 0.009 and 0.025 min-1. The existence of two binding sites was proved by equilibrium studies. The high affinity site showed a KD = 0.7 nM and Bmax = 60 fmol/mg protein; the low affinity site had a KD = 5 nM and Bmax = 160 fmol/mg protein. A series of opioid peptides inhibited (/sup 3/H)DALA binding more efficiently than morphine-like drugs suggesting that labeled ligand binds preferentially to the delta subtype of opioid receptors. Modification of the original peptides either at the C or N terminal ends of the molecules resulted in a decrease in their affinity.

  1. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding in platelets from healthy subjects as studied by [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]-LSD): intra- and interindividual variability.

    PubMed

    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-04-01

    In studies on platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, there has been a marked variability and a considerable overlap of values between patients and controls. The causes of the large variability in 5-HT2A receptor parameters is still unsettled. In the present study, we have quantified the intra- and interindividual variability of platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in 112 healthy subjects and explored factors that may influence 5-HT2A receptor binding, using [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide as radioligand. Age, gender, blood pressure, and metabolic capacity of the liver enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 did not influence Bmax and Kd values. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a negative correlation with Kd (p = .04 and .03, respectively), but not with Bmax. Bmax was significantly lower in the light half of the year than in the dark half of the year (p = .001), and Kd was significantly lower in the fall than in the summer and winter (p < .001). In females, there was a significant increase in Bmax from week 1 to week 2 of the menstrual cycle (p = .03). Females taking contraceptive pills had significantly higher Kd than drug-free females in weeks 1 and 4 of the menstrual cycle (p = .04). This study shows that a number of factors should be taken into account when using platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. (/sup 3/H)AVP binding to rat renal tubular receptors during long-term treatment with an antagonist of arginine vasopressin

    SciTech Connect

    Mah, S.C.; Whitebread, S.E.; De Gasparo, M.; Hofbauer, K.G.

    1988-05-01

    The interaction of an antagonist of arginine vasopressin (AVP), d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP, with renal tubular V2 receptors were studied in medullary membrane preparations from kidneys of Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro rats. In both rat strains, V2 receptors had comparable KD and Bmax values for binding of (3H)AVP. In vitro studies revealed that the V2-antagonist was more potent than cold AVP in displacing (3H)AVP. In vivo treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with the antagonist over one week resulted only in a transient state of diabetes insipidus (DI). No specific (3H)AVP binding was detectable throughout the period of administration. Chronic treatment of Brattleboro rats resulted in a complete normalization of water intake. This agonistic effect was also associated with undetectable (3H)AVP binding. After stopping the infusion of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP, Bmax values tended to rise but had still not reached base line values after 6 days. In contrast, the chronic infusion of AVP in Brattleboro rats resulted in a reduction in water intake which was accompanied by a decreased Bmax. (3H)AVP binding remained detectable during the entire treatment period. Thereafter Bmax was restored to base line values within 2 days of stopping the infusion. These results suggest that d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP has a high affinity for V2 receptors in both Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro rats. Its rate of dissociation from the receptor appears to be much slower than that of AVP. In Brattleboro rats, the binding of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP leads to an antidiuretic response. In Sprague-Dawley rats, a transient diuretic response is followed by a progressive normalization in water intake. This occurs despite persistent and complete blockade of renal medullary V2 receptors.

  3. Binding of L-(/sup 3/H)nicotine to a single class of high affinity sites in rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lippiello, P.M.; Fernandes, K.G.

    1986-05-01

    The binding of optically pure L-(/sup 3/H)nicotine to rat brain membrane preparations was studied using a rapid filtration method. The binding properties observed depended on the method used for tissue isolation. The most consistent results were obtained with membranes prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors, without divalent cations. Binding was saturable, reversible, and stereospecific. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of high affinity sites with an average KD of 2 nM and a Bmax of approximately 200 fmol/mg of protein. The Hill coefficient was near unity. The KD calculated from the kinetic rate constants for association (k1 = 0.012 min-1 nM-1) and dissociation (k-1 = 0.04 min-1) was around 3 nM, in good agreement with the dissociation constant determined from equilibrium binding. In competition studies, cholinergic agonists were generally the most effective in inhibiting L-(/sup 3/H)nicotine binding, whereas antagonists were relatively ineffective. The D-isomer of nicotine was about 60-fold less potent than the L-isomer in inhibiting binding. The results were unaffected by temperature, with the exception that Bmax was somewhat lower at 37 degrees. The equilibrium binding properties of these sites were essentially identical in adult male and female brain. However, Bmax was lower in fetal brain tissue. The present findings are consistent with the idea that there is a single class of high affinity nicotinic binding sites in rat brain with cholinoceptive properties.

  4. Inhibition of /sup 22/Na influx by tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine in bovine adrenal medullary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arita, M.; Wada, A.; Takara, H.; Izumi, F.

    1987-10-01

    In bovine adrenal medullary cells we investigated the effects of antidepressants on ionic channels and secretion of catecholamines. Tricyclic (imipramine, amitriptyline and nortriptyline) and tetracyclic (maprotiline and mianserin) antidepressants inhibited carbachol-induced influx of /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca and secretion of catecholamines (IC50, 14-96 microM). Influx of /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca and secretion of catecholamines due to veratridine also were inhibited by these drugs (IC50, 10-17 microM). However, antidepressants did not suppress high concentration of K-induced 45Ca influx and catecholamine secretion, suggesting that antidepressants do not inhibit voltage-dependent Ca channels. (/sup 3/H)Imipramine bound specifically to adrenal medullary cells. Binding was saturable, reversible and with two different equilibrium dissociation constants (13.3 and 165.0 microM). Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants competed for the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine at the same concentrations as they inhibited /sup 22/Na influx caused by carbachol or veratridine. Carbachol, d-tubocurarine, hexamethonium, tetrodotoxin, veratridine and scorpion venom did not inhibit the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)imipramine. These results suggest that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants bind to two populations of binding sites which are functionally associated with nicotinic receptor-associated ionic channels and with voltage-dependent Na channels, and inhibit Na influx. Inhibition of Na influx leads to the reduction of Ca influx and catecholamine secretion caused by carbachol or veratridine.

  5. Methods in laboratory investigation. Autoradiographic demonstration of the specific binding and nuclear localization of 3H-dexamethasone in adult mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Beer, D G; Cunha, G R; Malkinson, A M

    1983-12-01

    This report describes the first autoradiographic demonstration of specific nuclear localization of 3H-dexamethasone in different cell types of the lung. Adult mouse lung tissue was incubated in vitro for 90 minutes with 17 nM 3H-dexamethasone in the presence or absence of various nonradioactive steroids. After extensive washing to remove any nonspecifically bound ligand, the specimens were processed for autoradiography using the thaw-mount method. In the absence of competing steroids, silver grains were localized in the nuclei of alveolar type II cells, bronchiolar and arteriolar smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells of the pulmonary vasculature. No significant nuclear concentration of label was observed in the bronchiolar epithelium, however. The specificity of 3H-dexamethasone labeling was demonstrated by incubating 17 nM 3H-dexamethasone with a 600-fold excess of either unlabeled dexamethasone, estrogen, dihydrotestosterone, or progesterone. These autoradiographic binding and steroid competition studies were confirmed by quantifying with liquid scintillation counting the specific 3H-dexamethasone binding in nuclear and cytosolic fractions prepared from lung tissues that had undergone identical incubation and washing procedures as those for autoradiography. These results demonstrate that many cell types in adult lung are targets for glucocorticoids and may respond to physiologic concentrations of this hormone.

  6. Marked differences in immunocytological localization of ( sup 3 H)estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar tumor cells compared to normal acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudoin, A.R.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Pettengill, O.; Longnecker, D.S.; Grossman, A. )

    1991-03-01

    ({sup 3}H)Estradiol can bind to a specific protein in normal rat pancreatic acinar cells. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical analysis has shown this protein to be localized primarily in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Rat exocrine pancreatic tumor cell lines, whether grown in tissue culture (AR42J) or as a tumor mass after sc injection into rats (DSL-2), lacked detectable amounts of this ({sup 3}H)estradiol-binding protein (EBP), as determined by the dextran-coated charcoal assay. Furthermore, primary exocrine pancreatic neoplasms induced with the carcinogen azaserine contained little or no detectable ({sup 3}H)estradiol-binding activity. However, electron immunocytochemical studies of transformed cells indicated the presence of material that cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against the ({sup 3}H)EBP. The immunopositive reaction in transformed cells was localized almost exclusively in lipid granules. Such lipid organelles in normal acinar cells, although present less frequently than in transformed cells, have never been observed to contain EBP-like immunopositive material. Presumably, the aberrant localization of EBP in these acinar tumor cells results in loss of function of this protein, which in normal pancreatic acinar cells appears to exert a modulating influence on zymogen granule formation and the process of secretion.

  7. Potent radiolabeled human renin inhibitor, (/sup 3/H)SR42128: enzymatic, kinetic, and binding studies to renin and other aspartic proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Cumin, F.; Nisato, D.; Gagnol, J.P.; Corvol, P.

    1987-12-01

    The in vitro binding of (/sup 3/H)SR42128 (Iva-Phe-Nle-Sta-Ala-Sta-Arg), a potent inhibitor of human renin activity, to purified human renin and a number of other aspartic proteases was examined. SR42128 was found to be a competitive inhibitor of human renin, with a K/sub i/ of 0.35 nM at pH 5.7 and 2.0 nM at pH 7.4; it was thus more effective at pH 5.7 than at pH 7.4. Scatchard analysis of the interaction binding of (/sup 3/H)SR42128 to human renin indicated that binding was reversible and saturable at both pH 5.7 and pH 7.4. There was a single class of binding sites, and the K/sub D/ was 0.9 nM at pH 5.7 and 1 nM at pH 7.4. The association rate was 10 times more rapid at pH 5.7 than at pH 7.4, but there was no difference between the rates of dissociation of the enzyme-inhibitor complex at the two pHs. The effect of pH on the binding of (/sup 3/H)SR42128 to human renin, cathepsin D, pepsin, and gastricsin was also examined over the pH range 3-8. All the aspartic proteases had a high affinity for the inhibitor at low pH. However, at pH 7.4, (/sup 3/H)SR42128 was bound only to human renin and to none of the other aspartic proteases. Competitive binding studies with (/sup 3/H)SR42128 and a number of other inhibitors on human renin or cathepsin D were used to examine the relationships between structure and activity in these systems. The study as a whole indicates that pH plays a major role in the binding of (/sup 3/H)SR42128 to aspartic proteases and that the nature of the inhibitor residue reacting with the renin S/sub 2/ subsites is of critical importance for the specificity of the renin-inhibitor interaction.

  8. High-affinity binding of [3H]estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle.

    PubMed

    Ho, S M; Fehrer, S; Yu, M; Liang, L C; Press, D

    1988-06-01

    Specific [3H]estradiol-17 beta ([3H]E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds [3H]E2 with high affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of [3H]E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between [3H]E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species. PMID:3417113

  9. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.M.; Fehrer, S.; Yu, M.; Liang, L.C.; Press, D.

    1988-06-01

    Specific (3H)estradiol-17 beta ((3H)E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds (3H)E2 with high affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of (3H)E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between (3H)E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species.

  10. Increase in ( sup 3 H)PN 200-110 binding to cardiac muscle membrane in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Y.; Kashiwagi, A.; Ogawa, T.; Asahina, T.; Ikebuchi, M.; Kodama, M.; Shigeta, Y. )

    1990-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in cardiac left ventricular muscle membranes isolated from nondiabetic control and diabetic rats were measured with (3H)PN 200-110, a dihydropyridine derivative, as a ligand. The binding site (Bmax) of (3H)PN 200-110 in cardiac membranes isolated from streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats (128 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein) significantly (P less than 0.01) increased by 64% compared with that of control rats (78 +/- 4 fmol/mg protein) 10 wk after STZ administration without a significant change in Kd. However, the significant increase in Bmax of (3H)PN 200-110 binding in diabetic rats depended on the duration of diabetes such that the increase was not found until 6 wk after STZ injection. An 8-wk intensive insulin treatment, which was initiated 2 wk after STZ injection, normalized the increase in (3H)PN 200-110 binding in STZ-D rats to control levels (85 +/- 4 fmol/mg protein). Furthermore, (3H)PN 200-110 binding to control cardiac membranes was dose-dependently inhibited in the presence of verapamil, a phenylalkylamine Ca2+ antagonist, but that was not the case in cardiac membranes isolated from STZ-D rats. These results indicate that voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in cardiac muscle isolated from STZ-D rats are quantitatively and qualitatively altered, because the course of diabetes and the increase in the channels can be prevented by treatment with insulin.

  11. Xyloglucan undergoes interpolymeric transglycosylation during binding to the plant cell wall in vivo: evidence from 13C/3H dual labelling and isopycnic centrifugation in caesium trifluoroacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J E; Smith, R C; Fry, S C

    1997-01-01

    Xyloglucan from the walls of Rosa cells that had been cultured on [12C]- or [13C]-glucose formed bands in caesium trifluoroacetate with mean buoyant densities of 1.575 or 1.616 g/ml respectively. Incubation of a mixture of [13C,3H]xyloglucan and [12C,1H]xyloglucan in the presence of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity caused the mean buoyant density of the radioactive material to decrease, indicating that interpolymeric transglycosylation could be detected in vitro. We used two 13C/3H-dual-labelling protocols to look for interpolymeric transglycosylation in vivo. In protocol A, [13C]glucose-grown Rosa cells were transferred into [12C]glucose medium 6 h after a approximately 2 h pulse of l-[1-3H]arabinose (which radiolabels the xylose residues of xyloglucan). The mean buoyant density of the wall-bound [3H]xyloglucan decreased during the following 7 days in culture. This indicates that, during or after the wall-binding of newly synthesized [12C,1H]xyloglucan, it became covalently attached to previously wall-bound [13C, 3H]xyloglucan. In protocol B, [12C]glycerol- or [12C]glucose-grown Rosa cells were transferred into [13C]glucose medium, 20 or 60 min before a approximately 2 h pulse of [3H]arabinose. The buoyant density of the earliest wall-bound [3H]xyloglucan showed that it had a 12C/13C ratio of approximately 1:1. This indicates that, during (or, implausibly, before) wall-binding, the newly synthesized [13C, 3H]xyloglucan became covalently attached to previously synthesized [12C]xyloglucan. During the following 7 days in culture, the mean buoyant density of the [3H]xyloglucan increased, showing that later-synthesized [13C,1H]xyloglucan can be covalently attached to previously wall-bound [12C,13C,3H]xyloglucan. The only known mechanism by which segments of xyloglucans could become covalently attached to each other in the cell wall is by interpolymeric transglycosylation catalysed by XET. We conclude that XET-catalysed interpolymeric transglycosylation

  12. Localization and characterization of (/sup 3/H)desmethylimipramine binding sites in rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Rainbow, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    The high affinity binding sites for the antidepressant desmethlyimipramine (DMI) have been localized in rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. There are high concentrations of binding sites in the locus ceruleus, the anterior ventral thalamus, the ventral portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and the dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. The distribution of DMI binding sites is in striking accord with the distribution of norepinephrine terminals. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine, which causes a selective degeneration of catecholamine terminals, results in 60 to 90% decrease in DMI binding. These data support the idea that high affinity binding sites for DMI are located on presynaptic noradrenergic terminals.

  13. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on rat pancreatic acini by N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding. Their relationship with calcium 45 efflux and amylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Dehaye, J P; Winand, J; Poloczek, P; Christophe, J

    1984-01-10

    N-[3H]Methylscopolamine (NMS) binding, amylase secretion, and 45Ca efflux from dispersed rat pancreatic acini were investigated in parallel, in the presence or absence of 4 muscarinic agonists and 3 muscarinic antagonists. Scatchard analysis of [3H]NMS saturation isotherms gave a KD of 0.9 nM and an average binding capacity of 24,000 sites per cell. Binding competition curves with the antagonists atropine, dexetimide, and NMS gave KD values of 3.5, 3.5, and 0.5 nM, respectively. With the 3 full agonists oxotremorine, muscarine, and carbamylcholine, the receptor population could be divided into two classes of binding sites: a minor one (15%) with high affinity (KD = 20-35 nM) and a major one (85%) with low affinity (KD = 3-65 microM). There was a receptor reserve of about 50% with respect to carbamylcholine-stimulated amylase secretion. Further analysis of dose-effect curves suggests that low affinity binding sites were involved in the secretory response to muscarinic stimulation. Pilocarpine, like muscarinic antagonists, recognized all binding sites with the same affinity but acted as a partial agonist on amylase secretion and 45Ca efflux. PMID:6200472

  14. Characterization of the binding of [3H]-clobenpropit to histamine H3-receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex membranes.

    PubMed

    Harper, E A; Shankley, N P; Black, J W

    1999-10-01

    1 We have investigated the binding of a novel histamine H3-receptor antagonist radioligand, [3H]- clobenpropit ([3H]-VUF9153), to guinea-pig cerebral cortex membranes. 2 Saturation isotherms for [3H]-clobenpropit appeared biphasic. Scatchard plots were curvilinear and Hill plot slopes were significantly less than unity (0.63+/-0.03; n = 12+/-s.e.mean). The radioligand appeared to label two sites in guinea-pig cerebral cortex membranes with apparent affinities (pKD') of 10.91+/-0.12 (Bmax = 5.34+/-0.85 fmol mg(-1) original wet weight) and 9.17+/-0.16 (Bmax = 23.20+/-6.70 fmol mg(-1)). 3 In the presence of metyrapone (3 mM) or sodium chloride (100 mM), [3H]-clobenpropit appeared to label a homogeneous receptor population (Bmax=3.41+/-0.46 fmol mg-1 and 3.49+/-0.44 fmol mg(-1), pKD' = 10.59+/-0.17 and 10.77+/-0.02, respectively). Scatchard plots were linear and Hill slopes were not significantly different from unity (0.91+/-0.04 and 0.99+/-0.02, respectively). Granisetron (1 microM), rilmenidine (3 microM), idazoxan (0.3 microM), pentazocine (3 microM) and 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (0.3 microM) had no effect on the binding of [3H]-clobenpropit. 4 The specific binding of [3H]-clobenpropit appeared to reach equilibrium after 25 min at 21+/-3 degrees C and remained constant for >180 min. The estimated pKD' (10.27+/-0.27; n = 3+/-s.e.mean) was not significantly different from that estimated by saturation analysis in the presence of metyrapone. 5 A series of histamine H3-receptor ligands expressed affinity values for sites labelled with [3H]-clobenpropit which were not significantly different from those estimated when [3H]-R-alpha-MH was used to label histamine H3-receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex membranes.

  15. Enhanced striatial /sup 3/H-spiroperidol binding induced by chronic haloperidol treatment inhibited by peptides administered during the withdrawal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, H.N.

    1984-02-27

    Chronic intragastric administration of haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 21 days followed by a 3-day withdrawal period resulted in the development of enhanced locomotor activity response to apomorphine, and an increase in the number of binding sites for /sup 3/H-spiroperidol in the striatal membranes of the rat brain. Subcutaneous administration of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH/sub 2/ or cyclo-(Leu-Gly) in doses of 2 mg/kg/day given for 3-days after termination of haloperidol treatment inhibited the enhanced response to apomorphine, as well as the increases in the number of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol binding sites in the striatum. If indeed, the supersensitivity of striatal dopamine receptors is one of the mechanisms in the development of tardive dyskinesia symptoms, the present results suggest that the above peptides may be helpful in ameliorating some of the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia induced by neuroleptic drugs. 31 references, 3 figures.

  16. Human platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors: binding of [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Effects of chronic neuroleptic and antidepressant drug administration.

    PubMed

    Grahame-Smith, D G; Geaney, D P; Schachter, M; Elliott, J M

    1988-02-15

    Chronic treatment with phenothiazines and thioxanthenes has been found to enhance 5-HT-induced aggregation of human platelets. A method has been developed to study 5-HT2 receptor binding sites on platelets utilising [3H]-LSD and more recently 125I/LSD. Results are presented which suggest that the LSD binding site is indeed the 5-HT2 binding site and that the LSD binding characterises the specific receptor responsible for 5-HT-induced shape change and aggregation. In a group of patients receiving phenothiazines or thioxanthenes, the Bmax of LSD binding was increased. The mean binding affinity was decreased possibly due to a persistence of neuroleptic in the platelet membrane preparation. Analysis showed that this was not the reason why the mean binding capacity was increased. The results show that chronic phenothiazine and thioxanthene delta treatment 'up-regulates' platelet 5-HT2 binding sites and that this may be accompanied by increased sensitivity to platelet aggregation by 5-HT. In normal subjects desipramine treatment increased the Bmax of platelet LSD binding and this was accompanied by an increased prolactin response to tryptophan which is thought to be mediated by central 5-HT function.

  17. Changes in the affinity of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding sites in the brain upon chlorpromazine treatment and subsequent withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, V.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    Male mice were chronically treated with chlorpromazine mixed in powdered diet, and the properties of brain calcium channels were assessed using (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding. It was found that this treatment resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of calcium channels, without a significant change in their density. These effects of chlorpromazine were time dependent. When mice were administered chlorpromazine for 2 months, then the drug was withdrawn, there was a rebound decrease in the channel affinity.

  18. In vivo treatment with mu and delta, but not kappa-selective opioid agonists reduces [3H]spiperone binding to the guinea-pig striatum: autoradiographic evidence.

    PubMed

    Brent, P J; Bunn, S J

    1994-08-22

    In guinea-pigs, acute treatment with mu and delta receptor opioid agonists induces sedation and immobility [1,5], and attenuates the behavioural activation produced by the dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole [5]. In contrast, kappa-selective opioid agonists induce dystonic-like movements [4,5,8]. This has led us to investigate the possibility of an interaction between acute opioid treatment and the dopamine D2 system. The effect of acute treatment with mu, delta and kappa opioid agonists on [3H]spiperone binding sites (dopamine D2) in guinea-pig brain was studied using receptor autoradiography. The mu preferring agonist morphine (15 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC) given for 2 h, and the delta receptor selective agonist DPDPE (Tyr-D-Pen-Gly-Phe-D-Pen) (20 nM, intracerebroventricularly, ICV) given for 0.5 h, both decreased the density of specific (butaclamol displaceable) [3H]spiperone binding in the caudate putamen by 23.8 +/- 1.7% and 24.2 +/- 2.7% respectively, and in nucleus accumbens by 26.1 +/- 2.7% and 21.9 +/- 4.6% respectively compared to saline treated animals. There were no significant changes in the level of [3H]spiperone binding to other brain regions examined including frontal cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, amygdala, hypothalamic nuclei and cerebellum. In other experiments, incubation of coronal slices from various brain regions with [3H]spiperone, in the presence of a high concentration of morphine (20 microM) or DPDPE (10 microM) did not affect the level of binding, thus precluding effects due to residual tissue levels of drugs after in vivo treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)LY186126, an analogue of indolidan (LY195115), to cardiac membranes enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.F.; Utterback, B.G.; Robertson, D.W.

    1989-05-01

    LY186126 was found to be a potent inhibitor of type IV cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of canine cardiac muscle. This compound, a close structural analogue of indolidan (LY195115), was prepared in high specific activity, tritiated form to study the positive inotropic receptor(s) for cardiotonic phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as indolidan and milrinone. A high-affinity binding site for (/sup 3/H)LY186126 was observed (Kd = 4 nM) in purified preparations of canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Binding was proportional to vesicle protein, was inactivated by subjecting membranes to proteolysis or boiling, and was dependent on added Mg2+. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a single class of binding sites in the membrane preparation. Indolidan, milrinone, and LY186126 (all at 1 microM) produced essentially complete displacement of bound (/sup 3/H)LY186126, while nifedipine, propranolol, and prazosin had little or no effect at this concentration. This represents the first reported use of a radioactive analogue to label the inotropic receptor for cardiotonic phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The results suggest that (/sup 3/H)LY186126 is a useful radioligand for examining the subcellular site(s) responsible for positive inotropic effects of these drugs.

  20. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  1. (/sup 3/H)Ethylketocyclazocine binding to mouse brain membranes: evidence for a kappa opioid receptor type

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Lee, N.M.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of the putative kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) to synaptosomal membranes of mouse brain was studied. This benzomorphan was able to bind to different opioid receptors. A portion of this binding was not inhibited by the agonist naloxone, even at high concentrations (10 microM). This population of receptors, to which opioate alkaloids and opiod peptides display very low affinity, is probably the sigma receptor. Another class of binding sites was identified by the simultaneous addition of the selective agonists Sandoz FK-33824 and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin, which blocked the access of EKC to mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively, leaving a portion of naloxone-displaceable benzomorphan binding still detectable. Analysis of this remaining binding revealed a small population of receptors of high affinity, the kappa receptor. Therefore, EKC binds to the mu, delta, kappa and sigma receptors in the mouse brain, with similar affinities for the mu and kappa (0.22 and 0.15 nM). These results confirm the existence of a kappa opioid receptor type in the mouse brain.

  2. [3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1

    SciTech Connect

    Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome

    2002-06-14

    Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a factor from rat liver which inhibits /sup 3/H-nicotine binding to brain nicotine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Noggle, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    In studies of /sup 3/H-nicotine binding sites in rat brain membranes, it was observed that crude rat liver homogenates are capable of inhibiting this binding. The purpose of this work was to isolate from the liver homogenate the factor (or factors) responsible for this nicotinelike activity and to identify it. Isolation procedures, including heat denaturation, ultrafiltration, and reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, resulted in an incompletely purified substance whose chemical properties were compatible with those of dimethylaminoethyl (DMAE) carbamate, as reflected in infrared, ultraviolet, NMR, and mass spectra; in HPLC elution characteristics into mobile phases; and in IC/sub 50/'s with respect to /sup 3/H-nicotine binding to neural membranes, although additional purification and characterization will be necessary to confirm or reject this identification. This compound has not previously been described in mammalian tissue, although its two component functional moieties, dimethylaminoethanol and carbamic acid, are present in the liver. The binding properties of DMAE carbamate are compared with those of structurally and pharmacological related compounds to assess its potential as an endogenous cholinergic ligand.

  4. Binding of /sup 3/H-diazepam with brain synaptic membranes during the development of generalized epileptic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Borydukov, M.M.; Bogdanova, E.D.; Kryzhanovskii, G.N.; Nikushin, E.V.; Prilipko, L.L.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the effect of the development of generalized epileptic activity in the rat cerebral cortex on binding of tritium-diazepam with synaptic membranes. The experiments showed that dependence of the quantity of tritium-diazepam bound with synaptic membranes on the concentration of label in the incubation medium is linear in character on a Scatchard plot. This is evidence of the existence of only one type of binding site withK /SUB d/ = 4.40 plus or minus 0.15 nM and B /SUB max/ = 410 plus or minus 35 fm fmoles/mg protein.

  5. Anorectic activities of serotonin uptake inhibitors: correlation with their potencies at inhibiting serotonin uptake in vivo and /sup 3/H-mazindol binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, I.; Taranger, M.A.; Claustre, Y.; Scatton, B.; Langer, S.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of anorectic action of several serotonin uptake inhibitors was investigated by comparing their anorectic potencies with several biochemical and pharmacological properties and in reference to the novel compound SL 81.0385. The anorectic effect of the potent serotonin uptake inhibitor SL 81.0385 was potentiated by pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan and blocked by the serotonin receptor antagonist metergoline. A good correlation was obtained between the ED/sub 50/ values of anorectic action and the ED/sub 50/ values of serotonin uptake inhibition in vivo (but not in vitro) for several specific serotonin uptake inhibitors. Most of the drugs tested displaced (/sup 3/H)-mazindol from its binding to the anorectic recognition site in the hypothalamus, except the pro-drug zimelidine which was inactive. Excluding zimelidine, a good correlation was obtained between the affinities of these drugs for (/sup 3/H)-mazindol binding and their anorectic action indicating that their anorectic activity may be associated with an effect mediated through this site. Taken together these results suggest that the anorectic action of serotonin uptake inhibitors is directly associated to their ability to inhibit serotonin uptake and thus increasing the synaptic levels of serotonin. The interactions of these drugs with the anorectic recognition site labelled with (/sup 3/H)-mazindol is discussed in connection with the serotonergic regulation of carbohydrate intake.

  6. [Racemation of the benzodiazepines camazepam and ketazolam and receptor binding of enantiomers].

    PubMed

    Blaschke, G; Kley, H; Müller, W E

    1986-06-01

    The chiral benzodiazepines camazepam (1) and ketazolam (2) were resolved into the enantiomers by chromatography on the optically active adsorbent poly[(S)-N-(1-cyclohexylethyl)-methacrylamide] and fractional crystallisation or repeated chromatography, respectively. The IC50 values of the isomers and of the racemates of both compounds were determined by displacement of radioactively labelled 3H-flunitrazepam and 3H-propyl-beta-carboline-carboxylate from their specific binding sites. (+)-Camazepam exhibits 14fold higher affinity compared to the (-)-enantiomer. In contrast only slight differences in the receptor affinity are observed with the ketazolam enantiomers.

  7. Specific (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 binding in human cortex occurs at multiple high affinity states with alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic selectivity and differing affinities for GTP

    SciTech Connect

    Andorn, A.C.; Carlson, M.A.; Gilkeson, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)UK 14,034 is a full agonist at ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Although the characteristics of the binding of the partial ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists in postmortem human brain were known, the binding of (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 had not been studied in this tissue. Multi-site binding of this radiolabel had been reported in other tissues and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) had been shown to reduce (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 binding. The authors now report that (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 labels at least 2 specific binding sites in human brain that both have the characteristics of an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic binding site. GTP decreases agonist binding at both of these sites, but with different potencies at each site.

  8. The binding of 3H-labelled androgen-receptor complexes to hypothalamic chromatin of neonatal mice: effect of sex and androgenization.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, J; Garcia, C; López-Bote, C; López, A; Burgos, J

    1990-03-01

    The binding of 3H-labelled androgen-receptor complexes, prepared by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation from the 105,000 g supernatant of hypothalamic cytosol, to hypothalamic chromatin of neonatal mice covalently coupled to cellulose was measured in vitro. Saturation binding was also determined after extraction of histones and the masking of acidic proteins with high molarities of guanidine hydrochloride. This investigation showed the presence of high-affinity, low-capacity acceptor sites for [3H]-testosterone-receptor complexes in male hypothalamic chromatin (Kd value = 0.39 x 10(-10) M and binding sites of 41 fmol per mg of DNA). Acceptor activity seems to be associated with the acidic protein fraction of chromatin. No specific acceptor sites of similar nature were found in chromatin taken from the hypothalami of female mice. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that the androgen-unresponsiveness of female mice is related to the absence of acceptors for the androgen-receptor in female mice hypothalami.

  9. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, calcium mobilization and (/sup 3/H), 4-dihydropyridine binding in vascular smooth muscle of rat tail artery

    SciTech Connect

    Su, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacologic characterization of post-synaptic ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptors in rat tail artery was examined by using selective agonists and antagonists. In this tissue, the ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor agonists employed all produced concentration-dependent mechanical responses with rank order of potency, clonidine > norepinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > UK > 14304 > B-HT 920. This order of agonists activities not consistent with a simple classification into ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors in the rat tail artery. Antagonism by prazosin and yohimbine of phenylephrine, norepinephrine and clonidine responses did not reveal the anticipated discrimination between ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors. Potassium depolarization-induced responses were very sensitive to antagonism by the Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists nifedipine and D 600. The sensitivity sequence of ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor agonist induced responses to nifedipine and D 600 is H-HT 920 (> clonidine) > phenylephrine > norepinephrine. This disagrees with the thesis that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor mediated responses in vascular smooth muscle are more sensitive than are ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor mediated responses to Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists. Radioligand binding studies of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine and (/sup 3/H)Bay K 8644 to microsomal preparations of tail artery membrane a single set of high affinity binding sites and there is a good correlation between the pharmacological potencies and binding affinities of these agents. In addition, study of the displacement of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine by Bay K 8644 revealed IC/sub 50/ and K/sub l/ values which are in approximate accord with those determined for pharmacologic experiments.

  10. The role of ellipticity on the preferential binding site of Ce and La in C78-D3h-A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, K.; Larsson, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Endohedral metallofullerenes that encapsulate one or several atoms, or a cluster of atoms have molecular properties making them useful both in technology and in bio-medical applications. Some fullerenes are found to have two metal atoms incarcerated and it has been recently found that two Ce atoms are incorporated into the C78-D3h (78 : 5) cage. In this study, we report calculations on the structural and electronic properties of Ce2@C78 using density functional theory (DFT). While Ce2@C80-Ih (D3d) and La2@C80-Ih (D2h) have different ground state structures, we have found that Ce2@C78 has a D3h ground state structure just as La2@C78. The encapsulated Ce atoms bind strongly to the C78-D3h cage with a binding energy (BE) of 5.925 eV but not as strong as in Ce@C82-C2v nor in Ce2@C80-Ih. The elliptical nature of the cage plays a crucial role and accommodates the two Ce atoms at opposite ends of the C3 axis with a maximized inter atomic distance (4.078 Å). This means that the effect of the additional f-electron repulsion in M2@C78 with M = Ce compared to M = La, is less pronounced than in Ce2@C80 compared to La2@C80. We compare the results to the elliptical M2@C72 (#10611) (M = La, Ce), and with a range of additional Ce and La endohedral fullerenes and explain the role ellipticity has in the preferential binding site of Ce and shed light on the formation mechanism of these nanostructures.

  11. The role of ellipticity on the preferential binding site of Ce and La in C78-D3h--a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, K; Larsson, J A

    2010-07-01

    Endohedral metallofullerenes that encapsulate one or several atoms, or a cluster of atoms have molecular properties making them useful both in technology and in bio-medical applications. Some fullerenes are found to have two metal atoms incarcerated and it has been recently found that two Ce atoms are incorporated into the C(78)-D(3h) (78 : 5) cage. In this study, we report calculations on the structural and electronic properties of Ce(2)@C(78) using density functional theory (DFT). While Ce(2)@C(80)-I(h) (D(3d)) and La(2)@C(80)-I(h) (D(2h)) have different ground state structures, we have found that Ce(2)@C(78) has a D(3h) ground state structure just as La(2)@C(78). The encapsulated Ce atoms bind strongly to the C(78)-D(3h) cage with a binding energy (BE) of 5.925 eV but not as strong as in Ce@C(82)-C(2v) nor in Ce(2)@C(80)-I(h). The elliptical nature of the cage plays a crucial role and accommodates the two Ce atoms at opposite ends of the C(3) axis with a maximized inter atomic distance (4.078 A). This means that the effect of the additional f-electron repulsion in M(2)@C(78) with M = Ce compared to M = La, is less pronounced than in Ce(2)@C(80) compared to La(2)@C(80). We compare the results to the elliptical M(2)@C(72) (#10611) (M = La, Ce), and with a range of additional Ce and La endohedral fullerenes and explain the role ellipticity has in the preferential binding site of Ce and shed light on the formation mechanism of these nanostructures.

  12. Stimulation of (/sup 3/H) spiroperidol binding after prolonged neuroleptic therapy by the cholecystokinin octapeptide analog cerulein

    SciTech Connect

    Vasar, E.E.; Allikmets, L.K.; Maimets, O.O.; Nurk, A.M.

    1985-06-01

    Evidence has recently been obtained that cholecystokinin and its analog cerulein have marked antipsychotic action on patients with schizophrenia who are resistant to neuroleptics; this is the basis for interest in this study of the effect of cerulein, a high-affinity analog of the octapeptide cholecystokinin, on binding of tritium-spiroperidol in vivo. Considering the apormorphine-like action of cerulein, this biochemical analysis was undertaken in the form of a comparative study with N-propyl-norapomorphine, a high-affinity analogy of apomorphine.

  13. Effect of desipramine treatment on /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in the blood platelets of depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1988-02-15

    Platelet imipramine binding (IB) was studied in depressed patients before and after treatment with desipramine for 17-28 days. Administration of desipramine was associated with a significant increase in Bmax. There was a trend for an increase in Kd, but it did not reach statistical significance. The net result of the changes in Bmax and Kd was an increase in IB. There were significant correlations between the change in depression ratings and pretreatment Kd, as well as the change in Kd during treatment. These results suggest that decreased IB is not a trait-dependent marker, but a state-dependent marker for depression. 46 references.

  14. Unchanged [3H]ouabain binding site content but reduced Na+-K+ pump α2-protein abundance in skeletal muscle in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Michael J; Perry, Ben D; Serpiello, Fabio R; Caldow, Marissa K; Levinger, Pazit; Cameron-Smith, David; Levinger, Itamar

    2012-11-01

    Aging is associated with reduced muscle mass, weakness, and increased fatigability. In skeletal muscle, the Na(+)-K(+) pump (NKA) is important in regulating Na(+)-K(+) gradients, membrane excitability, and thus contractility, but the effects of aging on muscle NKA are unclear. We investigated whether aging is linked with reduced muscle NKA by contrasting muscle NKA isoform gene expression and protein abundance, and NKA total content in 17 Elderly (66.8 ± 6.4 yr, mean ± SD) and 16 Young adults (23.9 ± 2.2 yr). Participants underwent peak oxygen consumption assessment and a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, which was analyzed for NKA α(1)-, α(2)-, α(3)-, β(1)-, β(2)-, and β(3)-isoform gene expression (real-time RT-PCR), protein abundance (immunoblotting), and NKA total content ([(3)H]ouabain binding sites). The Elderly had lower peak oxygen consumption (-36.7%, P = 0.000), strength (-36.3%, P = 0.001), NKA α(2)- (-24.4%, 11.9 ± 4.4 vs. 9.0 ± 2.7 arbitrary units, P = 0.049), and NKA β(3)-protein abundance (-23.0%, P = 0.041) than Young. The β(3)-mRNA was higher in Elderly compared with Young (P = 0.011). No differences were observed between groups for other NKA isoform mRNA or protein abundance, or for [(3)H]ouabain binding site content. Thus skeletal muscle in elderly individuals was characterized by decreased NKA α(2)- and β(3)-protein abundance, but unchanged α(1) abundance and [(3)H]ouabain binding. The latter was likely caused by reduced α(2) abundance with aging, preventing an otherwise higher [(3)H]ouabain binding that might occur with a greater membrane density in smaller muscle fibers. Further study is required to verify reduced muscle NKA α(2) with aging and possible contributions to impaired exercise capability and daily living activities. PMID:22936730

  15. Phospholipase A2 and 3H-hemicholinium-3 binding sites in rat brain: A potential second-messenger role for fatty acids in the regulation of high-affinity choline uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Saltarelli, M.D.; Yamada, K.; Coyle, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and fatty acid release in the regulation of sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in rat brain was assessed in vitro through the use of the specific binding of 3H-hemicholinium-3 (3H-HCh-3). Addition of arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids to rat striatal membranes in vitro resulted in a dose-dependent, temperature-independent activation of 3H-HCh-3 binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that these changes in binding result from a 2-fold increase in the affinity and capacity of 3H-HCh-3 binding. Saturated fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and phospholipids did not affect specific 3H-HCh-3 binding. Addition of defatted BSA to membranes, which had been treated previously with arachidonic acid, completely reversed the increase in specific 3H-HCh-3 binding. However, several inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism, including nordihydroguaiaretic acid, indomethacin, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, did not alter arachidonic acid-induced changes in 3H-HCh-3 binding, suggesting that unsaturated fatty acids, and not their metabolites, are directly responsible for the observed activation of specific 3H-HCh-3 binding. Additionally, unsaturated fatty acids dose-dependently inhibited high-affinity 3H-choline uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes, apparently due to the disruption of synaptosomal integrity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinacrine hydrochloride, trifluoperazine, and 4-bromophenacylbromide dose-dependently inhibited potassium depolarization-induced activation of specific 3H-HCh-3 binding in slices of rat brain in vitro. Similarly, both quinacrine and trifluoperazine inhibited the metabolism of phospholipids and the release of fatty acids evoked by either elevated KCl or calcium ionophore A23187.

  16. Comparison of [(3)H]Glyburide binding with opiate analgesia, tolerance, and dependence in ICR and Swiss-Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, V C; Dewey, W L; Welch, S P

    2000-12-01

    Our laboratory demonstrated that morphine exhibits a modulatory control over the glyburide-binding site (sulfonylurea receptor) of the ATP-gated K(+) channel. This study evaluated the effect of chronic morphine administration on the sulfonylurea receptor during tolerance and physical dependence. ICR and Swiss-Webster mice were rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation and were withdrawn by pellet removal. Alterations in the B(max) and K(D) were evaluated in mouse spinal cord using the radiolabeled ATP-gated K(+) channel blocker glyburide. The ED(50) for Swiss-Webster mice shifted from 13 to 451 mg/kg and thus they were more tolerant to morphine than ICR mice (ED(50) shift from 12 to 120 mg/kg). Swiss-Webster mice were also dependent to morphine only when the morphine pellet was in place, unlike ICR mice, which were dependent for 48 h after morphine pellet removal. Glyburide binding increased during chronic morphine treatment in Swiss-Webster mice by over 2-fold (from 294 to 635 fmol/mg of protein). This was not observed in ICR mice. In Swiss-Webster mice, chronic morphine treatment also significantly increased the K(D) by 3-fold (from 0.38 to 1.1 nM), whereas there was no change in affinity for ICR mice. Both strains of mice remained tolerant for 2 days after spontaneous withdrawal from morphine. However, the only increases in the B(max) and K(D) of glyburide were observed in Swiss-Webster mice that were highly tolerant to morphine. These results indicate that a high degree of tolerance is needed to alter ATP-gated potassium channels.

  17. Alpha adrenergic drugs inhibit ( sup 3 H)-QNB binding to muscarinic receptors of rat heart, brain and parotid gland membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Filep, J.; Zelles, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic agonists and antagonists as clonidine, guanfacine, yohimbine, phenylephrine and prazosin inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-QNB binding to rat brain cortex muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR, M-1 subtype), heart (M-2 subtype) and parotid gland homogenate (M-3 subtype) in a dose-dependent competitive fashion. Ki values were between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}3} M. Hill coefficients were about 1. No correlation was found between mAChR inhibiting capacity of these drugs and their activity on alpha adrenergic receptors. In contrast, other transmitters, as dopamine, GABA, glutamic acid, histamine, serotonin, isoproterenol and platelet activating factor (PAF) did not affect the QNB binding.

  18. The Role of Endogenous D2 Receptor Levels in Morphine Addiction: A Correlative Study of Morphine Place Conditioning and In Vivo [3H]-Raclopride Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, N.; Gatley, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has a wide array of effects on an individual’s mental state. It is vital in the regulation of motor skills and in generating the effects of substance abuse. This study examined the dopamine D2 receptors found in the striatum of the brain. The impetus for investigating this receptor lies in the perception that it plays an influential role in drug addiction. It has been conjectured on the basis of human PET studies that possession of low levels of D2 receptors will heighten an individual’s susceptibility to drug addiction. However, an alternative explanation of low D2 receptor levels in drug dependent individuals is that these levels are a consequence of drug abuse. To understand this phenomenon, the present study employed the paradigm of conditioned place preference (CPP). In CPP, individuals of an out-bred mouse strain are observed to spend time in environments where they had previously been exposed to a drug that is abused by humans. The drug chosen for our studies was morphine because it has been previously shown to generate a robust place preference in mice and is a prototypic abused drug in humans. D2 receptor levels were quantified using an in vivo binding study involving [3H]raclopride, a radioactive compound that binds to D2 receptors. The results showed a significant place preference for morphine following the conditioning procedure. Additionally, data from the binding analysis agreed with previous studies that the striatum contains high levels of D2 receptors. However, there was no consistent relationship between the extent of morphine CPP and D2 receptor levels as revealed by [3H]-RAC binding. This finding does not support the hypothesis that low levels of D2 receptors predispose a mouse to easy morphine conditioning. Further experiments are required to determine the ability to generalize our findings to other species and other drugs of abuse.

  19. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF CHOLINESTERASES AND [3H]OXOTREMORINE-M BINDING IN HEART AND BRAIN OF ADULT AND AGING RATS TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ANTICHOLINESTERASES

    PubMed Central

    Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey N.

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides elicit toxicity via acetylcholinesterase inhibition, allowing acetylcholine accumulation and excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. Some OP insecticides bind to additional macromolecules including butyrylcholinesterase and cholinergic receptors. While neurotoxicity from OP anticholinesterases has been extensively studied, effects on cardiac function have received less attention. We compared the in vitro sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and [3H]oxotremorine-M binding to muscarinic receptors in the cortex and heart of adult (3 months) and aging (18 months) rats to chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion and their active metabolites chlorpyrifos oxon and methyl paraoxon. Using selective inhibitors, the great majority of cholinesterase in brain was defined as acetylcholinesterase, while butyrylcholinesterase was the major cholinesterase in heart, regardless of age. In the heart, butyrylcholinesterase was markedly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase to inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon, and butyrylcholinesterase in tissues from aging rats was more sensitive than enzyme from adults, possibly due to differences in A-esterase mediated detoxification. Relatively similar differences were noted in brain. In contrast, acetylcholinesterase was more sensitive than butyrylcholinesterase to methyl paraoxon in both heart and brain, but no age-related differences were noted. Both oxons displaced [3H]oxotremorine-M binding in heart and brain of both age groups in a concentration-dependent manner. Chlorpyrifos had no effect but methyl parathion was a potent displacer of binding in heart and brain of both age groups. Such OP and age-related differences in interactions with cholinergic macromolecules may be important because of potential for environmental exposures to insecticides as well as the use of anticholinesterases in age-related neurological disorders. PMID:18761328

  20. Kinetic analysis of transport and opioid receptor binding of ( sup 3 H)(-)-cyclofoxy in rat brain in vivo: Implications for human studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Y.; Kawai, R.; McManaway, M.; Otsuki, H.; Rice, K.C.; Patlak, C.S.; Blasberg, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    (3H)Cyclofoxy (CF: 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6-beta-fluoromorp hinan) is an opioid antagonist with affinity to both mu and kappa subtypes that was synthesized for quantitative evaluation of opioid receptor binding in vivo. Two sets of experiments in rats were analyzed. The first involved determining the metabolite-corrected blood concentration and tissue distribution of CF in brain 1 to 60 min after i.v. bolus injection. The second involved measuring brain washout for 15 to 120 s following intracarotid artery injection of CF. A physiologically based model and a classical compartmental pharmacokinetic model were compared. The models included different assumptions for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB); estimates of nonspecific tissue binding and specific binding to a single opiate receptor site were found to be essentially the same with both models. The nonspecific binding equilibrium constant varied modestly in different brain structures (Keq = 3-9), whereas the binding potential (BP) varied over a much broader range (BP = 0.6-32). In vivo estimates of the opioid receptor dissociation constant were similar for different brain structures (KD = 2.1-5.2 nM), whereas the apparent receptor density (Bmax) varied between 1 (cerebellum) and 78 (thalamus) pmol/g of brain. The receptor dissociation rate constants in cerebrum (k4 = 0.08-0.16 min-1; koff = 0.16-0.23 min-1) and brain vascular permeability (PS = 1.3-3.4 ml/min/g) are sufficiently high to achieve equilibrium conditions within a reasonable period of time. Graphical analysis of the data is inappropriate due to the high tissue-loss rate constant for CF in brain. From these findings, CF should be a very useful opioid receptor ligand for the estimation of the receptor binding parameters in human subjects using (18F)CF and positron emission tomography.

  1. (/sup 3/H)(D-Ala2,NMePhe4,Gly-ol5)-enkephalin (mu-opioid) binding in beige-J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Raffa, R.B.; Baldy, W.J. Jr.; Shank, R.P.; Mathiasen, J.R.; Vaught, J.L.

    1988-05-01

    Tritiated (D-Ala2,NMePhe4,Gly-ol5)-enkephalin ((3H)DAGO) was used to examine mu-opioid receptor number and mu-ligand binding in brain synaptic membranes (P2 fraction) from C57BL/6J-bgJ/bgJ (beige-J) mice, a strain with combined deficiencies in immunological function (resembling Chediak-Higashi syndrome) and analgesic response to mu-opioid agonists such as morphine and DAGO. As controls, white mice, beige-J littermates (normally responsive to mu-opioid agonists), and a known mu-deficient strain (CXBK) were also examined. Neither the KD (0.47 to 0.49 nM) nor the Bmax (153 to 168 fmol/mg protein) determined for beige-J mice was significantly different from values determined for littermates or white mice. In contrast, the Bmax of CXBK mice (66 fmol/mg protein) was clearly less than that of the other strains. The analgesic defect of beige-J mice, therefore, is not likely due to an insufficient number of mu-opioid receptors, as it presumably is in CXBK mice. Carbachol (200 micrograms/ml), which partly corrects the analgesic defect of beige-J mice, had no effect on (3H)DAGO binding either acutely in vitro or chronically ex vivo after administration to beige-J mice for three weeks. Hence, the analgesic defect of beige-J mice appears to be due to some defect in the mu-opioid receptor-effector coupling mechanism or to some endogenous substance that inhibits binding of mu-opioid ligands to otherwise functional receptors.

  2. Effects of vitamin B-6 nutrition on benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding in the developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, J.P.; Guilarte, T.R. )

    1990-02-26

    A dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 promotes seizure activity in neonatal animals and human infants. Previous studied have shown that neonatal vitamin B-6 deprivation results in reduced levels of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased binding at the GABA site of the GABA/BDZ receptor complex. Since the GABA and BDZ receptors are allosterically linked, this study was undertaken to determine if vitamin B-6 deprivation had an effect on BDZ receptor binding. Benzodiazepine receptor binding isotherms using {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam as ligand were performed in the presence and absence of 10 {mu}M GABA. The results indicate a significant increase in the binding affinity (Kd) in the presence of GABA in cerebellar membranes from deficient rat pups at 14 days of age with no effect on receptor number (Bmax). By 28 days of age, the increase in Kd was no longer present. No change in Kd or Bmax was observed in cortical tissue from deficient animals at 14 or 28 days of age. Preliminary studies of GABA-enhancement of {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam binding indicate that vitamin B-6 deficiency also induces alterations in the ability of GABA to enhance BZD receptor binding. In summary, these results indicate that the effects of vitamin B-6 deprivation on BDZ receptor binding are region specific and age related.

  3. Acute stress induces an increase in rat cerebral cortex levels of n-butyl-?-carboline-3-carboxylate, an endogenous benzodiazepine binding inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Medina, J H; Peña, C; Novas, M L; Paladini, A C; De Robertis, E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of an acute swimming stress in rats on the amount of n-butyl-?-carboline-3-carboxylate, an endogenous benzodiazepine receptor binding inhibitor, was investigated. In 15 min this substance increased two fold in the cerebral cortex of the stressed rat and this increase was blocked by the previous injection of diazepam; however, no changes were observed in the cerebellum with stress. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings that, after the acute stress, [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding decreases in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, but not in cerebellum. A possible relationship between this benzodiazepine receptor binding inhibitor and the state of "anxiety" produced by stress is postulated.

  4. (/sup 3/H)Batrachotoxinin A 20 alpha-benzoate binding to voltage-sensitive sodium channels: a rapid and quantitative assay for local anesthetic activity in a variety of drugs

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, E.T.; Lewandowski, G.A.; Daly, J.W.; Creveling, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    (/sup 3/H)Batrachotoxinin A benzoate ((/sup 3/H)BTX-B) binds with high affinity to sites on voltage-dependent sodium channels in a vesicular preparation from guinea pig cerebral cortex. In this preparation, local anesthetics competitively antagonize the binding of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B. The potencies of some 40 classical local anesthetics and a variety of catecholamine, histamine, serotonin, adenosine, GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and calcium antagonists, tranquilizers, antidepressants, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, steroids, vasodilators, antiinflammatories, anticoagulants, analgesics, and other agents have been determined. An excellent correlation with the known local anesthetic activity of many of these agents indicate that antagonism of binding of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B binding provides a rapid, quantitative, and facile method for the screening and investigation of local anesthetic activity.

  5. Evaluation of the interactions of mu and delta selective ligands with (/sup 3/H)D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin binding to mouse brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.W.; Vaught, J.L.

    1983-12-12

    The interactions of putative mu and delta selective ligands with (/sup 3/H)D-ala/sup 2/-D-leu/sup 5/ enkephalin (DADLE) binding to mouse brain membranes were investigated. Computerized curve fitting of displacement curves performed at three different concentrations of /sup 3/H-DADLE indicated that at one site competitive model was sufficient to explain the interactions of leu-enkephalin (LE) and D-ser/sup 2/-thr/sup 6/-leucine enkephalin with /sup 3/H-DADLE binding. A two-site competitive model was required to adequately describe the interactions of these mu selective ligands with /sup 3/H-DADLE. This two-site model was one in which the inhibitor had higher affinity for the site labeled with lower affinity by /sup 3/H-DADLE. These data indicate that: putative mu and delta selective ligands do not bind to a common high affinity site; mu selective ligands are not simple mixed inhibitors of a single site labeled by /sup 3/H-DADLE; and competitive binding models may not explain the interaction of mu ligands with /sup 3/H-DADLE binding.

  6. Activity of the hypnotics, flunitrazepam and triazolam, in man

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A. N.; Stone, Barbara M.

    1980-01-01

    1 Effects of flunitrazepam and triazolam (0.25 and 0.5 mg) on sleep and on performance were studied in six healthy adult males. Sleep was assessed by electroencephalography and analogue scales, and performance by a visuo-motor coordination task. 2 Over the same dose range triazolam had a more pronounced effect than flunitrazepam. Total sleep time was increased by 0.25 and 0.5 mg triazolam, and by 0.5 mg flunitrazepam. Both drugs decreased awake activity and drowsy sleep, though the effect of flunitrazepam was limited to the 0.5 mg dose and restricted to the first 6 h after sleep onset. There were no changes in slow wave sleep. 3 Latency to the first period of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was increased with 0.5 mg triazolam, and when doses were combined (0.25-0.5 mg) the latencies with both drugs were increased. Both doses of triazolam reduced the duration and percentage of REM sleep during the early part of the night, though the whole night duration of REM sleep was not changed. 4 After the morning ingestion of 0.25 mg flunitrazepam performance was impaired for 2.0 h, but there were no residual effects when 0.25 or 0.5 mg were taken at night. With the morning ingestion of 0.25 mg triazolam performance was impaired from 0.5 to at least 5.0 h after ingestion. There were no residual effects with 0.25 mg overnight, but with 0.5 mg triazolam there was an effect on performance 10 h after ingestion with recovery within 1.5 h (11.5 h of ingestion). 5 Triazolam (0.25 mg) and 0.5 mg flunitrazepam provide useful hypnotic activity when impaired performance the next day is to be avoided. The activity of 0.5 mg triazolam is accompanied by only limited residual sequelae compared with some other benzodiazepines of comparable efficacy, and so may prove to be useful when a more powerful effect is required. PMID:6101959

  7. Biological responsiveness to the phorbol esters and specific binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a manipulable genetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, K.K.; Chritton, S.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its suitability for genetic studies, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined for its responsiveness to the phorbol esters. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had three effects. It inhibited the increase in animal size during growth; it decreased the yield of progeny; and it caused uncoordinated movement of the adult. The effects on nematode size, progeny yield, and movement were quantitated. Concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate yielding half-maximal responses were 440, 460, and 170 nM, respectively. As was expected from the biological responsiveness of the nematodes, specific, saturable binding of phorbol ester to nematode extracts was found. (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound with a dissociation constant of 26.8 +/- 3.9 nM. At saturation, 5.7 +/- 1.4 pmole/mg protein was bound.

  8. Characterization of (/sup 125/I)omega-conotoxin binding to brain N calcium channels and (-)(/sup 3/H) desmethoxyverapamil binding to novel calcium channels in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation provides molecular evidence for a diversity of Ca/sup 2 +/ channels in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. First, I demonstrated specific, reversible, saturable binding sites for omega (/sup 125/I)conotoxin GVIA (omega(/sup 125/I)CTX) in rat brain and rabbit sympathetic ganglion. Omega (/sup 125/I)CTX binding has a unique pharmacology, ion selectivity, and anatomical distribution in rat brain. Omega (/sup 125/I)CTX binding was solubilized, retaining an appropriate pharmacology and ion selectivity. Omega(/sup 125/I)CTX binding may be associated with a Ca/sup 2 +/ channel because the K/sub D/ of omega (/sup 125/I)CTX is similar to the IC/sub 50/ of inhibition of depolarization-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ flux into rat brain synaptosomes. Specific (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxyverapamil ((-)(/sup 3/H)DMV) binding sites were demonstrated on osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell membranes.

  9. Opposite effects of Zn on the in vitro binding of [3H]LY354740 to recombinant and native metabotropic glutamate 2 and 3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Pari; Richards, J Grayson; Broger, Clemens; Zenner, Marie-Thérèse; Messer, Jürg; Kratzeisen, Claudia; Nakanishi, Shigetada; Mutel, Vincent

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Zn on agonist binding to both recombinant and native mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors. Zn had a biphasic inhibitory effect on recombinant mGlu2 with IC(50) values for the high- and low-affinity components of 60 +/- 10 microM and 2 +/- 0.7 mM, respectively. Zn induced a complex biphasic effect of inhibition and enhancement of [(3)H]LY354740 binding to mGlu3. Observations with a series of chimeric mGlu2/3 receptors suggest that the Zn effect resides in the N-terminal domain of mGlu2 and mGlu3. We observed that the His56 of mGlu2, which corresponds to Asp63 in mGlu3 was largely accountable for the second phase of the Zn effect. As revealed by quantitative receptor radioautography, the addition of up to 100 microm Zn to brain sections of wild-type mice resulted in significant decreases in binding density in most brain regions. In particular, the mid-molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DGmol) and the CA1 lacunosum moleculare of hippocampus (CA1-LMol) showed reductions of 62 and 67%, respectively. In contrast, the addition of 300 microM Zn to brain sections of mGlu2(-/-) mice caused large increases in binding density of 289 and 242% in DGmol and CA1-LMol, respectively. Therefore, Zn might play a role as a physiological modulator of group II mGlu receptor function. PMID:15953358

  10. Benzophenanthridine alkaloid, piperonyl butoxide and (S)-methoprene action at the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1-receptor) pathway of mouse brain: Interference with [(3)H]CP55940 and [(3)H]SR141716A binding and modification of WIN55212-2-dependent inhibition of synaptosomal l-glutamate release.

    PubMed

    Dhopeshwarkar, Amey Sadashiv; Nicholson, Russell Alfred

    2014-01-15

    Benzophenanthridine alkaloids (chelerythrine and sanguinarine) inhibited binding of [(3)H]SR141716A to mouse brain membranes (IC50s: <1µM). Piperonyl butoxide and (S)-methoprene were less potent (IC50s: 21 and 63µM respectively). Benzophenanthridines and piperonyl butoxide were more selective towards brain CB1 receptors versus spleen CB2 receptors. All compounds reduced Bmax of [(3)H]SR141716A binding to CB1 receptors, but only methoprene and piperonyl butoxide increased Kd (3-5-fold). Benzophenanthridines increased the Kd of [(3)H]CP55940 binding (6-fold), but did not alter Bmax. (S)-methoprene increased the Kd of [(3)H]CP55940 binding (by almost 4-fold) and reduced Bmax by 60%. Piperonyl butoxide lowered the Bmax of [(3)H]CP55940 binding by 50%, but did not influence Kd. All compounds reduced [(3)H]SR141716A and [(3)H]CP55940 association with CB1 receptors. Combined with a saturating concentration of SR141716A, only piperonyl butoxide and (S)-methoprene increased dissociation of [(3)H]SR141716A above that of SR141716A alone. Only piperonyl butoxide increased dissociation of [(3)H]CP55940 to a level greater than CP55940 alone. Binding results indicate predominantly allosteric components to the study compounds action. 4-Aminopyridine-(4-AP-) evoked release of l-glutamate from synaptosomes was partially inhibited by WIN55212-2, an effect completely neutralized by AM251, (S)-methoprene and piperonyl butoxide. With WIN55212-2 present, benzophenanthridines enhanced 4-AP-evoked l-glutamate release above 4-AP alone. Modulatory patterns of l-glutamate release (with WIN-55212-2 present) align with previous antagonist/inverse agonist profiling based on [(35)S]GTPγS binding. Although these compounds exhibit lower potencies compared to many classical CB1 receptor inhibitors, they may have potential to modify CB1-receptor-dependent behavioral/physiological outcomes in the whole animal.

  11. Characterisation of the 5-HT receptor binding profile of eletriptan and kinetics of [3H]eletriptan binding at human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors.

    PubMed

    Napier, C; Stewart, M; Melrose, H; Hopkins, B; McHarg, A; Wallis, R

    1999-03-01

    The affinity of eletriptan ((R)-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinylmethyl)-5-[2-(phenylsulphonyl )ethyl]-1H-indole) for a range of 5-HT receptors was compared to values obtained for other 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists known to be effective in the treatment of migraine. Eletriptan, like sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan and rizatriptan had highest affinity for the human 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and putative 5-ht1f receptor. Kinetic studies comparing the binding of [3H]eletriptan and [3H]sumatriptan to the human recombinant 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expressed in HeLa cells revealed that both radioligands bound with high specificity (>90%) and reached equilibrium within 10-15 min. However, [3H]eletriptan had over 6-fold higher affinity than [3H]sumatriptan at the 5-HT1D receptor (K(D)): 0.92 and 6.58 nM, respectively) and over 3-fold higher affinity than [3H]sumatriptan at the 5-HT1B receptor (K(D): 3.14 and 11.07 nM, respectively). Association and dissociation rates for both radioligands could only be accurately determined at the 5-HT1D receptor and then only at 4 degrees C. At this temperature, [3H]eletriptan had a significantly (P<0.05) faster association rate (K(on) 0.249 min(-1) nM(-1)) than [3H]sumatriptan (K(on) 0.024 min(-1) nM(-1)) and a significantly (P<0.05) slower off-rate (K(off) 0.027 min(-1) compared to 0.037 min(-1) for [3H]sumatriptan). These data indicate that eletriptan is a potent ligand at the human 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, and 5-ht1f receptors and are consistent with its potent vasoconstrictor activity and use as a drug for the acute treatment of migraine headache. PMID:10193663

  12. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand (/sup 3/H)PK 14105

    SciTech Connect

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-04-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with (/sup 3/H)PK 14105. In thymus sections, (/sup 3/H)PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands.

  13. [Analysis of the binding capacity of the benzodiazepine site of gabaa receptor in mice C57BL/6 and BALB/C pretreated with anxiolytics].

    PubMed

    Iarkova, M A

    2011-01-01

    The level of specific 3H-flunitrazepam binding in synaptosomal membranes of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice brain underwent to the stress of different types has been studied. Mild stress (Elevated Plus Maze) was shown to induce the decrease of benzodiazepine binding in BALB/c mice only, while the strong one (Exposure to a predator) was revealed to cause this decrease in both strains. Behavioral effects of different non-benzodiazepine drugs possessing anxiolytic properties (Afobazol, Ladasten and Noopept) was accompanied with the normalization of the level of benzodiazepine reception, reduced by the stress of both modalities. PMID:22232906

  14. [(3) H]-L685,458 binding sites are abundant in multiple peripheral organs in rats: implications for safety assessment of putative γ-secretase targeting drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Ling; Mou, Lin; Cai, Yan; Huang, He; Luo, Xue-Gang; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2014-12-01

    γ-Secretase is a multimeric enzyme complex that carries out proteolytic processing to a variety of cellular proteins. It is currently explored as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Mechanism-based toxicity needs to be thoroughly evaluated for γ-secretase inhibitory and/or modulatory drugs. This study comparatively assessed putative γ-secretase catalytic sites in rat peripheral tissues relative to brain and explored an effort of its pharmacological inhibition on hair regeneration. Using [(3) H]-labelled L685,458, a potent γ-secretase inhibitor, as probe, we found more abundant presence of γ-secretase binding sites in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, hair follicle, pituitary gland, ovary and testis, as compared to the brain. Local application of L658,458 delayed vibrissal regrowth following whisker removal. These results suggest that γ-secretase may execute important biological functions in many peripheral systems, as in the brain. The development of γ-secretase inhibitors/modulators for AD and cancer therapy should include close monitoring of toxicological panels for hepatic, gastrointestinal, endocrinal and reproductive functions. PMID:24861611

  15. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and ( sup 3 H)rauwolscine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Zawilska, J.; Iuvone, P.M. )

    1990-12-01

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of (3H)rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken.

  16. [(3) H]-L685,458 binding sites are abundant in multiple peripheral organs in rats: implications for safety assessment of putative γ-secretase targeting drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Ling; Mou, Lin; Cai, Yan; Huang, He; Luo, Xue-Gang; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2014-12-01

    γ-Secretase is a multimeric enzyme complex that carries out proteolytic processing to a variety of cellular proteins. It is currently explored as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Mechanism-based toxicity needs to be thoroughly evaluated for γ-secretase inhibitory and/or modulatory drugs. This study comparatively assessed putative γ-secretase catalytic sites in rat peripheral tissues relative to brain and explored an effort of its pharmacological inhibition on hair regeneration. Using [(3) H]-labelled L685,458, a potent γ-secretase inhibitor, as probe, we found more abundant presence of γ-secretase binding sites in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, hair follicle, pituitary gland, ovary and testis, as compared to the brain. Local application of L658,458 delayed vibrissal regrowth following whisker removal. These results suggest that γ-secretase may execute important biological functions in many peripheral systems, as in the brain. The development of γ-secretase inhibitors/modulators for AD and cancer therapy should include close monitoring of toxicological panels for hepatic, gastrointestinal, endocrinal and reproductive functions.

  17. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roll, R. L.; Jones, T. A.; Benowitz, N. L.; Morley, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    (-)-Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). Twelve h beyond the eighteenth day of incubation (E18 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. Short latency vestibular response thresholds and input/output functions were determined to assess neurophysiological consequences of chronic nicotine administration. Samples of serum and extraembryonic (amniotic and albumen) fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine. The brains were removed and divided into diencephalon and mesencephalon and the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites in each brain area was measured. Nicotine and cotinine were found in the serum and extraembryonic fluid, but nicotinic receptors were not up-regulated in the brains of animals infused with nicotine in comparison to controls. Vestibular response thresholds also did not differ between nicotine-treated and control animals.

  18. Characterization of [(3)H]-LY354740 binding to rat mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors expressed in CHO cells using semliki forest virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, C; Kratzeisen, C; Adam, G; Lundstrom, K; Malherbe, P; Ohresser, S; Stadler, H; Wichmann, J; Woltering, T; Mutel, V

    2000-07-24

    The binding properties of [(3)H]-LY354740 were characterized on rat metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using Semliki Forest virus vectors. The saturation isotherm gave K(D) values of 20+/-5 and 53+/-8 nM and B(max) values of 474+/-161 and 667+/-89 fmol/mg protein for mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors, respectively. NMDA, CaCl(2), DHPG and kainate were inactive up to 1 mM, whereas LY341495, DCG IV and ibotenate inhibited [(3)H]-LY354740 binding with similar potencies on both receptors. L-CCG I, L-AP4, L-AP5, LY354740 and 1S,3R-ACPD were 2- to 4-fold more potent inhibitors of [(3)H]-LY354740 binding to mGlu2 than mGlu3 receptors. However, MPPG and L-AP3 had a 6-fold and DTT a 28-fold preference for mGlu2 over mGlu3. ZnCl(2), at 10 mM, inhibited more than 70% of [(3)H]-LY354740 binding to mGlu2 receptors. At the same concentration it did not affect significantly [(3)H]-LY354740 binding to mGlu3 receptors. On the contrary, glutamate, quisqualate, EGLU and NAAG showed a 3-, 5-, 7- and 12-fold preference for mGlu3 over mGlu2. Finally, GTPgammaS, which partially inhibited the binding on mGlu2 receptors, was inactive to inhibit [(3)H]-LY354740 binding on mGlu3 receptors. PMID:10884552

  19. Characterization of [35S]-ATPαS and [3H]-α,β-MeATP binding sites in rat brain cortical synaptosomes: regulation of ligand binding by divalent cations

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Rainer; Reiser, Georg

    1997-01-01

    We made a comparative analysis of the binding characteristics of the radioligands [35S]-ATPαS and [3H]-α,β-MeATP in order to test whether these ligands can be used to analyse P2-purinoceptors in synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. Synaptosomes possess sites with high affinity for [35S]-ATPαS (Kd=22.2±9.1 nM, Bmax=14.8 pmol mg−1 protein). The rank order of the competition potency of the different compounds (ATPαS, ATP, ATPγS>ADPβS, 2-MeSATP>deoxyATP, ADP>>UTP, α,β-MeATP, AMP, Reactive Blue-2, suramin, isoPPADS) is consistent with pharmacological properties of P2Y-purinoceptors. Under identical conditions [35S]-ATPαS and [3H]-α,β-MeATP bind to different binding sites at synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. The affinity of the [3H]-α,β-MeATP binding sites (Kd=13.7±1.8 nM, Bmax=6.34±0.28 pmol mg−1 protein) was 38 fold higher than the potency of α,β-MeATP to displace [35S]-ATPαS binding (Ki=0.52 μM). ATP and ADPβS competed at both binding sites with different affinities, 60 fold and 175 fold, respectively. The other agonists tested (2-MeSATP, UTP, GTP) did not affect specific [35H]-α,β-MeATP binding at concentrations up to 100 μM. The antagonists (suramin, isoPPADS, Evan's Blue) showed completely different affinities for both binding sites. Binding of [35S]-ATPαS on synaptosomes was regulated by GTP, which is indicative for G-protein coupled receptors. The Kd value for the high affinity binding site was reduced in the presence of GTP about 5 fold (from 1.8 nM to 8.6 nM). In the presence of Mg2+ the affinity was increased (Kd 1.8 nM versus 22 nM in the absence of Mg2+). The binding of both radioligands was regulated in an opposite manner by physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Binding of [3H]-α,β-MeATP to synaptosomal membranes was increased 3 fold by raising the Ca2+ concentration from 10 μM to 1 mM, whereas the addition of Mg2+ in the same concentration range resulted in an 80

  20. Selective affinity of the benzodiazepines quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam for BZ1 binding site and demonstration of H-2-oxo-quazepam as a BZ1 selective radioligand

    SciTech Connect

    Billard, W.; Crosby, G.; Iorio, L.; Chipkin, R.; Barnett, A.

    1988-01-01

    Quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam are novel benzodiazepines containing a trifluoroethyl substituent on the ring nitrogen at position number1. Detailed competition binding experiments (25 to 30 concs.) at 4/sup 0/C were undertaken with these compounds versus /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam using synaptic membranes from rat cortex or cerebellum. Unlike other benzodiazepines, both quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam distinguished two populations of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding sites in rat cortex which were present in roughly equal proportions and for which the compounds displayed a greater than 20-fold difference in affinity. In cerebellum, no such discrimination of sites was noted for 2-oxo-quazepam, but quazepam did distinguish a small, low affinity population of sites. /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quazepam was prepared and used in competition studies to substantiate the conclusion that these compounds discriminate two populations of benzodiazepine sites in rat cortex. This new radioligand was shown to specifically label BZ binding sites with high affinity in a saturable manner. The competition experiments were then conducted using /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quazepam at a radioligand concentration sufficiently low to ensure that only the higher affinity binding sites which 2-oxo-quazepam discriminates would be occupied. 15 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Abuse of flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) and other benzodiazepines in Austin and south Texas.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, S R; Wesson, D R; Galloway, G P; Smith, D E

    1996-01-01

    Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) is a benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic that has generated significant media attention in the United States because of its abuse and its association with "date rape." A field investigation was conducted in south Texas to ascertain the nature and consequences of the abuse of flunitrazepam. In semistructured interviews, 66 subjects identified as flunitrazepam users were asked about their use of alcohol and other drugs and their sexual behaviors. Many subjects identified the drugs they had used as "roches" and gave descriptions of tablets of other benzodiazepines that were not consistent with flunitrazepam. Almost all subjects used other drugs, primarily alcohol and marijuana. Adverse consequences included amnesia, discoordination, automobile accidents, sexual assault, and respiratory depression or arrest. A significant proportion of the subjects reported that continued use was unappealing to them. The abuse of sedative-hypnotics in southeast Texas involves several benzodiazepines and is not limited to flunitrazepam. PMID:8811586

  2. Flunitrazepam Versus Placebo Premedication for Anxiety Control in General Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lökken, Per; Rust, Per R.

    1998-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the performance of sublingual administration of the short- to intermediate-acting benzodiazepine flunitrazepam on patients with dental anxiety. The study was designed as a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with nearly identical dental interventions performed on two separate occasions in 24 adult patients. Flunitrazepam (1 mg) significantly reduced anxiety and was well tolerated. With few exceptions, both the patients and the dentist clearly favored the session with flunitrazepam. Most patients also preferred the remaining part of the day when they had been premedicated with flunitrazepam. They were apparently not particularly troubled by being somewhat drowsy. Dizziness was not reported as a problem. Flunitrazepam appears to be an effective, safe, and recommendable alternative for premedication of anxious dental patients. PMID:19598721

  3. Labeling by ( sup 3 H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine of two high affinity binding sites in guinea pig brain: Evidence for allosteric regulation by calcium channel antagonists and pseudoallosteric modulation by sigma ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.B.; Reid, A.; Mahboubi, A.; Kim, C.H.; De Costa, B.R.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Equilibrium binding studies with the sigma receptor ligand ({sup 3}H)1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (({sup 3}H)DTG) demonstrated two high affinity binding sites in membranes prepared from guinea pig brain. The apparent Kd values of DTG for sites 1 and 2 were 11.9 and 37.6 nM, respectively. The corresponding Bmax values were 1045 and 1423 fmol/mg of protein. Site 1 had high affinity for (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, (R)-(+)-PPP, carbepentane, and other sigma ligands, suggesting a similarity with the dextromethorphan/sigma 1 binding site described by Musacchio et al. (Life Sci. 45:1721-1732 (1989)). Site 2 had high affinity for DTG and haloperidol (Ki = 36.1 nM) and low affinity for most other sigma ligands. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that ({sup 3}H)DTG dissociated in a biphasic manner from both site 1 and site 2. DTG and haloperidol increased the dissociation rate of ({sup 3}H)DTG from site 1 and site 2, demonstrating the presence of pseudoallosteric interactions. Inorganic calcium channel blockers such as Cd2+ selectively increased the dissociation rate of ({sup 3}H)DTG from site 2, suggesting an association of this binding site with calcium channels.

  4. (/sup 3/H)dihydroergotamine as a high-affinity, slowly dissociating radioligand for 5-HT1B binding sites in rat brain membranes: evidence for guanine nucleotide regulation of agonist affinity states

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, M.W.; Ariani, K.; Adriaenssens, P.I.; Ciaranello, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    (/sup 3/H)Dihydroergotamine (DE) labels a population of binding sites in rat brain membranes with an affinity of approximately 70 pM in both hippocampus (maximal binding at saturation (Bmax) = 340 fmol/mg of protein) and cerebral cortex (Bmax = 250 fmol/mg of protein). Specific binding typically comprises about 97% of total binding at the Kd of the radioligand when nonspecific binding is determined in the presence of 100 nM unlabeled DE. Association kinetics at 37 degrees C are consistent with a uniform association rate constant for all sites labeled. Specific binding is completely reversible with addition of excess unlabeled DE, but dissociation does not proceed with simple first-order kinetics, suggesting the presence of more than one discrete binding site. Competition studies with selective drugs reveal alpha adrenergic, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B components of (/sup 3/H)DE specific binding. When phentolamine (500 nM) is included to block alpha receptors and DPAT (100 nM) or spiroxatrine (500 nM) is included to block 5-HT1A receptors, specific binding is exclusively to sites with drug affinities characteristic of 5-HT1B receptors. Under these 5-HT1B-selective conditions, (/sup 3/H)DE binding is about 90% specific, with a Kd of about 50 to 60 pM and a Bmax of 96 fmol/mg of protein in hippocampus and 77 fmol/mg of protein in cortex. (/sup 3/H)DE binding to 5-HT1B sites is very slowly dissociable, with a T1/2 of greater than 2 h at 37 degrees C. 5-HT1B antagonists and DE itself yield competition curves at (/sup 3/H)DE-labeled 5-HT1B sites that are adequately fit assuming a single site in nonlinear regression analysis. Addition of 100 microM guanylyl 5'-imidodiphosphate appears to convert nearly all 5-HT1B sites to those having low affinity for agonists while having a much smaller effect on the binding of (/sup 3/H)DE.

  5. [3H]-LY341495 as a novel antagonist radioligand for group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors: characterization of binding to membranes of mGlu receptor subtype expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B G; Wright, R A; Arnold, M B; Wheeler, W J; Ornstein, P L; Schoepp, D D

    1999-10-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are a family of eight known subtypes termed mGlu1-8. Currently, few ligands are available to study the pharmacology of mGlu receptor subtypes. In functional assays, we previously described LY341495 as a highly potent and selective mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor antagonist. In this study, radiolabeled [3H]-LY341495 was used to investigate the characteristics of receptor binding to membranes from cells expressing human mGlu receptor subtypes. Using membranes from cells expressing human mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors, [3H]-LY341495 (1 nM) specific binding was > 90% of total binding. At an approximate K(D) concentration for [3H]-LY341495 binding to human mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors (1 nM), no appreciable specific binding of [3H-]LY341495 was found in membranes of cells expressing human mGlu1a, mGlu5a, mGlu4a, mGlu6, or mGlu7a receptors. However, modest (approximately 20% of mGlu2/3) specific [3H]-LY341495 (1 nM) binding was observed in human mGlu8 expressing cells. [3H]-LY341495 bound to membranes expressing human mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors in a reversible and saturable manner with relatively high affinities (Bmax 20.5 +/- 5.4 and 32.0 +/- 7.0 pmol/mg protein; and K(D) = 1.67 +/- 0.20 and 0.75 +/- 0.43 nM, respectively). The pharmacology of [3H]-LY341495 binding in mGlu2 and mGlu3 expressing cells was consistent with that previously described for LY341495 in functional assays. [3H]-LY341495 binding provides a useful way to further investigate regulation of receptor expression and pharmacological properties of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor subtypes in recombinant systems. PMID:10530814

  6. Modulation of radioligand binding to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex by a new component from Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Youn; Choi, Hyoung-Chul; Cho, Jungsook; Kang, Byung-Soo; Lim, Jae-Chul; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2002-01-01

    Four sesquiterpenes, beta-selinene, isocurcumenol, nootkatone and aristolone and one triterpene, oleanolic acid were isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and tested for their ability to modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor function by radioligand binding assays using rat cerebrocortical membranes. Among these compounds, only isocurcumenol, one of the newly identified constituents of this plant, was found to inhibit [3H]Ro15-1788 binding and enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the presence of GABA. These results suggest that isocurcumenol may serve as a benzodiazepine receptor agonist and allosterically modulate GABAergic neurotransmission via enhancement of endogenous receptor ligand binding. PMID:11824542

  7. Characterization of the binding of a novel nonxanthine adenosine antagonist radioligand, ( sup 3 H)CGS 15943, to multiple affinity states of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.F.; Williams, M.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The triazoloquinazoline CGS 15943 is the first reported nonxanthine adenosine antagonist that has high affinity for brain adenosine receptors. In the present study, the binding of (3H) CGS 15943 to recognition sites in rat cortical membranes was characterized. Saturation experiments revealed that (3H)CGS 15943 labeled a single class of recognition sites with high affinity and limited capacity. Competition studies revealed that the binding of (3H)CGS 15943 was consistent with the labeling of brain adenosine A1 receptors. Adenosine agonists inhibited 1 nM (3H)CGS 15943 binding with the following order of activity N6-cyclopentyladenosine (IC50 = 15 nM) greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than (R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 5'-N6-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than (S)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than CGS 21680 greater than CV 1808 (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). The potency order for adenosine antagonists was CGS 15943 (IC50 = 5 nM) greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-amino-2-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than theophylline = caffeine (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). Antagonist inhibition curves were steep and best described by a one-site binding model. In contrast, adenosine A1 agonist competition curves were shallow, as indicated by Hill coefficients less than unity. Computer analysis revealed that these inhibition curves were best described by a two-site binding model. Agonist competition curves generated in the presence of 1 mM GTP resulted in a rightward shift and steepening of the inhibition-concentration curves, whereas antagonist binding was not altered in the presence of GTP. The complex binding interactions found with adenosine agonists indicate that (3H)CGS 15943 labels both high and low affinity components of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex.

  8. Regulating a Post-Transcriptional Regulator: Protein Phosphorylation, Degradation and Translational Blockage in Control of the Trypanosome Stress-Response RNA-Binding Protein ZC3H11

    PubMed Central

    Minia, Igor; Clayton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of the mammalian pathogen Trypanosoma brucei involves commuting between two markedly different environments: the homeothermic mammalian host and the poikilothermic invertebrate vector. The ability to resist temperature and other stresses is essential for trypanosome survival. Trypanosome gene expression is mainly post-transcriptional, but must nevertheless be adjusted in response to environmental cues, including host-specific physical and chemical stresses. We investigate here the control of ZC3H11, a CCCH zinc finger protein which stabilizes stress response mRNAs. ZC3H11 protein levels increase at least 10-fold when trypanosomes are stressed by heat shock, proteasome inhibitors, ethanol, arsenite, and low doses of puromycin, but not by various other stresses. We found that increases in protein stability and translation efficiency both contribute to ZC3H11 accumulation. ZC3H11 is an in vitro substrate for casein kinase 1 isoform 2 (CK1.2), and results from CK1.2 depletion and other experiments suggest that phosphorylation of ZC3H11 can promote its instability in vivo. Results from sucrose density centrifugation indicate that under normal culture conditions translation initiation on the ZC3H11 mRNA is repressed, but after suitable stresses the ZC3H11 mRNA moves to heavy polysomes. The ZC3H11 3'-UTR is sufficient for translation suppression and a region of 71 nucleotides is required for the regulation. Since the control works in both bloodstream forms, where ZC3H11 translation is repressed at 37°C, and in procyclic forms, where ZC3H11 translation is activated at 37°C, we predict that this regulatory RNA sequence is targeted by repressive trans acting factor that is released upon stress. PMID:27002830

  9. [Trazodone versus flunitrazepam in premedication in day-care surgery].

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, M; Riva, A; Marsicano, M; Prampolini, F; Speranza, R; Andriolli, A; Laveneziana, D

    1994-03-01

    A prospective single-blind study was conducted to compare flunitrazepam vs trazodone in the premedication of patients undergoing day-case surgery for termination of pregnancy, with particular regard to the degree of preoperative sedation, intraoperative analgesia and postoperative recovery. 86 patients were randomly allocated to receive orally 45 minutes before the surgical procedure either flunitrazepam 2 mg (group F) or trazodone 50 mg (group T). In both groups anaesthesia was achieved by i.v. fentanyl 2.5 micrograms/kg and ketamina 250 micrograms/kg. Patients in group F showed a deeper degree of preoperative sedation. There were no significant differences in intraoperative analgesia and in the immediate arousal time. In the postoperative period, the incidences of emetic symptoms and dizziness were similar in both groups; the incidence of drowsiness was significantly higher in group F at 120 minutes but not at 180 minutes of observation. Psychomotor performance was assessed preoperatively two days before the surgical procedure and 60, 120 and 180 minutes after surgery, using the Toulouse-Pieron test and the reaction time to a luminous stimulus with the aid of a computerized analogic tachystoscope (Neurometer). Trazodone allowed a more rapid recovery of psychomotor performance and it can represent a valid alternative to the use of benzodiazepines in the premedication of day-case surgical patients.

  10. Influences of housing conditions and ethanol intake on binding characteristics of D2, 5-HT1A, and benzodiazepine receptors of rats.

    PubMed

    Rilke, O; May, T; Oehler, J; Wolffgramm, J

    1995-09-01

    The effects of different housing conditions and ethanol treatment (6 vol % in the drinking water) on the in vitro binding characteristics of striatal dopaminergic D2 ([3H]spiperone), hippocampal serotonergic 5-HT1A ([3H]8-OH-DPAT), and cortical benzodiazepine ([3H]flunitrazepam) receptors have been examined. Social deprivation due to contact caging, short- (1 day) and long-term isolation (5 weeks) yielded a significant decrease of striatal D2 receptor density with the greatest decrease after long-term isolation (-21% Bmax) without changes of Kd in comparison to group animals. The effect of ethanol on striatal D2 receptor density depended on the housing conditions. Whereas ethanol treatment reduced receptor density of group animals (down to 88%), chronic exposure to ethanol under long-term isolation elicited no significant alteration of D2 receptor density compared with group animals. Different housing and ethanol treatment had no effect on 5-HT1A receptor affinity and density. Alterations of benzodiazepine receptor density were not found, but social deprivation as well as ethanol treatment of group animals caused an increased affinity of [3H]flunitrazepam (reduced Kd value). These results indicate that different housing conditions of adult rats evoked significant alterations in D2 and benzodiazepine receptor binding assays, which were modified by ethanol treatment in the case of striatal D2 receptor density.

  11. The effect of maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy upon (3)H-nicotine receptor brainstem binding in infants dying of the sudden infant death syndrome: initial observations in a high risk population.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jhodie R; Randall, Leslie L; Belliveau, Richard A; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Randall, Bradley; Habbe, Donald; Mandell, Federick; Welty, Thomas K; Iyasu, Solomon; Kinney, Hannah C

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in American Indians in the Northern Plains (3.5/1000) may reflect the high incidence of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Nicotine, a neurotoxic component of cigarettes, and alcohol adversely affect nicotinic receptor binding and subsequent cholinergic development in animals. We measured (3)H-nicotine receptor binding in 16 brainstem nuclei in American Indian SIDS (n = 27) and controls (n = 6). In five nuclei related to cardiorespiratory control, (3)H-nicotinic binding decreased with increasing number of drinks (P < 0.03). There were no differences in binding in SIDS compared with controls, except upon stratification of prenatal exposures. In three mesopontine nuclei critical for arousal there were reductions (P < 0.04) in binding in controls exposed to cigarette smoke compared with controls without exposure; there was no difference between SIDS cases with or without exposure. This study suggests that maternal smoking and alcohol affects (3)H-nicotinic binding in the infant brainstem irrespective of the cause of death. It also suggests that SIDS cases are unable to respond to maternal smoking with the "normal" reduction seen in controls. Future studies are needed to establish the role of adverse prenatal exposures in altered brainstem neurochemistry in SIDS. PMID:17924983

  12. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression on B-lymphoblasts of healthy versus schizophrenic subjects stratified for smoking: [3H]-nicotine binding is decreased in schizophrenia and correlates with negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, Christian; Henning, Uwe; Ferrea, Stefano; Musso, Francesco; Mobascher, Arian; Winterer, Georg

    2012-05-01

    Heavy smoking and schizophrenia are diversely associated with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression, as was shown for brain and lymphocytes. Most studies so far have not systematically differentiated between schizophrenia smokers and non-smokers and were confined either to in vivo or post-mortem study approaches. In order to avoid variable in vivo influences or post-mortem bias, we used stably transformed B-lymphoblast cultures derived from healthy and schizophrenia subjects stratified for smoking versus non-smoking in order to differentiate these clinical conditions with regard to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression and regulation. Receptor quantities were measured using [(3)H]-nicotine and [(3)H]-epibatidine binding. At baseline, [(3)H]-nicotine binding was not statistically different between healthy smokers and never-smokers (1.59 ± 0.73 vs. 1.26 ± 0.91 fmol/10(6) cells), while it was reduced in schizophrenia smokers compared to healthy smokers (1.05 ± 0.69 fmol vs. 1.44 ± 0.84/10(6) cells, P = 0.01). In schizophrenia, baseline [(3)H]-nicotine correlated inversely with higher PANSS negative subscale scores. After long-term nicotine incubation (1 μM), [3H]-nicotine binding increased in the group of schizophrenia smokers only (from 1.05 ± 0.69 to 1.54 ± 0.77 fmol/106 cells, P = 0.013), while [(3)H]-epibatidine binding decreased in this group (4.52 ± 1.52 to 3.82 ± 1.38 fmol/10(6) cells, P = 0.038). Our data are in further support of a decrease of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in schizophrenia linked to negative psychotic symptoms, which may be counter-regulated by nicotine exposure.

  13. Benzannulated tris(2-mercapto-1-imidazolyl)hydroborato ligands: tetradentate κ4-S3H binding and access to monomeric monovalent thallium in an [S3] coordination environment.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Palmer, Joshua H; Parkin, Gerard

    2014-01-21

    The benzannulated tris(mercaptoimidazolyl)borohydride sodium complex, [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na, has been synthesized via the reaction of NaBH4 with 1-tert-butyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-thione, while [Tm(MeBenz)]K has been synthesized via the reaction of KBH4 with 1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-thione. The molecular structures of the solvated adducts, {[Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na(THF)}2(μ-THF)2 and [Tm(MeBenz)]K(OCMe2)3, have been determined by X-ray diffraction, which demonstrates that the [Tm(R)] ligands in these complexes adopt different coordination modes to that in {[Tm(MeBenz)]Na}2(μ-THF)3. Specifically, while the [Tm(MeBenz)] ligand of the sodium complex {[Tm(MeBenz)]Na}2(μ-THF)3 adopts a κ(3)-S3 coordination mode, the potassium complex [Tm(MeBenz)]K(OCMe2)3 adopts a most uncommon inverted κ(4)-S3H coordination mode in which the potassium binds to all three sulfur donors and the hydrogen of the B-H group in a linear KH-B manner. Furthermore, the [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)] ligand of {[Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na(THF)}2(μ-THF)2 adopts a κ(3)-S2H coordination mode, thereby demonstrating the flexibility of this ligand system. The monovalent thallium compounds, [Tm(MeBenz)]Tl and [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Tl, have been obtained via the corresponding reactions of [Tm(MeBenz)]Na and [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na with TlOAc. X-ray diffraction demonstrates that the three sulfur donors of the [Tm(RBenz)] ligands of both [Tm(MeBenz)]Tl and [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Tl chelate to thallium. This coordination mode is in marked contrast to that in other [Tm(R)]Tl compounds, which exist as dinuclear molecules wherein two of the sulfur donors coordinate to different thallium centers. As such, this observation provides further evidence that benzannulation promotes κ(3)-S3 coordination in this system.

  14. Characterization of sulpipride-displaceable sup 3 H-YM-09151-2 binding sites in rat frontal cortex and the effects of subchronic treatment with haloperidol on cortical D-2 dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kazawa, Tetsushi; Higuchi, Teruhiko National Institute of Neuroscience, Tokyo ); Mikuni, Masahiko; Takahshi, Kiyohisa ); Arai, Ichiro; Yamauchi, Toshio )

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacological properties of the sulpiride-displaceable binding sites labeled by {sup 3}H-YM-09151-2 in rat frontal cortex, compared to those in striatum. The IC{sub 50} value of ketanserin was 486 nM, which was apparently different from its affinity for the 5HT-2 receptor. Various dopamine antagonists showed almost the same inhibitory effects for binding site in frontal cortex and striatum. Sulpiride-displaceable {sup 3}H-YM-09151-2 binding sites were considered to be D-2 dopamine receptors. After subchronic treatment with haloperidol, the D-2 receptor density of frontal cortex increased to the same extent as striatum without significant change in apparent affinity.

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of the rat plasma vitamin D binding protein with (26,27-3H)-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3 beta-(N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate)

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Holick, S.A.; Hanafin, N.; Holick, M.F.

    1986-08-26

    It is well recognized that the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is important for the transport of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), and its metabolites. In an attempt to better understand the molecular-binding properties of this ubiquitous protein, we designed and synthesized a photoaffinity analogue of 25-OH-D3 and its radiolabeled counterpart. This analogue, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3 beta-(N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate) (25-OH-D3-ANG), was recognized by the rat DBP and was about 10 times less active than 25-OH-D3 in terms of binding. Incubation of (/sup 3/H)25-OH-D3 or (/sup 3/H)25-OH-D3-ANG with rat DBP revealed that both compounds were specifically bound to a protein with a sedimentation coefficient of 4.1 S. Each was displaced with a 500-fold excess of 25-OH-D3. When (/sup 3/H)25-OH-D3-ANG was exposed to UV radiation in the presence of rat DBP followed by the addition of a 500-fold excess of 25-OH-D3, there was no displacement of tritium from the 4.1S peak. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiographic analysis of (/sup 3/H)25-OH-D3-ANG exposed to UV radiation in the presence of rat DBP followed by the addition of a 500-fold excess of 25-OH-D3 revealed one major band with a molecular weight of 52 000. These data provide strong evidence that (/sup 3/H)25-OH-D3-ANG was covalently linked to the rat DBP. This photoaffinity probe should provide a valuable tool for the analysis of the binding site on this transport protein.

  16. DIELDRIN INDUCES CYTOSOLIC 7,12-[3H-]DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE BINDING BUT NOT MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEINS IN RAINBOW TROUT LIVER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously it was demonstrated that biliary excretion of a single dose of [14C]dieldrin or [3H]7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was stimulated up to 700% and 300%, respectively, in rainbow trout fed 0.3-0.4 mg dieldrin/kg/d for 9-12 wk. This was not explained by increased ac...

  17. A new screening method for flunitrazepam in vodka and tequila by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leesakul, Nararak; Pongampai, Sirintip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Sudkeaw, Pravit; Tantirungrotechai, Yuthana; Buranachai, Chittanon

    2013-01-01

    A new screening method for flunitrazepam in colourless alcoholic beverages based on a spectroscopic technique is proposed. Absorption and steady-state fluorescence of flunitrazepam and its protonated form with various acids were investigated. The redshift of the wavelength of maximum absorption was distinctively observed in protonated flunitrazepam. An emissive fluorescence at 472 nm was detected in colourless spirits (vodka and tequila) at room temperature. 2-M perchloric acid was the most appropriated proton source. By using electron ionization mass spectrometry and time-dependent density functional theory calculations, the possible structure of protonated flunitrazepam was identified to be 2-nitro-N-methylacridone, an acridone derivative as opposed to 2-methylamino-5-nitro-2'-fluorobenzophenone, a benzophenone derivative.

  18. Serotonin storage pools in basophil leukemia and mast cells: characterization of two types of serotonin binding protein and radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, H.; Theoharides, T.C.; Gershon, M.D.; Askenase, P.W.

    1982-06-01

    The binding of serotonin to protein(s) derived from rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells and mast cells was studied. Two types of serotonin binding protein in RBL cells was found. These proteins differed from one another in molecular weight and eluted in separate peaks from sephadex G-200 columns. Peak I protein (KD = 1.9 x 10/sup -6/ M) was a glycoprotein that bound to concanavalin A (Con A); Peak II protein (KD/sub 1/ = 4.5 x 10/sup -/8 M; KD/sub 2/ = 3.9 x 10/sup -6/ M) did not bind to Con A. Moreover, binding of (/sup 3/H)serotonin to protein of Peak I was sensitive to inhibition by reserpine, while binding of (/sup 3/H)serotonin to protein of Peak II resisted inhibition by that drug. Other differences between the two types of binding protein were found, the most significant of which was the far more vigorous conditions of homogenization required to extract Peak I than Peak II protein. Electron microscope radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of (/sup 3/H) serotonin taken up in vitro by RBL cells or in vivo by murine mast cells indicated that essentially all of the labeled amine was located in cytoplasmic granules.No evidence for a pool in the cytosol was found and all granules were capable of becoming labeled. The presence of two types of intracellular serotonin binding proteins in these cells may indicate that there are two intracellular storage compartments for the amine. Both may be intragranular, but Peak I protein may be associated with the granular membrane while Peak II protein may be more free within the granular core. Different storage proteins may help to explain the differential release of amines from mast cell granules.

  19. Structure of the high-affinity binding site for noncompetitive blockers of the acetylcholine receptor: serine-262 of the delta subunit is labeled by [3H]chlorpromazine.

    PubMed Central

    Giraudat, J; Dennis, M; Heidmann, T; Chang, J Y; Changeux, J P

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata was photolabeled by the noncompetitive channel blocker [3H]chlorpromazine under equilibrium conditions in the presence of agonist. Incorporation of radioactivity into all subunits occurred and was reduced by addition of phencyclidine, a specific ligand for the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers. The delta subunit was purified and digested with trypsin, and the resulting fragments were fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC. The labeled peptide could not be purified to homogeneity because of its marked hydrophobic character, but a combination of differential CNBr subcleavage and cosequencing of partially purified fragments enabled us to identify Ser-262 as being labeled by [3H]chlorpromazine. The labeling of this particular residue was prevented by phencyclidine and thus took place at the level of, or in proximity to, the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers. Ser-262 is located in a hydrophobic and potentially transmembrane segment termed MII. Images PMID:3085104

  20. New potent inhibitors of tyrosinase: novel clues to binding of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, and substituted hydrazides to the dicopper active site.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Usman; Ullah, Nisar

    2010-06-01

    A series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, and substituted hydrazides were tailored and synthesized as new potent inhibitors of tyrosinase. The rationale for inhibitor design was based on the active site structural evidence from the crystal structures of bacterial tyrosinase and potato catechol oxidase enzymes. Kinetic and active site binding studies suggested mono-dentate binding of thiadiazole, oxadiazole, and triazole rings to the active site dicopper center of tyrosinase including hydrophobicity contributing to the potent inhibition. Kinetic plots showed mixed-type of inhibition by all 25 compounds. Substitutions at C3 of the triazole ring and C5 of the thiadiazole/oxadiazole rings were found to be playing a major role in the high binding affinity to tyrosinase. The current work may help develop new potent tyrosinase inhibitors against hyperpigmentation including potential insecticides. PMID:20452224

  1. Structure-activity relationship of glibenclamide analogs: a comparison of potency as levcromakalim antagonists in rat aorta vs. affinity for [3H]-glibenclamide binding to membranes from rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Challinor-Rogers, J L; Kong, D C; Iskander, M N; McPherson, G A

    1995-05-01

    Glibenclamide and analogs were tested for their ability to antagonize the vasorelaxant actions of the K+ channel opener levcromakalim in rat thoracic aorta, and to displace [3H]-glibenclamide binding from rat cerebral cortex membranes. Aortic ring segments were suspended in organ baths to record isometric tension. Tissues were precontracted with K+ (20 mM), and full concentration-relaxation curves were constructed to levcromakalim (0.01-30 microM) in the absence and presence of glibenclamide or analog. The majority of the amidoethylbenzenesulfonylurea based compounds (exemplified by glibenclamide) caused parallel rightward shifts in the levcromakalim concentration-effect curves without effecting the maximum response to levcromakalim. Sulfonamide based compounds were generally inactive, with the exception of the compound DK#1 (laboratory code), which was unusually active as an antagonist of levcromakalim-mediated responses. The compounds were 1,000 to 10,000 times more potent at displacing [3H]-glibenclamide binding from rat cerebral cortex membranes. There was a strong correlation between the activity of amidoethylbenzenesulfonylurea based compounds as antagonists of the effects of levcromakalim and their ability to displace [3H]-glibenclamide binding. The slope of the regression line indicated that structural modification to these compounds has a more dramatic effect on their actions as levcromakalim antagonists than on their ability to displace [3H]-glibenclamide binding. This relationship of activity for the amidoethylbenzenesulfonylureas did not hold in the case of the sulfonamide derivatives. The results show that, for the processes characterized in this study (vascular levcromakalim antagonism vs. sulfonylurea receptor affinity), there are quantitative differences in their sensitivities to sulfonamide/sulfonylurea based compounds. Such differentiation may be important in the development of tissue-specific compounds.

  2. Desensitization of membrane-bound Torpedo acetylcholine receptor by amine noncompetitive antagonists and aliphatic alcohols: studies of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ ion fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, N.D.; Cohen, J.B.

    1984-08-28

    Measurements of the kinetics of binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine ((/sup 3/H)AcCh) to membrane-bound nicotinic AcCh receptors from Torpedo electric tissue have been used to characterize the effects of amine and alcohol noncompetitive antagonists on receptor conformational equilibria. The receptor exists in interconvertible conformations distinguished by agonist binding affinity. The high-affinity receptor conformation stabilized by noncompetitive antagonists was characterized by (1) the rate constant (k/sub rec/) for receptor reisomerization upon removal of stabilizing ligand and (2) the rate constant (k/sub dis/) for dissociation of (/sup 3/H)AcCh-receptor complexes. On the basis of these criteria, the high-affinity receptor conformation stabilized by amine and alcohol noncompetitive blockers is the same as that stabilized by agonist. Histrionicotoxin (HTX) and adiphenine antagonized the conformational perturbation caused by proadifen, while mixtures of HTX and 2-propanol produced additive effects. Exposure to proadifen in the absence of agonist produced a reversible inhibition (desensitization) of the flux response, and recovery from desensitization occurred at the same rate as the reisomerization from the high-affinity receptor state. HTX, which did not cause desensitization of the flux response, reduced the desensitization by proadifen. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that certain noncompetitive antagonists modify receptor function by stabilizing the same high-affinity (desensitized) conformation that is stabilized by agonists, either as a consequence of binding to the allosteric site or by an alternate mechanism.

  3. Autoradiographic analysis of GABAA receptor binding in the neural anxiety network of postpartum and non-postpartum laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephanie M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum female rats exhibit a suppression of anxiety-related behaviors when compared to diestrous virgin females, pregnant females, and males. This blunted anxiety promotes optimal maternal care and involves elevated GABA neurotransmission, possibly including greater density of GABAA and benzodiazepine receptors in the postpartum brain. We here examined autoradiographic binding of [3H]muscimol to measure the total population of GABAA receptors and [3H]flunitrazepam to assess density of benzodiazepine sites in the medial prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray of female rats sacrificed on day 7 postpartum, day 10 of pregnancy, or as diestrous virgins. A group of sexually naïve male rats was also included. We found that [3H]muscimol binding did not differ among groups in any site but that diestrous virgin females had greater [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the CA1 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared to mid-pregnant females and males. Notably, postpartum and diestrous virgin females did not significantly differ in binding of either ligand in any site examined. This is the first study to evaluate the densities of GABAA and benzodiazepine binding sites simultaneously across three female reproductive states and sex with a focus on brain sites influencing anxiety-related behaviors. The results suggest that changes other GABAA receptor characteristics, such as subunit composition or increased presynaptic GABA release during interactions with offspring, must instead play a greater role in the postpartum suppression of anxiety in laboratory rats. PMID:21664440

  4. Very small and soft scorpionates: water stable technetium tricarbonyl complexes combining a bis-agostic (k(3)-H, H, S) binding motif with pendant and integrated bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Maria, Leonor; Paulo, António; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, Isabel; Kurz, Philipp; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger

    2006-11-15

    The novel trihydro(mercaptoazolyl)borates Na[H(3)B(tim(Me))] (L(1)) (tim(Me) = 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazolyl), Na[H(3)B(tim(Bupip))] (L(2)) (tim(Bupip) = 1-[4-((2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)butyl]-2-mercaptoimidazolyl), and Na[H(3)B(bzt)] (L(3)) (bzt = 2-mercaptobenzothiazolyl) were synthesized by reaction of NaBH(4) with the corresponding azole. Ligands L(1)-L(3) represent a new class of light and soft scorpionates that stabilizes the [M(CO)(3)](+) core (M = (99)Tc, Re) by formation of the complexes fac-[M{kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(tim(Me))}(CO)(3)] (M = (99)Tc (1), Re (2)), fac-[Re{kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(tim(Bupip))}(CO)(3)] (3), and fac-[Re{kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(bzt)}(CO)(3)] (4), respectively. The soft scorpionates are coordinated to the metal in unique (kappa(3)-H, H', S) fashion, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography of 1, 2, and 4. These complexes with bis-agostic hydride coordination are formed in aqueous solution with the two hydrides replacing two coordinating aquo ligands. The agostic hydrogen atoms were located directly, confirming an unprecedented donor atom set combining one sulfur and two hydrogen atoms. Preliminary studies have shown the possibility of preparing some of these complexes at the no carrier added level ((99m)Tc), under conditions as required in radiopharmaceutical preparation. Due to their lipophilicity, small-size, and easy functionalization with adequate biomolecules, the trihydro(mercaptoazolyl)borate technetium tricarbonyl complexes are suitable for the design of CNS receptor ligand radiopharmaceuticals as exemplified with 3, comprising a pendant serotonergic 5-HT(1A) ligand. The integrated design of radiopharmaceuticals involving a bis-agostic scorpionate ligand is demonstrated by the synthesis of 4, with an integrated benzothiazolyl fragment for the recognition of beta-amyloid plaques.

  5. ( sup 3 H)(D-PEN sup 2 , D-PEN sup 5 ) enkephalin binding to delta opioid receptors on intact neuroblastoma-glioma (NG 108-15) hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.J.; Yamamura, H.I. )

    1990-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin binding to intact NG 108-15 cells has been measured under physiological conditions of temperature and medium. The dissociation constant, receptor density, and Hill slope values measured under these conditions are consistent with values obtained by others using membranes prepared from these cells. Kinetic analysis of the radioligand binding to these cells show biphasic association and monophasic dissociation processes suggesting the presence of different receptor affinity states for the agonist. The data show that the binding affinity of ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin under physiological conditions is not substantially different to that measured in 50 mM Tris buffer using cell membrane fractions. Unlike DPDPE, the {mu} opioid agonists morphine, normorphine, PL-17, and DAMGO, have much lower affinity for the {delta} receptor measured under these conditions than is observed by studies using 50 mM Tris buffer. The results described here suggest that this assay may serve as a useful model of {delta} opioid receptor binding in vivo.

  6. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine binding sites in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, R. W.; Lowther, S.; Chivers, J.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.; Testa, B.

    1988-01-01

    1. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites was examined by their ability to displace [3H]-flunitrazepam ([3H]-FNM) from specific binding sites in bovine cortical membranes in vitro. 2. Clebopride, Delagrange 2674, Delagrange 2335 and BRL 20627 displayed concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]-FNM with IC50 values of 73 nM, 132 nM, 7.7 microM and 5.9 microM, respectively. Other substituted benzamides including metoclopramide, sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and cisapride were inactive at 10(-5) M. 3. Inhibition by clebopride and Delagrange 2674 of [3H]-FNM binding was apparently competitive and readily reversible. 4. In the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the ability of diazepam and Delagrange 2674 to displace [3H]-Ro 15-1788 binding was increased 3.6 and 1.6 fold respectively, compared to the absence of GABA, while ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCE) and clebopride were less potent in the presence of GABA. 5. Diazepam was 30 fold less potent at displacing [3H]-Ro 15-1788 in membranes that had been photoaffinity labelled with FNM than in control membranes, whereas the potency of beta CCE did not differ. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 showed a less than two fold loss of potency in photoaffinity labelled membranes. 6. The pattern of binding of clebopride and Delagrange 2674 in these in vitro tests is similar to that found previously with partial agonists or antagonists at BDZ binding sites. 7. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 inhibited [3H]-FNM binding with similar potency in rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes, suggesting they have no selectivity for BDZ1 and BDZ2 binding sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2850059

  7. (/sup 3/H)leukotriene B/sub 4/ binding to the guinea pig spleen membranes: a rich tissue source for a high affinity leukotriene B/sub 4/ receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.B.; Kohi, F.; Townley, R.G.

    1986-03-05

    To select a tissue rich for the high affinity leukotriene (LT)B/sub 4/ receptor site, they compared binding of 1 nM (/sup 3/H)LTB/sub 4/ (180 Ci/mmol) to the crude membrane preparations of guinea pig spleen, thymus, lung, uterus, bladder, brain, adrenal gland, small intestine, liver, kidney and heart. They found that the membrane preparations from spleen contained the highest binding activity per mg protein. They characterized the LTB/sub 4/ binding to the spleen preparation in detail. LTB/sub 4/ binding was rapid, reversible, stereoselective and saturable. The data from equilibrium experiments showed a linear Scatchard plot with a K/sub d/ of 1.6 nM and a binding site density of 259 fmol/mg prot. The rank order of agents competing for spleen (/sup 3/H)LTB/sub 4/ binding at 25/sup 0/C was: LTB/sub 4/ (K/sub i/ = 2.8 nM) > 20-OH-LTB/sub 4/ (23 nM) > LTA/sub 4/ (48 nM) > LTA/sub 4/ methyl ester (0.13 ..mu..M) > 20-COOH-LTB/sub 4/ (> 6.6 ..mu..M) greater than or equal to arachidonic acid (0.15 mM) similarly ordered FPL-55,712 (0.11 mM). At 4/sup 0/C, LTB/sub 4/ (2.3 nM) competed at least 10x more effectively than 20-OH-LTB/sub 4/ (29 nM) and 20-COOH-LTB/sub 4/ (> 6.6 ..mu..M). HPLC analysis indicated that incubation of 84 ng LTB/sub 4/ with the spleen membrane at 25/sup 0/C did not result in the formation of 20-OH-LTB/sub 4/ (< 1 ng) in the filtrate. They conclude that guinea pig spleen contains a rich tissue source of high affinity (/sup 3/H)LTB/sub 4/ receptor binding sites.

  8. Thrombospondin-4 reduces binding affinity of [(3)H]-gabapentin to calcium-channel α2δ-1-subunit but does not interact with α2δ-1 on the cell-surface when co-expressed.

    PubMed

    Lana, Beatrice; Page, Karen M; Kadurin, Ivan; Ho, Shuxian; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-01-01

    The α2δ proteins are auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels, and influence their trafficking and biophysical properties. The α2δ ligand gabapentin interacts with α2δ-1, and inhibits calcium channel trafficking. However, α2-1 has also been proposed to play a synaptogenic role, independent of calcium channel function. In this regard, α2δ-1 was identified as a ligand of thrombospondins, with the interaction involving the thrombospondin synaptogenic domain and the α2δ-1 von-Willebrand-factor domain. Co-immunoprecipitation between α2δ-1 and the synaptogenic domain of thrombospondin-2 was prevented by gabapentin. We therefore examined whether interaction of thrombospondin with α2δ-1 might reciprocally influence (3)H-gabapentin binding. We concentrated on thrombospondin-4, because, like α2δ-1, it is upregulated in neuropathic pain models. We found that in membranes from cells co-transfected with α2δ-1 and thrombospondin-4, there was a Mg(2+) -dependent reduction in affinity of (3)H-gabapentin binding to α2δ-1. This effect was lost for α2δ-1 with mutations in the von-Willebrand-factor-A domain. However, the effect on (3)H-gabapentin binding was not reproduced by the synaptogenic EGF-domain of thrombospondin-4. Partial co-immunoprecipitation could be demonstrated between thrombospondin-4 and α2δ-1 when co-transfected, but there was no co-immunoprecipitation with thrombospondin-4-EGF domain. Furthermore, we could not detect any association between these two proteins on the cell-surface, indicating the demonstrated interaction occurs intracellularly. PMID:27076051

  9. Thrombospondin-4 reduces binding affinity of [3H]-gabapentin to calcium-channel α2δ-1-subunit but does not interact with α2δ-1 on the cell-surface when co-expressed

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Beatrice; Page, Karen M.; Kadurin, Ivan; Ho, Shuxian; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    The α2δ proteins are auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels, and influence their trafficking and biophysical properties. The α2δ ligand gabapentin interacts with α2δ-1, and inhibits calcium channel trafficking. However, α2-1 has also been proposed to play a synaptogenic role, independent of calcium channel function. In this regard, α2δ-1 was identified as a ligand of thrombospondins, with the interaction involving the thrombospondin synaptogenic domain and the α2δ-1 von-Willebrand-factor domain. Co-immunoprecipitation between α2δ-1 and the synaptogenic domain of thrombospondin-2 was prevented by gabapentin. We therefore examined whether interaction of thrombospondin with α2δ-1 might reciprocally influence 3H-gabapentin binding. We concentrated on thrombospondin-4, because, like α2δ-1, it is upregulated in neuropathic pain models. We found that in membranes from cells co-transfected with α2δ-1 and thrombospondin-4, there was a Mg2+ -dependent reduction in affinity of 3H-gabapentin binding to α2δ-1. This effect was lost for α2δ-1 with mutations in the von-Willebrand-factor-A domain. However, the effect on 3H-gabapentin binding was not reproduced by the synaptogenic EGF-domain of thrombospondin-4. Partial co-immunoprecipitation could be demonstrated between thrombospondin-4 and α2δ-1 when co-transfected, but there was no co-immunoprecipitation with thrombospondin-4-EGF domain. Furthermore, we could not detect any association between these two proteins on the cell-surface, indicating the demonstrated interaction occurs intracellularly. PMID:27076051

  10. The interaction of mycobacterial protein Rv2966c with host chromatin is mediated through non-CpG methylation and histone H3/H4 binding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Upadhyay, Sandeep; Srilalitha, M; Nandicoori, Vinay K; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2015-04-30

    To effectively modulate the gene expression within an infected mammalian cell, the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis would need to bring about epigenetic modifications at appropriate genomic loci. Working on this hypothesis, we show in this study that the mycobacterial protein Rv2966c is a 5-methylcytosine-specific DNA methyltransferase that is secreted out from the mycobacterium and gets localized to the nucleus in addition to the cytoplasm inside the host cell. Importantly, Rv2966c binds to specific DNA sequences, methylates cytosines predominantly in a non-CpG context and its methylation activity is positively influenced by phosphorylation. Interestingly, like the mammalian DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3L, Rv2966c can also interact with histone proteins. Ours is the first study that identifies a protein from a pathogenic bacteria with potential to influence host DNA methylation in a non-canonical manner providing the pathogen with a novel mechanism to alter the host epigenetic machinery. This contention is supported by repression of host genes upon M. tuberculosis infection correlated with Rv2966c binding and non-CpG methylation.

  11. The interaction of mycobacterial protein Rv2966c with host chromatin is mediated through non-CpG methylation and histone H3/H4 binding

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Garima; Upadhyay, Sandeep; Srilalitha, M.; Nandicoori, Vinay K.; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    To effectively modulate the gene expression within an infected mammalian cell, the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis would need to bring about epigenetic modifications at appropriate genomic loci. Working on this hypothesis, we show in this study that the mycobacterial protein Rv2966c is a 5-methylcytosine-specific DNA methyltransferase that is secreted out from the mycobacterium and gets localized to the nucleus in addition to the cytoplasm inside the host cell. Importantly, Rv2966c binds to specific DNA sequences, methylates cytosines predominantly in a non-CpG context and its methylation activity is positively influenced by phosphorylation. Interestingly, like the mammalian DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3L, Rv2966c can also interact with histone proteins. Ours is the first study that identifies a protein from a pathogenic bacteria with potential to influence host DNA methylation in a non-canonical manner providing the pathogen with a novel mechanism to alter the host epigenetic machinery. This contention is supported by repression of host genes upon M. tuberculosis infection correlated with Rv2966c binding and non-CpG methylation. PMID:25824946

  12. Effect of after-dinner administration on the pharmacokinetics of oral flunitrazepam and loprazolam.

    PubMed

    Bareggi, S R; Pirola, R; Truci, G; Leva, S; Smirne, S

    1988-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two benzodiazepine hypnotics, flunitrazepam and loprazolam, was determined on two occasions in two groups of eight healthy volunteers. Single 2-mg oral doses of either drug were given in the fasting state at morning on one occasion and after a standard dinner at night on another. Compared with administration of drugs in the fasting state, administration of the drugs after dinner decreased peak plasma concentrations, delayed the time to reach maximum concentration, and prolonged the absorption half-life. The extent of absorption was reduced for flunitrazepam but not for loprazolam. The elimination half-life of both flunitrazepam and loprazolam was not changed in the two conditions. These changes may be of clinical significance because they can delay and reduce the effects of the drugs.

  13. Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew, E.; Parfitt, A.G.; Sugden, D.; Engelhardt, D.L.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Klein, D.C.

    1984-02-01

    Studies of (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to intact rat pineal cells were carried out in tissue culture preparations. The binding was saturable, reversible and proportional to the number of cells used. Scatchard analysis resulted in a linear plot (Kd . 23 nM, maximum binding sites (Bmax) . 1.56 pmol/mg of protein for cells in monolayer culture; Kd . 7 nM, Bmax . 1.3 pmol/mg of protein for cells in suspension culture). Inhibition constants (Ki) for clonazepam (500 nM), flunitrazepam (38 nM) and Ro-5-4864 (5 nM) indicated that the binding sites were probably of the ''peripheral'' type. In addition, the effects of diazepam on norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were studied in organ culture and dissociated cell culture. Diazepam (10-50 microM) both prolonged and increased the magnitude of the norepinephrine-induced increase in NAT activity but did not affect the initial rate of rise of enzyme activity. The effect was dose-dependent and was also seen with clonazepam, flunitrazepam and Ro-5-4864, but not with Ro-15-1788. Diazepam, by itself, at these concentrations, had no effect on NAT, but enzyme activity was increased by higher concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Although a relationship between the (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding sites described here and the effect of benzodiazepines on NAT cannot be established from these studies, the data suggest that the benzodiazepines may alter melatonin levels through their action on NAT.

  14. [Allosteric effect of serotonin and mianserin on the kinetics of specific [3H]-ligand binding to adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex membranes].

    PubMed

    Manukhin, B N; Nesterova, L A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of serotonin receptor activation (by serotonin) and inhibition (by mianserin) on the properties of the α1-, α2-adrenoreceptors, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in subcellular membrane fractions from the rat cerebral cortex were studied. Experimental data on the kinetics of specific antagonists binding to adrenergic and muscarinic receptors were analyzed by graphical and mathematical methods. The results suggest the presence of allosteric (cross-talk) interaction. In the control, α1- and α2-adrenoreceptors were represented by a single pool, and muscarinic receptors, by two pools. Two pools of adrenoreceptors with different affinity were detected against the background of serotonin. It was found that mianserin induces the formation of two pools of only (α2-receptors and muscarinic receptors are represented by two pools differing in the main parameters, such as dissociation constants and adrenoreceptor concentrations, in the control and experimental groups. It was shown that the allosteric effect of serotonin and mianserin is manifested in the inhibition of muscarinic receptors. It was assumed that the adrenergic and cholinergic receptors exist as dimers. The interaction between the adrenergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic systems is likely to be implemented at the cell membrane level.

  15. A prospective naturalistic multicentre study of intravenous medications in behavioural emergencies: haloperidol versus flunitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Kotaro; Nakamura, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Kenichi; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Wakejima, Toru; Nishimura, Takao; Furuta, Ko; Kawabata, Toshitaka; Hirata, Toyoaki; Usui, Chie; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Sawa, Yutaka

    2010-06-30

    A prospective naturalistic multicentre study for deep sedation was conducted in intensive care with continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. Clinical purpose was enough sedation, which made uncooperative and disrupted patients receive brain computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or fluid therapy, with minimum drug doses. A first infusion was either haloperidol (HAL group) or flunitrazepam (FNP group). If enough sedation was not achieved, a second infusion, which was the opposite drug to the first infusion, was given. The proportion requiring a second infusion was higher in the HAL group than in the FNP group (82% vs. 36%, P<0.0001). The mean reduction of the Excited Component for Positive and Negative syndrome scale at 15 min was greater for the FNP first group (FNP+HAL group) than the HAL first group (HAL+FNP group) (68% [S.D. 17] vs. 54% [S.D. 31], P=0.02). The mean dose of flunitrazepam in the HAL+FNP group was significantly lower than that in the FNP+HAL-group (1.3 mg vs. 3.5 mg, P=0.0003). Thus, in terms of monotherapy and speed of action, flunitrazepam has advantages over haloperidol as a first infusion for deep sedation. Regarding drug dosages, haloperidol has an advantage over flunitrazepam as a first infusion in safety.

  16. [Impacts of the new flunitrazepam regulations on the consumption of hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Basset, Gilles; Bourin, Michel; Jolliet, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    The frequent misuse of flunitrazepam has led the French drug agency (AFSSAPS [Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des produits de santé]) to subject this agent to the regulatory regime for drugs known to produce dependency; this drug may now be prescribed for no more than 14 days, is available only on an "ordonnance sécurisée" (prescribing and dispensing subject to stupefacient regulations), and pharmacists must dispense no more than 7 days' supply. We identified, in a French medical-care database, 738 patients who had received at least one flunitrazepam prescription in January 2001, and monitored the hypnotics delivered to this cohort over a period of 8 months. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had replaced flunitrazepam by another hypnotic without any further change. The most surprising result of our survey was the discovery that nearly half of the selected patients stopped using hypnotics during the review period. Although many hypotheses can be offered to account for this phenomenon, it seems that many consumers halted their consumption of flunitrazepam as a result of the new regulatory regime.

  17. [Pharmacoclinical competition between the benzodiazepines. Demonstration with diazepam and flunitrazepam in man].

    PubMed

    Richard, P; Mak, D; Deligné, P

    1981-01-01

    While using a new benzodiazepines flunitrazepam by the intravenous route in ordinary anethesia a competitive action with another benzodiazepine which is being used for the last 15 years, namely diazepam, was demonstrated for the first time in man. This study on 170 patients operated for ear, nose and throat conditions demonstrated this phenomenon, confirmed it and it was possible to reproduce the effect. The interaction is mainly characterized by: - A reduction of the effects of flunitrazepam (less profound sleep, even wakefulness with a waking patient who could talk and could react to pain). This effect was obtained with injection of a normal clinical dose of diazepam. - There was a blocking action or a reduction in the pharmacological action normally expected of flunitrazepam by the previous administration of a clinical dose of diazepam, when given by the intravenous, intramuscular or oral routes. This suggests that there are common receptor sites for these two benzodiazepines at the cerebral level and this would explain this apparently paradoxical action. Even though flunitrazepam has a greater affinity for these receptor sites this molecule seems to be displaced, according to the law of mass action, by diazepam when used at a high dose. This interaction shown for these two benzodiazepines is also seen in other derivatives of the same chemicals series. This is important in therapeutics with the increasing use of these products in general medicine, and anesthetics and neuropsychiatry where they are quite often used in association. PMID:6115608

  18. Inhibition by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs of luminol-dependent human-granulocyte chemiluminescence and /sup 3/H FMLP binding. Effect of sulindac sulfide, indomethacin metabolite, and optical enantiomers (+) and (-) MK830

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, K.; Peden, D.; Van Dyke, C.; Jones, G.; Castranova, V.; Ma, J.

    1982-03-01

    A system is described to evaluate for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by means of luminol-dependent human-granulocyte chemiluminescence (CL) is described. The CL is produced using either opsonized zymosan (yeast cells) or the soluble chemotactic peptide f-Met-Leu-Phe as the perturbant of the granulocyte membrane. Using either system, the following drug effects 2 x 10(-5) M were noted: only sulindac sulfide, and not sulindac sulfone or sulindac, displayed marked inhibition of chemiluminescence, following the in vivo data regarding inflammatory effects. The 5-OH indomethacin metabolite was likewise inactive as an inhibitor of CL mirroring in vivo effects. MK(+)410, MK(-)830 and MK835 all showed approximately 50% inhibition of CL, displaying deviation from in vivo data. MK(+)830 markedly stimulated CL, 4-6 times the control (without drug), which is clearly different from its enantiomer, MK(-)830. The reasons for this behavior are unclear. However, receptor binding studies with /sup 3/H FMLP were accomplished in the presence and absence of the various drugs at 2 x 10(-5) M that were effective inhibitors of chemiluminescence (CL). Indomethacin, MK(-)830 and MK(+)410 had equivalent percent control binding and percent control CL. Sulindac sulfide and MK(+)835 both had higher percent control binding than percent control CL, with MK(+)835 displaying apparent increased numbers of available receptors relative to control. MK(+)830, which produces large increases in CL, produced a minor effect on percent control binding. A direct relationship between binding and CL does not exist with each drug. Chemiluminescence is dependent on ion movement and oxidative metabolism and is a secondary event to agonist-receptor occupation.

  19. Deposition of 7-aminoflunitrazepam and flunitrazepam in hair after a single dose of Rohypnol.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, A; Moore, C M; Hinkel, K B; Stockham, T L; Verma, M; Strong, M J; Janicak, P G

    2001-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable increase in the number of reports on drug-facilitated sexual assault. Benzodiazepines are the most common so-called "date-rape" drugs, with flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) being one of the most frequently mentioned. The aim of this study was to determine whether flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam could be detected in hair collected from ten healthy volunteers after receiving a single 2 mg dose of Rohypnol using solid phase extraction and NCI-GC-MS. Such data would be of great importance to law enforcement agencies trying to determine the best time interval for hair collection from a victim of drug-facilitated sexual assault in order to reveal drug use. Ten healthy volunteers (eight women and two men, 21 to 49 years old) participated in the study. The following hair samples were collected from each volunteer: one before flunitrazepam administration, and 1, 3, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days after. In five volunteers, 7-aminoflunitrazepam was detected 24 h after flunitrazepam administration and remained in hair throughout the entire 28-day study period (0.6-8.0 pg/mg). In two cases, 7-aminoflunitrazepam appeared in hair 21 days after drug intake (0.5-2.7 pg/mg), and in two subjects 14 days later (0.5-5.4 pg/mg). In one volunteer, 7-aminoflunitrazepam was detected on day 14 and 21 but concentrations were below the quantitation limit. Flunitrazepam was detected in some samples but all concentrations were below the quantitation limit (0.5-2.3 pg/mg). PMID:11569557

  20. Experimental measurement of the van der Waals binding energy of X-O{sub 2} clusters (X=Xe,CH{sub 3}I,C{sub 3}H{sub 6},C{sub 6}H{sub 12})

    SciTech Connect

    Vidma, Konstantin V.; Bogdanchikov, Georgii A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.; Chestakov, Dmitri A.; Parker, David H.

    2010-11-21

    Van der Waals binding energies for the X-O{sub 2} complexes (X=Xe,CH{sub 3}I,C{sub 3}H{sub 6},C{sub 6}H{sub 12}) are determined by analysis of experimental velocity map imaging data for O({sup 3}P{sub 2}) atoms arising from UV-photodissociation of the complex [A. V. Baklanov et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 124316 (2007)]. Several dissociation pathways have been observed, we focus on the channel corresponding to prompt dissociation of X-O{sub 2} into X+2O({sup 3}P) fragments, which is present for complexes of O{sub 2} with all partners X. Our method is based on analysis of the kinetic energy of all three photofragments, where the O atom kinetic energy was directly measured in the experiment and the kinetic energy of the X partner was calculated using momentum conservation, along with the measured angular anisotropy for O atom recoil. We exploit the fact that the clusters are all T-shaped or nearly T-shaped, which we also confirm by ab initio calculations, along with knowledge of the transition dipole governing radiative absorption by the complex. The effect of partitioning the kinetic energy between translation along the X-O{sub 2} and O-O coordinates on the angular anisotropy of the O atom recoil direction is discussed. Van der Waals binding energies of 110{+-}20 cm{sup -1}, 280{+-}20 cm{sup -1}, 135{+-}30 cm{sup -1}, and 585{+-}20 cm{sup -1} are determined for Xe-O{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}I-O{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 6}-O{sub 2}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 12}-O{sub 2} clusters, respectively.

  1. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-12-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with (/sup 3/H)-labeled flunitrazepam at 37/sup 0/C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37/sup 0/C until just prior to filtration.

  2. Flunitrazepam consumption among heroin addicts admitted for in-patient detoxification.

    PubMed

    San, L; Tato, J; Torrens, M; Castillo, C; Farré, M; Camí, J

    1993-05-01

    The use of benzodiazepines among 973 heroin addicts admitted for inpatient detoxification over a 10-year period was assessed in a cross-sectional study. A total of 780 (80.2%) patients had a history of benzodiazepine use; 666 (68.5%) were consuming benzodiazepines at the time of admission and 419 (43.1%) on an almost daily basis. Seventy-five (7.7%) patients fulfilled criteria for sedative-hypnotic abuse or dependence. Consumption of benzodiazepines began after subjects had become addicted to heroin. Flunitrazepam was ranked first by 68.4% of patients, followed by clorazepate (13%), and diazepam (12.4%). The prevalence of benzodiazepine use, in particular flunitrazepam, among heroin addicts is very high. Specific abuse liability studies are needed to determine whether pharmacologic reasons exist to explain heroin addicts' preference for this compound.

  3. Selective labeling of serotonin uptake sites in rat brain by (/sup 3/H)citalopram contrasted to labeling of multiple sites by (/sup 3/H)imipramine

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amato, R.J.; Largent, B.L.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    Citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin uptake. In rat brain membranes (/sup 3/H)citalopram demonstrates saturable and reversible binding with a KD of 0.8 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 570 fmol/mg of protein. The drug specificity for (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding and synaptosomal serotonin uptake are closely correlated. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding by both serotonin and imipramine is consistent with a competitive interaction in both equilibrium and kinetic analyses. The autoradiographic pattern of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding sites closely resembles the distribution of serotonin. By contrast, detailed equilibrium-saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding reveals two binding components, i.e., high affinity (KD = 9 nM, Bmax = 420 fmol/mg of protein) and low affinity (KD = 553 nM, Bmax = 8560 fmol/mg of protein) sites. Specific (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, defined as the binding inhibited by 100 microM desipramine, is displaced only partially by serotonin. Various studies reveal that the serotonin-sensitive portion of binding corresponds to the high affinity sites of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding whereas the serotonin-insensitive binding corresponds to the low affinity sites. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with p-chloroamphetamine causes a large decrease in (/sup 3/H)citalopram and serotonin-sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding with only a small effect on serotonin-insensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding. The dissociation rate of (/sup 3/H)imipramine or (/sup 3/H)citalopram is not altered by citalopram, imipramine or serotonin up to concentrations of 10 microM. The regional distribution of serotonin sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine high affinity binding sites closely resembles that of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding.

  4. Distribution and abundance of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 in rat brain revealed by [3H]LY354740 binding in vitro and quantitative radioautography: correlation with the sites of synthesis, expression, and agonist stimulation of [35S]GTPgammas binding.

    PubMed

    Richards, Grayson; Messer, Jürg; Malherbe, Pari; Pink, Richard; Brockhaus, Manfred; Stadler, Heinz; Wichmann, Jürgen; Schaffhauser, Hervé; Mutel, Vincent

    2005-06-20

    Until recently, there was a lack of selective radioligands for the subtypes of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. [(3)H]LY354740 ((+)-2-aminobicyclo[3,1,0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), a selective agonist for group II receptors (mGlu2 and -3, which are negatively coupled to cAMP production), has now been used to map their brain distribution and abundance by in vitro binding and quantitative radioautography. The selective cation dependence of its binding allowed the discrimination between mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor labeling. Thus, in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, the agonist bound selectively to mGlu2 receptors as evidenced by: 1) the correlative distribution and abundance of binding sites (highest in the lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus and lowest in white matter) with mGlu2 receptor mRNA and protein revealed by in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, respectively; 2) its selective pharmacology; and 3) the distribution of LY354740-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (25-97% above basal, according to the brain region), revealing G protein-coupled receptor coupling to G(i) proteins. Nonspecific binding (in the presence of 10 muM DCG-IV, a group II-selective, mGlu2-preferring, receptor agonist) was <10% of total. In adjacent sections, the distribution of binding sites for [(3)H]DCG-IV was very similar. This extensive study paves the way for investigations of the regional expression and regulation of mGlu2 receptors in human CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, which may reveal their functional roles and identify potential therapeutic drug targets. Indeed, it has recently been demonstrated (Higgins et al. [2004] Neuropharmacology 46:907-917) that pharmacological manipulation of mGlu2 receptors influences cognitive performance in the rodent. PMID:15861463

  5. Benzodiazepine binding sites in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue: effect of cold environment, denervation and endocrine ablations

    SciTech Connect

    Solveyra, C.G.; Romeo, H.E.; Rosenstein, R.E.; Estevez, A.G.; Cardinali, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 3/H-Flunitrazepam (FNZP) binding was examined in a crude membrane fraction obtained from rat interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). A single population of binding sites was apparent with dissociation constant (K/sub D/) = 0.47 +/- 0.04 uM and maximal number of binding sites (B/sub max/ = 31 +/- 5 pmol.mg prot/sup -1/. From the activity of several benzodiazepine (BZP) analogs to compete for the binding, the peripheral nature of FNZP binding was tentatively established. Similar BZP binding sites were detectable in isolated IBAT mitochondria. Exposure of rats to 4 /sup 0/C for 15 days decreased B/sub max/ significantly without affecting K/sub D/. Cold-induced decrease in B/sub max/ of BZP binding was prevented by surgical IBAT denervation. Denervation prevented or impaired the increased activity of the mitochondrial markers succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in IBAT of cold-exposed rats, but did not affect monoamine oxidase activity. Their results indicate that BZP binding in rat IBAT may belong to the peripheral type, is decreased by a cold environment through activation of peripheral sympathetic nerves and is affected by hypophysectomy. BZP and GDP binding in IBAT mitochondria seem not to be functionally related. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Acute ischaemia of the leg following accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

    PubMed

    Leifert, J A; Bossaller, L; Uhl, M

    2008-11-01

    Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is a sporadic complication in i.v. drug addicts. A 22-year-old drug-abuser injected flunitrazepam tablets dissolved in tap water into her left femoral artery and presented with clinical signs of acute ischaemia of the left leg. Severe rhabdomyolysis developed within 5 hours after the injection. Selective arterial catheter angiography showed an acute occlusion of the posterior tibial artery. Combination therapy with i.a. urokinase, i.a. prostaglandines and i.v. anticoagulation resulted in re-opening of the obstructed distal artery and complete cessation of symptoms.

  7. Immunomodulating properties of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam and ethanol in 'club drugs' users.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Farré, Magi; Abanades, Sergio; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Langohr, Klaus; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) toxicity in users, no studies have addressed GHB and other club drugs effects on the immune system under controlled administration. Lymphocyte subsets and functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation were measured in 10 healthy male recreational users of GHB who participated in five experimental sessions within the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double blind, double dummy and cross-over. Drug conditions were: a single oral dose of GHB (40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg), ethanol (0.7 g/kg), flunitrazepam (1.25 mg) and placebo. Acute GHB produced a time-dependent immune impairment in the first 4 hours after drug administration associated with an increase in cortisol secretion. Although total leukocyte count remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in the CD4 T/CD8 T-cell ratio, as well as in the percentage of mature T lymphocytes, probably because of a decrease in both the percentage and absolute number of T helper cells. A significant decrease was also observed in natural killer cells and in functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. Flunitrazepam administration did not produce any change in the immune system, while ethanol intake produced a decrease in B lymphocytes and in lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens. These results provide the first evidence that GHB intake under a controlled environmental setting impairs the immunological status and confirms the alterations in the immune function caused by ethanol.

  8. [Suicidal monointoxication with flunitrazepam. Further comment on coloration phenomena of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Balmaceda-Harmelink, Ute; Andresen, Hilke; Tsokos, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Fatal monointoxications with benzodiazepines, for instance with a suicidal intention, are exceptional findings. We report the autopsy case of an 82-year-old woman who died due to a suicidal monointoxication with Rohypnol 1 mg film tablets (therapeutical agent: flunitrazepam). 0.065 mg/L flunitrazepam and 0.34 mg/L 7-aminoflunitrazepam were detected in a postmortem heart blood sample and toxicological analysis revealed the metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in gastric contents, too. At external examination, a bluish-turquoise coloration was seen around the woman's right nostril and within the oral cavity. At autopsy, similar coloration phenomena were seen on the mucosa of the distal esophagus and the stomach. Formerly, bluish stains on mouth and nostrils were considered indicative of intoxications with organophosphates such as parathion (E 605). More recently, case reports accumulate where an intoxication with Rohypnol 1 film tablets (containing the coloring agent indigocarmine in its core) have to be considered as a potential differential diagnosis of such coloration phenomena.

  9. Comparison of hangover effects among triazolam, flunitrazepam and quazepam in healthy subjects: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Taro; Okajima, Yuka; Otsubo, Tempei; Shinoda, Junko; Mimura, Masaru; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the hangover effects of night-time administration of triazolam (0.25 mg), flunitrazepam (1 mg) and quazepam (15 mg) in healthy subjects. Daytime sleepiness and performance level following the night-time administration of the drugs were assessed using Standford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ), Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), actigraphy recordings and Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Fifteen healthy volunteers were given one of the three hypnotics at each drug session, which lasted for 1 week, in a single-blind cross-over fashion. No significant between-drug difference was observed for the psychomotor performance assessed by CPT. Subjective hangover effects assessed by SSS and SEQ in the morning were prominent for flunitrazepam and quazepam relative to triazolam, whereas objective indices such as MSLT or activity counts obtained in actigraphy indicated a marked hangover effect of quazepam compared with the other two compounds restrictively in the afternoon, which were nearly in accordance with their pharmacokinetic profiles.

  10. (/sup 3/H)U-69593 labels a subtype of kappa opiate receptor with characteristics different from that labeled by (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Nock, B.; Rajpara, A.; O'Connor, L.H.; Cicero, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)U-69593 is an opiate agonist that has been reported to bind in vitro with high affinity and selectivity to the kappa receptor subtype. The studies reported here were designed to determine the optimal conditions for labeling kappa receptors with (/sup 3/H)U-69593 and to further characterize the binding site. The effects of temperature and NaCl on (/sup 3/H)U-69593 binding were of particular interest because previous studies reported that (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine ((/sup 3/H)EKC) and (/sup 3/H)bremazocine binding to kappa receptors was optimal at 4/sup 0/C in the presence of NaCl. Those conditions were not found to be optimal for (/sup 3/H)U-69593 binding. Although the pharmacological specificity and Bmax of (/sup 3/H)U-69593 binding was similar at room temperature and at 4/sup 0/C, the binding affinity was approximately three times lower at 4/sup 0/C than at room temperature. In addition, NaCl had an effect on (/sup 3/H)U-69593 binding that was opposite that on (/sup 3/H)EKC binding at 4/sup 0/C. These differences between (/sup 3/H)U-69593 and (/sup 3/H)EKC binding at 4/sup 0/C were accentuated by a vast difference in the density of the binding sites and suggested that (/sup 3/H)U-69593 might bind selectively to a kappa receptor subtype.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of 3H-labelled tetrahydrobiopterin.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, E R; Schmid, M; Werner-Felmayer, G; Mayer, B; Wachter, H

    1994-01-01

    We synthesized [3'-3H]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin from [8,5'-3H]guanosine 5'-triphosphate ([8,5'-3H]GTP) using GTP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.16), 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase (EC 1.1.1.153). After purification by cation-exchange h.p.l.c. a solution of radiochemically pure (> 95%) [3'-3H]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin with a specific activity of 9.2 Ci/mmol was obtained. The product proved well suited for studying the binding of tetrahydrobiopterin to nitric-oxide synthase. PMID:7528005

  12. [Anesthesia with flunitrazepam/fentanyl and isoflurane/fentanyl. Unconscious perception and mid-latency auditory evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Schwender, D; Kaiser, A; Klasing, S; Faber-Züllig, E; Golling, W; Pöppel, E; Peter, K

    1994-05-01

    There is a high incidence of intraoperative awareness during cardiac surgery. Mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) reflect the primary cortical processing of auditory stimuli. In the present study, we investigated MLAEP and explicit and implicit memory for information presented during cardiac anaesthesia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Institutional approval and informed consent was obtained in 30 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia was induced in group I (n = 10) with flunitrazepam/fentanyl (0.01 mg/kg) and maintained with flunitrazepam/fentanyl (1.2 mg/h). The patients in group II (n = 10) received etomidate (0.25 mg/kg) and fentanyl (0.005 mg/kg) for induction and isoflurane (0.6-1.2 vol%)/fentanyl (1.2 mg/h) for maintenance of general anaesthesia. Group III (n = 10) served as a control and patients were anaesthetized as in I or II. After sternotomy an audiotape that included an implicit memory task was presented to the patients in groups I and II. The story of Robinson Crusoe was told, and it was suggested to the patients that they remember Robinson Crusoe when asked what they associated with the word Friday 3-5 days postoperatively. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded awake and during general anaesthesia before and after the audiotape presentation on vertex (positive) and mastoids on both sides (negative). Auditory clicks were presented binaurally at 70 dBnHL at a rate of 9.3 Hz. Using the electrodiagnostic system Pathfinder I (Nicolet), 1000 successive stimulus responses were averaged over a 100 ms poststimulus interval and analyzed off-line. Latencies of the peak V, Na, Pa were measured. V belongs to the brainstem-generated potentials, which demonstrates that auditory stimuli were correctly transduced. Na, Pa are generated in the primary auditory cortex of the temporal lobe and are the electrophysiological correlate of the primary cortical processing of the auditory stimuli. RESULTS. None of the patients had an explicit memory

  13. Flunitrazepam rapidly reduces GABAA receptor subunit protein expression via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jonathan D; Price, Sally A; Bristow, David R

    1998-01-01

    Acute flunitrazepam (1 μM) exposure for 1 h reduced GABAA receptor α1 (22±4%, mean±s.e.mean) and β2/3 (21±4%) subunit protein levels in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. This rapid decrease in subunit proteins was completely prevented by bisindolymaleimide 1 (1 μM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but not by N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89, 4.8 μM), an inhibitor of protein kinases A and G. These results suggest the existence of a benzodiazepine-induced mechanism to rapidly alter GABAA receptor protein expression, that appears to be dependent on protein kinase C activity. PMID:9723942

  14. Autoradiographic localization of (3H) gepirone in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.E.; Matheson, G.K. )

    1990-02-26

    Gepirone is an anxiolytic compound active at the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor site. The purpose of this study was to locate the ({sup 3}H)gepirone in the rat brain and to determine the quantity of gepirone in these locations. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with (3H)gepirone (200 {mu}Ci/kg, i.v.) and decapitated 10 minutes later. To determine specific binding some animals were pretreated with cold gepirone (1 mg/kg) 15 minutes before the (3H)gepirone treatment. The brains were removed, frozen, sectioned, and fixed in formaldehyde vapors. Tritium sensitive film was exposed to the sections for 106 days. Using computerized imaging technology data were obtained from 104 brain sites. Overall, the quantity of (3H)gepirone in each site correlated proportionally with known 5-HT{sub 1A} (in vitro) receptor binding.

  15. Structure of the high-affinity binding site for noncompetitive blockers of the acetylcholine receptor: (/sup 3/H)chlorpromazine labels homologous residues in the. beta. and delta chains

    SciTech Connect

    Giraudat, J.; Dennis, M.; Heidmann, T.; Haumont, P.Y.; Lederer, F.; Changeux, J.P.

    1987-05-05

    The membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata was photolabeled by the noncompetitive channel blocker (/sup 3/H)chlorpromazine under equilibrium conditions in the presence of the agonist carbamoylcholine. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into all subunits was reduced by addition of phencyclidine, a specific ligand for the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers. The labeled ..beta.. chain was purified and digested with trypsin or CNBr, and the resulting fragments were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sequence analysis resulted in the identification of Ser-254 and Leu-257 as residues labeled by (/sup 3/H)chlorpromazine in a phencyclidine-sensitive manner. These residues are located in the hydrophobic and potentially transmembrane segment M II of the ..beta.. chain, a region homologous to that containing the chlorpromazine-labeled Ser-262 in the delta chain. These results show that homologous regions of different receptor subunits contribute to the unique high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers, a finding consistent with the location of this site on the axis of symmetry of the receptor molecule.

  16. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, B. Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N.; Hyhlik-Duerr, A.; Weber, M.-A.; Boeckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  17. Postmortem distribution of flunitrazepam and its metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in body fluids and solid tissues in an autopsy case: Usefulness of bile for their detection.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Koutaro; Wurita, Amin; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    We experienced an autopsy case of a woman in her 70s, in which the direct cause of her death was judged as asphyxia due to the occlusion of food in the trachea. The postmortem interval was estimated at about 2days. The specimens dealt with were femoral vein blood, right heart blood, left heart blood, bile, brain, lung, heart muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. By tentative drug screening, we found a high concentration of 7-aminoflunitrazepam in the femoral vein blood, which lead us to examine the postmortem distribution of flunitrazepam and its metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in her body fluids and solid tissues. The extraction of flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam and internal standard nimetazepam was performed by a modified QuEChERS method, followed by the analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because this study included various kinds of human matrices with quite different properties, we used the standard additional method to overcome the matrix effects. The concentration of 7-aminoflunitrazepam were generally much higher than those of the parent drug flunitrazepam for most specimens except for the adipose tissue, showing that flunitrazepam is readily metabolized to its 7-amino metabolite after absorption into the body both antemortem and postmortem. The outstandingly highest concentration of 7-animoflunitrazepam was found in the bile, followed by the kidney, pancreas, left heart blood, spleen and liver. Although a majority of flunitrazepam was converted to 7-aminoflunitrazepam, the flunitrazepam concentration was highest in the pancreas, followed by the spleen, bile, left heart blood, and brain. In contrast to the results on synthetic cannabinoids, the levels of flunitrazepam and 7-animoflunitrazepam in the adipose tissue were relatively low. The present study showed that the bile may be a useful specimen for detection of unchanged benzodiazepines/their metabolites to be collected at autopsy. PMID

  18. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) juice exerts an anticonvulsant effect in mice through binding to GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Muceniece, Ruta; Saleniece, Kristine; Krigere, Liga; Rumaks, Juris; Dzirkale, Zane; Mezhapuke, Rudolfs; Kviesis, Jorens; Mekss, Peteris; Klusa, Vija; Schiöth, Helgi B; Dambrova, Maija

    2008-04-01

    Naturally occurring benzodiazepines have been identified in regular food such as wheat and potato, but there is still no evidence that potato extracts can affect CNS responses in vivo. Here we found that undiluted potato juice and potato juice diluted with saline 1 : 2 administered 10 min intracisternally ( I. C.) and 30 min per os before bicuculline exerted significant anticonvulsant activity in the bicuculline-induced seizure threshold test in mice. In vitro, potato juice from different harvests at dilution series from 10 % to 0.000001 %, diluted 100,000-fold, displaced 50 % of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ligand [ (3)H]GABA and diluted 40-fold displaced 50 % of [(3)H]flunitrazepam from binding sites in mice forebrain membranes. The low content of diazepam (0.04 +/- 0.01 mg/kg) determined by HPLC and mass spectrometry in the potato extracts could not sustain the anticonvulsant activity of potato juice in vivo; therefore we hypothesized that potato juice might contain GABA (A) receptor GABA-site active compounds. The findings of this study suggest that potato juice as well as potato taken as food may have the capacity of influencing brain GABA-ergic activity.

  19. In vivo labeling of cocaine receptors with sup 3 H-(-) cocaine, sup 3 H-WIN 35,065-2 and sup 3 H-WIN 35,428

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffel, U.; Boja, J.W.; Stathis, M.; Kuhar, M.J. )

    1990-02-26

    {sup 11}C-(-)cocaine (-COC) has recently been employed to image -COC binding sites in vivo using PET. Two analogs of -COC, WIN 35,065-2 (WIN-2) and WIN 35,428 (CFT), have been shown in vitro to exhibit higher affinity for the -COC receptor than -COC. The present study evaluates {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT as in vivo receptor labels in mice with a view towards the use of these compounds as PET ligands for -COC receptors in the living human brain. {sup 3}H-labeled -COC, WIN-2 and CFT were injected i.v. into mice and their specific binding in the CNS determined. Peak striatal/cerebellar (S/C) ratios were reached at 5 minutes post injection with -COC (1.56), at 45 minutes with {sup 3}H-WIN-2 (3.30) and 60 minutes with {sup 3}H-CFT (4.0). The specificity of in vivo binding of {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT was tested by pre-injection of various drugs. Binding of {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT was dose-dependently blocked by cold WIN-2 and CFT, and by dopamine uptake site inhibitors (mazindol, GBR 12,909, nomifensine), but not by (+)COC, paroxetine and desipramine. The data indicate that {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT exhibit improved in vivo binding (higher S/C ratios, longer retention time at the -COC receptor/dopamine transporter) compared to -COC and support their testing in PET studies.

  20. ( sup 3 H)-DOB(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine) and ( sup 3 H) ketanserin label two affinity states of the cloned human 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Branchek, T.; Adham, N.; Macchi, M.; Kao, H.T.; Hartig, P.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The binding properties of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor have been the subject of much interest and debate in recent years. The hallucinogenic amphetamine derivative 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine (DOB) has been shown to bind to a small number of binding sites with properties very similar to (3H)ketanserin-labeled 5-HT2 receptors, but with much higher agonist affinities. Some researchers have interpreted this as evidence for the existence of a new subtype of 5-HT2 receptor (termed 5-HT2A), whereas others have interpreted these data as indicative of agonist high affinity and agonist low affinity states for the 5-HT2 receptor. In this investigation, a cDNA clone encoding the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor was transiently transfected into monkey kidney Cos-7 cells and stably transfected into mouse fibroblast L-M(TK-) cells. In both systems, expression of this single serotonin receptor cDNA led to the appearance of both (3H)DOB and (3H)ketanserin binding sites with properties that matched their binding characteristics in mammalian brain homogenates. Addition of guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) to this system caused a rightward shift and steepening of agonist competition curves for (3H) ketanserin binding, converting a two-site binding curve to a single low affinity binding state. Gpp(NH)p addition also caused a 50% decrease in the number of high affinity (3H)DOB binding sites, with no change in the dissociation constant of the remaining high affinity states. These data on a single human 5-HT2 receptor cDNA expressed in two different transfection host cells indicate that (3H)DOB and (3H)ketanserin binding reside on the same gene product, apparently interacting with agonist and antagonist conformations of a single human 5-HT2 receptor protein.

  1. Biological concentration of /sup 3/H

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Bretthauer, E.W.; Patzer, R.G.

    1987-10-01

    In a three-year study, the possible biological concentration of /sup 3/H in rabbits was investigated. Tritiated water was used to grow alfalfa that was used exclusively as feed for the rabbits. Feed and water were kept at a constant /sup 3/H-to-/sup 1/H ratio. The foundation group consisted of 18 female rabbits maintained on a /sup 3/H diet for 2 wk before mating. The subsequent generations were maintained with tritiated water and feed. At appropriate intervals, animals were sacrificed and selected tissues were analyzed for /sup 3/H. The specific activity of /sup 3/H in aqueous and organic fractions of tissues of all the animals remained essentially equal to that in the original water and feed. Results of this experiment indicate that under the steady-state equilibrium conditions of the experiment, no preferential concentration of /sup 3/H in animals occurred.

  2. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.

  3. Binding of fluoroanions by a cationic cobalt(III) complex: Syntheses, characterization and single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(phen) 2CO 3]BF 4 and [Co(phen) 2CO 3]PF 6·3H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Singh, Ajnesh; Venugopalan, Paloth; Harrison, William T. A.

    2011-05-01

    In an effort to utilize the cationic cobalt(III) complex as a binding agent for fluoroanions, the reaction of carbonatobis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride with sodium tetrafluoroborate and sodium hexafluorophosphate in water (1:1 M ratio) leads to the formation of [Co(phen) 2CO 3]BF 4 ( 1) and [Co(phen) 2CO 3]PF 6·3H 2O ( 2). These cobalt(III) complex salts have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic techniques (multinuclear NMR, UV/Visible and FT-IR), solubility product and conductance measurements. X-ray structure determination of these complex salts revealed the presence of ionic structures i.e., one complex cation [Co(phen) 2CO 3] + and one BF4- anion in 1 and one complex cation [Co(phen) 2CO 3] +, one PF6- anion and three water molecules of crystallisation in 2. The packings in both complex salts are stabilized by C sbnd H⋯F, C sbnd H⋯O(carbonato) hydrogen bonds and anion⋯π interactions beside electrostatic forces of attraction. In addition to these non-covalent interactions, O sbnd H⋯O(water) and π-π stacking interactions are also observed in 2. The formation of complex salts of definite composition with tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate ions suggest that [Co(phen) 2CO 3] + may be used as binding agent for weakly coordinating fluoroanions i.e. BF4- and PF6-.

  4. CAF-1-induced oligomerization of histones H3/H4 and mutually exclusive interactions with Asf1 guide H3/H4 transitions among histone chaperones and DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wallace H; Roemer, Sarah C; Port, Alex M; Churchill, Mair E A

    2012-12-01

    Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) chaperone histones H3/H4 during the assembly of nucleosomes on newly replicated DNA. To understand the mechanism of histone H3/H4 transfer among Asf1, CAF-1 and DNA from a thermodynamic perspective, we developed and employed biophysical approaches using full-length proteins in the budding yeast system. We find that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 enhances the interaction of Asf1 with CAF-1. Surprisingly, although H3/H4 also enhances the interaction of Asf1 with the CAF-1 subunit Cac2, H3/H4 forms a tight complex with CAF-1 exclusive of Asf1, with an affinity weaker than Asf1-H3/H4 or H3/H4-DNA interactions. Unlike Asf1, monomeric CAF-1 binds to multiple H3/H4 dimers, which ultimately promotes the formation of (H3/H4)(2) tetramers on DNA. Thus, transition of H3/H4 from the Asf1-associated dimer to the DNA-associated tetramer is promoted by CAF-1-induced H3/H4 oligomerization.

  5. Effect of hemoglobin on the uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and /sup 3/H-choline chloride into porcine cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Linnik, M.D.; Lee, T.J.F.

    1986-03-01

    Prolonged constriction of cerebral arteries often follows subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH exposes hemoglobin (Hb) to cerebral arteries and Hb has been demonstrated to induce vasoconstriction as well as alter cerebrovascular neurogenic response characteristics. The effect of Hb on uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (/sup 3/H-NE) and /sup 3/H-choline chloride (/sup 3/H-ChCl) into porcine cerebral arteries was therefore examined. 0.5 to 50 ..mu..M porcine Hb caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-NE uptake into the anterior (ANT), internal carotid (IC) and middle cerebral (MC) arteries of the pig. IC/sub 50/ values for uptake inhibition were: ANT, 31 ..mu..M; IC, 34 ..mu..M; MC, 37 ..mu..M. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) in the same concentration range also caused a decrease in /sup 3/H-NE uptake. An examination of protein-ligand interactions using column chromatography demonstrated binding of /sup 3/H-NE by both Hb and PSA. This protein binding may be responsible for part of the uptake inhibition. Hb and PSA had little effect on /sup 3/H-ChCl uptake into these arteries.

  6. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  7. Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in hyperplastic human prostate: identification and characterization using (/sup 3/H) rauwolscine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine ((/sup 3/H)Ra), a selective ligand for the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor, was used to identify and characterize alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in prostate glands of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)Ra to prostatic tissue homogenates was rapid and readily reversible by addition of excess unlabelled phentolamine. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments demonstrates a single, saturable class of high affinity binding sites (Bmax = 0.31 +/- 0.04 fmol./microgram. DNA, Kd = 0.9 +/- 0.11 nM.). The relative potency of alpha adrenergic drugs (clonidine, alpha-methylnorepinephrine and prazosin) in competing for (/sup 3/H)Ra binding sites was consistent with the order predicted for an alpha 2 subtype. The role of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in normal prostatic function and in men with bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH requires further investigation.

  8. Differences in affinity of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors for (3H)dihydroalprenolol

    SciTech Connect

    Muntz, K.H.; Calianos, T.A.; Vandermolen, D.T.; Willerson, J.T.; Buja, L.M.

    1986-03-01

    We performed quantitative light microscopic autoradiography of (3H)dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to frozen sections of canine myocardium to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors on various tissue compartments. In one study, with concentrations of (3H)DHA from 0.34 to 5.1 nM, specific binding to cardiac myocytes was saturable, whereas nonspecific binding was linear with ligand concentration. Arterioles had more specific grain counts than muscle cells (P less than 0.0001), and Scatchard analysis showed that the arterioles had a much higher affinity for (3H)DHA than myocytes. In a second study with lower concentrations of (3H)DHA (0.19-1.98 nM), binding to the arterioles saturated, whereas binding to the cardiac myocytes did not. Specific binding to arterioles was significantly higher (P less than 0.0001) than binding to myocytes at all concentrations of (3H)DHA. The dissociation constants for the subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes were 1.57 and 1.71 nM, respectively, while the dissociation constant for the arterioles was 0.26 nM. The maximum number of binding sites was 911 grains/0.9 X 10(-2) mm2 for subepicardial myocytes, 936 for subendocardial myocytes, and 986 for arterioles. The large nerves accompanying an epicardial artery also demonstrated specific (3H)DHA binding. Thus this study has demonstrated major differences in the distribution and affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors, which may help to explain various physiological responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  9. [Hemodynamic effects of an etomidate-flunitrazepam or midazolam- fentanyl combination for induction of anesthesia in patients with heart valve diseases].

    PubMed

    Murday, H K; Hack, G; Hermanns, E; Rudolph, A

    1985-08-01

    A comparison of the haemodynamic effects of 3 anaesthetic techniques, the combinations etomidate + fentanyl (I), flunitrazepam + fentanyl (II) or midazolam + fentanyl (III), respectively was carried out in 45 patients undergoing various types of cardiac valve replacement surgery. Haemodynamics were assessed by continuously measuring the heart rate as well as the blood pressure in the systemic and pulmonary circulations whereas the cardiac output was measured intermittently. In the first 30 minutes after induction of anaesthesia, a mean arterial blood pressure drop of 10% (I), 20% (II) or 15% (III) respectively, was observed; at the same time, the rate did not change significantly. Cardiac index, however, fell significantly in all 3 groups by 33% (I) 30% (II) or 28% (III), respectively. Pulmonary pressure, wedge pressure and systemic vascular resistance rose only in groups I and III and decreased in group II (flunitrazepam + fentanyl). On the other hand, pulmonary vascular resistance as well as left ventricular work index were significantly decreased in all 3 groups. We conclude that all 3 anaesthetic techniques investigated here may be effectively applied for safe induction of anaesthesia in patients with valvular lesions of the heart. On account of the effect of the combination flunitrazepam + fentanyl on decreasing pulmonary artery pressure and wedge pressure, this technique seems to be preferable in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Rapid method for the solid-phase extraction and GC-MS analysis of flunitrazepam and its major metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H; Nau, D R

    2000-01-01

    Recently, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) has become an increasingly popular drug of abuse among young adults, who take it for its euphoric effects. In other cases, the drug has been used by rapists for its sedative and hypnotic effects that can induce a catatonialike trance and memory loss in potential victims; as a result, it has been nicknamed the "date-rape drug". For these reasons, the Drug Enforcement Administration recently considered adding the drug (a.k.a. "Roofies") to the same category as heroin and LSD. A selective and sensitive technique has been developed for extracting, detecting, and identifying flunitrazepam and its two major metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam and N-desmethylflunitrazepam) in human urine. Using a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing a "mixed-mode" bonded silica gel (Bond Elut Certify), flunitrazepam and its metabolites were selectively isolated from other urine components and quantitated and identified by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a benchtop ion mass spectrometer. The extraction method is rapid, reproducible, and precise, and it has a broad linear working range. The overall extraction efficiency was found to be more than 90% for the parent drug as well as the two major metabolites. PMID:10654568

  11. (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926, a novel radiolabeled vasopressin antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Stassen, F.L.; Heckman, D.; Schmidt, D.; Landvatter, S.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Vasopressin receptor binding studies have been carried out with radiolabeled agonists. They have labeled SK and F 101926 (desGlyd(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)VAVP), a potent antagonist of vascular (V1) and renal (V2) vasopressin receptors, with (/sup 3/H)-Phe (37 Ci/mmol). They studied V1 receptors of cultured smooth muscle cells of rat aorta (A-10) and liver, and V2 receptors of pig kidney. (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926 binding to plasma membranes of A-10 cells was specific (non-specific binding with 10 ..mu..M AVP), saturable, and of high affinity. At 0.4nM, the specific binding was 50%. A linear Scatchard plot indicated one antagonist affinity (KD = 0.4nM; Bmax = 100-150 fmol/10/sup 6/ cells). In contrast, the Scatchard plot of (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding was curvilinear. Specific (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926 binding was inhibited by AVP and vasopressin antagonists d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP > d(CH2)5DTyr(Et)VAVP > d(CH2)5Tyr(Et)VAVP > d(CH2)5D-IleVAVP. The rank orders of the antagonists for vasopressin receptors of rat liver and A-10 cells determined with (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926 and (/sup 3/H)-AVP were the same. GppNHp did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926 binding. In competition experiments with cell and liver membranes, GppNHp decreased the affinity of AVP but not of the antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP. (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926 also appeared to bind specifically to crude membranes of pig kidney medulla. In conclusion, the antagonist (/sup 3/H)-SK and F 101926 binds specifically and with high affinity to vasopressin receptors and is, thus, a powerful new tool to study vasopressin receptors.

  12. New GABA/Glutamate Receptor Target for [3H]Isoxazoline Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    García-Reynaga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunqing; Sarpong, Richmond; Casida, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The highly-effective and selective isoxazoline insecticide A1443 is known to potently displace [3H]ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H]EBOB) binding to house fly head membranes with an IC50 of 0.2 nM in a manner characteristic of GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists. To further define its mode of action, we prepared phenyl-labeled [3H]A1443 as described with a specific activity of 14 Ci/mmol. This new radioligand with an apparent IC50 of about 0.4 nM is poorly displaced by most insecticides acting at the [3H]EBOB site. Interestingly, the isoxazoline binding site is directly coupled to the avermectin GABA/glutamate chloride channels activator site. These findings revive interest in the insect GABA/glutamate receptor as an insecticide target. PMID:23465072

  13. (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine selectively identifies a high affinity population of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1982-11-01

    The specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine was investigated in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and heart. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine in the cerebral cortex as defined by displacement with atropine sulfate (1..mu..M) was of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 4-10 nM, receptor density = 1.06 pmoles/mg protein), stereoselective, and competitive with drugs specific for the muscarinic receptor. In contrast, few (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine binding sites were demonstrated in cerebellar and heart homogenates.

  14. Enkephalin convertase: Characterization and localization with ( sup 3 H)-guanidinoethylmercap-tosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Enkephalin convertase (EC) has been characterized by the binding of its selective inhibitor ({sup 3}H)-guanidinoethylmercaptosuccinic acid (GEMSA). The pharmacology and affinity of ({sup 3}H)-GEMSA binding match the pharmacology of EC activity and the inhibition of EC activity by GEMSA. EC activity and ({sup 3}H)-GEMSA binding activity copurify to homogeneity demonstrating that ({sup 3}H)-GEMSA binds selectively to EC. The selective association of ({sup 3}H)-GEMSA for EC allows localization of membrane bound EC by in vitro autoradiography. EC is heterogeneously distributed in the rat brain with the highest levels in the outer zone of the median eminence and in the hypothalamic magnocellular nuclei. In the pituitary gland, autoradiography localizes EC to all three lobes with the highest levels in the intermediate lobe. In the adrenal EC is found exclusively in the medulla. In the gastrointestinal tract, EC is localized to epithelial surfaces where its function cannot be that of propeptide processing. In the heart EC is localized to atrium where it likely processes precursors of atrial natriuretic factor.

  15. Effective theory of 3H and 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Sebastian; Grießhammer, Harald W.; Hammer, H.-W.; van Kolck, U.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new perturbative expansion for pionless effective field theory with Coulomb interactions in which at leading order (LO) the spin-singlet nucleon-nucleon channels are taken in the unitarity limit. Presenting results up to next-to-leading order for the Phillips line and the neutron-deuteron doublet-channel phase shift, we find that a perturbative expansion in the inverse {}1{S}0 scattering lengths converges rapidly. Using a new systematic treatment of the proton-proton sector that isolates the divergence due to one-photon exchange, we renormalize the corresponding contribution to the {}3{{H}} -{}3{He} binding energy splitting and demonstrate that the Coulomb force in pionless EFT is a completely perturbative effect in the trinucleon bound-state regime. In our new expansion, the LO is exactly isospin-symmetric. At next-to-leading order, we include isospin breaking via the Coulomb force and two-body scattering lengths, and find for the energy splitting {({E}B{(}3{He})-{E}B{(}3{{H}}))}{NLO}\\quad =(-0.86+/- 0.17)\\quad {MeV}.

  16. Effective theory of 3H and 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Sebastian; Grießhammer, Harald W.; Hammer, H.-W.; van Kolck, U.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new perturbative expansion for pionless effective field theory with Coulomb interactions in which at leading order (LO) the spin-singlet nucleon–nucleon channels are taken in the unitarity limit. Presenting results up to next-to-leading order for the Phillips line and the neutron–deuteron doublet-channel phase shift, we find that a perturbative expansion in the inverse {}1{S}0 scattering lengths converges rapidly. Using a new systematic treatment of the proton–proton sector that isolates the divergence due to one-photon exchange, we renormalize the corresponding contribution to the {}3{{H}} –{}3{He} binding energy splitting and demonstrate that the Coulomb force in pionless EFT is a completely perturbative effect in the trinucleon bound-state regime. In our new expansion, the LO is exactly isospin-symmetric. At next-to-leading order, we include isospin breaking via the Coulomb force and two-body scattering lengths, and find for the energy splitting {({E}B{(}3{He})-{E}B{(}3{{H}}))}{NLO}\\quad =(-0.86+/- 0.17)\\quad {MeV}.

  17. Relative potency and effectiveness of flunitrazepam, ethanol, and β-CCE for disrupting the acquisition and retention of response sequences in rats

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stuart T.; Gerak, Lisa R.; Delatte, Marcus S.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.; Winsauer, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that GABAA modulators can affect learning and memory, their capacity for disrupting each of these complex processes is rarely compared, and often mistakenly assumed to occur with identical potency. For these reasons, the effects of flunitrazepam (0.056–3.2 mg/kg), ethanol (0.25–1.5 g/kg), and β-CCE (ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate; 1–17.8 mg/kg) were compared in groups of rats responding under baselines that assessed learning and memory separately. The first baseline was a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance of tandem response sequences, whereas the second baseline was a retention or memory procedure where a tandem response sequence was acquired and then retested after a 30-min delay. Under both procedures, responding was maintained under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) 2 schedule of food reinforcement, and incorrect responding (errors) produced a 5-sec timeout. With regard to the effects of the three drugs on sequence acquisition (learning), all three drugs dose-dependently decreased the overall response rate and increased the percentage of errors. Both flunitrazepam and β-CCE affected accuracy more potently than response rate, whereas ethanol was equipotent in affecting these two dependent measures. With regard to the effects of these drugs on sequence retention (memory), both flunitrazepam and ethanol dose-dependently decreased retention at doses that had little or no effect on sequence acquisition under the multiple schedule, whereas β-CCE decreased retention and sequence acquisition similarly at the doses tested. Together, these data demonstrate that drugs with differing capacities for altering the function of GABAA receptors differ in their capacity for disrupting the acquisition and retention of response sequences and that positive modulation of this receptor complex may be more predictive of disruptions in memory than disruptions in learning. PMID:19179849

  18. Thiazide diuretic drug receptors in rat kidney: Identification with ( sup 3 H)metolazone

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, K.; Vaughn, D.A.; Fanestil, D.D. )

    1988-04-01

    Thiazides and related diuretics inhibit NaCl reabsorption in the distal tubule through an unknown mechanism. The authors report here that ({sup 3}H)metolazone, a diuretic with a thiazide-like mechanism of action, labels a site in rat kidney membranes that has characteristics of the thiazide-sensitive ion transporter. ({sup 3}H)Metolazone bound with high affinity to a site with a density of 0.717 pmol/mg of protein in kidney membranes. The binding site was localized to the renal cortex, with little or not binding in other kidney regions and 11 other tissues. The affinities of thiazide-type diuretics for this binding site were significantly correlated with their clinical potency. Halide anions specifically inhibited high-affinity binding of ({sup 3}H)metolazone to this site. ({sup 3})Metolazone also bound with lower affinity to sites present in kidney as well as in liver, testis, lung, brain, heart, and other tissues. Calcium antagonists and certain smooth muscle relaxants had K{sub i} values of 0.6-10 {mu}M for these low-affinity sites, which were not inhibited by most of the thiazide diuretics tested. Properties of the high-affinity ({sup 3}H)metolazone binding site are consistent with its identity as the receptor for thiazide-type diuretics.

  19. Uptake of [3H]-nicotine and [3H]-noradrenaline by cultured chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ceña, V.; García, A. G.; Montiel, C.; Sánchez-García, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three day-old cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells incubated at room temperature with Krebs-HEPES solution containing different concentrations of [3H]-nicotine, took up and retained increasing amounts of the drug by a mechanism that did not saturate. Concentrations of cold nicotine as high as 100 microM did not alter the amount of [3H]-nicotine retained by cells. Imipramine, cocaine, tetracaine or mecamylamine, at concentrations (10 microM) that blocked the catecholamine secretory effects of nicotine completely, did not modify the uptake of [3H]-nicotine. Both imipramine and cocaine drastically inhibited [3H]-noradrenaline uptake by cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50S of 0.08 and 1 microM, respectively). These data indicate that the secretory effects of nicotine are not coupled to its previous uptake into cells, and are evidence in favour of a site of action for nicotine located in or at the surface of the chromaffin cell membrane. PMID:6704577

  20. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Javitch, J.A.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1985-06-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific (/sup 3/H) mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen.

  1. Studies with the high-affinity antiestrogen, (/sup 3/H)HI285

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Antiestrogens are compounds that inhibit some of the actions of estrogens. Certain antiestrogens, notably the triphenylethylene, tamoxifen, are useful in the treatment of female breast cancer. The triphenylethylene antiestrogen, HI285, was labelled with radioactive hydrogen ((/sup 3/H)) for use as a probe of antiestrogen action. Radioactive HI285 ((/sup 3/H)HI285) bound to the cytosolic estrogen receptor from both rat and calf uterus and competed with estradiol for the estrogen specific binding site. In both animals (/sup 3/H)HI285 displayed a higher affinity for the estrogen receptor and a slower dissociation rate from the receptor than did estradiol. (/sup 3/H)HI285, as well as estradiol, appeared to trigger receptor activation. Studies using the activation blocker, sodium molybdate, indicated that (/sup 3/H)HI285 triggered activation in a manner different from estradiol. The non-activated estrogen receptor from calf uterus, when occupied by (/sup 3/H)estradiol, existed as two discrete forms that could be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. In contrast, the (/sup 3/H)HI285-occupied receptor existed as a single form.

  2. Termination of pseudopregnancy in the rat produces an anxiogenic-like response that is associated with an increase in benzodiazepine receptor binding density and a decrease in GABA-stimulated chloride influx in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bitran, Daniel; Smith, Sheryl S

    2005-01-30

    The neurosteroid, 3alpha-OH-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone) is a potent positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor complex. Its pharmacological spectrum of action is shared by the benzodiazepines and alcohol, and includes anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, ataxic, and hypnotic effects. Discontinuation from chronic exposure to allopregnanolone or other neuroactive steroids has been shown to elicit behavioral effects that are typically seen in benzodiazepine or alcohol withdrawal. In this series of experiments, the effects of an endogenous elevation of ovarian steroids on brain GABA(A) receptor function was examined by inducing pseudopregnancy. In female rats, pseudopregnancy did not affect behavior in the elevated plus-maze, despite a persistent increase in circulating levels of allopregnanolone. Pseudopregnancy was associated with a decrease in the maximal binding density of 3H-flunitrazepam in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum; however, GABA-stimulated chloride influx in cerebral cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar synaptoneurosomes remained unaffected during pseudopregnancy. Termination of pseudopregnancy by ovariectomy precipitated an anxiogenic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze. The withdrawal from elevated ovarian steroid levels also increased the number of benzodiazepine receptors and decreased GABA-stimulated chloride influx in the hippocampus.

  3. (/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine labels a serotonin/sub 1A/-like site in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.L.; Monroe, P.J.; Lambert, G.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-09-28

    (/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine was examined as a potential ligand for the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites in the rat hippocampus. Analysis o the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of three monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that serotonin (5-HT) had high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine binding sites, consistent with the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1/ sites, while dopamine and norepinephrine had very low affinity. Saturation studies of the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine revealed a single population of sites with a K/sub d/ = 2.21 nM. Further pharmacologic characterization with the 5-HT/sub 1A/ ligands 8-hydroxy-2-(di-ni-propylamino)tetralin, ipsapirone, and WB4101 and the butyrophenone compounds spiperone and haloperidol gave results that were consistent with (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine labeling 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites. This ligand produced stable, reproducible binding with a good ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. The binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that this ligand may act as an agonist. 21 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Flunitrazepam excretion patterns using the Abuscreen OnTrak and OnLine immunoassays: comparison with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Salamone, S J; Honasoge, S; Brenner, C; McNally, A J; Passarelli, J; Goc-Szkutnicka, K; Brenneisen, R; elSohly, M A; Feng, S

    1997-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the performance of the OnLine and OnTrak immunoassays for benzodiazepines with gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis in detecting flunitrazepam (FNP) and its metabolites in human urine. Urine was collected over a 72-h period from six individuals (four male and two female) who had taken a single oral dose of either 1 or 4 mg of FNP. The OnTrak assay was run at a 100-ng/mL cutoff of nordiazepam (NDP), and the OnLine assay was run with a standard curve from zero to 200 ng/mL of NDP with and without beta-glucuronidase treatment. Each sample was analyzed by GC-MS using FNP, 7-amino-FNP, 3-hydroxy-FNP, desmethyl-FNP, 7-amino-3-hydroxy-FNP, and desmethyl-3-hydroxy-FNP as standards with beta-glucuronidase treatment. The specimens from the 1-mg dose did not yield a positive result by immunoassay over the 72-h collection period. Specimens from the 4-mg dose did yield positive results in both immunoassays. The time of the first positive result ranged from 4 to 12 h, and the time to the last positive result ranged from 18 to 60 h. Treatment of the samples with beta-glucuronidase increased the OnLine values between 20 and 60%, but it did not appreciably increase the detection time. GC-MS analysis showed no detectable levels of FNP, 3-hydroxy-FNP, desmethyl-FNP, 7-amino-3-hydroxy-FNP, and desmethyl-3-hydroxy-FNP. However, all samples collected past time zero showed detectable levels of 7-amino-FNP (> 2 ng/mL) with peak concentrations at 12-36 h. The peak levels of 7-amino-FNP by GC-MS paralleled the peak levels of the immunoassay response. The amount of 7-amino-FNP metabolite quantitated by GC-MS, however, accounted for only 15-20% of the total immunoassay crossreactive FNP metabolites.

  5. (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.X.; Roeske, W.R.; Gulya, K.; Wang, W.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-10-05

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25/sup 0/C but 20-40 times slower at 0-4/sup 0/C. Kinetic dissociation constants (K/sub d/s) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25/sup 0/C; 23.1 nM and 22.9 nM at 0-4/sup 0/C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labeled 29% of the total (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87% in the cardiac membranes, with K/sub d/ values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine > dexetimide > AF-DX 116 > PZ > levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. 19 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  6. In vivo labeling of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake sites in mouse brain with ( sup 3 H)-6-nitroquipazine

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Goromaru, T. )

    1990-10-01

    6-Nitroquipazine (DU 24565; 6-nitro 2-piperazinylquinoline) is a very potent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) uptake inhibitor. It has been demonstrated very recently that (3H)-6-nitroquipazine is a suitable radioligand for studying 5-HT uptake sites. The present study evaluates (3H)6-nitroquipazine as a radioligand for in vivo labeling of 5-HT uptake sites in mouse brain. Very high uptake of radioactivity in the brain after i.v. administration of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine was shown. Regional distribution of the radioactivity in mouse brain 3 hr after injection of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine was in the order (highest to lowest) hypothalamus greater than midbrain greater than striatum greater than hippocampus greater than cerebral cortex greater than medulla oblongata greater than cerebellum. The regional distribution of in vivo (3H)-6-nitroquipazine binding in mouse brain was highly correlated with that in rat brain obtained from previous in vitro binding studies. Coadministration of carrier 6-nitroquipazine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the radioactivity in the hypothalamus, whereas that in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex was increased. Because the cerebellum has very low density of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine binding sites, the radioactivity in the cerebellum could, therefore, reflect the amount on nonspecific binding and free ligand. Kinetic studies showed highest in vivo specific binding 1 hr after injection of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine and slow clearance of specific binding. Specific binding in the hypothalamus was inhibited in a stereoselective manner by the stereoisomers of norzimelidine. Furthermore, specific binding in the hypothalamus was reduced by several 5-HT uptake inhibitors, in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Synthesis of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 and their (24R)-epimers

    SciTech Connect

    Sicinski, R.R.; Tanaka, Y.; Phelps, M.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-02-15

    Synthesis of a C-24-epimeric mixture of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 and a C-24-epimeric mixture of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 by the Grignard reaction of the corresponding 25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D2 and 1 alpha-acetoxy-25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D3 with tritiated methyl magnesium bromide is described. Separation of epimers by high-performance liquid chromatography afforded pure radiolabeled vitamins of high specific activity (80 Ci/mmol). The identities and radiochemical purities of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H(vitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 D2 were established by cochromatography with synthetic 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Biological activity of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the rat plasma binding protein for vitamin D compounds, and by its in vitro conversion to 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 by kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-deficient chickens. The biological activity of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the chick intestinal receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

  8. Rapid and convenient preparation of (4-/sup 3/H)NADP and stereospecifically tritiated NADP/sup 3/H

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, R.G.; Sartori, P.; Reich, V.

    1984-04-01

    The enzymatic preparation and chromatographic purification of (4-/sup 3/H)NADP and NADPH stereospecifically labeled with /sup 3/H on either the A or B faces at position 4 have been simplified. Commercially available (1-/sup 3/H)glucose was used as a starting material for the sequential synthesis of (4B-/sup 3/H)NADPH, (4-/sup 3/H)NADP, and (4A-/sup 3/H)NADPH. These products were rapidly purified by step elution of DEAE-cellulose minicolumns so that (4B-/sup 3/H)NADPH was produced and purified from (1-/sup 3/H)glucose in 2 h, (4-/sup 3/H)NADP in 5 h, and (4A-/sup 3/H)NADPH in 8 h. Yields of these products were 65 to 88% starting with (1-/sup 3/H)glucose. Analysis of the products by high-performance liquid chromatography indicated radiochemical purities of 82-95% for these compounds and specific activities equivalent to that of the starting material (10-15 Ci/mmol). 15 references.

  9. (3H)WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-12-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, (/sup 3/H)-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ((/sup 3/H)WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H) WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at (/sup 3/H)WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and (/sup 3/H) lysergic acid diethylamide ((/sup 3/H)LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5 mM MgSO4, the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for (/sup 3/H) LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by (/sup 3/H)LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H)WB4101 but compete for multiple (/sup 3/H)LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas (/sup 3/H) LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding.

  10. In vivo labeling of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors with sup 3 H-TCP in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, T.; Vignon, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine (3H-TCP) was used to label in vivo the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated ionic channel in the mouse brain. After the injection of a tracer dose of 3H-TCP, a spread labeling throughout the brain was observed, but was the highest in the cerebellum. Preadministration of unlabeled TCP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a 90% reduction of 3H-TCP binding. PCP, TCP, MK-801, dexoxadrol, ketamine, and SKF 10,047 isomers dose-dependently prevented the in vivo 3H-TCP binding. ID50 determined in the cerebrum and the cerebellum were respectively correlated with K0.5 for 3H TCP high (rat cortex) and low affinity (rat cerebellum) sites in vitro. The pharmacological specificity of the 3H-TCP binding site in the cerebellum was significantly different from that in the cerebrum. ID50 values were generally higher than in the cerebrum and, particularly, MK-801, the most potent drug in the cerebrum, was without significant effect in the cerebellum, at any time and at doses as high as 30 mg/kg. N-(1-(2-benzo(b) thiophenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine (BTCP), desipramine, and atropine showed a more efficient prevention of 3H-TCP binding in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. The prevention of the binding by TCP or PCP, at doses close to their ID50 values, was rapid and then decreased slowly. The effect of MK-801 was long-lasting. This study confirm previous in vitro studies: 3H-TCP is an efficient tool for the labeling of the NMDA receptor-associated ionic channel.

  11. Partial purification of the mu opioid receptor irreversibly labeled with (/sup 3/H)b-funaltrexamine

    SciTech Connect

    Liu-Chen, L.Y.; Phillips, C.A.; Tam, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    The mu opioid receptor in bovine striatal membranes was specifically and irreversibly labeled by incubation with 5 nM (/sup 3/H)..beta..-funaltrexamine (approx.-FNA) at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min in the presence of 100 mM NaCl. The specific and irreversible binding of (/sup 3/H)..beta..-FNA as defined by that blocked by 1 /sup +/M naloxone was about 60% of total irreversible binding. The specific irreversible binding was saturable, stereospecific, time-, temperature, and tissue-dependent. Mu opioid ligands were much more potent than delta or kappa ligands in inhibiting the specific irreversible labeling. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of solubilized membranes in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol yielded a major radiolabeled broad band of MW 68-97K daltons, characteristic of a glycoprotein band. This band was not observed in membranes labeled in the presence of excess unlabeled naloxone. The glycoprotein nature of the (/sup 3/H)..beta..-FNA-labeled opioid receptor was confirmed by its binding to a wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose column and its elution with N-acetylglucosamine.

  12. Accumulation of radioactivity after repeated infusion of 3H-adrenaline and 3H-noradrenaline in the rat as a model animal.

    PubMed

    Lepschy, M; Filip, T; Palme, R G

    2014-10-01

    Besides enzymatic inactivation, catecholamines bind non-enzymatically and irreversible to proteins. The physiological impact of these catecholamine adducts is still unclear. We therefore collected basic data about the distribution of catecholamine adducts in the rat after repeated intravenous administration of (3)H-adrenaline and (3)H-noradrenaline. In all animals radioactivity in blood increased until the last injection on Day 7 and decreased then slowly close to background values (plasma) or remained higher (erythrocytes). In all sampled tissues radioactivity could be found, but only in hair high amounts remained present even after 3 weeks. Half-life of rat serum albumin loaded with (3)H-adrenaline or (3)H-noradrenaline was not altered. This study provides basic knowledge about the distribution of catecholamines or their adducts, but physiological effects could not be demonstrated. However, for the first time deposition and accumulation of catecholamines (adducts) in the hair could be proven, suggesting that hair might be used for evaluating long term stress.

  13. Forensic electrochemistry: the electroanalytical sensing of Rohypnol® (flunitrazepam) using screen-printed graphite electrodes without recourse for electrode or sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jamie P; Metters, Jonathan P; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Lledo-Fernandez, Carlos; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Banks, Craig E

    2013-10-21

    The electroanalytical sensing of Rohypnol® (flunitrazepam) is reported for the first time utilising screen-printed graphite electrodes without the requirement for any additional pre-treatment or modification. The methodology is shown to be useful for quantifying low levels (μg mL(-1)) of Rohypnol® in not only buffered solutions but also two internationally favoured drinks: Coca Cola™ and the alcopop WKD™ without any sample pre-treatment. The current analytical approaches for the sensing of Rohypnol® are also summarised within this paper. The niche of this electroanalytical protocol is the lack of the requirement of any pre-treatment of the sample/beverage or electrode modification (cleaning, pre-treatment etc.) for the determination of Rohypnol® in beverages and offers a potential rapid, cost-effective, yet suitably sensitive and accurate screening solution to the problem posed by coloured drinks to products such as the colour changing 'Smart Cup'.

  14. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine uptake sites in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)nitrobenzylthioinosine

    SciTech Connect

    Bisserbe, J.C.; Patel, J.; Marangos, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The adenosine uptake site has been localized in rat brain by an in vitro light microscopic autoradiographic method, using (/sup 3/H)nitrobenzylthioinosine ((/sup 3/H)NBI) as the probe. The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)NBI on slide-mounted sections are comparable to those seen in studies performed on brain homogenates. A very high density of uptake sites occurs in the nucleus tractus solitarius, in the superficial layer of the superior colliculus, in several thalamic nuclei, and also in geniculate body nuclei. A high density of sites are also observed in the nucleus accumbens, the caudate putamen, the dorsal tegmentum area, the substantia nigra, and the central gray. The localization of the adenosine uptake site in brain may provide information on the functional activity of the site and suggests the involvement of the adenosine system in the central regulation of cardiovascular function.

  15. RC3H1 post-transcriptionally regulates A20 mRNA and modulates the activity of the IKK/NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Hinz, Michael; Mothes, Janina; Schuetz, Anja; Uhl, Michael; Wyler, Emanuel; Yasuda, Tomoharu; Mastrobuoni, Guido; Friedel, Caroline C.; Dölken, Lars; Kempa, Stefan; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Blüthgen, Nils; Backofen, Rolf; Heinemann, Udo; Wolf, Jana; Scheidereit, Claus; Landthaler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein RC3H1 (also known as ROQUIN) promotes TNFα mRNA decay via a 3′UTR constitutive decay element (CDE). Here we applied PAR-CLIP to human RC3H1 to identify ∼3,800 mRNA targets with >16,000 binding sites. A large number of sites are distinct from the consensus CDE and revealed a structure-sequence motif with U-rich sequences embedded in hairpins. RC3H1 binds preferentially short-lived and DNA damage-induced mRNAs, indicating a role of this RNA-binding protein in the post-transcriptional regulation of the DNA damage response. Intriguingly, RC3H1 affects expression of the NF-κB pathway regulators such as IκBα and A20. RC3H1 uses ROQ and Zn-finger domains to contact a binding site in the A20 3′UTR, demonstrating a not yet recognized mode of RC3H1 binding. Knockdown of RC3H1 resulted in increased A20 protein expression, thereby interfering with IκB kinase and NF-κB activities, demonstrating that RC3H1 can modulate the activity of the IKK/NF-κB pathway. PMID:26170170

  16. [3H]AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Roeske, W R; Gulya, K; Wang, W; Yamamura, H I

    1987-10-01

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist [3H]AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of [3H]AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25 degrees C (2.74 and 2.70 X 10(7) min-1 M-1 for K+1; 0.87 and 0.93 min-1 for k-1) but 20-40 times slower at 0-4 degrees C (0.13 and 0.096 X 10(7) min-1 M-1 for k+1; 0.031 and 0.022 min-1 for k-1 in cerebral cortical and cardiac membranes, respectively). Kinetic dissociation constants (Kds) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25 degrees C; 23.1 nM and 0-4 degrees C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, [3H]AF-DX 116 labeled 29 percent of the total [3H](-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87 percent in the cardiac membranes, with Kd values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited [3H]AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine greater than dexetimide greater than AF-DX 116 greater than PZ greater than levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/[3H]AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/[3H]AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. Carbachol and oxotremorine produced shallow inhibition curves against [3H]AF-DX 116 binding in both tissues. Regional distribution studies with [3H](-)QNB, [3H]PZ and [3H]AF-DX 116 showed that most of the muscarinic receptors in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and corpus striatum are of the M1 subtype while those in the brainstem, cerebellum and other lower brain regions are of the M2 subtype. These results indicate that [3H]AF-DX 116 is a useful probe for the study of heterogeneity of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. PMID:3657382

  17. The GABA(A) receptor complex in the chicken brain: immunocytochemical distribution of alpha 1- and gamma 2-subunits and autoradiographic distribution of BZ1 and BZ2 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Aller, Maria Isabel; Paniagua, Miguel Angel; Pollard, Simon; Stephenson, F Anne; Fernandez-Lopez, Arsenio

    2003-01-01

    Two antibodies, raised against the rat GABA(A) receptor alpha1- and gamma2-subunits, were used for an immunocytochemical study of the distribution of these proteins in the chicken brain. The immunoreactive bands obtained by Western blotting and the similar labelling distribution found in the rat and chicken brain support the suitability of these antibodies for the labelling of GABA(A) receptors in birds. We found abundant alpha1 and gamma2 immunoreactivity throughout the chicken brain, mainly in the paleostriata and lobus paraolfactorius, dorsal thalamus and some nuclei of the brainstem. The alpha1-subunit was more abundant in the telencephalon, thalamus and cerebellum, while the presence of the gamma2-subunit was stronger in the optic tectum and brainstem. We also report the autoradiographic distribution of the BZ1 and BZ2 benzodiazepine receptor subtypes in the chicken brain using [3H]flunitrazepam. Benzodiazepine binding was unevenly distributed throughout the chicken brain, and the anatomical distribution of the BZ1 and BZ2 subtypes was similar to that described in mammals. The highest binding values were found in the olfactory bulb, paleostriatum primitivum, optic tectum, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis and nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis, the BZ2 subtype being predominant in the paleostriatum primitivum and optic tectum. A general agreement in the distribution of BZ1 and alpha1 immunoreactivity was observed in structures such as the olfactory bulb, paleostriata, lobus parolfactorius and dorsal thalamus, although some discrepancies were observed in areas such as the optic tectum or nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis, with high BZ1 binding and low or no alpha1 immunolabelling.

  18. Interactions of heavy metals with the pulmonary metabolism of (3H)benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.J.; Karis, M.A.; Menzel, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the inhalation of heavy-metal aerosols from polluted air or cigarette smoke could alter the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, isolated, ventilated, and perfused rat lungs were used to study the effects of NiCl/sub 2/, CdCl/sub 2/, and CoCl/sub 2/ on the pulmonary metabolism of (3)H benzo(a)pyrene (3)H BAP. Five minutes prior to removing the lungs from a rat, 100 microliter of isotonic sucrose containing 1 micromole of NiCl/sub 2/, CdCl/sub 2/, or CoCl/sub 2/ was instilled intratracheally. The lungs were placed in the perfusion system and washed free of blood. After 10 minutes, 5 nmole of (3)H BAP dissolved in 100 microliter of dimethylsulfoxide was introduced in the arterial circulation. After 45 minutes the lungs were homogenized and the homogenates and perfusates were extracted with ethyl acetate: (2:1, v/v) for analysis by HPLC. Binding of (3)H BAP metabolites to lung tissue was also determined. The metabolism of (3)H BAP was found to be inducible by pretreatment of rats with beta-naphthoflavone (80 mg/kg) and to be inhibited by the inclusion of metyrapone (1.0 mM) or indomethacin (0.1 mM) in the perfusate. The extent of covalent binding to lung macromolecules was proportional to the extent of metabolism of the (3)H BAP. Since heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon coexist in the same atmospheric aerosols, heavy metal exposure from polluted urban or occupational air or cigarette smoking may have profound effects upon the bioactivity of a common organic carcinogen.

  19. [3H]-SCH 58261 labelling of functional A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophil membranes

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Dionisotti, Silvio; Ongini, Ennio; Andrea Borea, Pier

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the direct labelling of A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophil membranes with the potent and selective antagonist radioligand, [3H]-5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4 triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine, ([3H]-SCH 58261). In addition, both receptor affinity and potency of a number of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists were determined in binding, adenylyl cyclase and superoxide anion production assays.Saturation experiments revealed a single class of binding sites with Kd and Bmax values of 1.34 nM and 75 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively. Adenosine receptor ligands competed for the binding of 1 nM [3H]-SCH 58261 to human neutrophil membranes, with a rank order of potency consistent with that typically found for interactions with the A2A adenosine receptors. In the adenylyl cyclase and in the superoxide anion production assays the same compounds exhibited a rank order of potency identical to that observed in binding experiments.Thermodynamic data indicated that [3H]-SCH 58261 binding to human neutrophils is entropy and enthalpy-driven. This finding is in agreement with the thermodynamic behaviour of antagonists binding to rat striatal A2A adenosine receptors.It was concluded that in human neutrophil membranes, [3H]-SCH 58261 directly labels binding sites with pharmacological properties similar to those of A2A adenosine receptors of other tissues. The receptors labelled by [3H]-SCH 58261 mediated the effects of adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation and inhibition of superoxide anion production in human neutrophils. PMID:9605581

  20. 3He and 3H bound state for the Reid soft-core potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Sawada, T.

    1981-02-01

    The perturbational approach that has been used for the calculation of the triton bound state is applied to 3He. The Coulomb potential is fully taken into account within the limitation of the Reid soft-core-3 potential. We obtain 5.775 MeV as the binding energy of 3He. The Coulomb energy difference with 3H is 0.625 MeV. The Coulomb effects to the charge form factor and the two-body correlation function are calculated. Qualitative discussions are given for the complex behavior of the Faddeev components expressed in terms of the spectator momentum and the relative distance of the interacting pair. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 3He and 3H bound state. Exact solution of the Faddeev equation by a perturbative approach. Binding energy of 3He: 5.775 MeV. Coulomb energy difference with triton: 0.625 MeV. Coulomb effects to charge form factor and correlation function.

  1. Characterization and regulation of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake and release in rodent spinal

    SciTech Connect

    Stauderman, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin were investigated in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. In the uptake experiments, sodium-dependent and sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation processes were found. Sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation was: linear with sodium concentrations up to 180 mM; decreased by disruption of membrane integrity or ionic gradients; associated with purified synaptosomal fractions; and reduced after description of descending serotonergic neurons in the spinal cord. Of the uptake inhibitors tested, the most potent was fluoxetine (IC/sub 50/ 75 nM), followed by desipramine (IC/sub 50/ 430 nM) and nomifensine (IC/sub 50/ 950 nM). The sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation process was insensitive to most treatments and probably represents nonspecific membrane binding. Thus, only sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake represents the uptake process of serotonergic nerve terminals in rat spinal cord homogenates. In the release experiments, K/sup +/-induced release of previously accumulated (/sup 3/H)-serotonin was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent, and originated from serotonergic synaptosomes. Exogenous serotonin and 5-methyoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhibited (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release in a concentration-dependent way. Of the antagonists tested, only methiothepin effectively blocked the effect of serotonin. These data support the existence of presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors on serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat spinal cord that act to inhibit a voltage and Ca/sup 2 +/-sensitive process linked to serotonin release. Alteration of spinai cord serotonergic function may therefore be possible by drugs acting on presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors in the spinal cord.

  2. Plasma clearance, metabolism, and tissue accumulation of 3H-labeled catecholamines in trout

    SciTech Connect

    Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Plasma clearance, metabolism, and tissue accumulation of (3H)norepinephrine (NE) and (3H)epinephrine (E) were measured after injection into the dorsal aorta of chronically catheterized trout, Salmo gairdneri. Sucrose, an inert volume marker, was injected with the catecholamines (CAs). Ion-exchange chromatography was used to separate unmetabolized CAs from deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in plasma. Both CAs are cleared from plasma at an exponential two-component rate. By 10 min postinjection, CA-specific extraction lowered plasma (3H)NE by 65% and (3H)E by 50%. Over 80% of the 3H remaining in plasma 10 min after injection was metabolized to O-methylated and deaminated products. Thus trout are able to quickly and efficiently lower circulating CA levels through tissue accumulation and metabolism. Kidney, liver, spleen, and atrium accumulate more CA than other tissues, although most tissues bind CA to some extent. Gills preferentially accumulate CAs over sucrose. Skeletal muscle has a low affinity for CAs but by virtue of its large mass may be an important organ in CA metabolism. NE is removed from the circulation faster, and more NE is bound to tissues than E. A blood-brain barrier for E but not NE was observed.

  3. Radiotoxicities of (/sup 3/H)thymidine and of (/sup 3/H)arginine compared in mouse embryos in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, W.U.S.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.; Glueck, L.

    1987-05-01

    Tritium that is bound to organic molecules is of special risk for living systems, in particular when such molecules are components of the cell nucleus. Therefore, (/sup 3/H)thymidine and (/sup 3/H)arginine were studied for radiotoxicity in early mammalian embryo development. Starting with the two-cell stage, mouse embryos were incubated in vitro with (/sup 3/H)thymidine or (/sup 3/H)arginine at either 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) or 925 Bq/ml (25 nCi/ml). Development in vitro was followed up to the formation of the inner cell mass at 192 h postconception (p.c.). There was no difference in radiotoxicity of the two substances with respect to cell proliferation; however, formation of blastocysts, hatching of blastocysts, trophoblast outgrowth, and formation of inner cell mass were impaired more strongly by (/sup 3/H)arginine than by (/sup 3/H)thymidine when the external exposure concentrations were the same. Similarly, micronuclei were seen in blastocysts at 96 h p.c. at higher frequency after incubation with (/sup 3/H)arginine. However, uptake of (/sup 3/H)arginine by the embryos was considerably faster than that of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, and this most probably accounts for the apparent difference in radiotoxicity.

  4. Synaptosomal membrane-based Langmuir-Blodgett films: a platform for studies on γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor binding properties.

    PubMed

    Turina, Anahí V; Clop, Pedro D; Perillo, María A

    2015-02-10

    In this work we used Langmuir-Blodgett films (LB) as model membranes to study the effect of molecular packing on the flunitrazepam (FNZ) accessibility to the binding sites at the GABAA receptor (GABAA-R). Ligand binding data were correlated with film topography analysis by atomic force microscopy images (AFM) and SDS-PAGE. Langmuir films (LF) were prepared by the spreading of synaptosomal membranes (SM) from bovine brain cortex at the air-water interface. LBs were obtained by the transference, at 15 or 35 mN/m constant surface pressure (π), of one (LB15/1c and LB35/1c) or two (LB35/2c) LFs to a film-free hydrophobic alkylated substrate (CONglass). Transference was performed in a serial manner, which allowed the accumulation of a great number of samples. SDS-PAGE clearly showed a 55 kDa band characteristic of GABAA-R subunits. Detrended fluctuation analysis of topographic data from AFM images exhibited a single slope value (self-similarity parameter α) in CONglass and a discontinuous slope change in the α value at an autocorrelation length of ∼100 nm in all LB samples, supporting the LF transference to the substrate. AFM images of CONglass and LB15/1c exhibited roughness and average heights that were similar between measurements and significantly lower than those of LB35/1c and LB35/2c, suggesting that the substrate coverage in the latter was more stable than in LB15/1c. While [(3)H]FNZ binding in LB15/1c did not reach saturation, in LB35/1c the binding kinetics became sigmoid with a binding affinity lower than in the SM suspension. Our results highlight the π dependence of both binding and topological data and call to mind the receptor mechanosensitivity. Thus, LB films provide a tool for bionanosensing GABAA-R ligand binding as well as GABAA-R activity modulation induced by the environmental supramolecular organization.

  5. Sparteine monooxygenase in brain and liver: Identified by the dopamine uptake blocker ( sup 3 H)GBR-12935

    SciTech Connect

    Kalow, W.; Tyndale, R.F.; Niznik, H.B.; Inaba, T. )

    1990-02-26

    P450IID6 (human sparteine monooxygenase) metabolizes many drugs including neuroleptics, antidepressants, and beta-blockers. The P450IID6 exists in human, bovine, rat and canine brains, but in very low quantities causing methodological difficulties in its assessment. Work with ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935; 1-(2-(diphenylmethoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-phenyl propyl) piperazine has shown that it binds a neuronal/hepatic protein with high affinity ({approximately}7nM) and a rank order of inhibitory potency suggesting that the binding protein is cytochrome P450IID6. The binding was used to predict that d-amphetamine and methamphetamine would interact with P450IID6. Inhibition studies indicated that these compounds were competitive inhibitors of P450IID6. Haloperidol (HAL) and it's metabolite hydroxy-haloperidol (RHAL) are both competitive inhibitors of P450IID6 activity and were found to inhibit ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935 binding. K{sub i} values of twelve compounds (known to interact with the DA transporter or P450IID6) for ({sup 3}H)GRB-12935 binding and P450IID6 activity. The techniques are now available for measurements of cytochrome P450IID6 in healthy and diseased brain/liver tissue using radio-receptor binding assay techniques with ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935.

  6. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina.

  7. Development and Binding Mode Assessment of N-[4-[2-propyn-1-yl[(6S)-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-oxo-3H-cyclopenta[g]quinazolin-6-yl]amino]benzoyl]-L-γ-glutamyl-D-glutamic acid (BGC 945), a Novel Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor that Targets Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tochowicz, Anna; Dalziel, Sean; Eidam, Oliv; O’Connell, Joseph D.; Griner, Sarah; Finer-Moore, Janet S.; Stroud, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    N-[4-[2-propyn-1-yl[(6S)-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-oxo-3H-cyclopenta[g]quinazolin-6-yl]amino]benzoyl]-L-γ-glutamyl-D-glutamic acid 1 (BGC 945, now known as ONX 0801), is a small molecule thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor discovered at the Institute of Cancer Research in London. It is licensed by Onyx Pharmaceuticals and is in Phase 1 clinical studies. It is a novel antifolate drug resembling TS inhibitors plevitrexed and raltitrexed that combines enzymatic inhibition of thymidylate synthase with α-folate receptor-mediated targeting of tumor cells. Thus, it has potential for efficacy with lower toxicity due to selective intracellular accumulation through α-folate receptor (α-FR) transport. The α-FR, a cell-surface receptor glycoprotein, which is over expressed mainly in ovarian and lung cancer tumors, has an affinity for 1 similar to that for its natural ligand, folic acid. This study describes a novel synthesis of 1, an X-ray crystal structure of its complex with Escherichia coli TS and 2’-deoxyuridine-5’-monophosphate, and a model for a similar complex with human TS. PMID:23710599

  8. Fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-09-01

    To study fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The /sup 3/H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average /sup 3/H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of /sup 3/H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound /sup 3/H. Total /sup 3/H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of /sup 3/H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City.

  9. Reaction of (3H)meproadifen mustard with membrane-bound Torpedo acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, E.B.; Hasan, F.; Cohen, S.G.; Cohen, J.B.

    1986-10-15

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) contains a binding site for aromatic amine noncompetitive antagonists that is distinct from the binding site for agonists and competitive antagonists. To characterize the location and function of this allosteric antagonist site, an alkylating analog of meproadifen has been synthesized, 2-(chloroethylmethylamino)-ethyl-2, 2-diphenylpentanoate HCl (meproadifen mustard). Reaction of (/sup 3/H)meproadifen mustard with AChR-rich membrane suspensions resulted in specific incorporation of label predominantly into the AChR alpha-subunit with minor incorporation into the beta-subunit. Specific labeling required the presence of high concentration of agonist and was inhibited by reversible noncompetitive antagonists including proadifen, meproadifen, perhydrohistrionicotoxin (HTX), and tetracaine when present at concentrations consistent with the binding affinity of these compounds for the allosteric antagonist site. No specific alkylation of the AChR alpha-subunit was detected in the absence of agonist, or in the presence of the partial agonist phenyltrimethylammonium or the competitive antagonists, d-tubocurarine, gallamine triethiodide, or decamethonium. Reaction with 35 microM meproadifen mustard for 70 min in the presence of carbamylcholine produced no alteration in the concentration of (/sup 3/H)ACh-binding sites, but decreased by 38 +/- 4% the number of allosteric antagonist sites as measured by (/sup 3/H)HTX binding. This decrease was not observed when the alkylation reaction was blocked by the presence of HTX. These results lead us to conclude that meproadifen mustard alkylates the allosteric antagonist site in the Torpedo AChR and that part of that site is associated with the AChR alpha-subunit.

  10. Characterization of [3H]palmitate- and [3H]ethanolamine-labelled proteins in the multicellular parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, P M; Tisdale, E J; Roberts, W L; Rosenberry, T L; Mahmoud, A A; Tartakoff, A M

    1988-01-01

    Biosynthetic labelling experiments with cercariae and schistosomula of the multicellular parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni were performed to determine whether [3H]palmitate or [3H]ethanolamine was incorporated into proteins. Parasites incorporated [3H]palmitate into numerous proteins, as judged by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The radiolabel was resistant to extraction with chloroform, but sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis, indicating the presence of an ester bond. Further investigation of the major 22 kDa [3H]palmitate-labelled species showed that the label could be recovered in a Pronase fragment which bound detergent and had an apparent molecular mass of 1200 Da as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20. Schistosomula incubated with [3H]ethanolamine for up to 24 h incorporated this precursor into several proteins; labelled Pronase fragments recovered from the three most intensely labelled proteins were hydrophilic and had a molecular mass of approx. 200 Da. Furthermore, reductive methylation of such fragments showed that the [3H]ethanolamine bears a free amino group, indicating the lack of an amide linkage. We also evaluated the effect of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus: [3H]palmitate-labelled proteins of schistosomula and surface-iodinated proteins were resistant to hydrolysis with this enzyme. In conclusion, [3H]palmitate and [3H]ethanolamine are incorporated into distinct proteins of cercariae and schistosomula which do not bear glycophospholipid anchors. The [3H]ethanolamine-labelled proteins represent a novel variety of protein modification. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3178767

  11. [3H]-RS-45041-190: a selective high-affinity radioligand for I2 imidazoline receptors.

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, A. C.; Redfern, W. S.; Brown, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. RS-45041-190 (4-chloro-2-(imidazolin-2-yl)isoindoline) is an I2 imidazoline receptor ligand with the highest affinity and selectivity so far described; [3H]-RS-45041-190 has a tritium atom attached to the 7-position on the isoindoline ring. 2. [3H]-RS-45041-190 binding to rat kidney membranes was saturable (Bmax = 223.1 +/- 18.4 fmol mg-1 protein) and of high affinity (Kd = 2.71 +/- 0.59 nM). Kinetic studies revealed that the binding was rapid and reversible, with [3H]-RS-45041-190 interacting with two sites or two affinity states. 3. Competition studies showed that 60-70% of [3H]-RS-45041-190 binding (1 nM) was specifically to imidazoline binding sites of the I2 subtype, characterized by high affinity for idazoxan (pIC50 7.85 +/- 0.03) and cirazoline (pIC50 8.16 +/- 0.05). The remaining 30-40% was displaced specifically by the monoamine oxidase A inhibitors, clorgyline and pargyline. 4. alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor, I1 imidazoline, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine or dopamine receptor ligands had low affinity suggesting that [3H]-RS-45041-190 did not label receptors of these classes. 5. In autoradiography studies, [3H]-RS-45041-190 labelled discrete regions of rat brain corresponding to the distribution of I2 subtypes, notably the subfornical organ, arcuate nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, medial habenular nucleus and lateral mammillary nucleus, and additional sites in the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. 6. [3H]-RS-45041-190 therefore labels I2 receptors with high affinity, and an additional site which has high affinity for some monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8528552

  12. Crossed-beam radical-radical reaction dynamics of O(3P)+C3H3-->H(2S)+C3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Lee-Kyoung; Nam, Mi-Ja; Youn, Sung-Eui; Joo, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Hohjai; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2006-05-01

    The radical-radical oxidation reaction, O(P3)+C3H3(propargyl)→H(S2)+C3H2O (propynal), was investigated using vacuum-ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a crossed-beam configuration, together with ab initio and statistical calculations. The barrierless addition of O(P3) to C3H3 is calculated to form energy-rich addition complexes on the lowest doublet potential energy surface, which subsequently undergo direct decomposition steps leading to the major reaction products, H +C3H2O (propynal). According to the nascent H-atom Doppler-profile analysis, the average translational energy of the products and the fraction of the average transitional energy to the total available energy were determined to be 5.09±0.36kcal/mol and 0.077, respectively. On the basis of a comparison with statistical prior calculations, the reaction mechanism and the significant internal excitation of the polyatomic propynal product can be rationalized in terms of the formation of highly activated, short-lived addition-complex intermediates and the adiabaticity of the excess available energy along the reaction coordinate.

  13. An Observational Investigation of the Identity of B11244 (l-C3H+/C3H-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Gratier, Pierre; Guzmán, Viviana; Pety, Jerome; Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2014-03-01

    Pety et al. have reported the detection of eight transitions of a closed-shell, linear molecule (B11244) in observations toward the Horsehead photodissociation region (PDR), which they attribute to the l-C3H+ cation. Recent high-level ab initio calculations have called this assignment into question; the anionic C3H- molecule has been suggested as a more likely candidate. Here, we examine observations of the Horsehead PDR, Sgr B2(N), TMC-1, and IRC+10216 in the context of both l-C3H+ and C3H-. We find no observational evidence of Ka = 1 lines, which should be present were the carrier indeed C3H-. Additionally, we find a strong anticorrelation between the presence of known molecular anions and B11244 in these regions. Finally, we discuss the formation and destruction chemistry of C3H- in the context of the physical conditions in the regions. Based on these results, we conclude there is little evidence to support the claim that the carrier is C3H-.

  14. Fallout sup 3 H in human tissue at Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Itoh, M.; Ueno, K.; Katsumata, T.; Sakanoue, M. )

    1989-10-01

    The {sup 3}H concentration in Japanese human tissue samples is reported in this paper. Four brain, 10 liver, and nine lung samples from 11 cases were collected from Akita Prefecture in northern Japan from January to July 1986. The median of free-water {sup 3}H concentration was similar in these tissues and agreed well with the concentrations in the diet, including tap water. The median specific activity ratio of tissue-bound {sup 3}H to free-water {sup 3}H was 1.1 and was slightly lower than that in the diet. The specific activity ratio was also lower than that reported in the United States and significantly lower than in Italy.

  15. 1,3-Di(2-(5-/sup 3/H)tolyl)guanidine: a selective ligand that labels sigma-type receptors for psychotomimetic opiates and antipsychotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.; Sonders, M.; Quarum, M.; McLean, S.; Pou, S.; Keana, J.F.

    1986-11-01

    Brain sigma-type receptors are thought to mediate hallucinogenic effects of certain benzomorphan opiates in humans. The biochemical characterization of sigma receptors has been difficult because of the lack of potent and selective ligands. We report here the synthesis and characterization of a tritiated, symmetrically substituted guanidine derivative, 1,3-di(2-(5-/sup 3/H)tolyl)guanidine ((/sup 3/H)Tol2Gdn), that binds with high affinity to a single population of binding sites in guinea pig brain membrane preparations. The (/sup 3/H)Tol2Gdn binding site displays stereoselectivity for dextrorotatory optical isomers of benzomorphan opiates known to have sigma-type behavioral effects. Furthermore, the (/sup 3/H)Tol2Gdn binding site has a high affinity for haloperidol and for phenothiazine antipsychotics, which have antihallucinatory properties in humans. The drug-selectivity profile of (/sup 3/H)Tol2Gdn binding closely correlates with the drug-selectivity profile of tritiated (+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP) binding to guinea pig brain membrane receptors. (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP has been proposed to be a selective sigma-receptor ligand (Largent, B. L., Gundlach, A. L. and Snyder, S. H. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 4983-4987). Receptor autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)Tol2Gdn on slide-mounted rat and guinea pig brain sections reveals a heterogeneous distribution pattern of enriched binding in limbic and sensorimotor structures of the brain. These results indicate that (/sup 3/H)Tol2Gdn is a selective ligand for the sigma-site. Availability of this sigma-receptor probe should greatly facilitate the physiological, biochemical, and pharmacological characterization of sigma receptors in brain.

  16. Interactions of heavy metals with the pulmonary metabolism of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.J.; Karis, M.A.; Menzel, D.B.

    1984-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the inhalation of heavy metal aerosols from polluted air or cigarette smoke could alter the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, isolated, ventilated, and perfused rat lungs were used to study the effects of NiCl/sub 2/, CdCl/sub 2/, and CoCl/sub 2/ on the pulmonary metabolism of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene ((/sup 3/H)BAP). Five minutes prior to removing the lungs from a rat, 100 ..mu..l of isotonic sucrose containing 1 ..mu..mole of NiCl/sub 2/, CdCl/sub 2/, or CoCl/sub 2/ was instilled intratracheally. The lungs were placed in the perfusion system and washed free of blood. After 10 min, 5 nmole of (/sup 3/H)BAP dissolved in 100 ..mu..l of dimethylsulfoxide was introduced in the arterial circulation. After 45 min, the lungs were homogenized and the homogenates and perfusates were extracted with ethyl acetate:acetone (2:1, v/v) or analysis by HPLC. Binding of (/sup 3/H)BAP metabolites to lung tissue was also determined. The metabolism of (/sup 3/H)BAP was found to be inducible by pretreatment of rats with ..beta..-naphthoflavone (80 mg/kg) and to be inhibited by the inclusion of metyrapone (1.0 mM) or indomethacin (0.1 mM) in the perfusate. Instillation of NiCl/sub 2/ resulted in a slight inhibition of metabolism. In the presence of CdCl/sub 2/, 20% or more of the parent compound was metabolized compared to sucrose-treated controls, but the fraction of organic solvent extractable metabolites increased to 213% of controls. CoCl/sub 2/ was without effect on (/sup 3/H)BAP metabolism. In all cases, the extent of covalent binding to lung macromolecules was proportional to the extent of metabolism of the (/sup 3/H)BAP.

  17. Receptors for /sup 3/H-octopamine in the adult firefly light organ

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemzadeh, H.; Hollingworth, R.M.; Voliva, A.

    1985-08-05

    /sup 3/H-Octopamine binds reversibly and with high affinity to sites on adult firefly light organ membranes. The binding is characterized by multiple affinities. Scatchard analysis supported a two site binding model with a tentative Kd value of about 1 nM for the high affinity component. The more abundant lower affinity site had a Kd value of about 60 nM. Guanyl nucleotides (Gpp(NH)p and GTP) greatly reduced the apparent number of octopamine binding sites. Competition studies with known octopaminergic agonists including the formamidine pesticides chlordimeform (CDM) and N-demethylchlordimeform (DCDM) showed the following rank order of potencies in displacing octopamine: DCDM > octopamine = synephrine > naphazoline > clonidine > CDM. It was also observed that phentolamine was much more active than propranolol in antagonizing OA-binding. These relative activities are similar to the abilities of the same compounds to alter adenylate cyclase activity in light organ homogenates. Together with the effect of GTP on binding, these results suggest that the binding sites are functional octopamine receptors of the light organ. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Highly sensitive micro-plate enzyme immunoassay screening and NCI-GC-MS confirmation of flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in hair.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, A; Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Kaleciak, K; Kronstrand, R; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-10-01

    Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) is a benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia as a sedative hypnotic and as preanesthetic medication in European countries and Mexico. Although it has no medicinal purpose in the United States, the occurrence of its abuse is increasing. Sexual abuse of both men and women while under the influence of so-called "date-rape" drugs has been the focus of many investigations. Reported date-rape drugs include flunitrazepam (FN), clonazepam, diazepam, oxazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, and many others. FN has been banned in the United States because of its alleged use in such situations. Unfortunately, the detection of FN or its metabolites 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7-AFN) and desmethylflunitrazepam in a single specimen such as urine or blood is difficult in criminal situations because of the likelihood of single-dose ingestion and the length of time since the alleged incident. Hair provides a solution to the second of these problems in that drugs tend to incorporate into hair and remain there for longer periods of time than either urine or blood. There are various techniques for the detection of FN in plasma, blood, and urine, but little work has been done with hair. Hair collection is a virtually noninvasive procedure that can supply information on drug use for several months preceding collection. The objective of this paper was to determine if a commercially available micro-plate enzyme immunoassay system was sufficiently sensitive for the routine screening of 7-AFN in hair by the development of extraction procedures and optimization of the immunoassay kit. Further, this study used the same solid-phase extraction to isolate FN and its major metabolite, 7-AFN, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization for confirmation. Two seven-point standard curves were established ranging from 0.5 pg/mg to 100 pg/mg for 7-AFN and 2.5 pg/mg to 200 pg/mg for FN with respective deuterated internal standards. A replicate

  19. Mechanisms of hydrolysis-oligomerization of aluminum alkoxide Al(OC3H7)3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xueli; Liu, Yongjun; Chen, Dairong

    2011-05-12

    As one of the representative superinsulating materials, the aluminum trioxypropyl Al(OC(3)H(7))(3) aerogel may be applied in launch vehicles and manned spacecrafts. In this study, the structures and hydrolysis mechanisms of the monomer, dimers, and trimers of Al(OC(3)H(7))(3) in neutral and alkaline environments were studied at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level by using the CPCM solvation model to understand the fundamental chemistry of Al(OC(3)H(7))(3) hydrolysis and oligomerization. Our calculation shows that the first-order hydrolyses of the monomer and oligomers are energetically favorable in both alkaline and neutral solutions. In alkaline solutions, they are more apt to oligomerize than to hydrolyze due to high energy barriers and large binding energies in the formation of anionic species. For the oligomers under neutral condition (1) Al(OC(3)H(7))(3) is linked by four-membered Al-O rings with pentacoordinated bridging and tetracoordinated Al atoms, (2) the hydrolyzed propoxy groups will be expelled by solvent molecules, and (3) partly hydrolyzed species can condense to oligomers with bridging OH groups or O atoms. PMID:21500848

  20. Photoaffinity labeling of opiate receptors with /sup 3/H-etorphine: possible species differences in glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.D.; Kooper, G.

    1986-01-01

    Opiate receptors from whole rat brain (minus cerebellum) and cow striatum were labeled irreversibly using the intrinsic photolability of /sup 3/H-etorphine. After incubation with 2 nM /sup 3/H-etorphine and centrifugal washing, membranes were irradiated with light of 254 nm. Non-specific binding was determined by carrying out incubations in presence and absence of 10 microM levallorphan. Specific binding in photolabeled membranes was 75-80%, with a photo-incorporation yield of approximately 50%. Photolabeled membranes were extracted with CHAPS/Lubrol and unbound /sup 3/H-etorphine was removed by dialysis and passage over Sephadex G-25. Solubilized proteins were then subjected to chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, and retained proteins were eluted with N-acetyl D-glucosamine (NAG). Protein profiles from rat brain and cow striatum were identical, with 89% of the total protein flowing through unretained and 11% eluted by NAG. However, the profile of radioactivity was markedly different in the two species. With rat, the specific activity (cpm/A280) was the same for flow-through and NAG-eluate. With cow, the specific activity of the NAG-eluate was 17 times greater than the flow-through. These results indicate that cow striatum and rat whole brain contain populations of opiate receptors which are glycosylated differently.

  1. Structure of Complement C3(H2O) Revealed By Quantitative Cross-Linking/Mass Spectrometry And Modeling*

    PubMed Central

    Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Barlow, Paul N.

    2016-01-01

    The slow but spontaneous and ubiquitous formation of C3(H2O), the hydrolytic and conformationally rearranged product of C3, initiates antibody-independent activation of the complement system that is a key first line of antimicrobial defense. The structure of C3(H2O) has not been determined. Here we subjected C3(H2O) to quantitative cross-linking/mass spectrometry (QCLMS). This revealed details of the structural differences and similarities between C3(H2O) and C3, as well as between C3(H2O) and its pivotal proteolytic cleavage product, C3b, which shares functionally similarity with C3(H2O). Considered in combination with the crystal structures of C3 and C3b, the QCMLS data suggest that C3(H2O) generation is accompanied by the migration of the thioester-containing domain of C3 from one end of the molecule to the other. This creates a stable C3b-like platform able to bind the zymogen, factor B, or the regulator, factor H. Integration of available crystallographic and QCLMS data allowed the determination of a 3D model of the C3(H2O) domain architecture. The unique arrangement of domains thus observed in C3(H2O), which retains the anaphylatoxin domain (that is excised when C3 is enzymatically activated to C3b), can be used to rationalize observed differences between C3(H2O) and C3b in terms of complement activation and regulation. PMID:27250206

  2. Pharmacological specificity of some psychotomimetic and antipsychotic agents for the sigma and PCP binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Itzhak, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacological specificity of representative psychotomimetic agents such a phencyclidine (PCP) analogs, opiate benzomorphans and several antipsychotic agents was assessed for the sigma and PCP binding sites. In a series of binding experiments, in rat brain membranes, sigma and PCP binding sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)-1-(1-(3-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexyl) piperidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH), (+)(/sup 3/H)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047) and (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)-N-(1-propyl) piperidine and ((+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP). PCP analogs inhibit potently high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding and (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 binding, moderately the low affinity binding component of (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and very weakly (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding. (+)SKF 10047 and cyclazocine are potent to moderate inhibitors of (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047, high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PCP-3-OH binding. The antipsychotic agents display high affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding sites, moderate affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 sites and have no effect on either the high or low affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Endosulfan and cholinergic (muscarinic) transmission: effect on electroencephalograms and (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in pigeon brain

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Gopal, K.; Sur, R.N.; Seth, P.K.

    1986-08-01

    Single exposure of endosulfan (5 mg/kg) to pigeons (Columbia livia) caused neuronal hyperexcitability as evidence by spike discharges of 200-500 ..mu..V in the electroencephalograms (EEG) from the telencephalon and hyperstriatum, but there was not effect on the ectostriatal area. Cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding study using (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) as a specific ligand indicated that a single exposure to 5 mg/kg of endosulfan caused a significant increase in (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to the striatal membrane. Behavior study further indicated that a single dose of 200 ..mu..g/kg of oxotremorine produced a significant induction in the tremor in endosulfan-pretreated pigeons. The results of this behavioral and biochemical study indicate the involvement of a cholinergic (muscarinic) transmitter system in endosulfan-induced neurotoxicity.

  4. Platinum-Catalyzed, Terminal-Selective C(sp(3))-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-10-14

    This Communication describes the terminal-selective, Pt-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol%. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (iii) it electronically deactivates the C-H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp(3))-H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. PMID:26439251

  5. Identification of human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors with a new antagonist [3H]-RX821002, a 2-methoxy derivative of idazoxan.

    PubMed

    Galitzky, J; Senard, J M; Lafontan, M; Stillings, M; Montastruc, J L; Berlan, M

    1990-08-01

    1. The binding of a new alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, [3H]-RX821002 (2-(2-methoxy-1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-imidazoline), was investigated in human platelet membranes and compared with [3H]-yohimbine binding parameters. 2. Analysis of kinetic data revealed association and dissociation time courses consistent with a simple biomolecular reaction. Saturation isotherms showed that [3H]-RX821002 labelled a higher total number of alpha 2-binding sites (224 +/- 31 vs 168 +/- 24 fmol mg-1 protein) than [3H]-yohimbine and with higher affinity (Kd: 0.92 +/- 0.06 vs 1.51 +/- 0.08 nM). Moreover [3H]-RX821002 exhibited a lower percentage of nonspecific binding 3. The difference in total binding is due to a better labelling of the alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the low affinity state by [3H]-RX821002 since the labelled receptors number in high affinity state was identical with the two radioligands. 4. [3H]-RX821002 binding displayed a specificity similar to that obtained with [3H]-yohimbine. The potency of various compounds acting on adrenoceptors was: yohimbine greater than oxymetazoline greater than UK14304 greater than (-)-adrenaline greater than prazosin greater than or equal to (+)-adrenaline greater than isoprenaline. This order of potency is classical for an alpha 2A-adrenoceptor. 5. RX821002 is a more potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist than yohimbine on adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation. 6. These results indicate that [3H]-RX821002 is a suitable ligand for the identification of human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  6. Structural basis for recognition of H3K56-acetylated histone H3-H4 by the chaperone Rtt106

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Dan; Hu, Qi; Li, Qing; Thompson, James R; Cui, Gaofeng; Fazly, Ahmed; Davies, Brian A; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Zhang, Zhiguo; Mer, Georges

    2013-04-08

    Dynamic variations in the structure of chromatin influence virtually all DNA-related processes in eukaryotes and are controlled in part by post-translational modifications of histones. One such modification, the acetylation of lysine 56 (H3K56ac) in the amino-terminal α-helix (αN) of histone H3, has been implicated in the regulation of nucleosome assembly during DNA replication and repair, and nucleosome disassembly during gene transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the histone chaperone Rtt106 contributes to the deposition of newly synthesized H3K56ac-carrying H3-H4 complex on replicating DNA, but it is unclear how Rtt106 binds H3-H4 and specifically recognizes H3K56ac as there is no apparent acetylated lysine reader domain in Rtt106. Here, we show that two domains of Rtt106 are involved in a combinatorial recognition of H3-H4. An N-terminal domain homodimerizes and interacts with H3-H4 independently of acetylation while a double pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain binds the K56-containing region of H3. Affinity is markedly enhanced upon acetylation of K56, an effect that is probably due to increased conformational entropy of the αN helix of H3. Our data support a mode of interaction where the N-terminal homodimeric domain of Rtt106 intercalates between the two H3-H4 components of the (H3-H4)2 tetramer while two double PH domains in the Rtt106 dimer interact with each of the two H3K56ac sites in (H3-H4)2. We show that the Rtt106-(H3-H4)2 interaction is important for gene silencing and the DNA damage response.

  7. Liquid chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry with the Direct-EI interface in the fast determination of diazepam and flunitrazepam in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-04-01

    This is the first application based on electron ionization (EI) using a Direct-EI LC interface and MS/MS to detect unequivocally target compounds in a very small real sample. The determination and quantification of benzodiazepines in very small residues of beverages, collected at the scene of drug-facilitated crimes are mandatory in legal procedures. A specific and sensitive analytical instrumentation is needed, involving little or no sample preparation. Here, a direct flow injection analysis of alcoholic beverages spiked with commercially available drugs containing diazepam and flunitrazepam is presented. The method proposed is very fast and requires neither sample preparation nor chromatographic separation. Linearity (R(2) ) was between 0.9977 and 0.9992; LOD and LOQ spanned from 0.01 to 0.02 ng/μL and from 0.1 to 0.5 ng/μL, respectively; intra- and interday repeatabilities were between 1 and 8%. No matrix effects were observed from the comparison of the linear regression curves obtained in real fortified samples and in pure ethanol. Vodka, whisky, and white wine specimens were fortified with commercial drugs, Valium(®) and Rohypnol(®) , at two different concentrations (20 and 50 ng/μL) to simulate the typical amounts found in adulterated real samples and analyzed to demonstrate the method applicability to forensic analyses.

  8. Automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of flunitrazepam and its metabolites in human urine and plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Jourdil, N; Bessard, J; Vincent, F; Eysseric, H; Bessard, G

    2003-05-25

    A sensitive and specific method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has been developed for the quantitative determination of flunitrazepam (F) and its metabolites 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7-AF), N-desmethylflunitrazepam (N-DMF) and 3-hydroxyflunitrazepam (3-OHF) in biological fluids. After the addition of deuterium labelled standards of F,7-AF and N-DMF, the drugs were isolated from urine or plasma by automated solid-phase extraction, then chromatographed in an isocratic elution mode with a salt-free eluent. The quantification was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions (M+H(+)). Experiments were carried out to improve the extraction recovery (81-100%) and the sensitivity (limit of detection 0.025 ng/ml for F and 7-AF, 0.040 ng/ml for N-DMF and 0.200 ng/ml for 3-OHF). The method was applied to the determination of F and metabolites in drug addicts including withdrawal urine samples and in one date-rape plasma and urine sample. PMID:12705961

  9. [Combined use of melatonin and low-dose flunitrazepam for treatment of sleep disturbance in a child with spastic quadriplegia: evaluation using polysomnography].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hajime; Kakutani, Satomi; Araki, Akiko; Fukuda, Ikue; Oka, Ryuji; Cho, Kazuhiko

    2002-11-01

    A 14-year-old boy born at 39 gestational weeks with the birth weight of 3,250 g, had severe mental retardation and spastic quadriplegia of unknown etiology from early childhood. At 7 years of age, disturbance of night sleep appeared with several awakenings. Combined treatment with melatonin (MLT; 0.04 mg/kg) and flunitrazepam (FNZ; 0.025 mg/kg) was more effective than monotherapy with FNZ for the sleep disturbance. Difference of the effects of the combined therapy and the monotherapy for the sleep disturbance were assessed by polysomnographies (PSGs), consisted of EEG (C3, C4), bipolar EOG and surface EMG on the mentalis muscle. The PSGs were performed twice at 13 years 6 months old, and at 14 years 1 month old. In both trials, the number of awakening was fewer, total sleep time was longer, percent (%) stage I and II were lower and %REM sleep was larger in combined MLT and FNZ therapy than in FNZ monotherapy. The present study suggests that the combined MLT and FNZ therapy not only reduces awakening during sleep but also normalizes sleep architecture. This therapy is valuable because normalization of sleep is important for the developing brain as it reflects the normal functioning of the aminergic neurons of the midbrain and the brainstem which have important roles for morphological and functional development of the brain in immature brain. PMID:12440103

  10. Pharmacology and autoradiography of human DP prostanoid receptors using [3H]-BWA868C, a DP receptor-selective antagonist radioligand

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, N A; Williams, G W; Davis, T L

    2000-01-01

    A potent and highly selective DP prostanoid receptor antagonist radioligand, [3H]-cyclohexyl-N-BWA868C (3-benzyl-5-(6-carboxyhexyl)-1-(2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxyethyl-amino) hydantoin, ([3H]-BWA868C)), has been generated for receptor binding and autoradiographic studies.Specific [3H]-BWA868C binding to human platelet membranes achieved equilibrium within 60 min at 23°C and constituted up to 95% of the total binding. The association (K+1) and dissociation (K−1) rate constants of binding were 0.758±0.064 min−1, mmol and 0.0042±0.0002 min−1, respectively, yielding dissociation constants (KDs) of 5.66±0.44 nM (n=4).Specific [3H]-BWA868C bound to DP receptors with a high affinity (KD=1.45±0.01 nM, n=3) and to a finite, saturable number of binding sites (Bmax=21.1±0.6 nmol g−1 wet weight).DP receptor class prostanoids (e.g. ZK118182, BW245C, BWA868C, PGD2) exhibited high (nanomolar) affinities for [3H]-BWA868C binding, while prostanoids selective for EP, FP, IP and TP receptors showed a low (micromolar) affinity.Specific DP receptor binding sites were autoradiographically localized on the ciliary epithelium/process, longitudinal and circular ciliary muscles, retinal choroid and iris in human eye sections using [3H]-BWA868C. While [3H]-PGD2 yielded similar quantitative distribution of DP receptors as [3H]-BWA868C, the level of non-specific binding observed with [3H]-PGD2 was significantly greater than that observed with [3H]-BWA868C.It is concluded that [3H]-BWA868C is a high-affinity and very specific DP receptor radioligand capable of selectively labelling the DP receptor. [3H]-BWA868C may prove useful for future homogenate-based and autoradiographic studies on the DP receptor. PMID:11082108

  11. Phenyl Ring-Substituted Lobelane Analogs: Inhibition of [3H]Dopamine Uptake at the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Justin R.; Zheng, Guangrong; Deaciuc, Agripina G.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Lobeline attenuates the behavioral effects of methamphetamine via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). To increase selectivity for VMAT2, chemically defunctionalized lobeline analogs, including lobelane, were designed to eliminate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor affinity. The current study evaluated the ability of lobelane analogs to inhibit [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding to VMAT2 and [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles and determined the mechanism of inhibition. Introduction of aromatic substituents in lobelane maintained analog affinity for the [3H]DTBZ binding site on VMAT2 and inhibitory potency in the [3H]DA uptake assay assessing VMAT2 function. The most potent (Ki = 13–16 nM) analogs in the series included para-methoxyphenyl nor-lobelane (GZ-252B), para-methoxyphenyl lobelane (GZ-252C), and 2,4-dichlorphenyl lobelane (GZ-260C). Affinity of the analogs for the [3H]DTBZ binding site did not correlate with inhibitory potency in the [3H]DA uptake assay. It is noteworthy that the N-benzylindole-, biphenyl-, and indole-bearing meso-analogs 2,6-bis[2-(1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-yl)ethyl]-1-methylpiperidine hemifumarate (AV-1-292C), 2,6-bis(2-(biphenyl-4-yl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-272B), and 2,6-bis[2-(1H-indole-3-yl)ethyl]-1-methylpiperidine monofumarate (AV-1-294), respectively] inhibited VMAT2 function (Ki = 73, 127, and 2130 nM, respectively), yet had little to no affinity for the [3H]DTBZ binding site. These results suggest that the analogs interact at an alternate site to DTBZ on VMAT2. Kinetic analyses of [3H]DA uptake revealed a competitive mechanism for 2,6-bis(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-252B), 2,6-bis(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)-1-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (GZ-252C), 2,6-bis(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-260C), and GZ-272B. Similar to methamphetamine, these analogs released [3H]DA from the vesicles, but with higher potency. In contrast to

  12. [3H]SCH 58261, a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is a useful ligand in autoradiographic studies.

    PubMed

    Fredholm, B B; Lindström, K; Dionisotti, S; Ongini, E

    1998-03-01

    We have characterized the new potent and selective nonxanthine adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 as a new radioligand for receptor autoradiography. In autoradiographic studies using agonist radioligands for A2A receptors ([3H]CGS 21680) or A1 receptors (N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine), it was found that SCH 58261 is close to 800-fold selective for rat brain A2A versus A1 receptors (Ki values of 1.2 nM versus 0.8 microM). Moreover, receptor autoradiography showed that [3H]SCH 58261, in concentrations below 2 nM, binds only to the dopamine-rich regions of the rat brain, with a K(D) value of 1.4 (0.8-1.8) nM. The maximal number of binding sites was 310 fmol/mg of protein in the striatum. Below concentrations of 3 nM, the nonspecific binding was <15%. Three adenosine analogues displaced all specific binding of [3H] SCH 58261 with the following estimated Ki values (nM): 2-hex-1-ynyl-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, 3.9 (1.8-8.4); CGS 21680, 130 (42-405); N6-cyclohexyladenosine, 9,985 (3,169-31,462). The binding of low concentrations of SCH 58261 was not influenced by either GTP (100 microM) or Mg2+ (10 mM). The present results show that in its tritium-labeled form, SCH 58261 appears to be a good radioligand for autoradiographic studies, because it does not suffer from some of the problems encountered with the currently used agonist radioligand [3H]CGS 21680.

  13. R-matrix description of particle energy spectra produced by low-energy 3H + 3H reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Brune, C. R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Bacher, A. D.; Hale, G. M.; Paris, M. W.

    2015-07-20

    An R-matrix model for three-body final states is presented and applied to a recent measurement of the neutron energy spectrum from the 3H + 3H→ 2n + α reaction. The calculation includes the n alpha and n n interactions in the final state, angular momentum conservation, antisymmetrization, and the interference between different channels. A good fit to the measured spectrum is obtained, where clear evidence for the 5He ground state is observed. The model is also used to predict the alpha-particle spectrum from 3H + 3H as well as particle spectra from 3He + 3He. The R-matrix approach presented heremore » is very general, and can be adapted to a wide variety of problems with three-body final states.« less

  14. (/sup 3/H)glucosamine and (/sup 3/H)proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)proline and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with (/sup 3/H)proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled material.

  15. The Cac1 subunit of histone chaperone CAF-1 organizes CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and tetramerizes histones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wallace H; Roemer, Sarah C; Zhou, Yeyun; Shen, Zih-Jie; Dennehey, Briana K; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Liddle, Jennifer C; Nemkov, Travis; Ahn, Natalie G; Hansen, Kirk C; Tyler, Jessica K; Churchill, Mair EA

    2016-01-01

    The histone chaperone Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) deposits tetrameric (H3/H4)2 histones onto newly-synthesized DNA during DNA replication. To understand the mechanism of the tri-subunit CAF-1 complex in this process, we investigated the protein-protein interactions within the CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture using biophysical and biochemical approaches. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange and chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry reveal interactions that are essential for CAF-1 function in budding yeast, and importantly indicate that the Cac1 subunit functions as a scaffold within the CAF-1-H3/H4 complex. Cac1 alone not only binds H3/H4 with high affinity, but also promotes histone tetramerization independent of the other subunits. Moreover, we identify a minimal region in the C-terminus of Cac1, including the structured winged helix domain and glutamate/aspartate-rich domain, which is sufficient to induce (H3/H4)2 tetramerization. These findings reveal a key role of Cac1 in histone tetramerization, providing a new model for CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and function during eukaryotic replication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18023.001 PMID:27690308

  16. Tissue and subcellular localizations of 3H-cyclosporine A in mice.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, L; Brandt, I; Appelkvist, E L; Dallner, G

    1988-02-01

    The tissue and subcellular localizations of 3H-cyclosporine A after administration to mice were determined with whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting of lipid extracts of tissues and subcellular fractions. The radioactivity was widely distributed in the body and the pattern of distribution after oral or parenteral administration was the same, except that tissue levels were generally lower after oral administration. Pretreatment of the animals with a diet containing cyclosporine A for 30 days before the injection of radioactive cyclosporine A did not change the pattern of distribution substantially. No significant radioactivity was found in the central nervous system, except for the choroidal plexus and the area postrema region of the brain. In pregnant mice no passage of radioactivity from the placentas to fetuses was observed after a single injection. 3H-cyclosporine A and/or its metabolites showed a high affinity for the lympho-myeloid tissues, with a marked long-term retention in bone marrow and lymph nodes. There was massive excretion in the intestinal tract after parenteral administration, and the liver, bile, pancreas and salivary glands contained high levels of radioactivity. In the kidney radioactivity was confined to the outer zone of the outer kidney medulla. In liver homogenates no quantitatively significant binding of 3H-cyclosporine A and/or its metabolites to cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, phospho- or neutral lipids was found. After lipid extraction with organic solvents, almost all radioactivity was recovered in the organic phase.

  17. Arabidopsis C3H14 and C3H15 have overlapping roles in the regulation of secondary wall thickening and anther development.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guohua; Kong, Yingzhen; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Li; Qi, Guang; Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zengguang; Cao, Yingping; Yu, Changjiang; Zhou, Gongke

    2015-05-01

    Plant tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) proteins play diverse roles in developmental and adaptive processes. Arabidopsis C3H14 has been shown to act as a potential regulator of secondary wall biosynthesis. However, there is lack of direct evidence to support its functions in Arabidopsis. It is demonstrated here that C3H14 and its homologue C3H15 redundantly regulate secondary wall formation and that they additionally function in anther development. Plants with double, but not single, T-DNA mutants for C3H14 or C3H15 have few pollen grains and thinner stem secondary walls than the wild type. Plants homozygous for c3h14 and heterozygous for c3h15 [c3h14 c3h15(±)] have slightly thinner secondary walls than plants heterozygous for c3h14 and homozygous for c3h15 [c3h14(±) c3h15], and c3h14(±) c3h15 have lower fertility. Overexpression of C3H14 or C3H15 led to increased secondary wall thickness in stems and the ectopic deposition of secondary walls in various tissues, but did not affect anther morphology. Transcript profiles from the C3H14/15 overexpression and c3h14 c3h15 plants revealed marked changes in the expression of many genes associated with cell wall metabolism and pollen formation. Subcellular localization and biochemical analyses suggest that C3H14/15 might function at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  18. [(3)H]-F13640, a novel, selective and high-efficacy serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist radioligand.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Palmier, Christiane; Tardif, Stéphanie; Bernois, Sophie; Colpaert, Francis C; Cussac, Didier

    2010-10-01

    F13640 is a selective and high-efficacy serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist that demonstrates outstanding analgesic potential in different animal models. Here, we use the radiolabelled compound to further characterise its binding properties at 5-HT(1A) receptors. F13640 was tritium-labelled to 47 and 64 Ci/mmol specific activity and used as radioligand at membrane preparations of CHO cells expressing human (h) 5-HT(1A) receptors. The K (d) of [(3)H]-F13640 was 1.8 nM at h5-HT(1A) receptors as determined from saturation binding experiments. In association time-course experiments, k (obs) of [(3)H]-F13640 was 0.06 min(-1). Dissociation experiments performed in the presence of unlabelled F13640 as competing ligand yielded a k (off) value of 0.05 min(-1), resulting in a calculated K (d) of 1.4 nM. In comparison, [(3)H]-8-OH-DPAT had a k (obs) of 0.50 min(-1), a k (off) of 0.25 min(-1) and a calculated K (d) of 0.37 nM. Surprisingly, [(3)H]-F13640 dissociation kinetics were distinctly slower in the presence of WAY-100635 and spiperone as competing ligands when compared with the agonist competitors, F13640 and (+)8-OH-DPAT. The competitive binding profile of [(3)H]-F13640 with eight chemically diverse 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists and antagonists correlated highly (r = 0.996) with that of [(3)H]-8-OH-DPAT. In conclusion, [(3)H]-F13640 is a potent agonist radioligand at 5-HT(1A) receptors and may be a useful tool in pharmacological studies at native and recombinant 5-HT(1A) receptors. In addition, [(3)H]-F13640 dissociates more slowly from h5-HT(1A) receptors than [(3)H]-8-OH-DPAT, a kinetic property that might be related to its powerful analgesic effects as observed in vivo.

  19. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine receptors in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)cyclohexyladenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, R.R.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-09-01

    Adenosine (A1) receptor binding sites have been localized in rat brain by an in vitro light microscopic autoradiographic method. The binding of (/sup 3/H)N6-cyclohexyladenosine to slide-mounted rat brain tissue sections has the characteristics of A1 receptors. It is saturable with high affinity and has appropriate pharmacology and stereospecificity. The highest densities of adenosine receptors occur in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the molecular and polymorphic layers of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the medial geniculate body, certain thalamic nuclei, and the lateral septum. High densities also are observed in certain layers of the cerebral cortex, the piriform cortex, the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, and the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. Most white matter areas, as well as certain gray matter areas, such as the hypothalamus, have negligible receptor concentrations. These localizations suggest possible central nervous system sites of action of adenosine.

  20. Structure–Activity Relationship for the 4(3H)-Quinazolinone Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported on the discovery of a novel antibacterial (2) with a 4(3H)-quinazolinone core. This discovery was made by in silico screening of 1.2 million compounds for binding to a penicillin-binding protein and the subsequent demonstration of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The first structure–activity relationship for this antibacterial scaffold is explored in this report with evaluation of 77 variants of the structural class. Eleven promising compounds were further evaluated for in vitro toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in a mouse peritonitis model of infection, which led to the discovery of compound 27. This new quinazolinone has potent activity against methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains, low clearance, oral bioavailability and shows efficacy in a mouse neutropenic thigh infection model. PMID:27088777

  1. In vivo labeling of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain with [3H]cytisine.

    PubMed

    Flesher, J E; Scheffel, U; London, E D; Frost, J J

    1994-01-01

    [3H]Cytisine was evaluated as an in vivo ligand for the nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR) in mouse brain. The tracer was injected intravenously, and radioactivity in brain regions was analyzed. Radioactivity peaked in the brain at 30 minutes. It was highest in the thalamus, intermediate in the superior colliculi, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and low in the cerebellum. Pretreatment with unlabeled cytisine inhibited binding in the thalamus, but not in the cerebellum. Binding was displaced by l-nicotine, but not by d-nicotine or dexetimide. The results suggest that cytisine, appropriately labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide, may be useful for study of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in humans by emission computed tomography. PMID:8196506

  2. Characterization of [(3) H]LS-3-134, a novel arylamide phenylpiperazine D3 dopamine receptor selective radioligand.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Malik, Maninder; Taylor, Michelle; Neve, Kim A; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2014-11-01

    LS-3-134 is a substituted N-phenylpiperazine derivative that has been reported to exhibit: (i) high-affinity binding (Ki value 0.2 nM) at human D3 dopamine receptors, (ii) > 100-fold D3 versus D2 dopamine receptor subtype binding selectivity, and (iii) low-affinity binding (Ki  > 5000 nM) at sigma 1 and sigma 2 receptors. Based upon a forskolin-dependent activation of the adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay, LS-3-134 is a weak partial agonist at both D2 and D3 dopamine receptor subtypes (29% and 35% of full agonist activity, respectively). In this study, [(3) H]-labeled LS-3-134 was prepared and evaluated to further characterize its use as a D3 dopamine receptor selective radioligand. Kinetic and equilibrium radioligand binding studies were performed. This radioligand rapidly reaches equilibrium (10-15 min at 37°C) and binds with high affinity to both human (Kd  = 0.06 ± 0.01 nM) and rat (Kd  = 0.2 ± 0.02 nM) D3 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells. Direct and competitive radioligand binding studies using rat caudate and nucleus accumbens tissue indicate that [(3) H]LS-3-134 selectively binds a homogeneous population of binding sites with a dopamine D3 receptor pharmacological profile. Based upon these studies, we propose that [(3) H]LS-3-134 represents a novel D3 dopamine receptor selective radioligand that can be used for studying the expression and regulation of the D3 dopamine receptor subtype.

  3. The importance of a urine sample in persons intoxicated with flunitrazepam--legal issues in a forensic psychiatric case study of a serial murderer.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna Maria; Strindlund, Hans; Wiklund, Nils; Fredriksen, Svend-Otto; Lidberg, Lars

    2003-10-14

    The sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine flunitrazepam (FZ) is abused worldwide. The purpose of our study was to investigate violence and anterograde amnesia following intoxication with FZ, and how this was legally evaluated in forensic psychiatric investigations with the objective of drawing some conclusions about the importance of urine sample in a case of a suspected intoxication with FZ. The case was a 23-year-old male university student who, intoxicated with FZ (and possibly with other substances such as diazepam, amphetamines or cannabis), first stabbed an acquaintance and, 2 years later, two friends to death. The police investigation files, including video-typed interviews, the forensic psychiatric files, and also results from the forensic autopsy of the victims, were compared with the information obtained from the case. Only partial recovery from anterograde amnesia was shown during a period of several months. Some important new information is contained in this case report: a forensic analysis of blood sample instead of a urine sample, might lead to confusion during police investigation and forensic psychiatric assessment (FPA) of an FZ abuser, and in consequence wrong legal decisions. FZ, alone or combined with other substances, induces severe violence and is followed by anterograde amnesia. All cases of bizarre, unexpected aggression followed by anterograde amnesia should be assessed for abuse of FZ. A urine sample is needed in case of suspected FZ intoxication. The police need to be more aware of these issues, and they must recognise that they play a crucial role in an assessment procedure. Declaring FZ an illegal drug is strongly recommended.

  4. Astronomical identification of the C3H radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Hjalmarson, A.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Irvine, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The C3H radical has been identified in the millimeter-wave spectra of IRC +10216 and TMC-1. In IRC +10216, four rotational transitions have been observed, three in the lower fine-structure ladder (2Pi1/2) and one in the upper (2Pi3/2), each a resolved or partially resolved lambda-doublet. In TMC-1, both lambda components of the lowest lying 3/2-1/2 transition of the 2Pi1/2 ladder have been observed, each with well-resolved hfs. In IRC +10216, the excitation of C3H is similar to that of SiCC: the rotational temperature Trot within the 2Pi1/2 ladder is low (8.5 K), because of rapid radiative decay, while Trot across the ladders is high (about 52 K), because interconnecting far-IR radiative transitions are only weakly permitted. The column density of C3H in IRC +10216 averaged over the estimated source diameter of 84 arcsec is 2.8 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm, an order of magnitude less than that of C2H and C4H.

  5. Analysis of specific /sup 3/H-diazepam binding in the brain of emotionally difference mice

    SciTech Connect

    Blednov, Yu.A.; Gordei, M.L.; Seredenin, S.B.

    1987-06-01

    A study of the behavior of inbred animals under conditions of emotional stress, of the biochemical parameters of the stress reaction, and of the effects of benzodiazepine tranquilizers, conducted in the authors' laboratory, showed that the character of the response to stress and the manifestation of the action of benzodiazepine depend on hereditary factors. The aim of this investigation was to study reception of tritium-labelled diazepam by brain cell membranes of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme ALDH3H1 from Arabidopsis thaliana: Identification of amino acid residues critical for cofactor specificity.

    PubMed

    Stiti, Naim; Podgórska, Karolina; Bartels, Dorothea

    2014-03-01

    The cofactor-binding site of the NAD(+)-dependent Arabidopsis thaliana aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3H1 was analyzed to understand structural features determining cofactor-specificity. Homology modeling and mutant analysis elucidated important amino acid residues. Glu149 occupies a central position in the cofactor-binding cleft, and its carboxylate group coordinates the 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups of the adenosyl ribose ring of NAD(+) and repels the 2'-phosphate moiety of NADP(+). If Glu149 is mutated to Gln, Asp, Asn or Thr the binding of NAD(+) is altered and rendered the enzyme capable of using NADP(+). This change is attributed to a weaker steric hindrance and elimination of the electrostatic repulsion force of the 2'-phosphate of NADP(+). Simultaneous mutations of Glu149 and Ile200, which is situated opposite of the cofactor binding cleft, improved the enzyme efficiency with NADP(+). The double mutant ALDH3H1Glu149Thr/Ile200Val showed a good catalysis with NADP(+). Subsequently a triple mutation was generated by replacing Val178 by Arg in order to create a "closed" cofactor binding site. The cofactor specificity was shifted even further in favor of NADP(+), as the mutant ALDH3H1E149T/V178R/I200V uses NADP(+) with almost 7-fold higher catalytic efficiency compared to NAD(+). Our experiments suggest that residues occupying positions equivalent to 149, 178 and 200 constitute a group of amino acids in the ALDH3H1 protein determining cofactor affinity.

  7. Effects of [3H]glucosamine concentration on [3H]chondroitin sulphate formation by cultured chondrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Paula J; Silbert, Jeremiah E

    2003-01-01

    GlcN (glucosamine) is now promoted over the counter for implied treatment of osteoarthritis, ostensibly by stimulating biosynthesis of cartilage chondroitin sulphate. In order to evaluate whether exogenous GlcN has any stimulatory effect, we have incubated mouse chondrocytes with [(35)S]sulphate and various amounts of GlcN, to determine whether any increment in chondroitin [(35)S]sulphate formation occurs. Similarly we have used varying concentrations of [(3)H]GlcN to determine the dilution of incorporation into [(3)H]chondroitin sulphate due to provision of endogenous GlcN by metabolism from glucose at two different glucose concentrations. The incorporation of both (35)S and (3)H was essentially linear over a 5 h time period. We found no stimulation of chondroitin [(35)S]sulphate synthesis at lower concentrations of GlcN, and a significant reduction at higher concentrations. Even at concentrations of [(3)H]GlcN that were greater than could be achieved with standard doses of oral GlcN, there was significant dilution of exogenous GlcN. Furthermore, an artificial acceptor for glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cell culture, 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside, did not modify the provision of GlcN from endogenous sources, even though it stimulated chondroitin sulphate synthesis 4 -5-fold at each GlcN concentration. We conclude that the cells have excess capacity to form maximal amounts of GlcN from glucose so that exogenous GlcN does not stimulate chondroitin sulphate synthesis. PMID:12943531

  8. Fusion of the ZC3H7B and BCOR genes in endometrial stromal sarcomas carrying an X;22-translocation.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Thorsen, Jim; Gorunova, Ludmila; Haugom, Lisbeth; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Davidson, Ben; Heim, Sverre; Micci, Francesca

    2013-07-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are genetically heterogeneous uterine tumors in which a JAZF1-SUZ12 chimeric gene resulting from the chromosomal translocation t(7;17)(p15;q21) as well as PHF1 rearrangements (in chromosomal band 6p21) with formation of JAZF1-PHF1, EPC1-PHF1, and MEAF6-PHF1 chimeras have been described. Here, we investigated two ESS characterized cytogenetically by the presence of a der(22)t(X;22)(p11;q13). Whole transcriptome sequencing one of the tumors identified a ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric transcript. Reverse transciptase-PCR with the ZC3H7B forward and BCOR reverse primer combinations confirmed the presence of a ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric transcript in both ESS carrying a der(22)t(X;22) but not in a control ESS with t(1;6) and the MEAF6-PHF1 fusion. Sequencing of the amplified cDNA fragments showed that in both cases ESS exon 10 of ZC3H7B (from 22q13; accession number NM_017590 version 4) was fused to exon 8 of BCOR (from Xp11; accession number NM_001123385 version 1). Reciprocal multiple BCOR-ZC3H7B cDNA fragments were amplified in only one case suggesting that ZC3H7B-BCOR, on the der(22)t(X;22), is the pathogenetically important fusion gene. The putative ZC3H7B-BCOR protein would contain the tetratricopeptide repeats and LD motif from ZC3H7B and the AF9 binding site (1093-1233aa), the 3 ankyrin repeats (1410-1509 aa), and the NSPC1 binding site of BCOR. Although the presence of these motifs suggests various functions of the chimeric protein, it is possible that its most important role may be in epigenetic regulation. Whether or not the (patho)genetic subsets JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1 rearrangements, and ZC3H7B-BCOR correspond to any phenotypic, let alone clinically important, differences in ESS remain unknown. PMID:23580382

  9. Effect of sequence of administration on the pharmacokinetic interaction between the anticholinergic drug biperiden and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate or [3H]N-methylscopolamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, J; Yokogawa, K; Nakashima, E; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T; Ichimura, F

    1998-02-01

    In rats the pharmacokinetic interactions between the anticholinergic drug biperiden and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate ([3H]QNB) or [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) is affected by the sequence in which the drugs are administered. Drug concentrations in various tissues were determined after intravenous administration of [3H]QNB or [3H]NMS (325 ng kg(-1)). Biperiden (6.4 mg kg(-1)) was administered either 5 min before, concomitantly with or 20 min after injection of [3H]QNB or [3H]NMS. When biperiden was administered concomitantly with or before [3H]QNB, distribution of [3H]QNB among the regions of the brain and other tissues was reduced; at 4 h the ratio of the distribution of [3H]QNB for experimental animals to that for control animals ranged from 0.15 to 0.9. When biperiden was administered after [3H]QNB, the distribution of [3H]QNB in the brain and other tissues was significantly higher than for the other two treatments (P < 0.01). However, for [3H]NMS the sequence of administration had no effect on the distribution of the drug in the brain and other tissues except for the kidney. In-vitro, in crude synaptosomal membranes, the amount of [3H]QNB at 2 h relative to the control concentration at equilibrium was 87% when biperiden was added before [3H]QNB and 56% when biperiden was added after [3H]QNB. In both instances the concentration of [3H]NMS reached equilibrium within 30 min. These findings suggest that the difference between the rate constant of association and dissociation at the possible site of action gives rise to the effect of the sequence of administration on the pharmacokinetic interaction.

  10. Applications of high resolution /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.G.

    1987-10-01

    The advantages of tritium as an NMR nucleus are pointed out. Examples of its use are given, including labelled toluene, hydrogenation of ..beta..-methylstyrene, and maltose and its binding proteins. 7 refs., 2 figs. (DLC)

  11. Temporal pattern of incorporation of /sup 3/H precursors into pituitary glycoproteins and their subsequent release

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjan, H.E. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    The temporal pattern of incorporation of various /sup 3/H precursors into glycoproteins by rat anterior pituitaries incubated in vitro and the release of /sup 3/H-glycoproteins was examined. (/sup 3/H)Leucine incorporation was linear with respect to time and (/sup 3/H)leucine-containing macromolecules appeared in the media in about 1 hr. The temporal pattern of (/sup 3/H)mannose incorporation and release was similar. (/sup 3/H)Galactose and (/sup 3/H)fucose were incorporated after apparent time of delays of approximately 15 min and soon thereafter (20-25 min) appeared in the medium in /sup 3/H-glycoproteins. Thus, these precursors appear to be added as terminal residues. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine exhibited a pattern intermediate between (/sup 3/H)leucine and (/sup 3/H)fucose whereas (/sup 3/H)GlcNAc appeared to be incorporated as a terminal residue.

  12. ( sup 3 H)CGS 21680, a selective A2 adenosine receptor agonist directly labels A2 receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.F.; Schulz, R.; Hutchison, A.J.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A.; Williams, M. )

    1989-12-01

    In the present study, the binding of a highly A2-selective agonist radioligand, (3H)CGS 21680 (2-(p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino)-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) is described. (3H)CGS 21680 specific binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable, reversible and dependent upon protein concentration. Saturation studies revealed that (3H)CGS 21680 bound with high affinity (Kd = 15.5 nM) and limited capacity (apparent Bmax = 375 fmol/mg of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. Estimates of ligand affinity (16 nM) determined from association and dissociation kinetic experiments were in close agreement with the results from the saturation studies. (3H)CGS 21680 binding was greatest in striatal membranes with negligible specific binding obtained in rat cortical membranes. Adenosine agonists ligands competed for the binding of 5 nM (3H)CGS 21680 to striatal membranes with the following order of activity; CGS 21680 = 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV-1808) = 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine = 2-chloroadenosine greater than R-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than N6-cyclohexyladenosine greater than N6cyclopentyltheophylline greater than S-phenylisopropyladenosine. The nonxanthine adenosine antagonist, CGS 15943A, was the most active compound in inhibiting the binding of (3H)CGS 21680. Other adenosine antagonists inhibited binding in the following order; xanthine amine congener = 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 8-cyclopentyltheophylline = xanthine carboxylic acid congener greater than 8-parasulfophenyltheophylline greater than theophylline greater than caffeine.

  13. Structure–function studies of histone H3/H4 tetramer maintenance during transcription by chaperone Spt2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shoudeng; Rufiange, Anne; Huang, Hongda; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Nourani, Amine; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Cells use specific mechanisms such as histone chaperones to abrogate the inherent barrier that the nucleosome poses to transcribing polymerases. The current model postulates that nucleosomes can be transiently disrupted to accommodate passage of RNA polymerases and that histones H3 and H4 possess their own chaperones dedicated to the recovery of nucleosomes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the conserved C terminus of human Suppressors of Ty insertions 2 (hSpt2C) chaperone bound to an H3/H4 tetramer. The structural studies demonstrate that hSpt2C is bound to the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer, mimicking the trajectory of nucleosomal-bound DNA. These structural studies have been complemented with in vitro binding and in vivo functional studies on mutants that disrupt key intermolecular contacts involving two acidic patches and hydrophobic residues on Spt2C. We show that contacts between both human and yeast Spt2C with the H3/H4 tetramer are required for the suppression of H3/H4 exchange as measured by H3K56ac and new H3 deposition. These interactions are also crucial for the inhibition of spurious transcription from within coding regions. Together, our data indicate that Spt2 interacts with the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer and promotes its recycling in the wake of RNA polymerase. PMID:26109053

  14. Structure-function studies of histone H3/H4 tetramer maintenance during transcription by chaperone Spt2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoudeng; Rufiange, Anne; Huang, Hongda; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Nourani, Amine; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-06-15

    Cells use specific mechanisms such as histone chaperones to abrogate the inherent barrier that the nucleosome poses to transcribing polymerases. The current model postulates that nucleosomes can be transiently disrupted to accommodate passage of RNA polymerases and that histones H3 and H4 possess their own chaperones dedicated to the recovery of nucleosomes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the conserved C terminus of human Suppressors of Ty insertions 2 (hSpt2C) chaperone bound to an H3/H4 tetramer. The structural studies demonstrate that hSpt2C is bound to the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer, mimicking the trajectory of nucleosomal-bound DNA. These structural studies have been complemented with in vitro binding and in vivo functional studies on mutants that disrupt key intermolecular contacts involving two acidic patches and hydrophobic residues on Spt2C. We show that contacts between both human and yeast Spt2C with the H3/H4 tetramer are required for the suppression of H3/H4 exchange as measured by H3K56ac and new H3 deposition. These interactions are also crucial for the inhibition of spurious transcription from within coding regions. Together, our data indicate that Spt2 interacts with the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer and promotes its recycling in the wake of RNA polymerase.

  15. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  16. A search for interstellar oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Arrhenius, G; Pitsch, S; Bauder, A; Muller, F; Eschenmoser, A

    1996-04-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(-10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  17. A Search for Interstellar Oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Arrhenius, G.; Bauder, A.; Mueller, F.; Eschenmoser, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen Of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(exp -10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  18. Microautoradiographic localisation of [3H]sucrose and [3H]mannitol in Robinia pseudoacacia pulvinar tissues during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure.

    PubMed

    Moysset, L; Llambrich, E; López-Iglesias, C; Simón, E

    2006-11-01

    We have analysed the incorporation of [(3)H]sucrose and [(3)H]mannitol in pulvinar motor cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L. during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure. Pairs of leaflets, excised 2 h after the beginning of the photoperiod, were fed with 50 mM [(3)H]sucrose or [(3)H]mannitol, irradiated with red (15 min) or far-red (5 min) light and placed in the dark for 2-3 h. Label uptake was measured in whole pulvini by liquid scintillation counting. The distribution of labelling in pulvinar sections was assessed by both light and electron microautoradiography. [(3)H]Sucrose uptake was twice that of [(3)H]mannitol incorporation in both red- and far-red-irradiated pulvini. In the autoradiographs, [(3)H]sucrose and [(3)H]mannitol labelling was localised in the area from the vascular bundle to the epidermis, mainly in vacuoles, cytoplasm, and cell walls. Extensor and flexor protoplasts displayed a different distribution of [(3)H]sucrose after red and far-red irradiation. Far-red light drastically reduced the [(3)H]sucrose incorporation in extensor protoplasts and caused a slight increase in internal flexor protoplasts. After red light treatment, no differences in [(3)H]sucrose labelling were found between extensor and flexor protoplasts. Our results indicate a phytochrome control of sucrose distribution in cortical motor cells and seem to rule out the possibility of sucrose acting as an osmoticum. PMID:17102931

  19. Pressure Effects on Product Channels of the Allyl Radical Reactions; C3H5+C3H5 and C3H5+CH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.; N'Doumi, M.; Fahr, A.

    2011-12-01

    Relatively large hydrocarbon molecules (C4, C6 and larger) have been detected in several planetary environments. The mechanism for the formation of such large molecular species and detailed mechanism for their potential destruction are not well understood and are of considerable current interest. Previously we have studied the kinetics and product channels of small unsaturated hydrocarbon radical (C2 and C3s) reactions relevant to planetary atmospheric modeling. Reactions of C2 radicals (such as vinyl, H2CCH and ethynyl C2H) and C3 radicals (such as propargyl, HCCCH2) can affect the abundances of a large number of stable observable C3, C4, C5, C6 and larger molecules, including linear, aromatic and even poly aromatic molecules. Pressure-dependent product yields have been determined experimentally for the self- and cross-radical reactions performed at 298 K and at pressures between ~4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Final reaction products were quantitatively determined using a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID). In some cases complementary computational studies extended the pressure and temperature range of the experiments and provided valuable information on the complex reaction mechanisms. Theses studies provide a systematic framework so that important energetic and structural parameters for radical-radical reactions can be assessed. Here we report recent results for the allyl radical reactions H2CCCH3+ H2CCCH3 and H2CCCH3+CH3. For the allyl radical self-reaction, at high pressures the "head -to-head", combination channel forming 1,5-hexadiene is dominant with a combination/disproportionation = 1,5-hexadiene/propyne ratio of about 24 at 500 Torr (67 kPa, T=298K). At low pressures the ratio is substantially reduced to about 1.2 (at 0.3 kPa) and other major products are observed including allene, propene, 1-butene and propyne.

  20. Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat hippocampal formation: action of catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and commissural denervation.

    PubMed

    Novas, M L; Medina, J H; De Robertis, E

    1983-03-01

    The problem of benzodiazepine receptor localization in the rat hippocampal formation has been approached using several methods of selective deafferentation, followed by [3H]flunitrazepam binding studies. The intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine reduced, after 14 days, the norepinephrine content of the hippocampal formation by 68.4%, and decreased the number of binding sites by 32%, without change in affinity. The intraventricular injection of 5,6 dihydroxytryptamine reduced the serotonin content by 61.5% but did not alter the [3H]flunitrazepam binding. The intraventricular bilateral injection of 0.5 micrograms kainic acid selectively destroyed the pyramidal neurons in area CA3 of both hippocampi and produced an increase of 28% in [3H]flunitrazepam binding, without change in affinity. These results are discussed in relation to our previous observations about benzodiazepine receptor changes after fimbria-fornix transection. The reduction in [3H]flunitrazepam binding after administration of 6-hydroxydopamine suggests the possible localization of the benzodiazepine receptors on adrenergic presynaptic terminals. The increase in binding sites after destruction of CA3 pyramidal cells, which are the site of origin of commissural fibers, is tentatively interpreted as resulting from the sprouting of mossy fibers that replace the associational-commissural projections.

  1. Infrared Predissociation Spectroscopy of the Hydrocarbon Cations C_3H^+, C_2H^+, and C_3H_2^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, Sandra; Lipparini, Filippo; Gauss, Jürgen; Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Reactive hydrocarbon cations play an important role in the astrochemistry of the interstellar medium, but spectroscopic data, needed for their identification in astronomical observations, is sparse. Here we report the first gas-phase vibrational spectra of the linear C_3H^+ (^1 Σ), the radical cation C_2H^+ (^3 Π), and the linear-/cyclic-C_3H_2^+ (^2 Π /^2A_1, resp.). Broadband spectra were recorded by Ne- and He-messenger infrared-predissociation (IR-PD) action spectroscopy in a cryogenic (4-11 K) ion trap instrument (FELion) in the 250-3500 {wn} range using a free electron laser and a MIR-OPO at the FELIX (Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments) laboratory. The band positions (determined with a precision of 1-2 wn) covering the C-H and C-C stretching as well as several bending modes are compared to high-level (CCSD(T) with large basis sets) quantum-chemical calculations with an emphasis on anharmonic effects and on the influence of the rare-gas messenger atom. The experimental and theoretical data provide a solid basis for subsequent IR high-resolution studies, with the ultimate goal to predict and measure accurate rotational spectra for a radio-astronomical search of these molecular ions in space.

  2. Encapsulated scintillators monitor /sup 3/H-solute concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, G.; Gruner, S.

    1982-02-01

    The short range of the /sup 3/H beta allows shielding of microbeds of scintillator by a several um thick coating of a water based gel. Gels may be used which are permeable to a wide variety of tritiated molecules. Thus, the light output of a mixture of the coated beads and a solution of the tritiated compound is proportional to the solution concentration of the tritiated substance. The mixture may also contain particles to which the gel is impermeable, such as cells, vesicles, large proteins, etc., but which can alter the concentration of the tritiated compound by uptake or release. In this case, the light output monitors the fractional uptake of the tritiated material. The design criteria for encapsulating the scintillators and dynamically monitoring the scintillation output are discussed. A simple method for encapsulating plastic scintillator microbeads, suitable for monitoring slow concentration changes, is described and tested.

  3. One dimensional 1H, 2H and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A. J.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Vranješ Markić, L.; Boronat, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional electron-spin-polarized hydrogen 1H, deuterium 2H, and tritium 3H are obtained by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equations of state of the three isotopes are calculated for a wide range of linear densities. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor are obtained and interpreted within the framework of the Luttinger liquid theory. We report the density dependence of the Luttinger parameter and use it to identify different physical regimes: Bogoliubov Bose gas, super-Tonks-Girardeau gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for bosons; repulsive, attractive Fermi gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for fermions. We find that the tritium isotope is the one with the richest behavior. Our results show unambiguously the relevant role of the isotope mass in the properties of this quantum system.

  4. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  5. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  6. The Macroscopic Rate of Nucleic Acid Translocation by Hepatitis C virus Helicase NS3h is Dependent on Both the Sugar and Base Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Ali R.; Field, Cassandra; Malik, Shuja; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Leavitt, Stephanie A.; Wang, Ruth; Hung, Magdeleine; Sakowicz, Roman; Brendza, Katherine M.; Fischer, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The NS3 helicase (NS3h) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a 3′ to 5′ SF2 RNA and DNA helicase that is essential for the replication of HCV. We have examined the kinetic mechanism of translocation of NS3h along single-stranded nucleic acid with bases rU, dU and dT and have found that the macroscopic rate of translocation is dependent upon both the base and sugar moieties of the nucleic acid, with approximate macroscopic translocation rates of 3 nt/s (oligo-dT), 35 nt/s (oligo-dU), and 42 nt/s (oligo-rU), respectively. We found a strong correlation between the macroscopic translocation rates and the binding affinity of the translocating NS3h protein to the respective substrates such that weaker affinity corresponded to faster translocation. The values of K0.5 for NS3h translocation at a saturating ATP concentration are: (3.3 ± 0.4) μM nucleotide (poly-dT), (27 ± 2) μM nucleotide (poly-dU), and (36 ± 2) μM nucleotide (poly-rU). Furthermore, the results of isothermal titration of NS3h with these oligonucleotides suggest that differences in TΔS° are the principal source of the differences in the affinity of NS3h binding to these substrates. Interestingly, despite the differences in macroscopic translocation rates and binding affinities, the ATP coupling stoichiometry for NS3h translocation was identical for all three substrates, ~0.5 ATP molecules consumed per nucleotide translocated. This similar periodicity of ATP consumption implies a similar mechanism for NS3h translocation along RNA and DNA substrates. PMID:20451531

  7. The macroscopic rate of nucleic acid translocation by hepatitis C virus helicase NS3h is dependent on both sugar and base moieties.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Ali R; Field, Cassandra; Malik, Shuja; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Leavitt, Stephanie A; Wang, Ruth; Hung, Magdeleine; Sakowicz, Roman; Brendza, Katherine M; Fischer, Christopher J

    2010-07-16

    The nonstructural protein 3 helicase (NS3h) of hepatitis C virus is a 3'-to-5' superfamily 2 RNA and DNA helicase that is essential for the replication of hepatitis C virus. We have examined the kinetic mechanism of the translocation of NS3h along single-stranded nucleic acid with bases uridylate (rU), deoxyuridylate (dU), and deoxythymidylate (dT), and have found that the macroscopic rate of translocation is dependent on both the base moiety and the sugar moiety of the nucleic acid, with approximate macroscopic translocation rates of 3 nt s(-1) (oligo(dT)), 35 nt s(-1) (oligo(dU)), and 42 nt s(-1) (oligo(rU)), respectively. We found a strong correlation between the macroscopic translocation rates and the binding affinity of the translocating NS3h protein for the respective substrates such that weaker affinity corresponded to faster translocation. The values of K(0.5) for NS3h translocation at a saturating ATP concentration are as follows: 3.3+/-0.4 microM nucleotide (poly(dT)), 27+/-2 microM nucleotide (poly(dU)), and 36+/-2 microM nucleotide (poly(rU)). Furthermore, results of the isothermal titration of NS3h with these oligonucleotides suggest that differences in TDeltaS(0) are the principal source of differences in the affinity of NS3h binding to these substrates. Interestingly, despite the differences in macroscopic translocation rates and binding affinities, the ATP coupling stoichiometries for NS3h translocation were identical for all three substrates (approximately 0.5 ATP molecule consumed per nucleotide translocated). This similar periodicity of ATP consumption implies a similar mechanism for NS3h translocation along RNA and DNA substrates.

  8. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, D.J.; Guan, X.M.; Shulgin, A.T. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of various analogues of the neurotoxic amphetamine derivative, MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) on carrier-mediated, calcium-independent release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA from rat brain synaptosomes was investigated. Both enantiomers of the neurotoxic analogues MDA and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induce synaptosomal release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA in vitro. The release of 3H-5-HT induced by MDMA is partially blocked by 10(-6) M fluoxetine. The (+) enantiomers of both MDA and MDMA are more potent than the (-) enantiomers as releasers of both 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA. Eleven analogues, differing from MDA with respect to the nature and number of ring and/or side chain substituents, also show some activity in the release experiments, and are more potent as releasers of 3H-5-HT than of 3H-DA. The amphetamine derivatives {plus minus}fenfluramine, {plus minus}norfenfluramine, {plus minus}MDE, {plus minus}PCA, and d-methamphetamine are all potent releasers of 3H-5-HT and show varying degrees of activity as 3H-DA releasers. The hallucinogen DOM does not cause significant release of either 3H-monoamine. Possible long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the density of 5-HT uptake sites in rats treated with multiple doses of selected analogues using 3H-paroxetine to label 5-HT uptake sites. In the neurotoxicity study of the compounds investigated, only (+)MDA caused a significant loss of 5-HT uptake sites in comparison to saline-treated controls. These results are discussed in terms of the apparent structure-activity properties affecting 3H-monoamine release and their possible relevance to neurotoxicity in this series of MDA congeners.

  9. Rat uterine progesterone receptor analyzed by (/sup 3/H)R5020 photoaffinity labeling: evidence that the A and B subunits are not equimolar

    SciTech Connect

    Ilenchuk, T.T.; Walters, M.R.

    1987-04-01

    The hormone-binding components of the rat uterine progesterone receptor were investigated by the methods of (/sup 3/H)R5020 photoaffinity labeling and sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Two specifically labeled peaks were observed at mol wt of 85,600 +/- 1,200 and 109,600 +/- 1,200 (n = 31), resembling the A and B progesterone receptor components previously described in other systems. However, in contrast to the equimolar ratio reported in other systems, the level of subunit A observed was consistently greater than that of B (A/B ratio = 3.2 +/- 0.3; n = 31). The unusual A/B ratio prompted a complete validation of the photolabeling procedure in this system. Although the levels of specific binding increased, there was no change in the A/B ratio with varying (/sup 3/H)R5020 concentrations (5-80 nM) or with time of UV exposure (0.5 min to 3 h). Although adsorption to hydroxylapatite indicated that specific (/sup 3/H)R5020 binding was reduced by 72.0 +/- 6.4% within 5 min of UV exposure, relabeling the irradiated preparations with (/sup 3/H)R5020 resulted in little change in specific (/sup 3/H)R5020 binding. TLC analysis of (/sup 3/H)R5020 (Rf = 0.48 +/- 0.01; n = 4) after irradiation demonstrated rapid photolysis resulting in a 94.3 +/- 2.5% (n = 3) loss of authentic (/sup 3/H)R5020 within 5 min. After photolysis, at least two new tritiated products were recovered with Rf values of 0.20 +/- 0.03 and 0.72 +/- 0.02. Analysis by adsorption to hydroxylapatite indicated that the photolysis products competed for specific (/sup 3/H)R5020-binding sites in cytosol with only 10-fold lower relative binding activity than authentic R5020. Thus, these compounds probably account for the increase in specific photolabeling of the A and B peaks achieved when UV exposure is prolonged from 5 to 30 min. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. The modulation by chlormethiazole of the GABAA-receptor complex in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A. J.; Stirling, J. M.; Robinson, T. N.; Bowen, D. M.; Francis, P. T.; Green, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. The interactions of chlormethiazole with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and release, and with ligand binding to sites associated with the GABAA-receptor complex and the GABAB-receptor have been studied in the rat. The GABAA-receptor was studied using [3H]-muscimol, [3H]-flunitrazepam was used to label the benzodiazepine modulatory site, and [35S]-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) to label the chloride channel. 2. Chlormethiazole had no effect on GABA synthesis in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum or on GABA release from cortical slices in vitro. Chlormethiazole did not displace [3H]-baclofen binding to the GABAB-receptor. 3. Chlormethiazole (IC50 = 140 microM) and pentobarbitone (IC50 = 95 microM) both inhibited [35S]-TBPS binding by increasing the rate of [35S]-TBPS dissociation. In addition, chlormethiazole caused an apparent decrease in the affinity of [35S]-TBPS binding. 4. Chlormethiazole enhanced the binding of [3H]-muscimol but had no effect on [3H]-flunitrazepam binding. In contrast, the sedative barbiturate pentobarbitone enhanced both [3H]-muscimol and [3H]-flunitrazepam binding. 5. It is concluded that the sedative and anticonvulsant effects of chlormethiazole are probably mediated through an action at the GABAA-receptor. However, chlormethiazole does not interact with the GABAA-receptor complex in an identical manner to the sedative barbiturate pentobarbitone. PMID:2553191

  11. Relationship between alpha/sub 1/-adrenergic receptor occupancy and regulation of intracellular Ca/sup + +/ in BC3H-1 muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D.; Berger, K.D.; Button, D.; Taylor, P.

    1986-05-01

    The relationship between ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor occupancy by agonists or antagonists and functional response was examined. Receptor occupancy was measured using the antagonist (/sup 3/H)prazosin, and correlated with agonist-elicited unidirectional /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux. The agonists epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and phenylephrine (PE) activated /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux with the order of potency expected for ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptors (E greater than or equal to NE > PE). A parabolic relationship suggesting the presence of a modest receptor reserve was observed between the number of activatable receptors after equilibration with specified (/sup 3/H)prazosin concentrations and residual /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux responses elicited by E or NE. A linear relationship was previously observed for PE. Agonist occupancy was independently measured by competition with the initial rate of (/sup 3/H)prazosin association. Both E and NE inhibited (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding over higher concentration ranges than those required to elicit /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux. Equilibration of cultures with agonist prior to measurement of (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding resulted in small decreases in apparent agonist affinities. These results indicate that BC3H-1 cells possess a small ..cap alpha../sub 1/-receptor reserve for agonist-elicited /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux which is reflected in the catecholamine agonists, and that exposure to agonist converts receptors to a state of reduced agonist affinity.

  12. G protein-linked receptors labeled by [3H]histamine in guinea pig cerebral cortex. I. Pharmacological characterization [corrected].

    PubMed

    Sinkins, W G; Kandel, M; Kandel, S I; Schunack, W; Wells, J W

    1993-04-01

    Binding of histamine to washed membranes from guinea pig cerebral cortex can be described empirically as two classes of distinct and independent sites (log IP1 = -8.45 +/- 0.02, R1;t = 98 +/- 6 pmol/g of protein; log KP2 = -6.34 +/- 0.22, R2.t = 990 +/- 60 pmol/g of protein). At 1.4 nm [3H]histamine, the kinetics of association and dissociation are biexponential. The values of k-Pj/k+Pj calculated for parallel one-step processes agree well with the corresponding values of KPj. Both k-p1 and k-P2 are increased by 0.1 mM guanylylimidodiphosphate; apparent capacity at equilibrium is reduced for both classes of sites, with little or no change in KP1 or KP2. Twenty-six H2 and H3 agonists and antagonists block access of [3H]histamine to the same sites, and the binding patterns reveal either one or two hyperbolic terms [i.e., sigma nj = 1 F' jKj/(Kj+[L])]. Two terms are required for six agonists and six antagonists, and F'2 varies widely from ligand to ligand. Also, the quantity log (K2/K1) is correlated with F'1 among agonists but with F'2 among antagonists (K1 < K2). The pharmacological selectivity is suggestive of both H2 and H3 receptors. An H2 specificity emerges from the appropriate values of Kj for 12 H2 agonists (i.e., K1 when n = 1 and K2 when n = 2; p = 0.00045), although a specificity distinct from that of H2 receptors is found with H2 antagonists. An H3 specificity emerges from the inhibitory potencies (IC50) of eight H3 agonists (p = 0.00025) and eight H3 antagonists (p = 0.0019); also, the sites labeled by [3H]histamine resemble H3 receptors reportedly labeled by N alpha-[3H]methylhistamine and (R)-alpha-[3H]methylhistamine. Ligand-dependent differences in F'2 are inconsistent with the notion of distinct and independent sites, and the tendency of antagonists to promote the sites of weaker affinity (F'2) argues against a ligand-regulated equilibrium between two states. The physical significance of the binding parameters is therefore unclear. The failure to

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of [(3)H]PF-7191, a highly specific nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor radiotracer for in vivo receptor occupancy (RO) studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Drummond, Elena; Brodney, Michael A; Cianfrogna, Julie; Drozda, Susan E; Grimwood, Sarah; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Villalobos, Anabella

    2014-11-15

    Herein we report the identification of (+)-N-(2-((1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-((1R,3r,5S)-6'-fluoro-8-azaspiro[bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3,1'-isochroman]-8-yl)propyl)-N-[(3)H]-methylacetamide {[(3)H]PF-7191 [(+)-11]} as a promising radiotracer for the nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor. (+)-11 demonstrated high NOP binding affinity (Ki = 0.1 nM), excellent selectivity over other opioid receptors (>1000×) and good brain permeability in rats (C(b,u)/C(p,u) = 0.29). Subsequent characterization of [(3)H](+)-11 showed a high level of specific binding and a brain bio-distribution pattern consistent with known NOP receptor expression. Furthermore, the in vivo brain binding of [(3)H](+)-11 in rats was inhibited by a selective NOP receptor antagonist in a dose-responsive manner. This overall favorable profile indicated that [(3)H](+)-11 is a robust radiotracer for pre-clinical in vivo receptor occupancy (RO) measurements and a possible substrate for carbon-11 labeling for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in higher species.

  14. Phosphorus balance and mineral metabolism with 3 h daily hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ayus, J C; Achinger, S G; Mizani, M R; Chertow, G M; Furmaga, W; Lee, S; Rodriguez, F

    2007-02-01

    Poor control of mineral metabolism is independently associated with mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis. We analyzed data from a 12-month, prospective, non-randomized, controlled study of daily hemodialysis (DHD) (six sessions/week 3 h each) (n=26) vs conventional hemodialysis (CHD) (three sessions/week 4 h each) (n=51) for achievement of mineral metabolism goals and we performed a substudy of weekly dialytic phosphorus removal in DHD vs CHD. Phosphorus control was superior in the DHD group (% change from baseline to end-of-study -27+/-30% vs +7%+/-35% in the CHD group, P=0.0001). Percentage of patients using phosphate binders decreased from 77 to 40% among subjects on DHD, whereas these parameters did not change (76 vs 77%) in the CHD group (P=0.03 by Breslow-Day test for homogeneity of the odds ratios). Weekly mean phosphorus removal was higher in the DHD group (2452+/-720 mg/week vs 1572+/-366 mg/week, P=0.04). Mean normalized protein catabolic rate increased (0.90+/-0.43-1.22+/-0.26 g/kg/day, P=0.0013). DHD was also associated with an increase in the percent of subjects achieving three or more mineral metabolism goals (for phosphorus, calcium x phosphorus and parathyroid hormone) (15 vs 46%, P=0.046). In conclusion, DHD improves phosphorus control by increasing dialytic phosphorus removal while maintaining nutritional status and reducing the use of phosphate binders. The net effect allows for improved achievement of mineral metabolism goals. PMID:17191084

  15. Structure, pharmacological properties, and affinity for benzdiazepine receptors of 1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzdiazepin-2-ones and their cyclic homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Andronati, S.A.; Chepelev, V.M.; Voronina, T.A.; Yavorskii, A.S.; Yakubovskaya, L.N.; Danilin, V.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors study the nature of the receptors and the nature of the pharmacotropic fragment responsible for the manifestation of the pharmacological properties of the preparations, the action of which is due to interaction of the benzdiazepine receptors (BDR), in the establishment of a relationship between the structure, affinity for BDR, and pharmacological properties of the compounds of 1,4-diazepine series. Characteristics of the binding of (/sup 3/H)diazepam to BDR are shown. Data obtained shown that both higher and lower cyclohomologs of 1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzdiazepines are capable of inhibiting the binding of (/sup 3/H)diazepam to BDR to various degrees, depending of the size of the heterocycle.

  16. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Studies of 6-Aryl-2-Styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-Ones.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Emmanuel Ndubuisi; Makhafola, Tshepiso Jan; Choong, Yee Siew; Mphahlele, Malose Jack; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2015-12-25

    Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 6-bromo-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones with arylboronic acids afforded a series of novel 6-aryl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones. These compounds were evaluated for potential anticancer properties against the human renal (TK-10), melanoma (UACC-62) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Their antimicrobial properties were also evaluated against six Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, as well as two strains of fungi. Molecular docking studies (in silico) were conducted on compounds 5a, b, d and 6a, b, d-f to recognize the hypothetical binding motif of the title compounds within the active site of the dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase enzymes.

  17. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Studies of 6-Aryl-2-Styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-Ones.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Emmanuel Ndubuisi; Makhafola, Tshepiso Jan; Choong, Yee Siew; Mphahlele, Malose Jack; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2015-01-01

    Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 6-bromo-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones with arylboronic acids afforded a series of novel 6-aryl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones. These compounds were evaluated for potential anticancer properties against the human renal (TK-10), melanoma (UACC-62) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Their antimicrobial properties were also evaluated against six Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, as well as two strains of fungi. Molecular docking studies (in silico) were conducted on compounds 5a, b, d and 6a, b, d-f to recognize the hypothetical binding motif of the title compounds within the active site of the dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase enzymes. PMID:26712730

  18. DNA Mismatch Repair Interacts with CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent Histone (H3-H4)2 Tetramer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Rodriges Blanko, Elena; Kadyrova, Lyudmila Y; Kadyrov, Farid A

    2016-04-22

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is required for the maintenance of genome stability and protection of humans from several types of cancer. Human MMR occurs in the chromatin environment, but little is known about the interactions between MMR and the chromatin environment. Previous research has suggested that MMR coincides with replication-coupled assembly of the newly synthesized DNA into nucleosomes. The first step in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is CAF-1-dependent histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer deposition, a process that involves ASF1A-H3-H4 complex. In this work we used reconstituted human systems to investigate interactions between MMR and CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer deposition. We have found that MutSα inhibits CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent packaging of a DNA mismatch into a tetrasome. This finding supports the idea that MMR occurs before the DNA mismatch is packaged into the tetrasome. Our experiments have also revealed that CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent deposition of the histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers does not interfere with MMR reactions. In addition, we have established that unnecessary degradation of the discontinuous strand that takes place in both DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ)- and DNA polymerase ϵ (Pol ϵ)-dependent MMR reactions is suppressed by CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent deposition of the histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers. These data suggest that CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent deposition of the histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers is compatible with MMR and protects the discontinuous daughter strand from unnecessary degradation by MMR machinery.

  19. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  20. Neurochemical effects of buspirone in rat hippocampus: evidence for selective activation of 5HT neurons.

    PubMed

    Mennini, T; Gobbi, M; Ponzio, F; Garattini, S

    1986-01-01

    The effect of buspirone on neurotransmitter systems in rat hippocampus has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro buspirone does not affect the specific binding of 3H-flunitrazepam, 3H-GABA, 3H-dexetimide, but displaces 3H-5HT binding with nanomolar affinity. Oral administration of buspirone does not modify the hippocampal concentrations of GABA, acetylcholine, choline and of 3H-flunitrazepam specifically bound in vivo, but results in a dose-dependent reduction of 5HIAA and noradrenaline concentrations. While the effect on noradrenaline is also obtained in striatum of buspirone-treated animals, the effect on 5HIAA shows a regional specificity. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that buspirone specifically activates 5HT neurons in hippocampus, and are compared with those obtained with diazepam. PMID:2421657

  1. The Organocatalytic Approach to Enantiopure 2H- and 3H-Pyrroles: Inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kötzner, Lisa; Leutzsch, Markus; Sievers, Sonja; Patil, Sumersing; Waldmann, Herbert; Zheng, Yiying; Thiel, Walter; List, Benjamin

    2016-06-27

    A divergent approach to enantioenriched 2H- and 3H-pyrroles catalyzed by a spirocyclic phosphoric acid is reported that makes use of a Fischer-type indolization and a [1,5]-alkyl shift. Catalyzed by the chiral phosphoric acid STRIP, good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities could be obtained. Remarkably, biological evaluation reveals one of these novel 2H-pyrroles to be a potent but nontoxic inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway by binding to the Smoothened protein. PMID:27239757

  2. Autoradiographic visualization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in rat brain with (/sup 3/H)captopril: localization to a striatonigral pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.; Lo, M.M.S.; Javitch, J.A.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-03-01

    The authors have visualized angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, peptidylpeptide hydrolase, EC 3.4.15.1) in rat brain by in vitro (/sup 3/H)captopril autoradiography. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to brain slices displays a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 1.8 x 10/sup -9/ M) and a pharmacological profile similar to that of ACE activity. Very high densities of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding were found in the choroid plexus and the subfornical organ. High densities were present in the caudate putamen and substantia nigra, zona reticulata. Moderate levels were found in the entopeduncular nucleus, globus pallidus, and median eminence of the hypothalamus. Lower levels were detectable in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, the media habenula, the median preoptic area, and the locus coeruleus. Injection of ibotenic acid or colchicine into the caudate putamen decreased (/sup 3/H)captopril-associated autoradiographic grains by 85% in the ipsilateral caudate putamen and by > 50% in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Thus, ACE in the substantia nigra is located on presynaptic terminals of axons originating from the caudate putamen, and ACE in the caudate putamen is situated in neuronal perikarya or at the terminals of striatal interneurons. The lack of effect of similar injections into the substantia nigra confirmed that the caudate putamen injections did not cause trans-synaptic changes. The presence of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding is consistent with an ACE-mediated production of angiotensin II in some brain regions. Although (/sup 3/H)captopril autoradiography reveals ACE in a striatonigral pathway, there is no evidence for angiotensin II involvement in such a neuronal pathway. 26 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Rate constant measurement of the recombination reaction C[sub 3]H[sub 3] + C[sub 3]H[sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Morter, C.L.; Farhat, S.K.; Adamson, J.D.; Glass, G.P.; Curl, R.F. )

    1994-07-14

    Using the technique of infrared kinetic absorption spectroscopy, the second-order rate constant for the recombination reaction of the propargyl radical (C[sub 3]H[sub 3] + C[sub 3]H[sub 3]) has been measured and found to have the value (1.2 [+-] 0.2) x 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1] at 295 K. The radical was produced in a flow cell by excimer laser flash photolysis ([lambda] = 193 nm) of the precursors C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl or C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Br and detected using time-resolved IR absorption. Absolute concentrations of C[sub 3]H[sub 3] were determined by comparing the C[sub 3]H[sub 3] absorption intensity with that of the Br atom. This calibration scheme was checked by producing methyl radicals by photolysis of methyl bromide and comparing the rate constant for methyl recombination thus obtained with literature values. The quantum yield for HCl production from the photodissociation of C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl at 193 nm was determined to be 0.07 [+-] 0.01. 47 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney: Radioligand homogenate binding and autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, V.U.; Hughes, J.; Hunter, J.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The specific binding of the selective {mu}-, {delta}-, and {kappa}-opioid ligands (3H)(D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5)enkephalin ((3H) DAGOL), (3H)(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((3H)DPDPE), and (3H)U69593, respectively, to crude membranes of the guinea pig and rat whole kidney, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla was investigated. In addition, the distribution of specific 3H-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney was visualized by autoradiography. Homogenate binding and autoradiography demonstrated the absence of {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig kidney. No opioid binding sites were demonstrable in the rat kidney. In the guinea pig whole kidney, cortex, and medulla, saturation studies demonstrated that (3H)DPDPE bound with high affinity (KD = 2.6-3.5 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding sites (Bmax = 8.4-30 fmol/mg of protein). Competition studies using several opioid compounds confirmed the nature of the {delta}-opioid binding site. Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that specific (3H)DPDPE binding sites were distributed radially in regions of the inner and outer medulla and at the corticomedullary junction of the guinea pig kidney. Computer-assisted image analysis of saturation data yielded KD values (4.5-5.0 nM) that were in good agreement with those obtained from the homogenate binding studies. Further investigation of the {delta}-opioid binding site in medulla homogenates, using agonist ((3H)DPDPE) and antagonist ((3H)diprenorphine) binding in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and nucleotides, suggested that the {delta}-opioid site is linked to a second messenger system via a GTP-binding protein. Further studies are required to establish the precise localization of the {delta} binding site in the guinea pig kidney and to determine the nature of the second messenger linked to the GTP-binding protein in the medulla.

  5. Discovery of Antibiotic (E)-3-(3-Carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Renee; Kumarasiri, Malika; Peng, Zhihong; Otero, Lisandro H.; Song, Wei; Suckow, Mark A.; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Wolter, William R.; Lastochkin, Elena; Antunes, Nuno T.; Pi, Hualiang; Vakulenko, Sergei; Hermoso, Juan A.; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the clinical challenge posed by resistant bacteria, the present needs for novel classes of antibiotics are genuine. In silico docking and screening, followed by chemical synthesis of a library of quinazolinones, led to the discovery of (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (compound 2) as an antibiotic effective in vivo against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This antibiotic impairs cell-wall biosynthesis as documented by functional assays, showing binding of 2 to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a. We document that the antibiotic also inhibits PBP1 of S. aureus, indicating a broad targeting of structurally similar PBPs by this antibiotic. This class of antibiotics holds promise in fighting MRSA infections. PMID:25629446

  6. /sup 3/H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallingford, J.; Zatz, M.

    1986-05-01

    Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH/sub 3/, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH/sub 3/ was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates.

  7. Synthesis ofN-(2-chloro-5-methylthiophenyl)-N'-(3-methyl-thiophenyl)-N'-[3H3]methylguanidine, l brace [3H3]CNS-5161 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Andrew R.; Morimoto, Hiromi; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Williams, Philip G.; Biegon, Anat

    2001-09-28

    The preparation of the title compound, [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]CNS-5161, was accomplished in three steps starting with the production of [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]iodomethane (CT{sub 3}I). The intermediate N-[{sup 3}H{sub 3}]methyl-3-(thiomethylphenyl)cyanamide was prepared in 77% yield by the addition of CT{sub 3}I to 3-(thiomethylphenyl)cyanamide, previously treated with sodium hydride. Reaction of this tritiated intermediate with 2-chloro-5-thiomethylaniline hydrochloride formed the guanidine compound [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]CNS-5161. Purification by HPLC gave the desired labeled product in an overall yield of 9% with greater than 96% radiochemical purity and a final specific activity of 66 Ci mmol{sup -1}.

  8. Incorporation of 3H from delta-(L-alpha-amino (4,5-3H)adipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-(4,4-3H)valine into isopenicillin N.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, J; Bleaney, R C; Huddleston, J A; Abraham, E P

    1979-01-01

    1. delta-(L-alpha-Amino[4,5-3H]adipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-[4,4-3H]valine has been synthesized from its constituent amino acids, the L-alpha-amino[4,5-3H]adipic acid being obtained by reduction with 3H2 of methyl 5-acetamido-5,5-diethoxycarbonylpent-2-enoate and subsequent decarboxylation and hydrolysis. 2. In a cell-free system prepared by lysis of protoplasts of Cephalosporium acremonium 3H was incorporated from the doubly labelled tripeptide into a compound that behaved like penicillin N or isopenicillin N. The relative specific radioactivities of the alpha-aminoadipyl and penicillamine moieties of the penicillin were the same (within experimental error) as those of the alpha-aminoadipic acid and valine residues respectively of the tripeptide. 3. The behaviour of the labelled alpha-aminoadipic acid from the penicillin to the L-amino acid oxidase of Crotalus adamanteus venom showed that it was mainly L-alpha-aminoadipic acid. 4. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the carbon skeleton of the LLD-tripeptide is incorporated intact into the penicillin molecule and that the first product is isopenicillin N. PMID:575040

  9. Further study on fallout sup 3 H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Katsumata, T.; Itoh, M.; Ueno, K.; Sakanoue, M. )

    1989-10-01

    To study fallout {sup 3}H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food-group samples were collected from Akita City in northern Japan during early summer and late autumn in 1986. Furthermore, total diet samples which are duplicate composite food samples consumed by five or six persons for a period of 1 d were also obtained in Akita City. The {sup 3}H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. Seasonal changes of {sup 3}H concentration in the food samples and the total diet samples were not found clearly. The average {sup 3}H concentration in the free water including tap water was 1.6 Bq L-1. The mean ratio of specific activity of tissue-bound {sup 3}H to that of {sup 3}H in free water was found to be 1.2. The average total {sup 3}H ingestion was estimated to be 4.0 Bq d-1, while the proportion of tissue-bound form {sup 3}H ingestion to total {sup 3}H ingestion was 11%. Cereal was the greatest contributing food group to ingestion of tissue-bound {sup 3}H. These findings were consistent with our previous results for food samples collected in 1985.

  10. Selective and high affinity labeling of neuronal and recombinant nociceptin receptors with the hexapeptide radioprobe [(3)H]Ac-RYYRIK-ol.

    PubMed

    Bojnik, Engin; Farkas, Judit; Magyar, Anna; Tömböly, Csaba; Güçlü, Umit; Gündüz, Ozge; Borsodi, Anna; Corbani, Maïthe; Benyhe, Sándor

    2009-12-01

    The synthetic hexapeptide Ac-Arg-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-Ile-Lys-ol (Ac-RYYRIK-ol) represents a highly potent and selective partial agonist ligand for the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (nociceptin receptor, NOPr). Ac-RYYRIK-ol has been labeled with tritium yielding [(3)H]Ac-RYYRIK-ol with exceptionally high specific radioactivity of 94Ci/mmol. The radioprobe is chemically stable even at 24 degrees C in ethanol solution for at least 4 days. No significant decomposition of the [(3)H]ligand occurred under the condition of the binding experiments indicating a fine enzymatic stability of the peptide. Radioreceptor binding studies were conducted using native neuronal NOPr preparation of rat brain membrane fractions and recombinant human nociceptin receptor ((h)NOPr) preparations from cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing (h)NOPr. Specific binding of the compound was reversible, saturable and of high affinity. No cross-reaction with the opioid receptors was observed suggesting superior NOPr selectivity of the ligand. Monophasic isotherm curves obtained in radioligand binding saturation and homologous displacement experiments indicated the presence of single binding sites in both preparations. Average densities of the [(3)H]Ac-RYYRIK-ol recognition sites were 237 and 749fmol/mg protein in rat brain and transfected cells, respectively. Equilibrium affinity values (K(d)s) were determined by three independent way providing identical results. In rat brain membranes K(d)s of 0.3-1.3nM were found depending upon the assay type. In homologous competition studies performed on (h)NOP-CHO cell membranes almost the same binding affinities were measured for Ac-RYYRIK-ol either with [(3)H]Ac-RYYRIK-ol (K(i) 2.8nM) or with [(3)H](Leu(14))nociceptin (2.3nM). A number of NOPr and opioid ligands were screened in heterologous displacement experiments and displayed a rank order of affinity profile being consistent with fairly good NOPr selectivity of the sites

  11. Elasmobranch rectal gland cell: autoradiographic localization of [3H]ouabain-sensitive Na, K-ATPase in rectal gland of dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Specific binding of radiolabeled inhibitor was employed to localize the Na-pump sites (Na,K-ATPase) in rectal gland epithelium, a NaCl- secreting osmoregulatory tissue which is particularly rich in pump sites. Slices of gland tissue from spiny dogfish were incubated in suitable [3H]ouabain-containing media and then prepared for Na,K-ATPase assay, measurement of radiolabel binding, or quantitative freeze-dry autoradiography at the light microscope level. Gross freezing or drying artifacts were excluded by comparison with additional aldehyde-fixed slices. Characterization experiments demonstrated high-affinity binding which correlated with Na,K-ATPase inhibition and half-saturated at approximately 5 microM [3H]ouabain. At this concentration, the normal half-loading time was approximately 1 h and low-affinity binding to nonspecific sites was negligible. Autoradiographs from both 1- and 4-h incubated slices showed approximately 85% of the bound [3H]ouabain to be localized within a 1-micrometer wide boundary region where the highly infolded basal-lateral cell membrane are closest to the mitochondria. These results establish that most of the enormous Na,K- ATPase activity associated with rectal gland epithelium is in the basal- lateral cell membrane facing interstitial fluid and not in the luminal membrane facing secreted fluid. Moreover, distribution along the basal- lateral membrane appears to be nonuniform with a higher density of enzyme sites close to mitochondria. PMID:229110

  12. Binding of kappa- and sigma-opiates in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolozin, B.L.; Nishimura, S.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1982-06-01

    Detailed displacements of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine by ketocyclazocine and SKF 10,047, (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine by SKF 10,047, and (/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 by ketocyclazocine are all multiphasic, suggesting multiple binding sites. After treating brain tissue in vitro with naloxazone, all displacements lose the initial inhibition of /sup 3/H-ligand binding by low concentrations of unlabeled drugs. Together with Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments, these studies suggest a common site which binds mu-, kappa, and sigma-opiates and enkephalins equally well and with highest affinity (KD less than 1 nM). The ability of unlabeled drugs to displace the low affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)dihydromorphine (KD . 3 nM), (/sup 3/H)ethylketocyclazocine (KD . 4 nM), (/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 (KD . 6 nM), and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-(/sup 3/H)enkephalin (KD . 5 nM) remaining after treating tissue with naloxazone demonstrates unique pharmacological profiles for each. These results suggest the existence of distinct binding sites for kappa- and sigma-opiates which differ from those sites which selectively bind morphine (mu) and enkephalin (delta).

  13. Primary cultures of cerebellar neurons: A unique model for studying benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam to intact cultures of cerebellar neurons was studied at 24{degree}C. Association of 1 nM ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam was monophasic, k{sub +1} = 1.41 pmole{sup {minus}1} sec{sup {minus}1}. Dissociation was approximately monophasic, k{sub {minus}1} = 0.0145 sec{sup {minus}1}. The presence of 1 {mu}M diazepam in the diluting buffer significantly accelerated initial dissociation of ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam. Saturation binding studies revealed a nonlinear Scatchard plot with a Hill coefficient (n{sub H}) of 0.81 and K{sub 0.5} = 28.7 nM. The data fit equally well a model with two independent binding sites, and a stoichiometric equation utilizing pairwise interactions between four sites. A newly developed HPLC method was used for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of amino acid neutrotransmitters and adenosine released from cerebellar neurons in culture. In preliminary studies, this technique was coupled with a specially designed perfusion chamber to demonstrate that flunitrazepam enhances potassium-stimulated release of glutamate and GABA, and may inhibit basal release of taurine.

  14. Clostridium difficile toxin A binding to human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Cooke, D L; Hyde, S; Borriello, S P; Long, R G

    1997-11-01

    Clostridium difficile radiolabelled toxin A ([3H]-toxin A) bound to human duodenal and colonic epithelial cells isolated from endoscopic biopsies. Binding was greater at 4 degrees C than 37 degrees C, consistent with the thermal binding characteristic of toxin A to a carbohydrate moiety. At 37 degrees C colonic cells bound significantly more [3H]-toxin A than duodenal cells. The amount of [3H]-toxin A binding varied considerably between individuals. [3H]-toxin A was displaced by unlabelled toxin A by 50% for duodenal cells and 70% for colonic cells with 94.3 nM unlabelled toxin A. Low non-displacable binding was observed in some samples at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C, suggesting that these cells came from individuals incapable of specifically binding toxin. Pre-treating cells with alpha- or beta-galactosidases to cleave terminal alpha- and beta-galactose residues reduced [3H]-toxin A binding. There was also a reduction in [3H]-toxin A binding after heat treating cells, which is suggestive of protein binding. The reduction in binding varied between individuals. The reduction of [3H]-toxin A binding, after the removal of beta-linked galactose units, implicates these as components of the receptor and adds credence to the idea that the Lewis X, Y and I antigens may be involved in toxin A binding to human intestinal epithelial cells. However, because the Lewis antigens do not possess terminal alpha-galactose units, the reduction in binding after alpha-galactosidase treatment suggests that other receptors may be involved in toxin A binding to some human intestinal cells. These data are the first demonstration of direct toxin A binding to human intestinal epithelial cells.

  15. ( 3 H)lysergic acid diethylamide: cellular autoradiographic localization in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Diab, I M; Freedman, D X; Roth, L J

    1971-09-10

    Intravenous administration of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide(LSD) to rats resulted in accumulation of the drug in the brain within 15 minutes. Autoradiographic methods were used to differentiate free and bound [(3)H]LSD in brain tissue. Free [(3)H]LSD was generally distributed in the pituitary and pineal glands, cerebellum, hippocampus,and choroid plexus. Bound [(3)H]LSD was localized in neurons of the cortex, caudate nucleus, midbrain, and medulla,as well as in choroid plexus epithelium.

  16. [3H]benzo[a]pyrene utilization in rats following tracheal implant exposure.

    PubMed

    Marchok, A C; Fleming, G S; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1989-05-31

    Open-ended rat tracheal implants (OETI) were exposed to 40 micrograms [3H]benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-gelatin pellets and the 3H activity in the OETI, the host's tissues and excretia was determined 3-96 h after insertion of the pellets. The radioactivity in the OETI reached near peak activity by 3 h, and decreased almost 10-fold by 24 h. Most of the activity was associated with parent B[a]P throughout the 95 h. The 3H activity in the surrounding tissue also was mostly associated with B[a]P, but the 3H activity in the liver, kidney, blood and urine was mostly associated with water-soluble plus conjugated metabolites. In the feces, 68% of the 3H activity was in B[a]P at 3 h, but mostly organic as well as water-soluble plus conjugated metabolites were extracted from it throughout the remaining 96 h. Forty-eight hours after insertion of the B[a]P pellets, the feces contained almost 16% of the total 3H activity. Pre-exposure of the OETI to B[a]P for 4 days before insertion of the [3H]B[a]P pellets stimulated metabolism of B[a]P in the tracheas approximately 2-fold, but had no significant effect on the host tissues. PMID:2728007

  17. Synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgen and estrogen substrates for 16 alpha-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Cantineau, R; Kremers, P; De Graeve, J; Cornelis, A; Laszlo, P; Gielen, J E; Lambotte, R

    1981-02-01

    The synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgens and estrogens is described. 1-(3H)-Acetic acid in the presence of zinc dust reacts with 16 alpha-bromo-17-ketosteroids to produce 16 alpha-3H-17-ketosteroids. This chemical reaction was used to prepare 16 alpha-3H-dehydroepiandrosterone (I) and 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate (XI) from 16 alpha-bromo-dehydroepiandrosterone (X) and from 16 alpha-bromo-estrone acetate (XII), respectively. Using appropriate microbiological techniques, it was possible to convert these radiolabelled substrates into 16 alpha-3H-androstenedione (II) and 16 alpha-3H-estradiol-17 beta (VII). 16 alpha-3H-Estrone (VI) was obtained by the chemical hydrolysis of 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate. The label distribution as determined by microbiological 16 alpha-hydroxylations indicated a specific labelling of 77% for androgens and 65% for estrogens in the 16 alpha position. These substrates can be used for measuring the 16 alpha hydroxylase activity, an important step in the biosynthesis of estriol (VIII) and estetrol (IX). PMID:7013160

  18. Effects of [3H]-BIDN, a novel bicyclic dinitrile radioligand for GABA-gated chloride channels of insects and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, James J; Benner, Eric; Schnee, Michael E; Cordova, Daniel; Holyoke, Caleb W; Howard, Michael H; Bai, Donglin; Buckingham, Steven D; Hutton, Michael L; Hamon, Alain; Roush, Richard T; Sattelle, David B

    1997-01-01

    The radiolabelled bicyclic dinitrile, [3H]-3,3-bis-trifluoromethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile ([3H]-BIDN), exhibited, specific binding of high affinity to membranes of the southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) and other insects. A variety of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor convulsants, including the insecticides heptachlor (IC50, 35±3 nM) and dieldrin (IC50, 93±7 nM), displaced [3H]-BIDN from rootworm membranes. When tested at 100 μM, 1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane(EBOB), 4-t-butyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-thione (TBPS), 1-phenyl-4-t-butyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (TBOB) and picrotoxin failed to displace 50% of [3H]-BIDN binding to rootworm membranes indicating that the bicyclic dinitrile radioligand probes a site distinct from those identified by other convulsant radioligands. Dissociation studies showed that dieldrin, ketoendrin, toxaphene, heptachlor epoxide and α and β endosulphan displace bound [3H]-BIDN from rootworm membranes by a competitive mechanism. Rat brain membranes were also shown to possess a population of saturable, specific [3H]-BIDN binding sites, though of lower affinity than in rootworm and with a different pharmacological profile. Of the insecticidal GABAergic convulsants that displaced [3H]-BIDN from rootworm, cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and rat brain membranes, many were more effective in rootworm. Functional GABA-gated chloride channels of rootworm nervous system and of cockroach nerve and muscle were blocked by BIDN, whereas cockroach neuronal GABAB receptors were unaffected. Expression in Xenopus oocytes of either rat brain mRNA, or cDNA-derived RNA encoding a GABA receptor subunit (Rdl) that is expressed widely in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in functional, homo-oligomeric GABA receptors that were blocked by BIDN. Thus, BIDN probes a novel site on GABA-gated Cl− channels to which a number of

  19. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  20. Coordinating activation strategy for C(sp(3))-H/C(sp(3))-H cross-coupling to access β-aromatic α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaizhi; Wu, Qian; Lan, Jingbo; You, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed significant advances in C-H bond functionalizations with the discovery of new mechanisms. Non-precious transition-metal-catalysed radical oxidative coupling for C(sp(3))-H bond transformations is an appealing strategy for C-C bond formations. The radical oxidative C(sp(3))-H/C(sp(3))-H cross-coupling reactions of α-C(sp(3))-H bonds of amines with free radicals represent a conceptual and practical challenge. We herein develop the coordinating activation strategy to illustrate the nickel-catalysed radical oxidative cross-coupling between C(sp(3))-H bonds and (hetero)arylmethyl free radicals. The protocol can tolerate a rich variety of α-amino acids and (hetero)arylmethanes as well as arylmethylenes and arylmethines, affording a large library of α-tertiary and α-quaternary β-aromatic α-amino acids. This process also features low-cost metal catalyst, readily handled and easily removable coordinating group, synthetic simplicity and gram-scale production, which would enable the potential for economical production at commercial scale in the future. PMID:26415985

  1. Metabolism of myo-[2-3H]Inositol and scyllo-[R-3H]Inositol in Ripening Wheat Kernels 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Loewus, Frank A.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of myo-[2-3H]inositol or scyllo-[R-3H]inositol into the peduncular cavity of wheat stalks about 2 to 4 weeks postanthesis led to rapid translocation into the spike and accumulation of label in developing kernels, especially the bran fraction. With myo-[2-3H]inositol, about 50 to 60% of the label was incorporated into high molecular weight cell wall substance in the region of the injection. That portion translocated to the kernels was utilized primarily for cell wall polysaccharide formation and phytate biosynthesis. A small amount was recovered as free myo-inositol and galactinol. When scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was supplied, most of the label was translocated into the developing kernels where it accumulated as free scyllo-inositol and O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-scyllo-inositol in approximately equal amount. None of the label from scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was utilized for either phytate biosynthesis or cell wall polysaccharide formation. PMID:16661513

  2. GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    LS mice are more sensitive to benzodiazepine-induced anesthesia; however, the two lines do not differ in their hypothermic response to flurazepam. SS mice are more resistant to 3-mercaptopropionic acid-induced seizures and more sensitive to the anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines. The various correlates of GABA and benzodiazepine actions probably are the results of different mechanisms of action and/or differential regional control. Bicuculline competition for /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites is greater in SS cerebellar tissue and /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding is greater in the mid-brain region of LS mice. GABA enhancement of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepma binding is greater in SS mice. Ethanol also enhances /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding and increases the levels of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding above those observed for GABA. Using correlational techniques on data from LS and SS mice and several inbred mouse strains, it was demonstrated that a positive relationship exists between the degree of receptor coupling within the GABA receptor complex and the degree of resistance to seizures.

  3. The energy requirements for the basal efflux of 3H-noradrenaline from sympathetically innervated organs.

    PubMed

    Russ, H; Schömig, E; Trendelenburg, U

    1991-09-01

    In the rat vas deferens (preloaded with 3H-noradrenaline, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibited, calcium-free solution) ouabain, glucose deprivation or the combination of hypoxia plus presence of lactate were found to induce a carrier-mediated (desipramine-sensitive) outward transport of the 3H-amine. Glucose deprivation additionally increased the efflux of deaminated 3H-metabolites, as a consequence of an increased net leakage of vesicular 3H-noradrenaline; moreover, 3H-dihydroxymandelic acid then became the predominant neuronal metabolite. The simultaneous lack of oxygen and glucose resulted in a very pronounced release of the 3H-amine. Moreover, during spontaneous efflux more outward transport of 3H-noradrenaline was observed in the absence than in the presence of extracellular calcium. In rat atria (under the same experimental conditions) the contribution by carrier-mediated outward transport to the spontaneous efflux of tritium exceeded that in vasa deferentia. Moreover, the efflux of lactate (as an index of hypoxia of the tissue) exceeded that ob