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Sample records for 3h-gaba uptake sites

  1. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. )

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  2. 3H-GABA uptake selectively labels identifiable neurons in the leech central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, H.T.

    1983-04-10

    Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord synthesize the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate, suggesting that there may be GABA-ergic neurons in the leech nerve cord. GABA-accumulating neurons of the two taxonomically distant leech species, Haementeria ghilianii and Hirudo medicinalis, have been labeled by taking advantage of their high-affinity uptake system for the neurotransmitter. Autoradiography of sectioned segmental ganglia previously exposed to 3H-GABA reveals a reproducible pattern of about thirty 3H-GABA-labeled neuronal cell bodies per ganglion. The majority of 3H-GABA-labeled neuronal cell bodies are bilaterally paired, although some apparently unpaired cell bodies also accumulate label. Neuronal processes were reproducibly labeled by GABA uptake and could be traced in the neuropil through commissures and fiber tracts into the segmental nerve roots and interganglionic connectives, respectively.

  3. Perinatal hypoxia: different effects of the inhibitors of GABA transporters GAT1 and GAT3 on the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake by cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina; Yatsenko, Ludmila; Himmelreich, Nina; Krupko, Olga; Borisova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    AIM. To analyze the effects of highly selective blocker GAT1, NO-711, and substrate inhibitor GAT3, β-alanine, on the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake by cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) after perinatal hypoxia. METHODS. Animals were divided into two groups: control (n=17) and hypoxia (n=12). Rats in the hypoxia group underwent hypoxia and seizures (airtight chamber, 4% O2 and 96% N2) at the age of 10-12 postnatal days and were used in the experiments 8-9 weeks after hypoxia. RESULTS. In cortical synaptosomes, the effects of NO-711 (30 μΜ) and β-alanine (100 μΜ) on [(3)H]GABA uptake were similar in control and hypoxia groups. In hippocampal synaptosomes, NO-711 inhibited 84.3% of the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake in normal conditions and 80.1% after hypoxia, whereas the effect of β-alanine was increased after hypoxia from 14.4% to 22.1%. In thalamic synaptosomes, the effect of NO-711 was decreased by 79.6% in controls and by 70.9% in hypoxia group, whereas the effect of β-alanine was increased after hypoxia from 20.2% to 30.2%. CONCLUSIONS. The effectiveness of β-alanine to influence GABA uptake was increased in hippocampal and thalamic nerve terminals as a result of perinatal hypoxia and the effectiveness of NO-711 in thalamic nerve terminals was decreased. These results may indicate changes in the ratio of active GAT1/GAT3 expressed in the plasma membrane of nerve terminals after perinatal hypoxia. We showed a possibility to modulate non-GAT1 GABA transporter activity in different brain regions by exogenous and endogenous β-alanine.

  4. Perinatal hypoxia: different effects of the inhibitors of GABA transporters GAT1 and GAT3 on the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake by cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina; Yatsenko, Ludmila; Himmelreich, Nina; Krupko, Olga; Borisova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To analyze the effects of highly selective blocker GAT1, NO-711, and substrate inhibitor GAT3, β-alanine, on the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake by cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) after perinatal hypoxia. Methods Animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 17) and hypoxia (n = 12). Rats in the hypoxia group underwent hypoxia and seizures (airtight chamber, 4% O2 and 96% N2) at the age of 10-12 postnatal days and were used in the experiments 8-9 weeks after hypoxia. Results In cortical synaptosomes, the effects of NO-711 (30 μΜ) and β-alanine (100 μΜ) on [3H]GABA uptake were similar in control and hypoxia groups. In hippocampal synaptosomes, NO-711 inhibited 84.3% of the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake in normal conditions and 80.1% after hypoxia, whereas the effect of β-alanine was increased after hypoxia from 14.4% to 22.1%. In thalamic synaptosomes, the effect of NO-711 was decreased by 79.6% in controls and by 70.9% in hypoxia group, whereas the effect of β-alanine was increased after hypoxia from 20.2% to 30.2%. Conclusions The effectiveness of β-alanine to influence GABA uptake was increased in hippocampal and thalamic nerve terminals as a result of perinatal hypoxia and the effectiveness of NO-711 in thalamic nerve terminals was decreased. These results may indicate changes in the ratio of active GAT1/GAT3 expressed in the plasma membrane of nerve terminals after perinatal hypoxia. We showed a possibility to modulate non-GAT1 GABA transporter activity in different brain regions by exogenous and endogenous β-alanine. PMID:24891283

  5. Sodium-independent, bicuculline-sensitive (/sup 3/H)GABA binding to isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Minuk, G.Y.; Bear, C.E.; Sarjeant, E.J.

    1987-05-01

    To determine whether hepatocytes possess specific receptor sites for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potent amino acid neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)GABA, was added to sodium-free suspensions of Percoll-purified hepatocytes derived from collagenase-perfused rat livers under various experimental conditions and in the presence or absence of specific GABA receptor agonists (muscimol) and antagonists (bicuculline). The effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on hepatocyte resting membrane potentials were also determined. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA to hepatocytes was a consistent finding. GABA-hepatocyte interactions were reversible and temperature dependent. Muscimol and bicuculline inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 30 nM and 50 microM, respectively), whereas strychnine (1.0-100 microM), a nonspecific central nervous system stimulant, had no appreciable effect. Both GABA and muscimol (100 microM) caused significant hyperpolarization of hepatocyte resting membrane potential (delta PD 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 22.2 +/- 16.2 mV, respectively, means +/- SD, P less than 0.0005). Bicuculline (100 microM) inhibited the effect of muscimol (P less than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that specific GABA receptor sites exist on the surface of isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of such sites raises the possibility that, in addition to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation, hepatic function may be influenced by GABA-ergic neurotransmitter mechanisms.

  6. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  7. Effect of pressure on (/sup 3/H)GABA release by synaptosomes isolated from cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, S.C.; Colton, J.S.; Hallenbeck, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been shown to produce neurological changes in humans which manifest, in part, as tremor, myoclonic jerks, electroencephalographic changes, and convulsions. This clinical pattern has been termed high-pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). These symptoms may represent an alteration in synaptic transmission in the central nervous system with the inhibitory neural pathways being affected in particular. Since gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission has been implicated in other seizure disorders, it was of interest to study GABAergic function at high pressure. Isolated synaptosomes were used to follow GABA release at 67.7 ATA of pressure. The major observation was a 33% depression in total (/sup 3/H)GABA efflux from depolarized cerebrocortical synaptosomes at 67.7 ATA. The Ca2+-dependent component of release was found to be completely blocked during the 1st min of (/sup 3/H)GABA efflux with a slow rise over the subsequent 3 min. These findings lead us to conclude that high pressure interferes with the intraterminal cascade for Ca2+-dependent release of GABA.

  8. Stimulation of [3H] GABA and beta-[3H] alanine release from rat brain slices by cis-4-aminocrotonic acid.

    PubMed

    Chebib, M; Johnston, G A

    1997-02-01

    cis-4-Aminocrotonic acid (CACA; 100 microM), an analogue of GABA in a folded conformation, stimulated the passive release of [3H] GABA from slices of rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex, retina, and spinal cord and of beta-[3H]alanine from slices of cerebellum and spinal cord without influencing potassium-evoked release. In contrast, CACA (100 microM) did not stimulate the passive release of [3H]taurine from slices of cerebellum and spinal cord or of D-[3H]aspartate from slices of cerebellum and did not influence potassium-evoked release of [3H]-taurine from the cerebellum and spinal cord and D-[3H]-aspartate from the cerebellum. These results suggest that the effects of CACA on GABA and beta-alanine release are due to CACA acting as a substrate for a beta-alanine-sensitive GABA transport system, consistent with CACA inhibiting the uptake of beta-[3H]alanine into slices of rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The observed Ki for CACA against beta-[3H]alanine uptake in the cerebellum was 750 +/- 60 microM. CACA appears to be 10-fold weaker as a substrate for the transporter system than as an agonist for the GABAc receptor. The effects of CACA on GABA and beta-alanine release provide indirect evidence for a GABA transporter in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, retina, and spinal cord that transports GABA, beta-alanine, CACA, and nipecotic acid that has a similar pharmacological profile to that of the GABA transporter, GAT-3, cloned from rat CNS. The structural similarities of GABA, beta-alanine, CACA, and nipecotic acid are demonstrated by computer-aided molecular modeling, providing information on the possible conformations of these substances being transported by a common carrier protein.

  9. Release of [3H]GABA evoked by glutamate receptor agonists in cultured chick retina cells: effect of Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, I L; Duarte, C B; Santos, P F; Carvalho, C M; Carvalho, A P

    1994-11-21

    The effect of glutamate receptor agonists (NMDA, kainate, quisqualate and AMPA) on the [Ca2+]i and on [3H]GABA release was studied in cultured chick embryonic retinal cells. The release of [3H]GABA evoked by NMDA, in the absence of Ca2+, was prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801), and that produced by kainate and quisqualate was prevented by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dioxine (CNQX). All the agonists tested increased the [Ca2+]i, and when the GABA transporter was blocked by 1-(2-(((diphenyl-methylene)amino)oxy)ethyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3- pyridine-carboxylic acid (NNC-711), NMDA, AMPA or quisqualate, but not kainate, did not induce [3H]GABA release unless Ca2+ (1 mM) was present, showing that exocytotic release of [3H]GABA occurs in retinal cells under these conditions.

  10. [Effect of synaptosomal cytosolic [3H]GABA pool depletion on secretory ability of alpha-latrotoxin].

    PubMed

    Linets'ka, M V; Storchak, L H; Himmelreĭch, N H

    2002-01-01

    alpha-Latrotoxin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, induces massive [3H]GABA release from rat brain synaptosomes as a result of interaction with either Ca(2+)-dependent (neurexin 1 alpha or Ca(2+)-independent (latrophilin) membrane receptor. The main aim of the study was to elucidate whether the binding of alpha-latrotoxin to different types of receptors led to [3H]GABA secretion from one pool or in each case the source of neurotransmitter differs: in the presence of Ca2+ exocytosis is induced, while in the absence of Ca(2+)--outflow by mobile membrane GABA transporter from cytoplasm. We examined the effect of the depletion of cytosolic [3H]GABA pool by competitive inhibitors of the GABA transporter (nipecotic acid and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid) on the alpha-latrotoxin-stimulated neurotransmitter release. We also compared the influence of these agents on neurosecretion, evoked by depolarization with that evoked by alpha-latrotoxin. Depolarization was stimulated by 4-aminopyridine in the Ca(2+)-containing saline and high KCl in Ca(2+)-free medium. In synaptosomes treated with nipecotic acid unstimulated [3H]GABA release was significantly augmented and high KCl-evoked Ca(2+)-independent [3H]GABA release was essentially inhibited. But under the same conditions neurosecretion stimulated by alpha-latrotoxin greatly raised with respect to the control response. The similar results were obtained with the synaptosomes treated with 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. Another way to determine which of GABA pool is the target of alpha-latrotoxin action lay in analysis of the toxin effects on the preliminary depolarized synaptosomes. alpha-Latrotoxin influence was diminished by the preceding depolarization by 4-aminopyridine in Ca2+ presence. But after the high KCl stimulation effect of alpha-latrotoxin didn't change. These data suggest that alpha-latrotoxin triggers neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles via exocytosis. We suppose

  11. 6-OHDA-induced hemiparkinsonism and chronic L-DOPA treatment increase dopamine D1-stimulated [(3)H]-GABA release and [(3)H]-cAMP production in substantia nigra pars reticulata of the rat.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Silva, Isaac; García-Ramírez, Martha; Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Floran, Leonor; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2008-10-01

    It has been proposed that striatonigral GABAergic transmission in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) is enhanced during Parkinson's disease and subsequent L-DOPA treatment. To evaluate this proposal we determined the effects of activating dopamine D1 receptors on depolarization induced [(3)H]-GABA release and on [(3)H]-cAMP accumulation in slices of SNr of rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions with and without l-DOPA treatment. Denervation increased depolarization induced D1-stimulated [(3)H]-GABA release, while repeated L-DOPA treatment further enhanced this response. Both also enhanced the effects of forskolin on [(3)H]-cAMP production and [(3)H]-GABA release, while neither modified the stimulating effects of 8-Br-cAMP on the release. These results shown that, after 6-OHDA lesions and l-DOPA treatment, cAMP signaling is enhanced. Furthermore, the results suggest that activation of sites in the signaling cascade downstream of cAMP synthesis is not required to increase release.

  12. Nigericin-induced Na+/H+ and K+/H+ exchange in synaptosomes: effect on [3H]GABA release.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Sitges, M

    1996-08-01

    The effect of the putative K+/H+ ionophore, nigericin on the internal Na+ concentration ([Nai]), the internal pH (pHi), the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Cai]) and the baseline release of the neurotransmitter, GABA was investigated in Na+-binding benzofuran isophtalate acetoxymethyl ester (SBFI-AM), 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6) carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM, fura-2 and [3H]GABA loaded synaptosomes, respectively. In the presence of Na+ at a physiological concentration (147 mM), nigericin (0.5 microM) elevates [Nai] from 20 to 50 mM, increases the pHi, 0.16 pH units, elevates four fold the [Cai] at expense of external Ca2+ and markedly increases (more than five fold) the release of [3H]GABA. In the absence of a Na+ concentration gradient (i.e. when the external Na+ concentration equals the [Nai]), the same concentration (0.5 microM) of nigericin causes the opposite effect on the pHi (acidifies the synaptosomal interior), does not modify the [Nai] and is practically unable to elevate the [Cai] or to increase [3H]GABA release. Only with higher concentrations of nigericin than 0.5 microM the ionophore is able to elevate the [Cai] and to increase the release of [3H]GABA under the conditions in which the net Na+ movements are eliminated. These results clearly show that under physiological conditions (147 mM external Na+) nigericin behaves as a Na+/H+ ionophore, and all its effects are triggered by the entrance of Na+ in exchange for H+ through the ionophore itself. Nigericin behaves as a K+/H+ ionophore in synaptosomes just when the net Na+ movements are eliminated (i.e. under conditions in which the external and the internal Na+ concentrations are equal). In summary care must be taken when using the putative K+/H+ ionophore nigericin as an experimental tool in synaptosomes, as under standard conditions (i.e. in the presence of high external Na+) nigericin behaves as a Na+/H+ ionophore.

  13. The effect of phencyclidine on [3H]GABA and [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the brain of naive and handling-habituated rats.

    PubMed

    Lillrank, S M; Oja, S S; Saransaari, P

    1995-01-01

    The effects of handling and handling combined with phencyclidine (PCP) treatment on GABAergic neurotransmission were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animal material consisted of handling-habituated (HH, for 11 d), acutely handled (naive, N), handling-habituated and PCP-treated (10 mg kg-1 i.p., HH + PCP) and acutely handled (naive) PCP-treated (N + PCP) and unhandled 'control' rats. The binding of [3H]GABA and [3H]flunitrazepam (FLU) was studied with membranes and the release of [3H]GABA with slices prepared from the striatum and frontal cortex. In the striatum the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and the binding constant (KD) of [3H]GABA were the same in N and HH rats, but in the frontal cortex KD was lower in N rats. KD constants of [3H]FLU were significantly lower in both brain areas in N rats than in HH rats. After PCP treatment both Bmax and KD for [3H]FLU increased in these two brain areas in handling-habituated rats, whereas Bmax of [3H]GABA diminished. Neither handling nor PCP had any effect on [3H]GABA release from striatal and frontal cortical slices. Handling prior to killing thus affects differently the GABAergic parameters studied and modulates the PCP-induced effects.

  14. omega-Aga IVA selectively inhibits the calcium-dependent fraction of the evoked release of [3H]GABA from synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Sitges, M; Chiu, L M

    1995-09-01

    The effect of omega-Aga IVA, a P-type Ca2+ channel blocker, on the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and on the elevation of Cai induced by depolarization was investigated in [3H]GABA and fura-2 preloaded mouse brain synaptosomes, respectively. Two strategies (i.e. 20 mM external K+ and veratridine) that depolarize by different mechanisms the preparation were used. High K+ elevates Cai and induces [3H]GABA release in the absence of external Na+ and in the presence of TTX, conditions that abolish veratridine induced responses. The effect of omega-Aga IVA on the Ca2+ and Na+ dependent fractions of the depolarization evoked release of [3H]GABA were separately investigated in synaptosomes depolarized with high K+ in the absence of external Na+ and with veratridine in the absence of external Ca2+, respectively. The Ca2+ dependent fraction of the evoked release of [3H]GABA and the elevation of Ca2+ induced by high K+ are markedly inhibited (about 50%) in synaptosomes exposed to omega-Aga IVA (300 nM) for 3 min before depolarization, whereas the Na+ dependent, Ca2+ independent carrier mediated release of [3H]GABA induced by veratridine, which is sensitive to verapamil and amiloride, is not modified by omega-Aga IVA. Our results indicate that an omega-Aga IVA sensitive type of Ca2+ channel is highly involved in GABA exocytosis.

  15. Histamine H3 Receptor Activation Counteracts Adenosine A2A Receptor-Mediated Enhancement of Depolarization-Evoked [3H]-GABA Release from Rat Globus Pallidus Synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High levels of histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are found in the globus pallidus (GP), a neuronal nucleus in the basal ganglia involved in the control of motor behavior. By using rat GP isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes), we studied whether H3R activation modified the previously reported enhancing action of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) stimulation on depolarization-evoked [3H]-GABA release. At 3 and 10 nM, the A2AR agonist CGS-21680 enhanced [3H]-GABA release induced by high K+ (20 mM) and the effect of 3 nM CGS-21680 was prevented by the A2AR antagonist ZM-241385 (100 nM). The presence of presynaptic H3Rs was confirmed by the specific binding of N-α-[methyl-3H]-histamine to membranes from GP synaptosomes (maximum binding, Bmax, 1327 ± 79 fmol/mg protein; dissociation constant, Kd, 0.74 nM), which was inhibited by the H3R ligands immepip, clobenpropit, and A-331440 (inhibition constants, Ki, 0.28, 8.53, and 316 nM, respectively). Perfusion of synaptosomes with the H3R agonist immepip (100 nM) had no effect on K+-evoked [3H]-GABA release, but inhibited the stimulatory action of A2AR activation. In turn, the effect of immepip was blocked by the H3R antagonist clobenpropit, which had no significant effect of its own on K+-induced [3H]-GABA release. These data indicate that H3R activation selectively counteracts the facilitatory action of A2AR stimulation on GABA release from striato-pallidal projections. PMID:24884070

  16. The effects of endomorphins on striatal [3H]GABA release induced by electrical stimulation: an in vitro superfusion study in rats.

    PubMed

    Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula

    2009-05-01

    The endomorphins (EM1 and EM2) are selective endogenous ligands for mu-opioid receptors (MOR1 and MOR2) with neurotransmitter and neuromodulator roles in mammals. In the present study we investigated the potential actions of EMs on striatal GABA release and the implication of different MORs in these processes. Rat striatal slices were preincubated with tritium-labelled GABA ([(3)H]GABA), pretreated with selective MOR1 and MOR2 antagonist beta-funaltrexamine and selective MOR1 antagonist naloxonazine and then superfused with the selective MOR agonists, EM1 and EM2. EM1 significantly decreased the striatal [(3)H]GABA release induced by electrical stimulation. Beta-funaltrexamine antagonized the inhibitory action of EM1, but naloxonazine did not affect it considerably. EM2 was ineffective, even in case of specific enzyme inhibitor diprotin A pretreatment. The results demonstrate that EM1 decreases GABA release in the basal ganglia through MOR2, while EM2 does not influence it.

  17. L-DOPA inhibits depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in the dopamine-denervated globus pallidus of the rat: the effect is dopamine independent and mediated by D2-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Silva, I; Cortes, H; Escartín, E; Rangel, C; Florán, L; Erlij, D; Aceves, J; Florán, B

    2006-12-01

    The effect of L-DOPA on [(3)H]GABA release in slices of globus pallidus from 6-OHDA-lesioned rats was studied. Release was evoked by high (15 mM) K(+). The lesion reduced dopamine content and dopamine synthesized from L-DOPA. The inhibition of DOPA decarboxylase blocked dopamine synthesis. Endogenous dopamine released by high K(+) inhibited [(3)H]GABA release in normal but not in lesioned slices. L-DOPA inhibited (IC(50) = 0.44 microM) evoked [(3)H]GABA release. The inhibition was via D2-like receptors but not mediated by dopamine. The turning behavior induced by L-DOPA methyl ester (25 mg/kg, i.p.) was not abolished by the DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine but in this condition it was abolished by sulpiride. Results suggest that L-DOPA acting as D2-like agonist inhibits GABA release in the rat globus pallidus and induces turning behavior in rats with unilateral lesions of the dopamine innervation. L-DOPA could control Parkinson's disease symptoms acting not only as dopamine precursor but also by itself.

  18. Effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin TsTX-V on neurotransmitter uptake in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Alessandra L; Vasconcelos, Flávio; Amara, Susan G; Giglio, José Roberto; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2006-12-01

    Scorpion neurotoxins targeting the Na(v) channel can be classified into two classes: alpha- and beta-neurotoxins and are reported as highly active in mammalian brain. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Ts venom) and its alpha-neurotoxin TsTX-V on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) uptake in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. TsTX-V was isolated from Ts venom by ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse-phase (C18) high-performance liquid chromatography. Neither Ts venom nor TsTX-V was able to affect (3)H-Glu uptake. On the other hand, Ts venom (0.13 microg/mg) significantly inhibited both (3)H-GABA and (3)H-DA uptake ( approximately 50%). TsTX-V showed IC(50) values of 9.37 microM and 22.2 microM for the inhibition of (3)H-GABA and (3)H-DA uptake, respectively. These effects were abolished by pre-treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM), indicating the involvement of voltage-gated Na(+) channels in this process. In the absence of Ca(2+), and at low Ts venom concentrations, the reduction of (3)H-GABA uptake was not as marked as in the presence of Ca(2+). TsTX-V did not reduce (3)H-GABA uptake in COS-7 cells expressing the GABA transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3, suggesting that this toxin indirectly reduces the transport. The reduced (3)H-GABA uptake by synaptosomes might be due to rapid cell depolarization as revealed by confocal microscopy of C6 glioma cells. Thus, TsTX-V causes a reduction of (3)H-GABA and (3)H-DA uptake in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, not directly affecting GABA transporters, but, in consequence of depolarization, involving voltage-gated Na(+) channels.

  19. Effect of centrally acting drugs on the uptake of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by slices of rat cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M.; Hopkin, Judy M.; Neal, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    1. The effects of centrally acting drugs on the uptake of 3H-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by slices of rat cerebral cortex have been studied. 2. Many centrally acting drugs at concentrations of 0·1-1·0 mM significantly inhibited the uptake of 3H-GABA by cortical slices, but the only classes of drugs in which all members consistently produced inhibition of uptake were the phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, and butyrophenones. 3. The receptor blocking drugs; phentolamine, propranolol, thymoxamine, mepyramine, and diphenhydramine at concentrations of 0·5-1 mM also significantly reduced the uptake of 3H-GABA. However, atropine, hexamethonium and (+)-tubocurarine had little effect on the uptake of 3H-GABA by cortical slices. 4. Centrally acting drugs, which did not significantly inhibit 3H-GABA uptake, included barbiturates, local anaesthetics, hallucinogens, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anticonvulsants, and convulsants (except picrotoxin). 5. Chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, L-2,4,diaminobutyric acid, desmethylimipramine, and iprindole inhibited the uptake of 3H-GABA by 50% (IC50) at concentrations of 30-100 μM. The most potent inhibitor of 3H-GABA uptake was p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate (IC50 = 18 μM). 6. With the exception of L-2,4,diaminobutyric acid, an outstanding characteristic of these drugs was their complete lack of specificity. Thus at the IC50 for GABA, p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, iprindole, desmethylimipramine, apomorphine and diphenylhydramine also inhibited the uptake of radioactive glycine, alanine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. The uptake of the latter two compounds was often inhibited to a greater extent than GABA, glycine and alanine. 7. Kinetic analysis indicated that the inhibition of 3H-GABA by p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate, chlorpromazine, and desmethylimipramine was noncompetitive. L-2,4,Diaminobutyric acid reduced the uptake of 3H-GABA by a `mixed' type of inhibition. 8. The

  20. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using (/sup 3/H)paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand.

  1. 4-Iodotomoxetine: a novel ligand for serotonin uptake sites.

    PubMed

    Kung, M P; Chumpradit, S; Billings, J; Kung, H

    1992-01-01

    The tomoxetine analog, R-4-iodotomoxetine, binds in vitro to a single site of rat cortical membranes with high affinity (Kd = 0.03 +/- 0.01 nM, n = 4) and can be blocked by a selective serotonin reuptake site inhibitor, paroxetine. The [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine binding at equilibrium is saturable and is temperature- and Na(+)-dependent. The number of specific [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine binding sites (Bmax = 356 +/- 20 fmol/mg protein) is similar to that of [3H]citalopram (329 +/- 30 fmol/mg protein), a known serotonin uptake inhibitor. The binding of [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine is selectively inhibited by several serotonin uptake blockers, and a good correlation is demonstrated between the potency of various drugs to inhibit in vitro binding of [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine and [3H]citalopram. In addition, lesions performed with the neurotoxin p-chloroamphetamine, which destroys monoamine neurons, including serotonergic neuronal system, result in a 90% reduction of [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine binding when compared to sham controls. These results indicate that the binding sites labeled by [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine are associated with the neuronal serotonin uptake sites. However, the in vivo and ex vivo results do not show regional localization corresponding to the distribution of serotonin uptake sites. The nonspecific uptake may be related to this compound's high lipophilicity (octanol-buffer partition coefficient = 1100 - 1400 at pH 7). Although the in vivo properties of [125I]R-4-iodotomoxetine make it an unlikely candidate for mapping serotonin uptake sites with SPECT, the high affinity and selectivity should make it a useful tool for in vitro studies of the serotonin uptake sites.

  2. Role of the amygdaloid cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin-2 receptors and terminal networks in the modulation of anxiety in the rat. Effects of CCK-4 and CCK-8S on anxiety-like behaviour and [3H]GABA release.

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Mora, Miguel; Hernández-Gómez, Ana María; Arizmendi-García, Yexel; Jacobsen, Kirsten X; Lara-García, Daniel; Flores-Gracia, Candy; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Nuche-Bricaire, Avril; Fuxe, Kjell

    2007-12-01

    The amygdala plays a key role in fear and anxiety. The intercalated islands are clusters of glutamate-responsive GABAergic neurons rich in cholecystokinin (CCK)-2 receptors which control the trafficking of nerve impulses from the cerebral cortex to the central nucleus of amygdala. In this study, the nature of the CCK-glutamate-GABA interactions within the rat rostral amygdala, and their relevance for anxiety, were studied. CCK/gastrin-like immunoreactive nerve terminals were found to be mainly restricted to the paracapsular intercalated islands and the rostrolateral part of the main intercalated island. Behaviourally, the bilateral microinjection of CCK-4 (0.043-4.3 pmol/side) or CCK-8S (4.3 pmol/side) into the rostrolateral amygdala reduced the open-arm exploration in the elevated plus-maze without affecting locomotion. In contrast, neither CCK-4 nor CCK-8S (0.043-4.3 pmol/side) had any effects in the shock-probe burying test as compared with their saline-treated controls. Biochemically, CCK-4 (0.3 and 1.5 microm), unlike CCK-8S, enhanced significantly the K(+)-stimulated release of [(3)H]GABA from amygdala slices. These effects were fully prevented by prior superfusion of the slices with either the selective CCK-2 receptor antagonist CR2945 (3 microm), or 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), 10 microm, a glutamatergic (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist. It is suggested that CCK modulates glutamate-GABA mechanisms by acting on CCK-2 receptors via volume transmission occurring at the level of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and/or by synaptic or perisynaptic volume transmission in the region of the rostrolateral main and paracapsular intercalated islands, resulting in subsequent disinhibition of the central amygdaloid nucleus and anxiety or panic-like behaviour.

  3. High-affinity uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid in cultured glial and neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Balcar, V J; Mark, J; Borg, J; Mandel, P

    1979-06-01

    Both glial and neuronal cells maintained in primary culture were found to accumulate [3H]GABA by an efficient "high-affinity" uptake system (apparent Km = 9 muM, Vmax = 0.018 and 0.584 nmol/mg/min, respectively) which required sodium ions and was inhibited by 1 mM ouabain. Strychnine and parachloromercuriphenylsulfonate (pCS) (both at 1mM) also strongly inhibited uptake of [3H]GABA, but metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol, potassium cyanide, and malonate) were without effect. Only three structural analogs of GABA (nipecotate, beta-alanine, and 2,4-diaminobutyrate) inhibited uptake of [3H]GABA, while several other compounds with structural similarities to GABA (e.g. glycine, L-proline, and taurine) did not interact with the system. The kinetic studies indicated presence of a second uptake (Km = 92 muM, Vmax = 0.124 nmol/mg/min) in the primary cultures containing predominantly glioblasts. On the other hand, only one of the neuronal cell lines transformed by simian virus SV40 appeared to accumulate [3H]GABA against a concentration gradient. Apparent Km of this uptake was relatively high (819 muM), and it was only weakly inhibited by 1 mM ouabain and 1 mM pCS. The structural specificity also differed from that of the uptake observed in the primary cultures. Significantly, non of the nontransformed continuous cell lines of either tumoral (glioma, C6; neuroblastoma, M1; M1NN) or normal (NN;I6) origin actively accumulated [3H]GABA. It is suggested that for the neurochemical studies related to GABA and requiring homogeneous cell populations, the primary cultures offer a better experimental model than the continuous cell lines.

  4. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-12-08

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity /sup 3/H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light /sup 3/H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib.

  6. Effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin TsTX-V on neurotransmitter uptake in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchini, Alessandra L.; Vasconcelos, Flavio; Giglio, Jose Roberto; Arantes, Eliane Candiani . E-mail: ecabraga@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-12-01

    Scorpion neurotoxins targeting the Na{sub v} channel can be classified into two classes: {alpha}- and {beta}-neurotoxins and are reported as highly active in mammalian brain. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Ts venom) and its {alpha}-neurotoxin TsTX-V on {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) uptake in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. TsTX-V was isolated from Ts venom by ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse-phase (C18) high-performance liquid chromatography. Neither Ts venom nor TsTX-V was able to affect {sup 3}H-Glu uptake. On the other hand, Ts venom (0.13 {mu}g/mg) significantly inhibited both {sup 3}H-GABA and {sup 3}H-DA uptake ({approx} 50%). TsTX-V showed IC{sub 5} values of 9.37 {mu}M and 22.2 {mu}M for the inhibition of {sup 3}H-GABA and {sup 3}H-DA uptake, respectively. These effects were abolished by pre-treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 {mu}M), indicating the involvement of voltage-gated Na{sup +} channels in this process. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+}, and at low Ts venom concentrations, the reduction of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake was not as marked as in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. TsTX-V did not reduce {sup 3}H-GABA uptake in COS-7 cells expressing the GABA transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3, suggesting that this toxin indirectly reduces the transport. The reduced {sup 3}H-GABA uptake by synaptosomes might be due to rapid cell depolarization as revealed by confocal microscopy of C6 glioma cells. Thus, TsTX-V causes a reduction of {sup 3}H-GABA and {sup 3}H-DA uptake in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner, not directly affecting GABA transporters, but, in consequence of depolarization, involving voltage-gated Na{sup +} channels.

  7. Carbonyl sulfide uptake and chloroform emissions from an Arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Nance, J. D.; Hall, B. D.; Thoning, K. W.; Miller, J. B.; White, J.; Vaugh, B.; Manning, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Region is most sensitive to future climate change. Quantifying emissions and sinks of many important biogenic trace gases there may become important indicators of potential climate feedback. Once snowmelt at Pt. Barrow, Alaska (77o N) occurs, ground cover is exposed by sunlight and higher temperatures, then photosynthesis starts up. Peaks of chloroform (CHCl3) appear throughout the summer from southerly-based air masses based over northern Alaska and northwest Canada. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) undergoes uptake throughout the summer season through the same enzymes that uptake carbon dioxide (CO2). We will calculate the footprint of emissions of CHCl3 and uptake of COS using high frequency in situ observations, and the NAME and FLEXPART models. Previous studies show a large source of CHCl3 (8% of the total budget) may be coming from soils in high latitude pine forests. We will examine emissions of CHCl3 to see whether or not they are coming from the tundra just south of Pt. Barrow. We will identify the regions for uptake of COS and CO2 from the footprint generated from the models.

  8. Number of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Uptake Sites in Competent Cells of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Two direct methods are presented for estimating the average number of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) uptake sites in competent cells of Bacillus subtilis from measurement of 14C- or 3H-thymine-labeled DNA uptake by competent culture. Advantage is taken of two facts: (i) effective contact between competent cells and transforming DNA molecules is established within a short time after mixing them together, and (ii) DNA molecules enter the competent B. subtilis cells in a linear fashion at a finite speed. From the number of DNA molecules initially attached to competent cells by brief exposure to transforming DNA in the first method or from the rate of DNA uptake by competent culture in the second method, the average number of DNA uptake sites is calculated to be 20 to 53 per competent cell. PMID:4622899

  9. Dopamine uptake sites in the striatum are distributed differentially in striosome and matrix compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Graybiel, A.M.; Moratalla, R. )

    1989-11-01

    A major mechanism of neurotransmitter inactivation at catecholaminergic synapses in reuptake of released transmitter at high-affinity uptake sites on presynaptic terminals. The authors have analyzed the anatomical distribution of site-selective ligand binding for dopamine uptake sites in the striatum of rat, cat, and monkey. The authors report here that desipramine-sensitive ({sup 3}H)mazindol binding sites have highly heterogeneous distributions in the dorsal and the ventral striatum. In the caudate nucleus of cat and monkey, ({sup 3}H)mazindol binding observes striosomal ordering, being reduced in striosomes and heightened in the extrastriosomal matrix. Some local heterogeneity appears in the ventral caudoputamen of the rat. Different subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens also have different binding levels. These findings suggest that some functional effects of psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine, and that bind to the dopamine-uptake complex could be related to the distribution of these specific uptake sites. The findings also raise the possibility that these distributions could result in selective neuronal vulnerability to neurotoxins, such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP{sup +}), that depend on the dopamine-uptake complex for entry into neurons.

  10. Dopamine uptake sites in the striatum are distributed differentially in striosome and matrix compartments.

    PubMed Central

    Graybiel, A M; Moratalla, R

    1989-01-01

    A major mechanism of neurotransmitter inactivation at catecholaminergic synapses is reuptake of released transmitter at high-affinity uptake sites on presynaptic terminals. We have analyzed the anatomical distribution of site-selective ligand binding for dopamine uptake sites in the striatum of rat, cat, and monkey. We report here that desipramine-sensitive [3H]mazindol binding sites have highly heterogeneous distributions in the dorsal and the ventral striatum. In the caudate nucleus of cat and monkey, [3H]mazindol binding observes striosomal ordering, being reduced in striosomes and heightened in the extrastriosomal matrix. Some local heterogeneity appears in the ventral caudoputamen of the rat. Different subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens also have different binding levels. These findings suggest that some functional effects of psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine, that bind to the dopamine-uptake complex could be related to the distribution of these specific uptake sites. The findings also raise the possibility that these distributions could result in selective neuronal vulnerability to neurotoxins, such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+), that depend on the dopamine-uptake complex for entry into neurons. Images PMID:2813436

  11. Prion uptake in the gut: identification of the first uptake and replication sites.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Pekka; Raymond, Claudine R; Romeijn, Martijn; Godsave, Susan F; van Kasteren, Sander I; Wille, Holger; Prusiner, Stanley B; Mabbott, Neil A; Peters, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    After oral exposure, prions are thought to enter Peyer's patches via M cells and accumulate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) before spreading to the nervous system. How prions are actually initially acquired from the gut lumen is not known. Using high-resolution immunofluorescence and cryo-immunogold electron microscopy, we report the trafficking of the prion protein (PrP) toward Peyer's patches of wild-type and PrP-deficient mice. PrP was transiently detectable at 1 day post feeding (dpf) within large multivesicular LAMP1-positive endosomes of enterocytes in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and at much lower levels within M cells. Subsequently, PrP was detected on vesicles in the late endosomal compartments of macrophages in the subepithelial dome. At 7-21 dpf, increased PrP labelling was observed on the plasma membranes of FDCs in germinal centres of Peyer's patches from wild-type mice only, identifying FDCs as the first sites of PrP conversion and replication. Detection of PrP on extracellular vesicles displaying FAE enterocyte-derived A33 protein implied transport towards FDCs in association with FAE-derived vesicles. By 21 dpf, PrP was observed on the plasma membranes of neurons within neighbouring myenteric plexi. Together, these data identify a novel potential M cell-independent mechanism for prion transport, mediated by FAE enterocytes, which acts to initiate conversion and replication upon FDCs and subsequent infection of enteric nerves.

  12. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.

  13. The activation of cannabinoid receptors in striatonigral GABAergic neurons inhibited GABA uptake.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; de Miguel, R; Ramos, J A; Fernández-Ruiz, J J

    1998-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CNRs) in basal ganglia are located on striatal efferent neurons which are gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABA)-containing neurons. Recently, we have demonstrated that CN-induced motor inhibition is reversed by GABA-B, but not GABA-A, receptor antagonists, presumably indicating that the activation of CNRs in striatal outflow nuclei, mainly in the substantia nigra, should be followed by an increase of GABA concentrations into the synaptic cleft of GABA-B receptor synapses. The present study was designed to examine whether this was originated by increasing GABA synthesis and/or release or by decreasing GABA uptake. We analyzed: (i) GABA synthesis, by measuring the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABA contents in brain regions that contain striatonigral GABAergic neurons, after in vivo administration of CNs and/or the CNR antagonist SR141716; (ii) [3H]GABA release in vitro in the presence or the absence of a synthetic CN agonist, HU-210, by using perifusion of small fragments of substantia nigra; and (iii) [3H]GABA uptake in vitro in the presence or the absence of WIN-55,212-2, by using synaptosomes obtained from either globus pallidus or substantia nigra. Results were as follows. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and HU-210, did not alter neither GAD activity nor GABA contents in both the striatum and the ventral midbrain at any of the two times tested, thus suggesting that CNs apparently failed to change GABA synthesis in striatonigral GABAergic neurons. A similar lack of effect of HU-210 on in vitro [3H]GABA release, both basal and K+-evoked, was seen when this CN was added to perifused substantia nigra fragments, also suggesting no changes at the level of GABA release. However, when synaptosome preparations obtained from the substantia nigra were incubated in the presence of WIN-55,212-2, a decrease in [3H]GABA uptake could be measured. This lowering effect was specific of striatonigral GABAergic neurons since it was not

  14. Plant uptake and dissipation of PBDEs in the soils of electronic waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen; Christie, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Plant uptake and dissipation of weathered PBDEs in the soils of e-waste recycling sites were investigated in a greenhouse study. Eighteen PBDE congeners (tri- through deca-) were detected in the plant tissues. The proportion of lower brominated PBDEs (mono- through hexa-) in plant roots was higher than that in the soils. A concentration gradient was observed of PBDEs in plants with the highest concentrations in the roots followed by the stems and lowest in the leaves. Reduction rates of the total PBDEs in the soils ranged from 13.3 to 21.7% after plant harvest and lower brominated PBDEs were associated with a higher tendency to dissipate than the higher brominated PBDEs. This study provides the first evidence for plant uptake of weathered PBDEs in the soils of e-waste recycling sites and planting contributes to the removal of PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  16. Plasma membrane fluidity affects transient immobilization of oxidized phospholipids in endocytotic sites for subsequent uptake.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Sebastian; Grurl, Reinhard; Brameshuber, Mario; Hermetter, Albin; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2009-01-23

    Oxidized phospholipids in serum initiate severe pathophysiological responses during the process of atherogenesis. On the cellular level it is known that these lipids induce apoptosis; however, the uptake mechanism remains enigmatic. We investigated here the behavior of the fluorescent oxidized phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-N-Alexa647-ethanolamine (PGPE-Alexa647) in the plasma membrane of various cell lines. The probe was taken up by the cells unspecifically via caveolae or clathrin-coated pits. Interestingly, we found the uptake to be facilitated by the overexpression of the scavenger receptor class B type I. Ultra-sensitive microscopy allowed us to follow the uptake process at the single molecule level; we observed rapid diffusion of PGPE-Alexa647 in the plasma membrane, interrupted by transient halts with duration of approximately 0.9 s at endocytotic sites. Scavenger receptor class B type I overexpression yielded a pronounced increase in the single molecule mobility, and in consequence an increased frequency of immobilization. Alternatively, the plasma membrane fluidity could also be increased by treating cells with high levels of the unlabeled oxidized phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; also in this case, the immobilization frequency of PGPE-Alexa647 was concomitantly increased. The data demonstrate the relevance of plasma membrane properties for uptake of oxidized phospholipids, and indicate a novel indirect mechanism for the control of endocytosis.

  17. The structure of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator Fur reveals three functional metal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dian, Cyril; Vitale, Sylvia; Leonard, Gordon A; Bahlawane, Christelle; Fauquant, Caroline; Leduc, Damien; Muller, Cécile; de Reuse, Hilde; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Terradot, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Fur, the ferric uptake regulator, is a transcription factor that controls iron metabolism in bacteria. Binding of ferrous iron to Fur triggers a conformational change that activates the protein for binding to specific DNA sequences named Fur boxes. In Helicobacter pylori, HpFur is involved in acid response and is important for gastric colonization in model animals. Here we present the crystal structure of a functionally active HpFur mutant (HpFur2M; C78S-C150S) bound to zinc. Although its fold is similar to that of other Fur and Fur-like proteins, the crystal structure of HpFur reveals a unique structured N-terminal extension and an unusual C-terminal helix. The structure also shows three metal binding sites: S1 the structural ZnS₄ site previously characterized biochemically in HpFur and the two zinc sites identified in other Fur proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopy analyses of purified wild-type HpFur and various mutants show that the two metal binding sites common to other Fur proteins can be also metallated by cobalt. DNA protection and circular dichroism experiments demonstrate that, while these two sites influence the affinity of HpFur for DNA, only one is absolutely required for DNA binding and could be responsible for the conformational changes of Fur upon metal binding while the other is a secondary site.

  18. Extraskeletal uptake of technetium-99m-MDP in sites of heparin administration.

    PubMed

    Challa, S; Miller, J H

    1998-05-01

    A 19-yr-old woman with juvenile diabetes and protein C deficiency was referred for a bone scan to rule out osteomyelitis of the right tibia. The bone scan did not reveal evidence of osteomyelitis. There was, however, extraskeletal uptake of the 99mTc bone tracer in the anterior abdominal wall confined to the sites of subcutaneous heparin administration. This case is presented because of its interesting scintigraphic findings and to discuss the association of protein C deficiency and heparin administration as a cause of extraskeletal 99mTc bone tracer accumulation.

  19. Vanadium uptake and translocation in dominant plant species on an urban coastal brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Feng, Huan; Wu, Meiyin; Zhu, Qingzhi

    2014-04-01

    This study, conducted at a brownfield site in New Jersey, USA, investigated factors controlling V uptake and translocation in naturally assembled plant species. Six dominant species were collected from 22 stations in the study area. We found that V concentration in the plants decreased in a sequence of root>leaf>stem. No significant differences were found among the six dominant plant species in terms of root V uptake efficiency (V BCF) and V root to shoot translocation (V TF). Although soil pH and TOC did not show significant impact on V accumulation in the roots, soil labile V content showed significant positive linear correlation (p<0.05) with plant root V. Non-linear regression analysis indicates that V translocation efficiency decreases with increasing concentration in the soil, implying that excessive V in the soil might inhibit its absorption by the plant roots. Leaf V concentration was constant in all the plant species regardless of the variation in soil V concentration. The study shows that the six dominant plant species on site had limited amount of V translocated to the aerial part of the plant.

  20. A ZnS(4) structural zinc site in the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Sylvia; Fauquant, Caroline; Lascoux, David; Schauer, Kristine; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle

    2009-06-23

    The ferric uptake regulator, Fur, is a global bacterial transcriptional regulator using iron as a cofactor to bind to specific DNA sequences. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of the native ferric uptake regulator from Helicobacter pylori (HpFur): oligomeric state, metal content, and characterization of a structural metal-binding site. HpFur contains six cysteines with two CxxC motifs, which makes it closer to Bacillus subtilis PerR (BsPerR) than to Escherichia coli Fur (EcFur). Chemical modifications of cysteine residues using iodoacetamide followed by mass spectrometry after enzymatic digestion strongly suggest that these two CxxC motifs containing cysteines 102-105 and 142-145 are involved in zinc binding in a ZnS(4) metal site. The other two cysteines (78 and 150) are not essential for DNA binding activity and do not perturb metal binding as demonstrated with the characterization of a FurC78SC150S double mutant. Chelating agent such as EDTA disrupts the dimeric structure into monomer which did not contain zinc anymore. Reconstitution of dimer from monomer requires reduction and Zn(2+) binding. Cadmium(II) substitution allows also dimer formation from monomer, and Cd(II)-substituted FurC78SC150S mutant presents a characteristic absorption of a Cd(II)Cys(4) metal-binding site. These results establish that coordination of the zinc ion in HpFur is ZnCys(4), therefore closer to the zinc site in BsPerR than in EcFur. Furthermore, the redox state of the cysteines and the zinc binding are essential to hold the H. pylori Fur in a dimeric state.

  1. Selectivity of the uptake of glutamate and GABA in two morphologically distinct insect neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    van Marle, J; Piek, T; Lammertse, T; Lind, A; Van Weeren-Kramer, J

    1985-11-25

    The common inhibitor (CI) and slow excitor tibiae (SETi) innervated slow muscles 135cd of the locust Schistocerca gregaria were incubated under high-affinity uptake conditions either in [3H]GABA or in [3H]glutamate. [3H]GABA is accumulated in the glia of the nerve endings of the CI as well as the SETi; however, it is accumulated only in the terminal axons of the CI, not in the terminal axons of the SETi. The grain densities above the glia and above the CI terminal axons are approximately 2 grains/micron2. After incubation in [3H]glutamate the grain densities above the CI terminal axons and the SETi terminal axons are approximately 4 grains/micron2; the grain densities above the glia of both types of nerve endings are approximately 17 grains/micron2. The relatively high labeling (3 grains/micron2) of the muscles after incubation in the presence of glutamate is ascribed to the high metabolic requirements of slow muscles. The conclusion is drawn that a high-affinity uptake system for GABA is present in the CI terminal axons and in the glia of both the CI and SETi nerve endings. However, while the glutamate uptake in the CI and SETi nerve endings of the slow 135cd is comparable to the high-affinity uptake of glutamate in the fast excitor tibiae (FETi) nerve endings of the fast retractor unguis muscle, a high-affinity uptake of glutamate was only demonstrated in the glia of both types of nerve endings. A high-affinity uptake in the terminal axons of the CI and SETi may be masked by an extensively low-affinity uptake of glutamate by the muscles.

  2. Water uptake by two river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) clones in a discharge site plantation in the Western Australian wheatbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John K.; Morgan, Anne L.; Akilan, Kandia; Farrell, Richard C. C.; Bell, David T.

    1997-12-01

    The heat-pulse technique was used to estimate year-long water uptake in a discharge zone plantation of 9-year-old clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. near Wubin, Western Australia. Water uptake matched rainfall closely during weter months but exceeded rainfall as the dry season progressed. Average annual water uptake (1148 mm) exceeded rainfall (432 mm) by about 2.7 fold and approached 56% of pan evaporation for the area. The data suggest that at least 37% (i.e. ( {1}/{2.7}) × 100 ) of the lower catchment discharge zone should be planted to prevent the rise of groundwater. Water uptake varied with soil environment, season and genotype. Upslope trees used more water than did downslope trees. Water uptake was higher in E. camaldulensis clone M80 than in clone M66 until late spring. The difference reversed as summer progressed. Both clones, however, have the potential to dry out the landscape when potential evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall. This variation in water uptake within the species indicates the potential for manipulating plantation uptake by matching tree characteristics to site characteristics. Controlled experiments on the heat-pulse technique indicated accuracy errors of approximately 10%. This, combined with the ability to obtain long-term, continuous data and the superior logistics of use of the heat-pulse technique, suggests that results obtained by it would be much more reliable than those achieved by the ventilated chamber technique.

  3. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of [3H]mazindol-labeled dopamine uptake sites in the brains of superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cadet, J L; Przedborski, S; Kostic, V; Jackson-Lewis, V; Carlson, E; Epstein, C J

    1990-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important enzyme which is involved in the dismutation of the toxic radical, superoxide anion. The activity of CuZnSOD is increased in patients who suffer from Down's Syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and in Parkinson's disease. In order to evaluate the contribution of this enzyme to the neuropathology of these neurodegenerative diseases, transgenic mice have been constructed which express the human CuZnSOD gene. As a first step towards exploring these issues, we have carried out an autoradiographic binding study of the distribution of the catecholaminergic uptake blocker mazindol in the brain of these transgenic mice and of their littermates. Desmethylimipramine (DMI)-insensitive [3H]mazindol binding sites which correspond to dopamine uptake sites were located in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle and in the substantia nigra. Within the striatum, there was a lateromedial gradient, with higher concentration of dopamine uptake sites being found laterally. These findings suggest that subregions of the basal ganglia may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of dopaminotoxic drugs which are taken up into the dopaminergic neurons via these uptake sites. Saturation experiments revealed no differences in the characteristics of [3H]mazindol binding sites between the two groups of mice. Thus, increased activity of SOD is not associated with diffuse changes in the molecular structures of receptors in mice brain.

  4. Drug uptake pathways of multidrug transporter AcrB studied by molecular simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin-Qiu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Murakami, Satoshi; Takada, Shoji

    2013-05-22

    Multidrug resistance has been a critical issue in current chemotherapy. In Escherichia coli , a major efflux pump responsible for the multidrug resistance contains a transporter AcrB. Crystallographic studies and mutational assays of AcrB provided much of structural and overall functional insights, which led to the functionally rotating mechanism. However, the drug uptake pathways are somewhat controversial because at least two possible pathways, the vestibule and the cleft paths, were suggested. Here, combining molecular simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we addressed the uptake mechanism finding that the drug uptake pathways can be significantly different depending on the properties of drugs. First, in the computational free energy analysis of drug movements along AcrB tunnels, we found a ligand-dependent drug uptake mechanism. With the same molecular sizes, drugs that are both strongly hydrophobic and lipophilic were preferentially taken in via the vestibule path, while other drugs favored the cleft path. Second, direct simulations realized totally about 3500 events of drug uptake by AcrB for a broad range of drug property. These simulations confirmed the ligand-dependent drug uptake and further suggested that a smaller drug favors the vestibule path, while a larger one is taken in via the cleft path. Moreover, the direct simulations identified an alternative uptake path which is not visible in the crystal structure. Third, site-directed mutagenesis of AcrB in E. coli verified that mutations of residues located along the newly identified path significantly reduced the efflux efficiency, supporting its relevance in in vivo function.

  5. Effects of high-dose fenfluramine treatment on monoamine uptake sites in rat brain: Assessment using quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Contrera, J.F.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative that in humans is used primarily as an anorectic agent in the treatment of obesity. In rats, subchronic high-dose d,l-fenfluramine treatment (24 mg/kg subcutaneously, twice daily for 4 days) causes long-lasting decreases in brain serotonin (5HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and high-affinity 5HT uptake sites. Moreover, this high-dose treatment regimen causes both selective long-lasting decreases in fine-caliber 5HT-immunoreactive axons and appearance of other 5HT-immunoreactive axons with morphology characteristic of degenerating axons. Determination of the potential neurotoxic effects of fenfluramine treatment using immunohistochemistry is limited from the perspectives that staining is difficult to quantify and that it relies on presence of the antigen (in this case 5HT), and the 5HT-depleting effects of fenfluramine are well known. In the present study, we used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to assess, in detail, the density and regional distribution of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT and (3H)mazindol-labeled catecholamine uptake sites in response to the high-dose fenfluramine treatment described above. Because monoamine uptake sites are concentrated on monoamine-containing nerve terminals, decreases in uptake site density would provide a quantitative assessment of potential neurotoxicity resulting from this fenfluramine treatment regimen. Marked decreases in densities of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT uptake sites occurred in brain regions in which fenfluramine treatment decreased the density of 5HT-like immunostaining when compared to saline-treated control rats. These included cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus, thalamus, and medial hypothalamus.

  6. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  7. Intense 18F-FDG Uptake in Chronic Subcutaneous Opioid Injection Sites.

    PubMed

    Salas Fragomeni, Roberto Andres; Rowe, Steven P

    2016-10-01

    Subcutaneous F-FDG uptake is a common finding on PET scans, with causes including both benign and malignant conditions. Often, the pattern of uptake or the clinical indication for the PET scan will suggest the etiology. However, unusual or unexpected patterns may require careful clinical history. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who underwent a PET/CT study for paraneoplastic syndrome evaluation and was found to have intense, extensive, bilaterally symmetric, nodular subcutaneous FDG uptake in the lower back and buttocks that was related to long-term repeated subcutaneous opioid injections.

  8. Different components of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in rat brain membranes: relation to serotonin uptake sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gobbi, M.; Taddei, C.; Mennini, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors confirm and extend previous studies showing heterogeneous /sup 3/H-imipramine (/sup 3/H-IMI) binding sites. Inhibition curves of various drugs (serotonin, imipramine, desmethyl-imipramine, d-fenfluramine, d-norfenfluramine and indalpine, a potent serotonin uptake inhibitor) obtained using 2 nM /sup 3/H-IMI and in presence of 120 mM NaCl, confirmed the presence of at least three /sup 3/H-IMI binding sites: two of these were serotonin-insensitive while the third one was selectively inhibited by serotonin and indalpine with nanomolar affinities. Moreover this last component was found to be selectively modulated by chronic imipramine treatment thus suggesting a close relation to serontonin uptake mechanism. These data indicate that the use of a more selective inhibitors of the serotonin-sensitive component (like indalpine or serotonin itself) to define non specific /sup 3/H-IMI, may be of help in understanding its relation with serotonin uptake system. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and uptake related to human papillomavirus vaccination among young women in Germany recruited via a social media site.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Cornelius; Walter, Dietmar; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Deleré, Yvonne; Wichmann, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Many industrialized countries have introduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young women, but vaccine uptake often remains suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate whether a social media site like Facebook is an appropriate tool to assess knowledge, attitude and uptake related to HPV vaccination in young women in Germany. Between December 2012 and January 2013 two different targeting strategies were implemented on Facebook, providing a link to an online questionnaire. Advertisements were displayed to female Facebook users aged 18-25 years living in Germany. During the simple targeting strategy, advertisements comprised health-related images along with various short titles and text messages. During the focused strategy, advertisements were targeted to users who in addition had certain fashion brands or pop stars listed on their profiles. The targeting strategies were compared with respect to participant characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. A total of 1161 women participated. The two targeting strategies resulted in significant differences regarding educational status and migrant background. Overall, awareness of HPV was high, but only 53% received at least one vaccine dose. In multivariate analysis, HPV vaccine uptake was independently associated with a physician's recommendation and trust in vaccine effectiveness. Concerns of adverse effects were negatively associated with vaccine uptake. Social network recruitment permits fast and convenient access to young people. Sample characteristics can be manipulated by adjusting targeting strategies. There is further need for promoting knowledge of HPV vaccination among young women. Physicians have a major role in the vaccination decision-making process of young women.

  10. GABA uptake in embryonic palate mesenchymal cells of two mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Wee, E L; Zimmerman, E F

    1985-12-01

    To obtain further evidence that the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA functions in palate development, the presence of an active GABA uptake mechanism was sought using primary cultures of embryonic palate mesenchymal cells. Uptake was compared from cells of two inbred mouse strains in which the SWV strain shows greater sensitivity than the AJ strain to effects of GABA on palate morphogenesis and of diazepam in producing cleft palate. Palate cells were capable of accumulating [3H]GABA by saturable uptake mechanisms characteristic of a high and low affinity active transport as indicated by temperature, Na+ ion and carrier dependence as well as Km and Vmax values that were comparable to other biological systems. The Vmax of the high-affinity uptake system from cells of the SWV strain was 1.8 fold higher than that of the AJ. GABA uptake was also observed in fibroblasts from various sources including embryonic mouse limb cells, human skin fibroblasts and 3T3 cells. When active GABA uptake was measured in skin fibroblasts from the mouse SWV and AJ strains, the rate of uptake from SWV cells under high affinity conditions was also 1.8 fold greater than in AJ cells. Thus active GABA uptake appears to be genetically regulated in non-neural cells which may contribute to differential responses to GABA.

  11. Up-regulation of P2X7 receptor-mediated inhibition of GABA uptake by nerve terminals of the human epileptic neocortex.

    PubMed

    Barros-Barbosa, Aurora R; Fonseca, Ana L; Guerra-Gomes, Sónia; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Santos, Agostinho; Rangel, Rui; Lobo, M Graça; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Cordeiro, J Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Thirty percent of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medication. The majority of these patients have mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). This prompts for new pharmacologic targets, like ATP-mediated signaling pathways, since the extracellular levels of the nucleotide dramatically increase during in vitro epileptic seizures. In this study, we investigated whether sodium-dependent high-affinity γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate uptake by isolated nerve terminals of the human neocortex could be modulated by ATP acting via slow-desensitizing P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Modulation of [(3) H]GABA and [(14) C]glutamate uptake by ATP, through activation of P2X7R, was investigated in isolated nerve terminals of the neocortex of cadaveric controls and patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (non-MTLE or MTLE) submitted to surgery. Tissue density and distribution of P2X7R in the human neocortex was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The P2X7R agonist, 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP (BzATP, 3-100 μm) decreased [(3) H]GABA and [(14) C]glutamate uptake by nerve terminals of the neocortex of controls and patients with epilepsy. The inhibitory effect of BzATP (100 μm) was prevented by the selective P2X7R antagonist, A-438079 (3 μm). Down-modulation of [(14) C]glutamate uptake by BzATP (100 μm) was roughly similar in controls and patients with epilepsy, but the P2X7R agonist inhibited more effectively [(3) H]GABA uptake in the epileptic tissue. Neocortical nerve terminals of patients with epilepsy express higher amounts of the P2X7R protein than control samples. High-frequency cortical activity during epileptic seizures releases huge amounts of ATP, which by acting on low-affinity slowly desensitizing ionotropic P2X7R, leads to down-modulation of neuronal GABA and glutamate uptake. Increased P2X7R expression in neocortical nerve terminals of patients with epilepsy may, under high-frequency firing, endure GABA signaling and

  12. Uptake and recycling of lead by boreal forest plants: Quantitative estimates from a site in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2005-05-01

    As a consequence of deposition of atmospheric pollution, the lead concentration in the mor layer (the organic horizon) of remote boreal forest soils in Sweden is raised far above natural levels. How the mor will respond to decreased atmospheric pollution is not well known and is dependent on future deposition rates, downward migration losses and upward fluxes in the soil profile. Plants may contribute to the upward flux of lead by 'pumping' lead back to the mor surface through root uptake and subsequent litter fall. We use lead concentration and stable isotope ( 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) measurements of forest vegetation to quantify plant uptake rates from the soil and direct from the atmosphere at two sites in northern Sweden; an undisturbed mature forest and a disturbed site with Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) growing on a recently exposed mineral soil (C-horizon) containing a minimum of atmospherically derived pollution lead. Analyses of forest mosses from a herbarium collection (spanning the last ˜100 yr) and soil matrix samples suggest that the atmospheric lead deposited on plants and soil has an average 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of 1.15, while lead derived from local soil minerals has an average ratio of ˜1.47. Since the biomass of trees and field layer shrubs has an average 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of ˜1.25, this indicates that 70% ± 10% of the inventory of 1 ± 0.8 mg Pb m -2 stored in plants in the mature forest originates from pollution. Needles, bark and apical stemwood of the pine growing on the disturbed soil, show lower 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios (as low as 1.21) than the roots and basal stemwood (having ratios > 1.36), which indicate that plants are able to incorporate lead directly from the atmosphere (˜50% of the total tree uptake). By partitioning the total uptake of lead into uptake from the atmosphere and different soil layers using an isotopic mixing model, we estimate that ˜0.03 ± 0.01, 0.02 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.01 mg Pb m -2 yr -1 (mean ± SD), is taken up

  13. Selective labeling of serotonin uptake sites in rat brain by (/sup 3/H)citalopram contrasted to labeling of multiple sites by (/sup 3/H)imipramine

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amato, R.J.; Largent, B.L.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    Citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin uptake. In rat brain membranes (/sup 3/H)citalopram demonstrates saturable and reversible binding with a KD of 0.8 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 570 fmol/mg of protein. The drug specificity for (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding and synaptosomal serotonin uptake are closely correlated. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding by both serotonin and imipramine is consistent with a competitive interaction in both equilibrium and kinetic analyses. The autoradiographic pattern of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding sites closely resembles the distribution of serotonin. By contrast, detailed equilibrium-saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding reveals two binding components, i.e., high affinity (KD = 9 nM, Bmax = 420 fmol/mg of protein) and low affinity (KD = 553 nM, Bmax = 8560 fmol/mg of protein) sites. Specific (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, defined as the binding inhibited by 100 microM desipramine, is displaced only partially by serotonin. Various studies reveal that the serotonin-sensitive portion of binding corresponds to the high affinity sites of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding whereas the serotonin-insensitive binding corresponds to the low affinity sites. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with p-chloroamphetamine causes a large decrease in (/sup 3/H)citalopram and serotonin-sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding with only a small effect on serotonin-insensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding. The dissociation rate of (/sup 3/H)imipramine or (/sup 3/H)citalopram is not altered by citalopram, imipramine or serotonin up to concentrations of 10 microM. The regional distribution of serotonin sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine high affinity binding sites closely resembles that of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding.

  14. Plant selective uptake of halogenated flame retardants at an e-waste recycling site in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations and homolog patterns of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in vegetables grown at an e-waste contaminated site were investigated. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the dominant HFRs in vegetable tissues, with concentrations ranging from 10.3 to 164 ng g(-1) and 1.16-107 ng g(-1) in shoots and roots, respectively, followed by novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and dechlorane plus (DPs). This is an indication that PBDE contamination in vegetables grown around e-waste recycling sites may pose a risk to the local terrestrial ecosystem and residents. In addition, this is the first report on the concentrations and compositions of NBFRs in vegetables around e-waste recycling sites. The HFRs concentrations in vegetables varied greatly with the vegetable species, with the highest concentrations observed in Brassica oleracea var. capitata. Root concentration factors (RCF) decreased with increasing log Kow of HFRs, which indicated that the uptake of HFRs was controlled mainly by log Kow. Dissimilar HFRs profiles in shoots and roots suggested that the uptake and translocation of HFRs by plants were selective, with lower halogenated congeners prone to accumulation in vegetable tissues. Positive relationships between PBDEs and their substitutes were observed in vegetable tissues, suggesting that the replacement of PBDEs by NBFRs has not resulted in an obvious transition in plants within the study area.

  15. Site-Specific Radioiodination of HER2-Targeting Affibody Molecules using 4-Iodophenethylmaleimide Decreases Renal Uptake of Radioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Joanna; Nordeman, Patrik; Honarvar, Hadis; Altai, Mohamed; Orlova, Anna; Larhed, Mats; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Affibody molecules are small scaffold-based affinity proteins with promising properties as probes for radionuclide-based molecular imaging. However, a high reabsorption of radiolabeled Affibody molecules in kidneys is an issue. We have shown that the use of 125I-3-iodo-((4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl)maleimide (IHPEM) for site-specific labeling of cysteine-containing Affibody molecules provides high tumor uptake but low radioactivity retention in kidneys. We hypothesized that the use of 4-iodophenethylmaleimide (IPEM) would further reduce renal retention of radioactivity because of higher lipophilicity of radiometabolites. An anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) Affibody molecule (ZHER2:2395) was labeled using 125I-IPEM with an overall yield of 45±3 %. 125I-IPEM-ZHER2:2395 bound specifically to HER2-expressing human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV-3 cell line). In NMRI mice, the renal uptake of 125I-IPEM-ZHER2:2395 (24±2 and 5.7±0.3 % IA g−1at 1 and 4 h after injection, respectively) was significantly lower than uptake of 125I-IHPEM-ZHER2:2395 (50±8 and 12±2 % IA g−1at 1 and 4 h after injection, respectively). In conclusion, the use of a more lipophilic linker for the radioiodination of Affibody molecules reduces renal radioactivity. PMID:25969816

  16. Site-Specific Radioiodination of HER2-Targeting Affibody Molecules using 4-Iodophenethylmaleimide Decreases Renal Uptake of Radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Strand, Joanna; Nordeman, Patrik; Honarvar, Hadis; Altai, Mohamed; Orlova, Anna; Larhed, Mats; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Affibody molecules are small scaffold-based affinity proteins with promising properties as probes for radionuclide-based molecular imaging. However, a high reabsorption of radiolabeled Affibody molecules in kidneys is an issue. We have shown that the use of (125)I-3-iodo-((4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl)maleimide (IHPEM) for site-specific labeling of cysteine-containing Affibody molecules provides high tumor uptake but low radioactivity retention in kidneys. We hypothesized that the use of 4-iodophenethylmaleimide (IPEM) would further reduce renal retention of radioactivity because of higher lipophilicity of radiometabolites. An anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) Affibody molecule (ZHER2:2395) was labeled using (125)I-IPEM with an overall yield of 45±3 %. (125)I-IPEM-ZHER2:2395 bound specifically to HER2-expressing human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV-3 cell line). In NMRI mice, the renal uptake of (125)I-IPEM-ZHER2:2395 (24±2 and 5.7±0.3 % IA g(-1)at 1 and 4 h after injection, respectively) was significantly lower than uptake of (125)I-IHPEM-ZHER2:2395 (50±8 and 12±2 % IA g(-1)at 1 and 4 h after injection, respectively). In conclusion, the use of a more lipophilic linker for the radioiodination of Affibody molecules reduces renal radioactivity.

  17. Cellular sites of estrogen and antiestrogen uptake, retention and action: comparative autoradiographic studies in the immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of action of antiestrogens: agents used for treating breast cancer and as probes for studying the mechanisms of action of estrogen. Nuclear uptake and retention of estrogen and antiestrogen were determined in the different cell types of the immature rat uterus, by quantitative autoradiography, after an injection of tritiated hydroxytamoxifen ((/sup 3/H)TAM(OH)) or tritiated estradiol ((/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/). The effect of TAM(OH) and E/sub 2/ on progesterone receptor content was assessed in the different cell types by determining nuclear uptake of the synthetic progestin (/sup 3/H)Org 2058. The results indicate that antiestrogen and estrogen localize to nuclei of the same uterine cell types, but that this nuclear uptake differs among the uterine tissue compartments, that antiestrogen is taken up considerably slower and retained longer than estrogen and that antiestrogen and estrogen differentially affect progesterone receptor content in the different cell types. The results further suggest that antiestrogen-specific binding sites exist in the cytoplasm of uterine luminal epithelium.

  18. Investigation of Local Hydrogen Uptake in Rescaled Model Occluded Sites Using Crevice Scaling Laws

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Measured potential, TDS measured CH, and calculated CH versus depth. 1.2- -0-- PH17-7 (Burnell et al.) -- 0-- PH13 - 8 (Tyler et al.) 1.0 - V PH17-4...formation [7] as well as possibly triggering dynamic trap state creation when vacancies function as H traps. [ 8 ] The amount of H generation within the...a different local crack tip chemistry and level of H uptake.[21]. The Kth vs yield strength data for PH 13- 8 Mo suggest an extreme sensitivity to

  19. The cell pole: the site of cross talk between the DNA uptake and genetic recombination machinery.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Dawit; Ayora, Silvia; Sweasy, Joann B; Graumann, Peter L; Alonso, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is a programmed mechanism characterized by binding of free double-stranded (ds) DNA from the environment to the cell pole in rod-shaped bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis some competence proteins, which process the dsDNA and translocate single-stranded (ss) DNA into the cytosol, recruit a set of recombination proteins mainly to one of the cell poles. A subset of single-stranded binding proteins, working as "guardians", protects ssDNA from degradation and limit the RecA recombinase loading. Then, the "mediators" overcome the inhibitory role of guardians, and recruit RecA onto ssDNA. A RecA·ssDNA filament searches for homology on the chromosome and, in a process that is controlled by "modulators", catalyzes strand invasion with the generation of a displacement loop (D-loop). A D-loop resolvase or "resolver" cleaves this intermediate, limited DNA replication restores missing information and a DNA ligase seals the DNA ends. However, if any step fails, the "rescuers" will repair the broken end to rescue chromosomal transformation. If the ssDNA does not share homology with resident DNA, but it contains information for autonomous replication, guardian and mediator proteins catalyze plasmid establishment after inhibition of RecA. DNA replication and ligation reconstitute the molecule (plasmid transformation). In this review, the interacting network that leads to a cross talk between proteins of the uptake and genetic recombination machinery will be placed into prospective.

  20. Arsenic and lead uptake by Brassicas grown on an old orchard site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Maya P; McBride, Murray B

    2015-12-15

    Arugula (Eruca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), were grown at a former orchard where soils had been variably contaminated by lead arsenate pesticides. To test for the effect of compost on As and Pb transfer into plants, compost was added (0, 5, and 10% DW) to five plots representing a wide range of soil Pb and As. Arugula accumulated about 5 times higher As concentrations in above-ground tissues than collards, with high variability in individual plant concentrations. Soil to arugula transfer (uptake) coefficients were higher for As than for Pb, and increased with soil As. Crop concentrations of Pb varied widely within replicate samples of both arugula and collards. Arugula contamination by Pb was significantly correlated to soil total Pb, but collard contamination was not. Evidence was found using Al as an indicator of soil particle contamination of plant tissues that Pb in arugula was primarily due to soil particle deposition on foliar surfaces. Compost amendments reduced 0.01 M CaCl2 -extractable Pb but increased extractable As in the orchard soils. However, compost had the beneficial effect of reducing both As and Pb concentrations in harvested arugula grown on most of the plots.

  1. Beta-test Results for an HPV Information Web site: GoHealthyGirls.org – Increasing HPV Vaccine Uptake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Kong, Alberta S.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Buller, David B.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2014-01-01

    A web site, GoHealthyGirls, was developed to educate and inform parents and their adolescent daughters about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines. This article provides an overview of web site development and content followed by the results of a beta-test of the web site. 63 New Mexican parents of adolescent girls tested the site. Results indicated that GoHealthyGirls was a functioning and appealing web site. During this brief educational intervention, findings suggest that the web site has the potential to increase HPV vaccine uptake. This research supports the Internet as a valuable channel to disseminate health education and information to diverse populations. PMID:25221442

  2. Beta-test Results for an HPV Information Web site: GoHealthyGirls.org - Increasing HPV Vaccine Uptake in the United States.

    PubMed

    Starling, Randall; Nodulman, Jessica A; Kong, Alberta S; Wheeler, Cosette M; Buller, David B; Woodall, W Gill

    2014-01-01

    A web site, GoHealthyGirls, was developed to educate and inform parents and their adolescent daughters about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines. This article provides an overview of web site development and content followed by the results of a beta-test of the web site. 63 New Mexican parents of adolescent girls tested the site. Results indicated that GoHealthyGirls was a functioning and appealing web site. During this brief educational intervention, findings suggest that the web site has the potential to increase HPV vaccine uptake. This research supports the Internet as a valuable channel to disseminate health education and information to diverse populations.

  3. The cell pole: The site of cross talk between the DNA uptake and genetic recombination machinery

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Dawit; Ayora, Silvia; Sweasy, Joann; Graumann, Peter L.; Alonso, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is a programmed mechanism characterized by binding of free double-stranded (ds) DNA from the environment to the cell pole in rod-shaped bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis some competence proteins, which process the dsDNA and translocate single-stranded (ss) DNA into the cytosol, recruit a set of recombination proteins mainly to one of the cell poles. A subset of single-stranded binding proteins, working as “guardians”, protect ssDNA from degradation and limit the RecA recombinase loading. Then, the “mediators” overcome the inhibitory role of guardians, and recruit RecA onto ssDNA. A RecA·ssDNA filament searches for homology on the chromosome and, in a process that is controlled by “modulators”, catalyzes strand invasion with the generation of a displacement loop (D-loop). A D-loop resolvase or “resolver” cleaves this intermediate, limited DNA replication restores missing information and a DNA ligase seals the DNA ends. However, if any step fails, the “rescuers” will repair the broken end to rescue chromosomal transformation. If the ssDNA does not share homology with resident DNA, but it contains information for autonomous replication, guardian and mediator proteins catalyze plasmid establishment after inhibition of RecA. DNA replication and ligation reconstitute the molecule (plasmid transformation). In this review, the interacting network that leads to a cross talk between proteins of the uptake and genetic recombination machinery will be placed into prospective. PMID:23046409

  4. A Cationic MOF with High Uptake and Selectivity for CO2 due to Multiple CO2 -Philic Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Hua; Shi, Wen-Juan; Hou, Lei; Li, Gao-Peng; Zhu, Zhonghua; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-11-09

    The reaction of N-rich pyrazinyl triazolyl carboxyl ligand 3-(4-carboxylbenzene)-5-(2-pyrazinyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (H2 cbptz) with MnCl2 afforded 3D cationic metal-organic framework (MOF) [Mn2 (Hcbptz)2 (Cl)(H2 O)]Cl⋅DMF⋅0.5 CH3 CN (1), which has an unusual (3,4)-connected 3,4T1 topology and 1D channels composed of cavities. MOF 1 has a very polar framework that contains exposed metal sites, uncoordinated N atoms, narrow channels, and Cl(-) basic sites, which lead to not only high CO2 uptake, but also remarkably selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 at 298-333 K. The multiple CO2 -philic sites were identified by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, 1 shows excellent stability in natural air environment. These advantages make 1 a very promising candidate in post-combustion CO2 capture, natural-gas upgrading, and landfill gas-purification processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Invariance of the density of dopamine uptake sites and dopamine metabolism in the rat brain after a chronic treatment with the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12783.

    PubMed

    Boulay, D; Leroux-Nicollet, I; Duterte-Boucher, D; Naudon, L; Costentin, J

    1994-01-01

    A chronic treatment (10 mg/kg, twice daily during 9 days) with the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12783 was performed in rats at a dose increasing their locomotor activity. Forty-eight hours after the last administration, animals were sacrificed and 3H mazindol binding was performed on brain slices. Autoradiographic analysis revealed no change in this binding relatively to control animals in regions with high dopamine contents: striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum area. The treatment did not either modify the levels of dopamine (DA) and metabolites (HVA, DOPAC) both in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. Thus, early after the end of the treatment, the chronic blockade of the dopamine uptake complex regulates neither the dopamine uptake complex nor the dopamine metabolism.

  6. Synthesis of Highly Porous Coordination Polymers with Open Metal Sites for Enhanced Gas Uptake and Separation.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Seob; Kim, Daeok; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Coskun, Ali

    2016-10-12

    Metal-containing amorphous microporous polymers are an emerging class of functional porous materials in which the surface properties and functions of polymers are dictated by the nature of the metal ions incorporated into the framework. In an effort to introduce coordinatively unsaturated metal sites into the porous polymers, we demonstrate herein an aqueous-phase synthesis of porous coordination polymers (PCPs) incorporating bis(o-diiminobenzosemiquinonato)-Cu(II) or -Ni(II) bridges by simply reacting hexaminotriptycene with CuSO4·5H2O [Cu(II)-PCP] or NiCl2·6H2O [Ni(II)-PCP] in H2O. The resulting polymers showed surface areas of up to 489 m(2) g(-1) along with a narrow pore size distribution. The presence of open metal sites significantly improved the gas affinity of these frameworks, leading to an exceptional isosteric heat of adsorption of 10.3 kJ·mol(-1) for H2 at zero coverage. The high affinities of Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-PCPs toward CO2 prompted us to investigate the removal of CO2 from natural and landfill gas conditions. We found that the higher affinity of Cu(II)-PCP compared to that of Ni(II)-PCP not only allowed for the tuning of the affinity of CO2 molecules toward the sorbent, but also led to an exceptional CO2/CH4 selectivity of 35.1 for landfill gas and 20.7 for natural gas at 298 K. These high selectivities were further verified by breakthrough measurements under the simulated natural and landfill gas conditions, in which both Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-PCPs showed complete removal of CO2. These results clearly demonstrate the promising attributes of metal-containing porous polymers for gas storage and separation applications.

  7. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables - the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Anna L M; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E; Hogmalm, K Johan; Filipsson, Monika E M

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Catecholamine uptake sites: characterization, localization, and a role in the production of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonism

    SciTech Connect

    Javitch, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dopamine and norepinephrine are inactivated by specific high affinity transport systems which mediate the recapture of the amines into presynaptic nerve terminals. (/sup 3/H)Maxindol labels neuronal dopamine uptake sites in corpus striatum membranes and neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in cerebral cortex and submaxillary/sublingual gland membranes. The potencies of various inhibitors of biogenic amine uptake in reducing (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding in striatal membranes correlate with their potencies for inhibition of neurona (/sup 3/H)dopamine accumulation, whereas their potencies in reducing (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to cortical and salivary gland membranes correlate with their potencies for inhibition of neuronal (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine accumulation. The association of (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding sites with neuronal dopamine uptake sites in the corpus striatum is further supported by the reduction of (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding sites in striatal membranes following destruction of dopaminergic neurons by 6-hydroxydopamine. Similarly, destruction of noradrenergic neurons by N-(2-chloro-ethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine(DSP-4) decreases (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to cortical membranes. Dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography. N-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces neuropathologic and clinical abnormalities in humans and animals that closely resemble idiopathic Parkinson disease. (/sup 3/H)MPTP binds with high affinity to brain membranes. The chemical specificity of the binding sites corresponds to structure-activity requirements for neurotoxicity.

  9. Interference of α-Synuclein Uptake by Monomeric β-Amyloid1-40 and Potential Core Acting Site of the Interference.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel K Y; Braidy, Nady; Xu, Ying Hua; Chataway, Tim; Guo, Feng; Guillemin, Gilles J; Teo, Charlie; Gai, Wei Ping

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role of alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The inter-neuronal spread of α-Syn via exocytosis and endocytosis has been proposed as an explanation for the neuropathological findings of PD in sub-clinical and clinical phases. Therefore, interfering the uptake of α-Syn by neurons may be an important step in slowing or modifying the propagation of the disease. The purposes of our study were to investigate if the uptake of α-Syn fibrils can be specifically interfered with monomeric β-Amyloid1-40 (Aβ40) and to characterise the core acting site of interference. Using a radioisotope-labelled uptake assay, we found an 80 % uptake reduction of α-Syn fibrils in neurons interfered with monomeric Aβ40, but not β-Amyloid1-42 (Aβ42) as compared to controls. This finding was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with α-Syn uptake reduced from about 80 % (Aβ42) to about 20 % (Aβ40) relative to controls. To define the region of Aβ40 peptide capable of the interference, we explored shorter peptides with less amino acid residues from both the C-terminus and N-terminus. We found that the interference effect was preserved if amino acid residue was trimmed to position 11 (from N-terminus) and 36 (from C-terminus), but dropped off significantly if residues were trimmed beyond these positions. We therefore deduced that the "core acting site" lies between amino acid residue positions 12-36. These findings suggest α-Syn uptake can be interfered with monomeric Aβ40 and that the core acting site of interference might lie between amino acid residue positions 12-36.

  10. Water structural changes at the proton uptake site (the Thr46-Asp96 domain) in the L intermediate of bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Yoichi; Hatanka, Minoru; Kandori, Hideki

    1995-05-30

    Fourier transform infrared spectra of the L intermediate of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin were examined for recombinant proteins with amino acid substitutions at Thr46 and Asp96. Two O-H stretching vibrational bands of water, at 3607 and 3577 cm{sup -1}, change into stronger H-bonding states in L of the wild type. Thr46{r_arrow}Val substitution abolished these bands in spite of the fact that [3-{sup 18}O]threonine-labeling did not shift with them indicating that they correspond to coordination of the water with Thr46. The two water bands were restored, although with changed frequencies, by an additional Asp96{r_arrow}Asn substitution in Thr46{r_arrow}Val/Asp96{r_arrow}Asn. A single Asp96{r_arrow}Asn substitution abolished the 3607 cm{sup -1} band. Thus, Asp96 also takes part in structural changes in water. The perturbations of these water molecules in the L intermediate displayed a weak correlation with the ratio of intensity change in the two of vibrational bands of the Schiff base mode at 1312 and 1301 cm{sup -1} and the rate for the deprotonation of the Schiff base at the L-to-M reaction of the photocycle. We find, therefore, that the water molecule sin the cytoplasmic Asp96-Thr46 domain, which comprises the site of proton uptake after formation of the M intermediate, undergo structural changes in the L intermediate already. These changes are transmitted to the extracellular domain and the affect interaction of the Schiff base with Asp 85, that is far removed from this region. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Augustsson, Anna L.M.; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E.; Hogmalm, K. Johan; Filipsson, Monika E.M.

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  12. Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: implications for ozone uptake calculations.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Jenny; Danielsson, Helena; Simpson, David; Pleijel, Håkan

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold.

  13. C2H2 adsorption in three isostructural metal-organic frameworks: boosting C2H2 uptake by rational arrangement of nitrogen sites.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengling; Jiao, Jingjing; Lin, Qiyi; Liu, Huimin; He, Yabing

    2016-03-21

    Replacing the benzene spacer in the organic linker 5,5'-(benzene-1,4-diyl)diisophthalate with the nitrogen containing heterocyclic rings, namely, pyrazine, pyridazine, and pyrimidine results in three organic linkers, which were reacted with copper ions under solvothermal conditions to form three isostructural metal-organic frameworks (ZJNU-46, ZJNU-47 and ZJNU-48) exhibiting exceptionally high sorption capacities with regard to acetylene due to the simultaneous immobilization of open metal sites and Lewis basic nitrogen sites in the frameworks. At 1 atm and 295 K, the gravimetric C2H2 adsorption uptakes reach 187, 213 and 193 cm(3) (STP) g(-1) for these three compounds. The gravimetric C2H2 adsorption amount of ZJNU-47a is the second highest reported for MOF materials. Notably, despite their same porosities, and densities of open metal sites and uncoordinated nitrogen sites, distinctly different C2H2 adsorption capacities were observed for these three compounds, which we think are mainly associated with the difference in the relative position of nitrogen atoms leading to different binding affinities of the frameworks towards C2H2 guest molecules, and thus different C2H2 adsorptions. This work demonstrates that the rational arrangement of open nitrogen sites will favorably improve the C2H2 uptake and thus provides useful information for future design of porous MOFs with high acetylene storage capacities.

  14. Contaminant Uptake and Demography of the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    van Hattem, M G; Santolo, G

    2005-02-23

    Concentrations of eleven potential environmental contaminants (metals) in the blood and retrice feathers of fledged-Hatch Year and adult loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) were examined at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 and a control site, in San Joaquin and Contra Costa Counties, California. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine, through non-lethal means, if loggerhead shrikes are exposed to metals at Site 300 and whether specific demographic variables (i.e., clutch size, fledgling success, etc.) are affected. Loggerhead shrikes at Site 300 had higher blood concentrations of metals, especially birds on the west side of the site, when compared to control site birds. Metal concentrations in the feathers of control site birds tended to be higher than Site 300 shrikes. Blood concentrations of metals in loggerhead shrikes from both Site 300 and the control site were well below the Most Tolerant Dietary Level (MTDL) for domestic birds for all metals except selenium. Clutch size was similar to other populations but one deformed embryo was discovered in a failed egg. The results of this pilot study suggest further work is needed to understand possible synergistic effects related to other contaminants of concern found at Site 300 and overall population variability.

  15. Tianeptine: 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors modulate memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental task.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the

  16. Uptake of heavy metals by Typha capensis from wetland sites polluted by effluent from mineral processing plants: implications of metal-metal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zaranyika, M F; Nyati, W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis, a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively. The levels of Cr were extremely high at Site A at 5415 and 786-16,047 μg g(-1) dry weight in the soil and the plant, respectively, while the levels of Ni were high at Site C at 176 and 24-891 μg g(-1) in the soil and the plant, respectively. The levels of Fe were high at all three sites at 2502-7500 and 906-13,833 μg g(-1) in the soil and plant, respectively. For the rest of the metals, levels were modest at 8.5-148 and 2-264 μg g(-1) in the soil and plant, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis confirmed mutual synergistic metal-metal interactions in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cr, which are attributed to the similarity in the radii and coordination geometry of the cations of these elements. The implications of such metal-metal interactions (or effects of one metal on the behaviour of another) on the uptake of Cr, a toxic element, and possible Cr detoxification mechanism within the plant, are discussed.

  17. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families.

  18. Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 ± 67.4 µg N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 ± 41.4 µg N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach

  19. The ability of denbufylline to inhibit cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and its affinity for adenosine receptors and the adenosine re-uptake site.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, C. D.; Jackman, S. A.; Wilke, R.

    1989-01-01

    1. Denbufylline has been examined for its ability to inhibit cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes from rat cardiac ventricle and cerebrum, as well as for its affinity for adenosine A1 and A2 receptors and the re-uptake site. For comparison, SK&F 94120, theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) were examined as phosphodiesterase inhibitors whilst N6-cyclohexyladenosine, R(-)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine, 2-nitrobenzylthioinosine, theophylline and IBMX were examined for their affinity for adenosine binding sites. 2. This investigation confirmed the presence of four phosphodiesterase activities in rat cardiac ventricle; in rat cerebrum only three were present. 3. Denbufylline selective inhibited one form of Ca2+-independent, low Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. The form inhibited was one of two present in cardiac ventricle and the sole one in cerebrum. This form was not inhibited by cyclic GMP. The inotropic agent SK&F 94120 selectively inhibited the form of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase which was inhibited by cyclic GMP present in cardiac ventricle. Theophylline and IBMX were relatively non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors. 4. Denbufylline was a less potent inhibitor of ligand binding to adenosine receptors than of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This contrasted with theophylline, which had a higher affinity for adenosine receptors, and IBMX which showed no marked selectivity. Denbufylline, theophylline and IBMX all had a low affinity for the adenosine re-uptake site. 5. Denbufylline is being developed as an agent for the therapy of multi-infarct dementia. The selective inhibition of a particular low Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase may account for the activity of this compound. PMID:2474352

  20. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site)

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID

  1. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekgaarden, M.; van Vught, R.; Oliveira, S.; Roovers, R. C.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P.; Pieters, R. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Breukink, E.; Heger, M.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00014b

  2. Evidence for regional catecholamine uptake and storage sites in the transplanted human heart by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Hutchins, G.D.; Kalff, V.; Rosenspire, K.; Haka, M.S.; Mallette, S.; Deeb, G.M.; Abrams, G.D.; Wieland, D. )

    1991-05-01

    Positron emission tomography in combination with the newly introduced catecholamine analogue ({sup 11}C)hydroxyephedrine (({sup 11}C)HED) enables the noninvasive delineation of sympathetic nerve terminals of the heart. To address the ongoing controversy over possible reinnervation of the human transplant, 5 healthy control subjects and 11 patients were studied after cardiac transplant by this imaging approach. Regional ({sup 11}C)HED retention was compared to regional blood flow as assessed by rubidium-82. Transplant patients were divided into two groups. Group I had recent (less than 1 yr, 4.4 +/- 2.3 mo) surgery, while group II patients underwent cardiac transplantation more than 2 yr before imaging (3.5 +/- 1.3 yr). ({sup 11}C)HED retention paralleled blood flow in normals, but was homogeneously reduced in group I. In contrast, group II patients revealed heterogeneous ({sup 11}C)HED retention, with increased uptake in the proximal anterior and septal wall. Quantitative evaluation of ({sup 11}C)HED retention revealed a 70% reduction in group I and 59% reduction in group II patients (P less than 0.001). In group II patients, ({sup 11}C)HED retention reached 60% of normal in the proximal anterior wall. These data suggest the presence of neuronal tissue in the transplanted human heart, which may reflect regional sympathetic reinnervation.

  3. Seasonal influences on ozone uptake and foliar injury to ponderosa and Jeffrey pines at a southern California site

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. Temple; Paul R. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Ambient ozone was monitored from 1992 to 1994 near a forested site dominated by mature Jeffrey and ponderosa pines (Pinus jeffrey Grev. & Balf. and Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) at 2,000 m in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. Ozone injury symptoms, including percent chlorotic mottle and foliage retention,...

  4. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-28

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.

  5. SITE SITE DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON A CLAY SOIL UNDER PINUS RADIATA - ROOT BIOMASS, MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION, 15AMMONIUM UPTAKE, AND FOLIAR NUTRIENT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timber harvesting can result in adverse physical, chemical and biological alterations to soil. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of site disturbance to determine the extent and duration of possible harvesting impacts on soil chemical and biological propertie...

  6. SITE SITE DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON A CLAY SOIL UNDER PINUS RADIATA - ROOT BIOMASS, MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION, 15AMMONIUM UPTAKE, AND FOLIAR NUTRIENT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timber harvesting can result in adverse physical, chemical and biological alterations to soil. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of site disturbance to determine the extent and duration of possible harvesting impacts on soil chemical and biological propertie...

  7. Ligand uptake in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobins is controlled by both internal tunnels and active site water molecules.

    PubMed

    Boron, Ignacio; Bustamante, Juan Pablo; Davidge, Kelly S; Singh, Sandip; Bowman, Lesley Ah; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Carballal, Sebastián; Radi, Rafael; Poole, Robert K; Dikshit, Kanak; Estrin, Dario A; Marti, Marcelo A; Boechi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, has two proteins belonging to the truncated hemoglobin (trHb) family. Mt-trHbN presents well-defined internal hydrophobic tunnels that allow O 2 and (•)NO to migrate easily from the solvent to the active site, whereas Mt-trHbO possesses tunnels interrupted by a few bulky residues, particularly a tryptophan at position G8. Differential ligand migration rates allow Mt-trHbN to detoxify (•)NO, a crucial step for pathogen survival once under attack by the immune system, much more efficiently than Mt-trHbO. In order to investigate the differences between these proteins, we performed experimental kinetic measurements, (•)NO decomposition, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type Mt-trHbN and two mutants, VG8F and VG8W. These mutations affect both the tunnels accessibility as well as the affinity of distal site water molecules, thus modifying the ligand access to the iron. We found that a single mutation allows Mt-trHbN to acquire ligand migration rates comparable to those observed for Mt-trHbO, confirming that ligand migration is regulated by the internal tunnel architecture as well as by water molecules stabilized in the active site.

  8. Ligand uptake in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobins is controlled by both internal tunnels and active site water molecules

    PubMed Central

    Davidge, Kelly S; Singh, Sandip; Bowman, Lesley AH; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Carballal, Sebastián; Radi, Rafael; Poole, Robert K; Dikshit, Kanak; Estrin, Dario A; Marti, Marcelo A; Boechi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, has two proteins belonging to the truncated hemoglobin (trHb) family. Mt-trHbN presents well-defined internal hydrophobic tunnels that allow O 2 and •NO to migrate easily from the solvent to the active site, whereas Mt-trHbO possesses tunnels that are partially blocked by a few bulky residues, particularly a tryptophan at position G8. Differential ligand migration rates allow Mt-trHbN to detoxify •NO, a crucial step for pathogen survival once under attack by the immune system, much more efficiently than Mt-trHbO. In order to investigate the differences between these proteins, we performed experimental kinetic measurements, •NO decomposition, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type Mt-trHbN and two mutants, VG8F and VG8W. These mutations introduce modifications in both tunnel topologies and affect the incoming ligand capacity to displace retained water molecules at the active site. We found that a single mutation allows Mt-trHbN to acquire ligand migration rates comparable to those observed for Mt-trHbO, confirming that ligand migration is regulated by the internal tunnel architecture as well as by water molecules stabilized in the active site. PMID:26478812

  9. Did we choose the best one? A new site selection approach based on exposure and uptake potential for waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Demirarslan, K Onur; Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2016-08-01

    Ecological problems arising after the construction and operation of a waste incineration plant generally originate from incorrect decisions made during the selection of the location of the plant. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the selection method for the location of a new municipal waste incineration plant can be improved by using a dispersion modelling approach supported by geographical information systems and multi-criteria decision analysis. Considering this aim, the appropriateness of the current location of an existent plant was assessed by applying a pollution dispersion model. Using this procedure, the site ranking for a total of 90 candidate locations and the site of the existing incinerator were determined by a new location selection practice and the current place of the plant was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. This ranking, made without the use of modelling approaches, was re-evaluated based on the modelling of various variables, including the concentration of pollutants, population and population density, demography, temporality of meteorological data, pollutant type, risk formation type by CALPUFF and re-ranking the results. The findings clearly indicate the impropriety of the location of the current plant, as the pollution distribution model showed that its location was the fourth-worst choice among 91 possibilities. It was concluded that the location selection procedures for waste incinerators should benefit from the improvements obtained by the articulation of pollution dispersion studies combined with the population density data to obtain the most suitable location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Association between distance to HIV testing site and uptake of HIV testing for tuberculosis patients in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kanara, N; Cain, K P; Chhum, V; Eng, B; Kim, S; Keo, S; Heller, T A; Varma, J K

    2009-02-01

    Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia. Cambodia has the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Asia. Not all TB patients are tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We assessed the association between distance to HIV testing facility and HIV testing rates. We analyzed data on TB patients from 11 clinics to determine the proportion tested for HIV infection. We categorized each TB clinic as having a voluntary confidential counseling and testing (VCCT) center onsite, or being at <15 min, 15-30 min or >30 min driving distance to the nearest VCCT. Of 1017 TB patients not previously tested for HIV, 708 (70%) were tested. Of 481 TB patients without onsite VCCT, 297 (62%) were tested, compared to 410 (77%) of 535 TB patients with onsite VCCT (RR 0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.7). When the VCCT site was >15 min from the TB clinic, HIV testing occurred only half as frequently as when onsite VCCT was available. TB patients treated at clinics without onsite or nearby HIV testing are less commonly tested for HIV infection. Making HIV testing available to TB patients without the necessity of traveling to a distant HIV testing site is likely to increase HIV testing rates.

  11. Microseconds simulations reveal a new sodium-binding site and the mechanism of sodium-coupled substrate uptake by LeuT.

    PubMed

    Zomot, Elia; Gur, Mert; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-01-02

    The bacterial sodium-coupled leucine/alanine transporter LeuT is broadly used as a model system for studying the transport mechanism of neurotransmitters because of its structural and functional homology to mammalian transporters such as serotonin, dopamine, or norepinephrine transporters, and because of the resolution of its structure in different states. Although the binding sites (S1 for substrate, and Na1 and Na2 for two co-transported sodium ions) have been resolved, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of coupled Na(+)- and substrate-binding events. We present here results from extensive (>20 μs) unbiased molecular dynamics simulations generated using the latest computing technology. Simulations show that sodium binds initially the Na1 site, but not Na2, and, consistently, sodium unbinding/escape to the extracellular (EC) region first takes place at Na2, succeeded by Na1. Na2 diffusion back to the EC medium requires prior dissociation of substrate from S1. Significantly, Na(+) binding (and unbinding) consistently involves a transient binding to a newly discovered site, Na1″, near S1, as an intermediate state. A robust sequence of substrate uptake events coupled to sodium bindings and translocations between those sites assisted by hydration emerges from the simulations: (i) bindings of a first Na(+) to Na1″, translocation to Na1, a second Na(+) to vacated Na1″ and then to Na2, and substrate to S1; (ii) rotation of Phe(253) aromatic group to seclude the substrate from the EC region; and (iii) concerted tilting of TM1b and TM6a toward TM3 and TM8 to close the EC vestibule.

  12. An evaluation of the regional acid deposition model surface module for ozone uptake at three sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massman, W. J.; Pederson, J.; Delany, A.; Grantz, D.; Hertog, G. Den; Neumann, H. H.; Oncley, S. P.; Pearson, R., Jr.; Shaw, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Plants and soils act as major sinks for the destruction of tropospheric ozone, especially during daylight hours when plant stomata open and are thought to provide the dominant pathway for the uptake of ozone. The present study, part of the California Ozone Deposition Experiment, compares predictions of the regional acid deposition model ozone surface conductance module with surface conductance data derived from eddy covariance measurements of ozone flux taken at a grape, a cotton, and a grassland site in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the summer of 1991. Results indicate that the model (which was developed to provide long-term large-area estimates for the eastern United States) significantly overpredicts the surface conductance at all times of the day for at least two important types of plant cover of the San Joaquin Valley and that it incorrectly partitions the ozone flux between transpiring and nontranspiring components of the surface at the third site. Consequently, the model either overpredicts or inaccurately represents the observed deposition velocities. Other results indicate that the presence of dew does not reduce the rate of ozone deposition, contradicting to model assumptions, and that model assumptions involving the dependency of stomata upon environmental temperature are unnecessary. The effects of measurement errors and biases, arising from the presence of the roughness sublayer and possible photochemical reactions, are also discussed. A simpler model for ozone surface deposition (at least for the San Joaquin Valley) is proposed and evaluated.

  13. Random and site-specific mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator provides insight into Fur structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; Benoit, Stéphane L; Besold, Angelique N; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J; Michel, Sarah L J; Maynard, Ernest L; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wild-type (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3) respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in manganese-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2 and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein.

  14. Random and Site-Specific Mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator Provides Insight into Fur Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Besold, Angelique N.; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J.; Michel, Sarah L.J.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wildtype (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T, and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3), respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in iron-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2, and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein. PMID:23710935

  15. Dopaminergic activities in the human striatum: rostrocaudal gradients of uptake sites and of D1 and D2 but not of D3 receptor binding or dopamine.

    PubMed

    Piggott, M A; Marshall, E F; Thomas, N; Lloyd, S; Court, J A; Jaros, E; Costa, D; Perry, R H; Perry, E K

    1999-05-01

    The human striatum, which receives dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (cell groups A8, A9 and A10), has structural and functional subdivisions both rostrocaudally and dorsoventrally. These relate to motor and non-motor origins of cortical projections and the specific areas of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area providing dopaminergic innervation. In the present study, we have evaluated the distribution of a number of dopaminergic parameters in the caudate, putamen and nucleus accumbens at separate coronal levels in a post mortem study in a series of elderly normal individuals aged 55-94 years, with analysis of the effect of post mortem variables. Dopamine D1 receptor density displayed a rostrocaudally declining gradient in the putamen but not in the caudate, such that at levels posterior to the anterior commissure, there was significantly lower D1 binding in the putamen compared to the caudate. The density of dopamine D2 receptors was similar in the putamen and caudate, increasing rostrocaudally. The density of dopamine uptake sites exhibited an increasing rostrocaudal gradient in the caudate, especially ventrally, but not in the putamen, where binding was more constant. The dopamine D3 receptor was concentrated in the ventral striatum, particularly the nucleus accumbens, although there was no evidence of a rostrocaudal gradient. With respect to striosome-matrix compartmentalization, there was no complete segregation, although D1 and D3 receptors were concentrated in striosomes, whereas D2 receptors and uptake sites showed higher density in the matrix. Levels of dopamine were similar in the caudate and putamen, and were significantly elevated at levels including the nucleus accumbens and the anterior commissure. Homovanillic acid and the metabolic index (homovanillic acid/dopamine ratio) were significantly higher in the putamen compared to the caudate, especially at levels from and caudal to the anterior

  16. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine destroy serotonin terminals in rat brain: quantification of neurodegeneration by measurement of (/sup 3/H)paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, G.; Yeh, S.Y.; O'Hearn, E.; Molliver, M.E.; Kuhar, M.J.; De Souza, E.B.

    1987-09-01

    This study examines the effects of repeated systemic administration (20 mg/kg s.c., twice daily for 4 days) of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) on levels of brain monoamines, their metabolites and on the density of monoamine uptake sites in various regions of rat brain. Marked reductions (30-60%) in the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were observed in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and midbrain at 2 weeks after a 4-day treatment regimen of MDMA or MDA; less consistent reductions in serotonin (5-HT) content were observed in these brain regions. In addition, both MDMA and MDA caused comparable and substantial reductions (50-75%) in the density of (/sup 3/H)paroxetine-labeled 5-HT uptake sites in all brain regions examined. In contrast, neither MDMA nor MDA caused any widespread or long-term changes in the content of the catecholaminergic markers (i.e., norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) or in the number of (/sup 3/H)mazindol-labeled norepinephrine or dopamine uptake sites in the brain regions examined. These data demonstrate that MDMA and MDA cause long-lasting neurotoxic effects with respect to both the functional and structural integrity of serotonergic neurons in brain. Furthermore, our measurement of reductions in the density of 5-HT uptake sites provides a means for quantification of the neurodegenerative effects of MDMA and MDA on presynaptic 5-HT terminals.

  17. Plant uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K from a coal ash and slag disposal site and control soil under field conditions: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Skoko, Božena; Marović, Gordana; Babić, Dinko; Šoštarić, Marko; Jukić, Mirela

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K by plants that grow on a coal ash and slag disposal site known for its higher content of naturally occurring radionuclides. Plant species that were sampled are common for the Mediterranean flora and can be divided as follows: grasses & herbs, shrubs and trees. To compare the activity concentrations and the resultant concentration ratios of the disposal site with those in natural conditions, we used control data specific for the research area, obtained for plants growing on untreated natural soil. Radionuclide activity concentrations were determined by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Media parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content) were also analysed. We confirmed significantly higher activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb in ash and slag compared to control soil. However, a significant increase in the radionuclide activity concentration in the disposal site's vegetation was observed only for (226)Ra. On the contrary, a significantly smaller activity concentration of (40)K in ash and slag had no impact on its activity concentration in plant samples. The calculated plant uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb is significantly smaller in comparison with the uptake at the control site, while it is vice versa for (40)K. No significant difference was observed between the disposal site and the control site's plant uptake of (232)Th. These results can be the foundation for further radioecological assessment of this disposal site but also, globally, they can contribute to a better understanding of nature and long-term management of such disposal sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake of strontium by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing over a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    A major concern of managers at low-level waste burial site facilities is that plant roots may translocate contaminants up to the soil surface. This study investigates the uptake of strontium ({sup 90}Sr), a biologically mobile element, by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), a deep-rooted shrub plant, growing in a former liquid waste disposal site (Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003[c]) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant--one plant, in particular, contained 3.35 x 10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup {minus}1} ash (9.05 x 10{sup 4} pCi g{sup {minus}1} ash) in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels (> 218 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} dry [5.90 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry]); this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace areas. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the LANL boundary was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  19. Site-specific conjugation of monodispersed DOTA-PEGn to a thiolated diabody reveals the effect of increasing peg size on kidney clearance and tumor uptake with improved 64-copper PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Crow, Desiree; Turatti, Fabio; Bading, James R; Anderson, Anne-Line; Poku, Erasmus; Yazaki, Paul J; Carmichael, Jenny; Leong, David; Wheatcroft, David; Wheatcroft, Michael P; Raubitschek, Andrew A; Hudson, Peter J; Colcher, David; Shively, John E

    2011-04-20

    Optimal PET imaging of tumors with radiolabeled engineered antibodies requires, among other parameters, matching blood clearance and tumor uptake with the half-life of the engineered antibody. Although diabodies have favorable molecular sizes (50 kDa) for rapid blood clearance (t(1/2) = 30-60 min) and are bivalent, thereby increasing tumor uptake, they exhibit substantial kidney uptake as their major route of clearance, which is especially evident when they are labeled with the PET isotope (64)Cu (t(1/2) = 12 h). To overcome this drawback, diabodies may be conjugated to PEG, a modification that increases the apparent molecular size of the diabody and reduces kidney uptake without adversely affecting tumor uptake or the tumor to blood ratio. We show here that site-specific attachment of monodispersed PEGn of increasing molecular size (n = 12, 24, and 48) can uniformly increase the apparent molecular size of the PEG-diabody conjugate, decrease kidney uptake, and increase tumor uptake, the latter due to the increased residence time of the conjugate in the blood. Since the monodispersed PEGs were preconjugated to the chelator DOTA, the conjugates were able to bind radiometals such as (111)In and (64)Cu that can be used for SPECT and PET imaging, respectively. To allow conjugation of the DOTA-PEG to the diabody, the DOTA-PEG incorporated a terminal cysteine conjugated to a vinyl sulfone moiety. In order to control the conjugation chemistry, we have engineered a surface thiolated diabody that incorporates two cysteines per monomer (four per diabody). The thiolated diabody was expressed and purified from bacterial fermentation and only needs to be reduced prior to conjugation to the DOTA-PEGn-Cys-VS. This novel imaging agent (a diabody with DOTA-PEG48-Cys-VS attached to introduced thiols) gave up to 80%ID/g of tumor uptake with a tumor to blood ratio (T/B) of 8 at 24 h when radiolabeled with (111)In and 37.9% ID/g of tumor uptake (T/B = 8) at 44 h when radiolabeled with

  20. Autoradiographic localization of the sites of uptake, cellular transport, and catabolism of low density lipoproteins in the liver of normal and estrogen-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yu-Sheng; Jones, Albert L.; Hradek, Gary T.; Windler, Eberhard E. T.; Havel, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic uptake and catabolism of low density lipoproteins are stimulated severalfold in rats treated with large amounts of 17α-ethinylestradiol. To determine the sites within the liver at which these processes occur, 125I-labeled human low density lipoproteins were injected intravenously into intact control and estradiol-treated rats or added to perfusates of their isolated livers. The livers were fixed by perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Distribution of autoradiographic silver grains was estimated qualitatively in light micrographs and quantitatively in electron micrographs. Many more silver grains were seen in livers from estradiol-treated than from control rats, but the processing of labeled low density lipoprotein was indistinguishable. Three minutes after intravenous injection or perfusion of livers, the grains were concentrated over the microvillous surface of parenchymal cells bordering the space of Disse. Many of these grains were within two half-distances from endocytic pits. Only 5-15% of the grains were seen over endothelial and Kupffer cells. Silver grains were also observed over vesicles beneath the plasma membrane whose size and shape suggested that they were derived from fusion of endocytic vesicles. By 15 min, grains were predominantly located in structures like multivesicular bodies in the region of the GERL (Golgi complex-endoplasmic reticulum-lysosomes) near the bile canaliculi. These bodies were packed with small vesicle-like structures and a few larger vesicles, the latter possessing a unit membrane. Between 15 and 30 min, when proteolysis of low density lipoproteins is known to begin, the initially clear matrix of the multivesicular body-like structures became dark and the structures frequently had a dense tail-like appendage. At the same time, silver grains began to appear over secondary lysosomes. These and other results indicate that the hepatic uptake of low density lipoproteins that is

  1. Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Australia: Increased Uptake of National Guidelines after Surveillance and Reporting and Impact on Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Bull, Ann L; Worth, Leon J; Spelman, Tim; Richards, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is the single most effective intervention to reduce risk of surgical site infections (SSIs); however, prescribing practices should be aligned with accepted and recommended surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) regimens to be effective. As part of a comprehensive surveillance network, SAP data are collated and analyzed for compliance with recommendations. Results are reported to hospitals for quality improvement purposes. In this study, statewide results were analyzed to ascertain changes over time and whether improved compliance was associated with a reduction in risk for SSI. A standardized tool for monitoring SAP and SSIs was used in Victorian healthcare facilities. For the current study, data submitted for the period 2003-2015 were analyzed. Compliance with national recommendations (Australian Therapeutic Guidelines-Antibiotic) was used as the reference standard for antibiotic selection, timing, and duration Results: A total of 144,075 surgical procedures were surveyed during the study period. During this period, the proportion of patients receiving antibiotic agents according to national guidelines increased. Across all surgical groups, the odds ratio (OR) for appropriate SAP choice increased by 13%/year. Greatest improvement was seen for colorectal procedures (19%/year), with the smallest change observed for cholecystectomy and cardiac operations (9%/year). The OR for receiving an antibiotic agent at the recommended time increased by 12%/year and the odds of the antibiotic agent being discontinued within 24 hours by 27%/year. Non-compliance with a recommended SAP agent and timing was associated with an increased risk of SSI across all procedure groups (OR 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.43). Sustained improvements in prescribing practices for SAP have been demonstrated through a comprehensive surveillance and reporting system. Non-compliance with SAP guidelines is associated with an increased risk for SSI. Quality improvement

  2. Roles of uptake, biotransformation, and target site sensitivity in determining the differential toxicity of chlorpyrifos to second to fourth instar Chironomous riparius (Meigen)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Sandahl, J.F.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Early life stages of aquatic organisms tend to be more sensitive to various chemical contaminants than later life stages. This research attempted to identify the key biological factors that determined sensitivity differences among life stages of the aquatic insect Chironomous riparius. Specifically, second to fourth instar larvae were exposed in vivo to both low and high waterborne concentrations of chlorpyrifos to examine differences in accumulation rates, chlorpyrifos biotransformation, and overall sensitivity among instars. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays were performed with chlorpyrifos and the metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, to investigate potential target site sensitivity differences among instars. Earlier instars accumulated chlorpyrifos more rapidly than later instars. There were no major differences among instars in the biotransformation rates of chlorpyrifos to the more polar metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and chlorpyridinol (TCP). Homogenate AChE activities from second to fourth instar larvae were refractory to chlorpyrifos, even at high concentrations. In contrast, homogenate AChE activities were responsive in a dose-dependent manner to chlorpyrifos-oxon. In general, it appeared that chlorpyrifos sensitivity differences among second to fourth instar C. riparius were largely determined by differences in uptake rates. In terms of AChE depression, fourth instar homogenates were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon than earlier instars. However, basal AChE activity in fourth instar larvae was significantly higher than basal AChE activity in second to third instar larvae, which could potentially offset the apparent increased sensitivity to the oxon. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of {sup 11}C-Methionine PET Uptake With Site of Failure After Concurrent Temozolomide and Radiation for Primary Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Irwin H.; Piert, Morand; Gomez-Hassan, Diana; Junck, Larry; Rogers, Lisa; Hayman, James; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao Yue; Tsien, Christina

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether increased uptake on 11C-methionine-PET (MET-PET) imaging obtained before radiation therapy and temozolomide is associated with the site of subsequent failure in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: Patients with primary GBM were treated on a prospective trial with dose- escalated radiation and concurrent temozolomide. As part of the study, MET-PET was obtained before treatment but was not used for target volume definition. Using automated image registration, we assessed whether the area of increased MET-PET activity (PET gross target volume [GTV]) was fully encompassed within the high-dose region and compared the patterns of failure for those with and without adequate high-dose coverage of the PET-GTV. Results: Twenty-six patients were evaluated with a median follow-up of 15 months. Nineteen of 26 had appreciable (>1 cm{sup 3}) volumes of increased MET-PET activity before treatment. Five of 19 patients had PET-GTV that was not fully encompassed within the high-dose region, and all five patients had noncentral failures. Among the 14 patients with adequately covered PET-GTV, only two had noncentral treatment failures. Three of 14 patients had no evidence of recurrence more than 1 year after radiation therapy. Inadequate PET-GTV coverage was associated with increased risk of noncentral failures. (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Pretreatment MET-PET appears to identify areas at highest risk for recurrence for patients with GBM. It would be reasonable to test a strategy of incorporating MET-PET into radiation treatment planning, particularly for identifying areas for conformal boost.

  4. Coupling of electron transfer to proton uptake at the Q(B) site of the bacterial reaction center: a perspective from FTIR difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nabedryk, Eliane; Breton, Jacques

    2008-10-01

    FTIR difference spectroscopy provides a unique approach to study directly protonation/deprotonation events of carboxylic acids involved in the photochemical cycle of membrane proteins, such as the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC). In this work, we review the data obtained by light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy on the first electron transfer to the secondary quinone Q(B) in native RCs and a series of mutant RCs. We first examine the approach of isotope-edited FTIR spectroscopy to investigate the binding site of Q(B). This method provides highly specific IR vibrational fingerprints of the bonding interactions of the carbonyls of Q(B) and Q(B)(-) with the protein. The same isotope-edited IR fingerprints for the carbonyls of neutral Q(B) have been observed for native Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs and several mutant RCs at the Pro-L209, Ala-M260, or Glu-L212/Asp-L213 sites, for which X-ray crystallography has found the quinone in the proximal position. It is concluded that at room temperature Q(B) occupies a single binding site that fits well the description of the proximal site derived from X-ray crystallography and that the conformational gate limiting the rate of the first electron transfer from Q(A)(-)Q(B) to Q(A)Q(B)(-) cannot be the movement of Q(B) from its distal to proximal site. Possible alternative gating mechanisms are discussed. In a second part, we review the contribution of the various experimental measurements, theoretical calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations which have been actively conducted to propose which amino acid side chains near Q(B) could be proton donors/acceptors. Further, we show how FTIR spectroscopy of mutant RCs has directly allowed several carboxylic acids involved in proton uptake upon first electron transfer to Q(B) to be identified. Owing to the importance of a number of residues for high efficiency of coupled electron transfer reactions, the photoreduction of Q(B) was studied in a series of single mutant

  5. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  6. Circannual variations in the binding of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin2A receptors and of [3H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Spigset, O; Allard, P; Mjörndal, T

    1998-05-15

    Circannual variations occur in several serotonergic parameters, including platelet serotonin uptake and platelet [3H]imipramine binding. Binding of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) to platelet serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors and binding of [3H]paroxetine to platelet serotonin uptake sites were studied longitudinally for 1 year in 12 healthy volunteers. For [3H]LSD, the number of binding sites (Bmax) showed no significant seasonal variation (two-way analysis of variance), although Bmax was significantly higher during the months October through February than during the months April through August (32.6 vs. 29.8 fmol/mg protein; p = .015). For [3H]paroxetine, Bmax showed a significant seasonal variation (p = .003) with maximum in August (1322 fmol/mg protein) and minimum in February (1168 fmol/mg protein). The affinity constant (Kd) showed a significant seasonal variation for [3H]LSD binding (p = .046), but not for [3H]paroxetine binding. The seasonal fluctuations in [3H]LSD binding and in paroxetine binding tended to be inversely correlated for Bmax (r = -.70; p = .08) and were significantly negatively correlated for Kd (r = -.88; p = .009). The present study demonstrates a seasonal effect on platelet serotonin uptake site binding and indicates a possible seasonal effect on 5-HT2A receptor binding. The results imply that circannual fluctuations should be taken into account when these platelet serotonin markers are studied.

  7. Interactions of taurine and structurally related analogues with the GABAergic system and taurine binding sites of rabbit brain

    PubMed Central

    Frosini, Maria; Sesti, Casilde; Dragoni, Stefania; Valoti, Massimo; Palmi, Mitri; Dixon, Henry B F; Machetti, Fabrizio; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find taurinergic compounds that do not interact with brain GABA ergic systems. Washed synaptic membranes (SM) from whole rabbit brain were able to bind [3H]muscimol. Saturation experiments of the binding of [3H]GABA to GABAB receptors showed that SM possess two binding components; twice Triton X-100-treated SM contained 0.048 mmol endogenous taurine/kg protein and bound [3H]taurine in a saturable manner (Kd=249.0±6.3 nM and Bmax=3.4±1.0 pmol mg−1 prot). Among the 19 structural analogues of taurine, 6-aminomethyl-3-methyl-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (TAG), 2-aminoethylarsonic (AEA), 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic (ISE) and (±)cis-2-aminocyclohexane sulfonic acids (CAHS) displaced [3H]taurine binding (Ki=0.13, 0.13, 13.5 and 4.0 μM, respectively). These analogues did not interact with GABAA and GABAB receptors and did not affect taurine- and GABA-uptake systems and GABA-transaminase activity. 3-Aminopropanesulfonic acid (OMO), β-alanine, pyridine-3-sulfonic acid, N,N,N-trimethyltaurine (TMT), 2-(guanidino)ethanesulfonic acid (GES), ethanolamine-O-sulphate, N,N-dimethyltaurine (DMT), taurine and (±)piperidine-3-sulfonic acid (PSA) inhibited [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptors with different affinities (Ki=0.013, 7.9, 24.6, 47.5, 52.0, 91.0, 47.5, 118.1 and 166.3 μM, respectively). Taurine, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid, DMT, TMT and OMO inhibited the binding of [3H]GABA to GABAB receptors with Ki's in the μM range (0.8, 3.5, 4.4, 11.3 and 5.0, respectively). GES inhibited taurine uptake (IC50=3.72 μM) and PSA GABA transaminase activity (IC50=103.0 μM). In conclusion, AEA, TAG, ISE and CAHS fulfill the criteria for taurinergic agents. PMID:12684273

  8. Interactions of taurine and structurally related analogues with the GABAergic system and taurine binding sites of rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    Frosini, Maria; Sesti, Casilde; Dragoni, Stefania; Valoti, Massimo; Palmi, Mitri; Dixon, Henry B F; Machetti, Fabrizio; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2003-03-01

    1. The aim of this study was to find taurinergic compounds that do not interact with brain GABA ergic systems. 2. Washed synaptic membranes (SM) from whole rabbit brain were able to bind [(3)H]muscimol. Saturation experiments of the binding of [(3)H]GABA to GABA(B) receptors showed that SM possess two binding components; twice Triton X-100-treated SM contained 0.048 mmol endogenous taurine/kg protein and bound [(3)H]taurine in a saturable manner (K(d)=249.0+/-6.3 nM and B(max)=3.4+/-1.0 pmol mg(-1) prot). 3. Among the 19 structural analogues of taurine, 6-aminomethyl-3-methyl-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (TAG), 2-aminoethylarsonic (AEA), 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic (ISE) and (+/-)cis-2-aminocyclohexane sulfonic acids (CAHS) displaced [(3)H]taurine binding (K(i)=0.13, 0.13, 13.5 and 4.0 micro M, respectively). These analogues did not interact with GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and did not affect taurine- and GABA-uptake systems and GABA-transaminase activity. 4. 3-Aminopropanesulfonic acid (OMO), beta-alanine, pyridine-3-sulfonic acid, N,N,N-trimethyltaurine (TMT), 2-(guanidino)ethanesulfonic acid (GES), ethanolamine-O-sulphate, N,N-dimethyltaurine (DMT), taurine and (+/-)piperidine-3-sulfonic acid (PSA) inhibited [(3)H]muscimol binding to GABA(A) receptors with different affinities (K(i)=0.013, 7.9, 24.6, 47.5, 52.0, 91.0, 47.5, 118.1 and 166.3 micro M, respectively). Taurine, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid, DMT, TMT and OMO inhibited the binding of [(3)H]GABA to GABA(B) receptors with K(i)'s in the micro M range (0.8, 3.5, 4.4, 11.3 and 5.0, respectively). GES inhibited taurine uptake (IC(50)=3.72 micro M) and PSA GABA transaminase activity (IC(50)=103.0 micro M). 5. In conclusion, AEA, TAG, ISE and CAHS fulfill the criteria for taurinergic agents.

  9. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  10. Binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sigurdh, J; Spigset, O; Allard, P; Mjörndal, T; Hägglöf, B

    1999-11-01

    Possible age effects on binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites were studied in platelets from healthy children (11-12 years of age), adolescents (16-17 years of age) and adults. Significant overall age effects were found both for the number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), the affinity constant (K(d)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), B(max) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding (p < 0.001) and K(d) for [(3)H] paroxetine binding (p = 0.006). In general, there was a decrease in B(max) with increasing age, which predominantly occurred between the ages 11-12 years and 16-17 years for the 5-HT(2A) receptor, and after 16-17 years of age for the serotonin uptake site. These developmental changes might have an impact on the effect of treatment with serotonergic drugs in children and adolescents. When the platelet serotonin variables investigated are employed in studies in children or adolescents, age matching or, alternatively, introduction of age control in the statistical analysis should be performed.

  11. Areas of high 18F-FDG uptake on preradiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Calais, Jérémie; Thureau, Sébastien; Dubray, Bernard; Modzelewski, Romain; Thiberville, Luc; Gardin, Isabelle; Vera, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The high rates of failure in the radiotherapy target volume suggest that patients with stage II or III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should receive an increased total dose of radiotherapy. Areas of high (18)F-FDG uptake on preradiotherapy (18)F-FDG PET/CT have been reported to identify intratumor subvolumes at high risk of relapse after radiotherapy. We wanted to confirm these observations on a cohort of patients included in 3 sequential prospective studies. Our aim was to assess an appropriate threshold (percentage of maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax]) to delineate subvolumes on staging (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans assuming that a smaller target volume would facilitate isotoxic radiotherapy dose escalation. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable stage II or III NSCLC, treated with chemoradiation or with radiotherapy alone, were extracted from 3 prospective studies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT01261585, NCT01261598, and RECF0645). All patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT at initial staging, before radiotherapy, during radiotherapy, and during systematic follow-up in a single institution. All (18)F-FDG PET/CT acquisitions were coregistered on the initial scan. Various subvolumes in the initial acquisition (30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% SUVmax thresholds) and in the 3 subsequent acquisitions (40% and 90% SUVmax thresholds) were pasted on the initial scan and compared. Seventeen patients had a local relapse. The SUVmax measured during radiotherapy was significantly higher in locally relapsed tumors than in locally controlled tumors (mean, 6.8 vs. 4.6; P = 0.02). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT scans with 70%-90% SUVmax thresholds were in good agreement with the recurrent volume at a 40% SUVmax threshold (common volume/baseline volume, 0.60-0.80). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT scans with 30%-60% SUVmax thresholds were in good to excellent agreement with the core volume of the relapse (90% SUVmax threshold) (common volume

  12. Neuroactivity of detonation nanodiamonds: dose-dependent changes in transporter-mediated uptake and ambient level of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters in brain nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Galkin, Maxim; Borysov, Arsenii; Borisova, Tatiana

    2016-03-31

    Nanodiamonds are one of the most perspective nano-sized particles with superb physical and chemical properties, which are mainly composed of carbon sp(3) structures in the core with sp(2) and disorder/defect carbons on the surface. The research team recently demonstrated neuromodulatory properties of carbon nanodots with other than nanodiamonds hybridization types, i.e., sp(2) hybridized graphene islands and diamond-like sp(3) hybridized elements. In this study, neuroactive properties of uncoated nanodiamonds produced by detonation synthesis were assessed basing on their effects on transporter-mediated uptake and the ambient level of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was shown that nanodiamonds in a dose-dependent manner attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake and accumulation of L-[(14)C]glutamate and [(3)H]GABA by nerve terminals and increased the ambient level of these neurotransmitters. Also, nanodiamonds caused a weak reduction in acidification of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Therefore, despite different types of hybridization in nanodiamonds and carbon dots, they exhibit very similar effects on glutamate and GABA transport in nerve terminals and this common feature of both nanoparticles is presumably associated with their nanoscale size. Observed neuroactive properties of pure nanodiamonds can be used in neurotheranostics for simultaneous labeling/visualization of nerve terminals and modulation of key processes of glutamate- and GABAergic neurotransmission. In comparison with carbon dots, wider medical application involving hypo/hyperthermia, external magnetic fields, and radiolabel techniques can be perspective for nanodiamonds.

  13. D4 and D1 dopamine receptors modulate [3H] GABA release in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the rat.

    PubMed

    Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Hernández-Chan, Nancy; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco; Sierra, Arturo; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2009-12-01

    Neurons of the globus pallidus express dopamine D4 receptors that can modulate transmitter release by their axon terminals. Indeed, GABA release from pallidal terminals in the subthalamic nucleus and in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus is inhibited by activation of D4 receptors. Here we investigated whether GABA release by pallidal projections to the substantia nigra reticulate (SNr) is also modulated by D4 receptors. Dopamine-stimulated depolarization-induced GABA release in slices of the SNr; however, after selective blockade of D1 receptors, dopamine inhibited release. The selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 (IC(50) = 5.30 nM) mimicked the inhibition of release while the selective D4 antagonist L-745,870 blocked the inhibition. To identify the source of D1 and D4 modulated terminals, we unilaterally injected kainic acid in either the GP or the striatum. After lesions of the pallidum, the D4 induced inhibition of release was blocked while the D1 induced stimulation was still significant. Lesions of the striatum had the converse effects. We conclude that release of dopamine in the SNr enhances GABA release mainly through activation of D1 receptors in striatonigral projections and inhibits release mainly through activation of D4 receptors in pallidonigral projections. Because deficient D4 receptor signaling in globus pallidus terminals will lead to disinhibition of impulse traffic through the thalamus we speculate that the D4 abnormalities observed in ADHD patients may be important in the generation of the syndrome.

  14. "Pee-in-a-Pot": acceptability and uptake of on-site chlamydia screening in a student population in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Connell, Emer; Cormican, Martin; Brugha, Ruairi; Faherty, Colette; Balfe, Myles; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2010-11-11

    The aim of the study was to explore the acceptability and uptake of on-campus screening using a youth friendly approach in two Third Level higher education institutions (HEIs). This study is part of wider research exploring the optimal setting for chlamydia screening in Ireland. Male and female students were given the opportunity to take a free anonymous test for chlamydia during a one week programme of "pee-in-a-pot" days at two HEI campuses in the West of Ireland. The study was set up after extensive consultation with the two HEIs and advertised on the two campuses using a variety of media in the two weeks preceding the screening days. Screening involved the provision and distribution of testing packs at communal areas and in toilet facilities. In Ireland, chlamydia notifications are highest amongst 20-29 year olds and hence the screening criterion was aimed at 18-29 year olds. Urine samples were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Following the screening days, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with participants about their experiences of the event. Out of 1,249 test kits distributed in two HEIs, 592 specimens were collected giving a return rate of 47.5%. Tests excluded (54) were due to labelling errors or ineligibility of participants' age. Two thirds of those tested were females and the mean age was 21 years. Overall, 3.9% (21/538) of participants tested positive, 5% (17/336) among females and 2% (4/191) among males. Participant interviews identified factors which enhanced student participation such as anonymity, convenience, accessibility of testing, and the informal and non-medical approach to testing. Screening for chlamydia using on-campus "pee-in-a-pot" days is an acceptable strategy in this population. This model can detect and treat asymptomatic cases of chlamydia and avoid many of the barriers associated with testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in clinical settings.

  15. Integrating proximal and satellite optical data for the analysis of ecosystem carbon uptake and plant phenology at the European larch Specnet site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvagno, Marta; Gamon, John; Cremonese, Edoardo; Garrity, Steven; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Filippa, Gianluca; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Rossini, Micol

    2017-04-01

    Automated canopy-level optical sampling in tandem with ecosystem-atmosphere flux observations is continuously carried on at a variety of ecosystems through the Specnet network (http://specnet.info/). Specifically, 9 sites within US and Europe were selected since 2015, to investigate the use of novel NDVI and PRI low-cost sensors for the analysis of ecosystem functioning and phenology. Different plant functional types, such as grasslands, deciduous, and evergreen forests belong to the network, here we present specific data from the larch (Larix decidua Mill.) forest Italian site. Three automated NDVI and three automated PRI spectral reflectance sensors (Decagon Devices Inc.) were installed in 2015 on the top of the 20-meters eddy covariance tower, pointing toward the west, north, and east orientations. An additional system, composed by one NDVI and PRI system was installed to monitor the understory component. The objective of this analysis is the comparison between these in-situ inexpensive sensors, independent NDVI and PRI sensors (Skye Instruments) previously installed on the 20-meters tower and satellite-derived NDVI. Both MODIS and Sentinel NDVI data were used for the comparison. Moreover, the newly derived chlorophyll/carotenoid index (CCI, Gamon et al. 2016), computed as the normalized difference between the NDVI red band and PRI 532 nm band, was tested to estimate the seasonal pattern of daily Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) of the larch forest. Results showed that the seasonality of NDVI was comparable among in-situ sensors and satellite data, though orientation-specific differences were observed. Both NDVI and CCI tracked daily GPP, but with different sensitivity to its seasonality. Future analysis will be directed toward a comparison between this site-based results with the other sites within the Specnet network.

  16. An uptake of cationized ferritin by alveolar type I cells in airway-instilled goat lung: distribution of anionic sites on the epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Atwal, O S; Viel, L; Minhas, K J

    1990-07-01

    The present study has investigated ultrastructural localization of anionic sites on the luminal surface of the alveolar epithelium of goat lung by direct airway instillation of cationized ferritin (CF) in the cranial lobe of the right lung through a bronchoscope. The cationic probe decorated preferentially the luminal plasmalemmal vesicles and plasmalemma proper of alveolar type I cell. This indicated the presence of highly charged anionic microdomains at these binding sites. The ligand was internalized in the free plasmalemmal vesicles of alveolar type I cell within 2 min. Heavy decoration of vesicles at 5 min of perfusion indicated that the amount of CF internalization increased with its concentration in the alveoli. It is suggested that exposure of alveolar surface to several gases of ruminal-origin induces changes in the surface charge of luminal plasmalemma of alveolar type I cells. The significance of these anionic plasmalemmal sites is discussed in relation to the adjustment of osmotic pressure gradient across the alveolar-capillary membrane of the ruminant lung.

  17. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Watanabe, Yumiko; Masuya, Hayato; Shigeto, Arisa; Yui, Hiroshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.

  18. The maximum standardized uptake value of metastatic site in 18 F-FDG PET/CT predicts molecular subtypes and survival in metastatic breast cancer: An Izmir Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Cokmert, Suna; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Karapolat, Inanc; Demir, Lutfiye; Bayoglu, Vedat; Can, Alper; Akyol, Murat; Yilmaz, Yasar; Oktay Tarhan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between the 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluorodeoxyglucose maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of metastatic sites and molecular subtypes and survival in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) was performed in 176 MBC patients before any therapeutic intervention. The FDG uptakes of metastatic sites were evaluated using the SUVmax. Histopathological prognostic parameters, such as the tumor size, grade, lymph node involvement, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), HER2 status and Ki67 were determined from the primary breast tumor tissue. The SUVmax of the metastatic sites was assessed in relation to the molecular subtypes and survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between SUVmax measurements and overall survival (OS). The mean SUVmax of 176 tumors was 8.0. Among the subtypes 49 (28.8%) were luminal A, 51 (28.9%) luminal B, 35 (19.8%) HER2-overexpressing, and 41 (23.2%) triple- negative, and the corresponding means of SUVmax were 5.6, 7.4, 11.4, 11.0, respectively. A cut-off value of ≤8.4 yielded 80% sensitivity and 57.1% specificity with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.731 for predicting that a tumor was of the luminal A subtype. A cut-off value of SUVmax ≥10.05 yielded 62.9% sensitivity and 67.4% specificity with an AUC of 0.648 for predicting a HER2 overexpressing subtype. A cut-off value of SUVmax ≥9.25 yielded 61% sensitivity and 64.4% specificity with an AUC of 0.660 for predicting a triple-negative subtype. The SUVmax could not effectively differentiate patients with luminal B subtype. Cox regression analysis showed that in patients with MBC, a SUVmax ≤7.55 acted as an independent negative prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio/HR = 1.552). The SUVmax of metastatic

  19. Rates and Determinants of Uptake and Use of an Internet Physical Activity and Weight Management Program in Office and Manufacturing Work Sites in England: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurling, Robert; Bataveljic, Ogi; Fairley, Bruce W; Hurst, Tina L; Murray, Peter; Rennie, Kirsten L; Tomkins, Chris E; Finn, Anne; Cobain, Mark R; Pearson, Dympna A; Foreyt, John P

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based physical activity (PA) and weight management programs have the potential to improve employees’ health in large occupational health settings. To be successful, the program must engage a wide range of employees, especially those at risk of weight gain or ill health. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the use and nonuse (user attrition) of a Web-based and monitoring device–based PA and weight management program in a range of employees and to determine if engagement with the program was related to the employees’ baseline characteristics or measured outcomes. Methods Longitudinal observational study of a cohort of employees having access to the MiLife Web-based automated behavior change system. Employees were recruited from manufacturing and office sites in the North West and the South of England. Baseline health data were collected, and participants were given devices to monitor their weight and PA via data upload to the website. Website use, PA, and weight data were collected throughout the 12-week program. Results Overall, 12% of employees at the four sites (265/2302) agreed to participate in the program, with 130 men (49%) and 135 women (51%), and of these, 233 went on to start the program. During the program, the dropout rate was 5% (11/233). Of the remaining 222 Web program users, 173 (78%) were using the program at the end of the 12 weeks, with 69% (153/222) continuing after this period. Engagement with the program varied by site but was not significantly different between the office and factory sites. During the first 2 weeks, participants used the website, on average, 6 times per week, suggesting an initial learning period after which the frequency of website log-in was typically 2 visits per week and 7 minutes per visit. Employees who uploaded weight data had a significant reduction in weight (−2.6 kg, SD 3.2, P< .001). The reduction in weight was largest for employees using the program’s weight loss mode (−3

  20. Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid and its binding sites in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, J.M.; Bergstrom, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase were identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The concentration of GABA in C. elegans is approximately 10-fold lower than the concentration of GABA in rat brain. Glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, the GABA anabolic and catabolic enzymes, are also present in C. elegans. Crude membrane fractions were prepared from C. elegans and used to study specific (/sup 3/H) GABA binding sites. GABA binds to C. elegans membranes with high affinity and low capacity. Muscimol is a competitive inhibitor of specific GABA binding with a K/sub I/ value of 120 nM. None of the other GABA agonists or antagonists inhibited greater than 40% of the specific GABA binding at concentrations up to 10/sup -4/M. Thirteen spider venoms were examined as possible GABA agonists or antagonists, the venom from Calilena agelenidae inhibits specific GABA binding with a K/sub I/ value of 6 nl/ml. These results suggest that GABA has a physiological role as a neurotransmitter in C. elegans.

  1. Application of ground bone and sheep manure on soils from two contaminated sites and influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, M. M.; Pacheco, A.; Santos, E.; Magalhães, M. C. F.

    2012-04-01

    Past radium and uranium exploitation and processing in Urgeiriça mine and radium processing in Barracão (centre-north of Portugal) led to soils and waters contamination. Most of the soils, located in rural areas, are cultivated for vegetables, fruit trees, and/or pasturage, and the waters used for soils irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of organic amendments and hydroxiapatite to reduce the soil available fraction of Utotal and 226Ra in soils of two areas after four months of incubation. Influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation was also studied. Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during four months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Urgeiriça (Urg) and Barracão (Brc) soils containing large concentrations of Utotal (635 and 189 mg/kg, respectively), and 226Ra (2310 and 1770 Bq/kg, respectively) were used. The available fraction of these elements, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to: 90 and 20% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Urgeiriça soil, and 19 and 43% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Barracão soil. Fine ground bone (FB), sheep manure (OM), and vermicompost (V) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Control (soil) and treatments were made in triplicate: (T1) soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T2) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil; (T3) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T4) soil+168 g V/kg of soil. After incubation, soil subsamples were analysed for pH, electric conductivity (EC), and available fractions of Utotal and 226Ra. The remaining soils were used for oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivation. Soils had pH 5.15 (Urg) and 6.04 (Brc), and EC 57.3 µS/cm (Urg) and 36.3 µS/cm (Brc). After incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.82 (Urg) and 7.10 (Brc) in amended samples, and EC showed a large increase (15-19 times) when compared to the control. A decrease of the available

  2. Efficient and Selective Uptake of TcO4(-) by a Cationic Metal-Organic Framework Material with Open Ag(+) Sites.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Daopeng; Zhu, Lin; Xu, Chao; Xiao, Chengliang; Wang, Yanlong; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chen, Jing; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2017-03-21

    (99)Tc is one of the most problematic radioisotopes in used nuclear fuel owing to its combined features of high fission yield, long half-life, and high environmental mobility. There are only a handful of functional materials that can remove TcO4(-) anion from aqueous solution and identifying for new, stable materials with high anion-exchange capacities, fast kinetics, and good selectivity remains a challenge. We report here an 8-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cationic metal-organic framework material, SCU-100, which is assembled from a tetradentate neutral nitrogen-donor ligand and two-coordinate Ag(+) cations as potential open metal sites. The structure also contains a series of 1D channels filled with unbound nitrate anions. SCU-100 maintains its crystallinity in aqueous solution over a wide pH range from 1 to 13 and exhibits excellent β and γ radiation-resistance. Initial anion exchange studies show that SCU-100 is able to both quantitatively and rapidly remove TcO4(-) from water within 30 min. The exchange capacity for the surrogate ReO4(-) reaches up to 541 mg/g and the distribution coefficient Kd is up to 1.9 × 10(5) mL/g, which are significantly higher than all previously tested inorganic anion sorbent materials. More importantly, SCU-100 can selectively capture TcO4(-) in the presence of large excess of competitive anions (NO3(-), SO4(2-), CO3(2-), and PO4(3-)) and remove as much as 87% of TcO4(-) from the Hanford low-level waste melter off-gas scrubber simulant stream within 2 h. The sorption mechanism is well elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing that the sorbed ReO4(-) anion is able to selectively coordinate to the open Ag(+) sites forming Ag-O-Re bonds and a series of hydrogen bonds. This further leads to a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation from an 8-fold interpenetrated framework with disordered nitrate anions to a 4-fold interpenetrated framework with fully ordered ReO4(-) anions. This work represents a

  3. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  4. Binding of [3H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites and of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide to 5-HT2A receptors in platelets from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during gonadotropin releasing hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Bixo, M; Allard, P; Bäckström, T; Mjörndal, T; Nyberg, S; Spigset, O; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2001-08-01

    Changes in serotonergic parameters have been reported in psychiatric conditions such as depression but also in the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In addition, hormonal effects on serotonergic activity have been established. In the present study, binding of [3H]paroxetine to platelet serotonin uptake sites and binding of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) to platelet serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors were studied in patients with PMDD treated with a low dose of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (buserelin) or placebo and compared to controls. The PMDD patients were relieved of premenstrual symptoms like depression and irritability during buserelin treatment. The number of [3H]paroxetine binding sites (Bmax) were significantly higher in the follicular phase in untreated PMDD patients compared to controls. When treated with buserelin the difference disappeared. No differences in [3H]LSD binding between the three groups were shown. The present study demonstrated altered platelet [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics in women with PMDD compared to controls. Furthermore, [3H]paroxetine binding was affected by PMDD treatment with a low dose of buserelin. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in serotonergic transmission could be a trait in the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

  5. Factors influencing uptake of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization in site-dwelling Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) communities: a qualitative study of G&T parents' beliefs and experiences.

    PubMed

    Newton, P; Smith, D M

    2017-07-01

    Increasing immunization in the Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) community is a key priority for improving health outcomes in this community. This study aimed to explore G&T parents: (1) beliefs about childhood immunization; (2) beliefs about the risks of immunization and non-immunization; (3) perceived obstacles to, and facilitators of, immunization and (4) views on increasing immunization levels. A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted comprising of five focus groups with 16 site-dwelling G&T women with pre-school aged children. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Five main themes were identified: Lay understandings of causation and risk; Timing of immunization; Children being perceived as vulnerable; The fit between lifestyle and healthcare provision; The impact of living with a high burden of disease. Understanding of the risks and benefits of measles, mumps and rubella immunization did not differ significantly from the wider population or those promoted by the health service. The majority of barriers stemmed from living with the effects of long-standing health inequalities, which posed further barriers to accessing immunization, and shaped beliefs about immunization. Factors facilitating uptake occurred where access to immunization services was made flexible, e.g. immunization on traveller sites. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Shigeto, Arisa; Yui, Hiroshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this species’ ability to tolerate the sites’ severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations. PMID:28030648

  7. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Uptake and Metabolism in ’Aplysia dactylomela’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    9 Table III. Simultaneous Accumulation of C-GABA and H- Inulin .... 11 ii ABSTRACT Selected ganglia of Aplysia dactylomela were found...H- inulin were obtained from Amersham Searle Corporation (Arlington Heights, 3 Illinois), 2,3- H-GABA was obtained from New England Nuclear...were prepared by suspending the relyophilized labelled GABA in artificial seawater containing, in some cases, unlabelled GABA or H- inulin

  8. Copper uptake by the water hyacinth. [Eichornia crassipes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.A.; Hardy, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Factors affecting Cu/sup +2/ uptake by the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) were examined. Two phases of copper uptake were observed throughout the uptake range (1-1000 mg/1). An initial rapid uptake phase of 4 hours followed by a slower, near linear uptake phase extending past 48 hours was observed. Stirring the solution enhanced uptake, suggesting copper removal is partially diffusion limited. Variations in pH over the range of 3 to 10 did not significantly affect uptake. Increasing the root mass of the plant increased the amount of copper taken up. As solution volume was increased more copper was removed. The presence of complexing agents during the uptake phase reduced copper uptake. The inability of complexing agents to recover all copper initially removed by a plant suggests a migration to sites within the plant.

  9. Glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity and gamma-(/sup 3/H) aminobutyric acid accumulation within the same neurons in dissociated cell cultures of cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, E.A.; Oertel, W.H.; Bowers, L.M.; Weise, V.K.

    1983-02-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of high affinity (/sup 3/H)GABA accumulation as a marker for GABAergic neurons, murine cerebral cortical neurons were studied in dissociated cell culture. Cultures which had been incubated in (/sup 3/H)GABA were stained immunohistochemically for the GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, fixed with paraformaldehyde, and subsequently processed for radioautography. In mature cultures, there was an 84 to 94% correlation between the presence of the enzyme and (/sup 3/H)GABA uptake within the same cortical neurons. These data provide direct evidence that those neurons which synthesize GABA are the same neurons which are labeled by high affinity (/sup 3/H)GABA uptake.

  10. Excitant amino acid projections from rat amygdala and thalamus to nucleus accumbens

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, T.G.; Beart, P.M.

    1988-04-01

    High affinity uptake of D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate, (/sup 3/H)choline and (/sup 3/H)GABA was examined in synaptosomal-containing preparations of rat nucleus accumbens septi 7 to 10 days after unilateral or bilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions confined to the parataenial nucleus of the thalamus or the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Uptake of both D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate and (/sup 3/H)choline was significantly reduced (11% and 14% less than control, respectively) by unilateral lesion of the thalamus, whereas (/sup 3/H)GABA uptake was unaffected. Bilateral thalamic lesions significantly reduced D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate uptake (11% less than control) into homogenates of the nucleus accumbens, whilst (/sup 3/H)GABA uptake was unaltered. D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate uptake was significantly reduced (26% less than control) following unilateral lesion of the amygdala, whereas both (/sup 3/H)GABA and (/sup 3/H)choline uptake were unaffected. Bilateral amygdaloid lesions significantly increased D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate uptake (39% greater than control), whilst uptake of (/sup 3/H)GABA was not affected. The results implicate glutamate and/or aspartate as putative neurotransmitters in afferent projections from the basolateral amygdala and the parataenial thalamus to the nucleus accumbens. Thalamic afferents to the nucleus accumbens may also utilize acetylcholine as their transmitter.

  11. Saturable binding of /sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the sites linked to the GABA receptor and the interaction with gabaergic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Bymaster, F.P.; Squires, R.F.

    1984-02-27

    /sup 35/-S-t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (/sup 35/S-TBPS) binds in a concentration-saturable manner to specific sites on membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Using a filtration assay at 25/sup 0/C, in 250 mM NaCl, specific binding of /sup 35/S-TBPS constitutes about 84 to 94 percent of total binding, depending on radioligand concentrations. /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is optimal in the presence of NaCl or NaBr and substantially less in the presence of NaI or NaF. It is sensitive to the treatment with 0.05 percent Triton X-100 but not to repeated freezing and thawing, procedures which increase /sup 3/H-GABA binding. Pharmacological studies show that /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is strongly inhibited by GABA-A receptor agonists (e.g., GABA and muscimol) and by the noncompetitive antagonist, picrotoxin, but not the competitive antagonist, bicuculline. Compounds which enhance binding of radioactive GABA and benzodiazepines, such as the pyrazolopyridines, cartazolate and trazolate, and a diaryl-triazine, LY81067, are also potent inhibitors of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding, with LY81067 being the most effective. The effects of GABA, picrotoxin

  12. Measurement of binding potential of [C11]WIN 35,428 for dopamine re-uptake site in normal human brain: Comparison of graphical and non-linear least-squares analytic method

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoi, F.; Wong, D.F.; Marenco, S.

    1994-05-01

    (C11)WIN 35,428 was evaluated as a specific radioligand for the dopamine re-uptake site in brain by PET scanning. Twenty mCi of [C11]WIN 35,428 was administered IV to 8 normal volunteers (19-81 y.o.). Fifty dynamic PET scan images were acquired with blood sampling, for 90 min after [C11]WIN 35,428 injection. Four different kinetic modeling procedures were used to estimate the binding potential, k3/k4. The k3 and k4 parameters reflect the rate constants for binding to and dissociation from receptors, respectively. The first model is a three-compartment model which is a standard non-linear least-squares analysis with constraint of the k1/k2 ratio. This consists of a plasma, ligand free and a specifically bound compartment. The k1/k2 ratio was estimated with a two-compartment model using plasma and cerebellar data. The other three models are two-compartment models. This consists of a plasma and a brain (cerebellum or striatum) compartment. The second model is a two-compartment graphical method of Gjedde. The distribution volume of [C11]WIN in striatum and cerebellum was plotted as an intercept. The third model approach is the graphical method of Logan, which was a modification of the Gjedde approach. The distribution volume of [C11]WIN in striatum and cerebellum was plotted as a slope. The fourth model consisted of a direct fit a f cerebellum and striatum without plasma input. The mean value and standard deviation of k3/k4 in each model was 4.38 {plus_minus} 0.81, 3.93 {plus_minus} 0.98, 4.15 {plus_minus} 0.83, and 6.90 {plus_minus} 2.19, respectively. There is a significant difference between k3/k4 values of the constraint method and that of the last method. There is no significant difference between the k3/k4 values of the constraint method and the other two methods.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  14. Nutrient use and uptake in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Fox, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    We quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) content, use (nutrient amount for one growth year), retranslocation (nutrients recycled before foliage senescence), uptake (use minus retranslocation), volume production per unit of uptake and fertilizer-uptake efficiency (percent applied taken up) in a 2 x 2 (nutrient and water) factorial experiment replicated four times in an 8-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand growing on a nutrient-poor sandy soil in Scotland County, North Carolina, USA. Over 14 years, we applied 1140, 168, 393, 168 and 146 kg ha(-1) of elemental N, P, K, Ca and Mg fertilizer, respectively, and an average of 710 mm year(-1) of irrigation. All plots received complete vegetation control. Fertilization about doubled tissue N, P, K and Mg contents at age 21, whereas irrigation resulted in smaller increases in nutrient contents. Maximum annual uptake was 101, 9.3, 44, 37 and 13 kg ha(-1) year(-1) and volume production per unit of nutrient uptake was 0.35, 3.5, 0.66, 1.1 and 3.1 m(3) kg(-1), for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. Irrigated plots had greater volume production per unit of N, P, K and Mg uptake than control plots, likely because irrigation allowed photosynthesis to continue during dry periods. Fertilized plus irrigated plots had less volume production per unit of these elements than the fertilized plots either because nutrient uptake exceeded the requirement for optimum growth or because available water (rainfall plus irrigation) was insufficient for the leaf area achieved with fertilization. At age 19, fertilizer-uptake efficiencies for N, P, K, Ca and Mg were 53, 24, 62, 57 and 39%, respectively, and increased with irrigation to 68, 36, 78, 116 and 55%, respectively. The scale of fertilizer uptake was likely a result of low native site nutrient availability, study longevity, measurement of all tissue components on site, a comprehensive assessment of coarse roots, and the 3-m rooting

  15. Uptake of Metal Ions by Rhizopus arrhizus Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, J. M.; Cooper, D. G.; Neufeld, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was found to absorb a variety of different metal cations and anions but did not absorb alkali metal ions. The amount of uptake of the cations was directly related to ionic radii of La3+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, UO22+, and Ag+. The uptake of all the cations is consistent with absorption of the metals by sites in the biomass containing phosphate, carboxylate, and other functional groups. The uptake of the molybdate and vanadate anions was strongly pH dependent, and it is proposed that the uptake mechanism involves electrostatic attraction to positively charged functional groups. PMID:16346521

  16. Increased serotonin platelet uptake after tianeptine administration in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Chamba, G; Lemoine, P; Flachaire, E; Ferry, N; Quincy, C; Sassard, J; Ferber, C; Mocaër, E; Kamoun, A; Renaud, B

    1991-09-15

    Tianeptine is a new antidepressant drug reported to enhance serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) uptake in rat brain. The effect of tianeptine on 5-HT platelet uptake was studied in 10 depressed patients treated for 28 days. Tianeptine increases Vmax of 5-HT platelet uptake during treatment without inducing any change in Km. As early as 2 hr after the first administration, Vmax increased significantly (+23%, alpha = 0.01). Although of a lesser magnitude, 5-HT platelet uptake remains increased after chronic administration (+14% on day 10 and +13% on day 28). This suggests that tianeptine affects 5-HT platelet uptake sites, either directly or via an action on modulators of 5-HT uptake. These results, in contrast with the action of other tricyclic antidepressants, confirm the original action of tianeptine on 5-HT platelet metabolism.

  17. Neurochemical evidence for a neuronal GABAergic system in the rat sympathetic superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    González Burgos, G; Rosenstein, R E; Cardinali, D P

    1992-01-01

    Some characteristics of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake and release in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) were investigated. Kinetic analysis of GABA uptake indicated the existence of both high affinity (Km = 18.6 microM) and low affinity (Km = 485 microM) uptake systems. 3H-GABA influx was decreased by inhibitors of glial (beta-alanine), neuronal (2,4-diaminobutyric acid, DABA), or glial and neuronal GABA uptake (nipecotic acid). 3H-GABA efflux was elicited by K+ depolarization in a dose-dependent manner, an effect unaltered by severing the preganglionic nerve fibers. Superfusion of SCG explants with DABA or beta-alanine resulted in increased 3H-GABA efflux from tissue, an effect amplified by the absence of calcium in the superfusion medium. 3H-GABA loading in the presence of DABA, but not in the presence of beta-alanine, resulted in abolition of K(+)-elicited 3H release. At 20 mM, but not at 50 mM K+, the release of 3H-GABA was inhibited by replacing Ca2+ by Mg2+ and by adding EGTA, or by incubating SCG in the presence of the Ca(2+)-channel blocker verapamil. Veratrine evoked GABA release in Ca(2+)-independent manner. None of several putative SCG autacoids or agonists (nicotine, muscarine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, baclofen, muscimol) significantly modified GABA release.

  18. Methane uptake in forest and agro-ecosystems in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S. K.; Livesley, S. J.; Fest, B. J.; Weston, C. J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2007-12-01

    Oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria in aerated soils does provide a considerable global sink for greenhouse gases (-30 Tg CH4/yr). The form of land-use can have a significant impact on the methane uptake capacity of a soil. We investigated the sink strength for methane uptake of forest ecosystems and agro- ecosystems in Australia using automated measurement systems and manual chamber methods. Our results demonstrate large differences in the methane uptake capacity of Australian soils. Data from Western Australia showed that CH4 uptake rates increased with stand age of plantations and were greatest in an undisturbed native forest and lowest in an improved pasture. Measurements in differently aged forest ecosystems indicated that sites with the most recent fire disturbance had the lowest methane uptake rates. Generally, native forest ecosystems showed the greatest methane uptake rates (up to 130 kg CO2-e ha yr). Plantations (eucalyptus/pine) showed significantly lower methane uptake rates (around 15 kg CO2-e ha yr). Grazed pastures in Australia had the lowest uptake rates (6 kg CO2-e ha yr) and were occasional methane sources. The methane uptake rates of soils were only marginally influenced by environmental parameters over the course of a year. Between sites the methane uptake rates were not related to soil parameters such as soil bulk density. Experiments with excavated soil cores demonstrated that diffusivity of methane through the upper soil layer was the rate limiting step. Our results indicate that the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria and substrate diffusivity are the most important factor influencing methane uptake rates in soils. Disturbance events such as change of land-use or vegetation structure can have significant impacts on the capacity of soils to take up methane.

  19. Observations of N2O5 and ClNO2 at a polluted urban surface site in North China: High N2O5 uptake coefficients and low ClNO2 product yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Hao; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Liwei; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Weihao; Tham, Yee Jun; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-05-01

    Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and its heterogeneous uptake product, nitryl chloride (ClNO2), play important roles in the nocturnal boundary layer chemistry. To understand the abundances and chemistry of N2O5 and ClNO2 in the polluted urban atmosphere in North China, field measurements were conducted by deploying a chemical ionization mass spectrometer in urban Ji'nan in September 2014. The observed surface N2O5 concentrations were relatively low, with an average nocturnal value of 22 pptv, although the source of NO3 was rather strong, i.e., the NO2 and O3 were at very high levels. The N2O5 concentration peaked in the early evening, which was associated with thermal power plant plumes and residual O3. Nocturnal N2O5 was lost very rapidly, mainly through heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surfaces. The estimated N2O5 uptake coefficient was in the range of 0.042-0.092, among the highest values obtained from ground based field measurements. The fast heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 on high loadings of aerosols generated relatively high levels of ClNO2, with an average nocturnal concentration of 132 pptv. Despite the rich chloride content in aerosols, the ClNO2 product yield was low, 0.014 and 0.082 in two nighttime cases, much lower than the calculated values from the experiment-derived parameterization. The suppressed chlorine activation in polluted urban atmospheres was possibly associated with the reduced hygroscopicity, solubility, and activity of chloride in complex ambient aerosols.

  20. Magnesium Uptake by Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, J. E.; Gilbert, W. A.

    1969-01-01

    Magnesium contents of soybean (Glycine max) roots increase and the K and Ca contents decrease with increased MgCl2 concentrations in ambient solutions. The Mg uptake is inhibited when both Ca and K are present in the solution, but not by K or Ca alone. Chloride uptake, which is very low from the MgCl2 solution, is greatly enhanced by the presence of K. The selectivity against Mg imparted by K + Ca appears to be at an external barrier for cation uptake as shown by its dependence on the presence of Ca in the external solution. The Ca content of roots is influenced only slightly by changes in external Ca concentrations from 10−4 to 10−2m, but that of shoots is greatly enhanced as the Ca concentration is increased or the K concentration is decreased. These effects on Ca contents are explained as arising from transport to the shoot without involvement of vacuoles of root cells. PMID:16657186

  1. Saturable binding of /sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the sites linked to the GABA receptor and the interaction with gabaergic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Bymaster, F.P.; Squires, R.F.

    1984-02-27

    /sup 35/S-t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (/sup 35/S-TBPS) binds in a concentration-saturable manner to specific sites on membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Using a filtration assay at 25/sup 0/C, in 250 mM NaCl, specific binding of /sup 35/S-TBPS constitutes about 84 to 94 percent of total binding, depending on radioligand concentrations. /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is optimal in the presence of NaCl or NaBr and substantially less in the presence of NaI or NaF. It is sensitive to the treatment with 0.05 percent Triton X-100 but not to repeated freezing and thawing, procedures which increase /sup 3/H-GABA binding. Pharmacological studies show that /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is strongly inhibited by GABA-A receptor agonists (e.g., GABA and muscimol) and by the noncompetitive antagonist, picrotoxin, but not the competitive antagonist, bicuculline. Compounds which enhance binding of radioactive GABA and benzodiazepines, such as the pyrazolopyridines, cartazolate and tracazolate, and a diaryltriazine, LY81067, are also potent inhibitors of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding, with LY81067 being the most effective. The effects of GABA, picrotoxin and LY81067 on the saturable binding of /sup 35/S-TBPS in cortical membranes are compared. The present findings are consistent with the interpretation that /sup 35/S-TBPS bind at or near the picrotoxin-sensitive anion recognition sites of the GABA/benzodiazepine/picrotoxin receptor complex.

  2. Understanding uptake of continuous quality improvement in Indigenous primary health care: lessons from a multi-site case study of the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experimentation with continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes is well underway in Indigenous Australian primary health care. To date, little research into how health organizations take up, support, and embed these complex innovations is available on which services can draw to inform implementation. In this paper, we examine the practices and processes in the policy and organisational contexts, and aim to explore the ways in which they interact to support and/or hinder services' participation in a large scale Indigenous primary health care CQI program. Methods We took a theory-driven approach, drawing on literature on the theory and effectiveness of CQI systems and the Greenhalgh diffusion of innovation framework. Data included routinely collected regional and service profile data; uptake of tools and progress through the first CQI cycle, and data collected quarterly from hub coordinators on their perceptions of barriers and enablers. A total of 48 interviews were also conducted with key people involved in the development, dissemination, and implementation of the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease (ABCD) project. We compiled the various data, conducted thematic analyses, and developed an in-depth narrative account of the processes of uptake and diffusion into services. Results Uptake of CQI was a complex and messy process that happened in fits and starts, was often characterised by conflicts and tensions, and was iterative, reactive, and transformational. Despite initial enthusiasm, the mixed successes during the first cycle were associated with the interaction of features of the environment, the service, the quality improvement process, and the stakeholders, which operated to produce a set of circumstances that either inhibited or enabled the process of change. Organisations had different levels of capacity to mobilize resources that could shift the balance toward supporting implementation. Different forms of leadership and organisational

  3. A mechanism for iron uptake by transferrin.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, R; El Hage Chahine, J M

    1996-03-15

    Iron uptake by transferrin from iron nitrilotriacetate (FeNAc3) in the presence of bicarbonate has been investigated in the pH range 6.5-8. Apotransferrin, in interaction with bicarbonate, extracts iron from FeNAc3, without the formation of an intermediate protein-iron-ligand mixed complex (iron-exchange-equilibrium constant, K1=1 +/- 0.05; direct second-order-rate constant, k1=8.0x10(4) +/- 0.5x10(4)M(-1)s(-1)., reverse second-order-rate constant, k-1=7.5x10(4) +/- 0.5x10(4)M(-1)s(-1). The newly formed iron-protein complex loses a single proton (proton-dissociation constant, Ka=16 +/- 1.5nM) and then undergoes a modification of its conformation followed by loss of two or three protons (first-order-rate constant, K2=2.80 +/- 0.10s-1). This includes a new modification in the conformation (first-order-rate constant, K2=6.2x10(2) +/- 0.3x10(-2)s(-1). This second modification in conformation controls the rate of iron uptake by the N-site of the protein and is followed by loss of one proton (K3a=6.80 nM). Finally, the holoprotein or the monoferric transferrin in its final equilibrated state is produced by a third modification in the conformation that occurs after approximately 3000 s. Iron uptake by the N-site does not occur when the apotransferrin interacts with bicarbonate. Nevertheless, it occurs with the monoferric transferrin, in which iron is bound to the C-site, in its final state of equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of iron uptake by the C-site of apotransferrin. These modifications in the conformation of the protein occur after iron uptake by the C-site and may be important for the recognition of the protein by its receptor prior to iron delivery by endocytosis.

  4. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident.

  5. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl )

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  6. Characterization of [3H]thiocolchicoside binding sites in rat spinal cord and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Balduini, W; Cimino, M; Depoortere, H; Cattabeni, F

    1999-07-02

    Thiocolchicoside, a semi-synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring compound colchicoside with a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle, has been found to displace both [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([3H]GABA) and [3H]strychnine binding, suggesting an interaction with both GABA and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In order to gain further insight into the interaction of thiocolchicoside with these receptors, the binding of [3H]thiocolchicoside in rat spinal cord-brainstem and cortical synaptic membranes was characterized. [3H]Thiocolchicoside binding was saturable in both tissues examined. In spinal cord-brainstem membranes, we found a K(D) of 254 +/- 47 nM and a Bmax of 2.39 +/- 0.36 pmol/mg protein, whereas in cortical membranes, a K(D) of 176 nM and a Bmax of 4.20 pmol/mg protein was observed. A similar K(D) value was found in kinetic experiments performed in spinal cord-brainstem membranes. Heterologous displacement experiments showed that GABA and strychnine displaced the binding in a dose-dependent manner, whereas glycine was ineffective. [3H]Thiocolchicoside binding was also displaced by several GABA(A) receptor agonists and antagonists, but not by baclofen, flunitrazepam, guvacine, picrotoxin or by other drugs unrelated to GABA transmission. In spinal cord-brainstem, and to a lower extent, in cortical membranes, GABA and its analogs were not able to completely displace [3H]thiocolchicoside specific binding indicating that, besides GABA(A) receptors, thiocolchicoside can bind to another unidentified site. Unlabelled thiocolchicoside, however, completely displaced [3H]muscimol binding both in cortical and in spinal cord-brainstem synaptic membranes with an IC50 in the low microM range. Neurosteroids were found to modulate the binding in cortical but not in spinal cord-brainstem synaptic membranes. We conclude that [3H]thiocolchicoside binding shows a pharmacological profile indicating an interaction with the GABA(A) receptor. The different affinities

  7. Spermidine Uptake by Mitochondria of Helianthus tuberosus.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, R; Antognoni, F; Bagni, N; Zannoni, D

    1990-03-01

    In the present work evidence is provided that spermidine, a polyamine largely present in plant tissues, may be transported, at physiological concentrations, into the matrix space of mitochondria isolated from tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1 (Jerusalem artichoke). It is concluded that the movement of spermidine strictly depends on membrane potential, since it is drastically blocked by valinomycin and only slightly sensitive to nigericin. Mg(2+) and K(+) inhibit the transport of spermidine in line with the general concept that these cations compete for the same binding sites on the mitochondrial membrane. In contrast to previous data on mammalian mitochondria, spermidine uptake by plant mitochondria does not depend on the presence of inorganic phosphate. This latter result, along with evidence that Ca(2+) does not affect accumulation of spermidine, indicates that the control of the polyamine uptake mechanism in plant mitochondria is distinct from that of mammalian systems.

  8. Uptake of radium-226 from uranium mill tailing by C-3 and C-4 plants and implications for transport of radium-226 and radon-222 into the disposal-site environment

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Radium-226 entry into plants grown on uranium mill tailings at pH 6.5 appears to be governed primarily by movement of tailings solution into the plant. The lower transpiration ratios of C-4 photosynthetic plants as compared to C-3 plants result in lower tissue concentrations of radium-225. In each case, the distribution of radium-226 within the plants studied: corn (C-4), dwarf sunflower (C-3), tall fescue grass (C-3), and four species of Panicum (two C-3 and two C-4) exhibited an acropetal gradient, decreasing from the roots where the concentrations are relatively high to the apex of the plant. Tissue concentrations of Ra-226 decreased over time, attributable to increases in biomass while total Ra-226 levels remain constant. Release of radon from vegetated tailings was found to be directly related to the total leaf area of the plant following introduction into the plant of tailings solution. Thus, the plant pathway is shown to be an important mechanism for the transport of radium-226 and radon-222 from mill tailings into the environment. Current tailings disposal site reclamation efforts should consider the effects of the photosynthetic nature of the vegetation species and its total leaf area to reduce the potential for introduction of these elements into the site environment.

  9. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  10. Numerical model for the uptake of groundwater contaminants by phreatophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Widdowson, M.A.; El-Sayed, A.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional solute transport models do not adequately account for the effects of phreatophytic plant systems on contaminant concentrations in shallow groundwater systems. A numerical model was developed and tested to simulate threedimensional reactive solute transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. Advective-dispersive transport is coupled to biodegradation, sorption, and plantbased attenuation processes including plant uptake and sorption by plant roots. The latter effects are a function of the physical-chemical properties of the individual solutes and plant species. Models for plant uptake were tested and evaluated using the experimental data collected at a field site comprised of hybrid poplar trees. A non-linear equilibrium isotherm model best represented site conditions.

  11. Vanadium Uptake by Plants

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ross M.

    1973-01-01

    The kinetics of vanadium absorption by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Eire) roots were investigated with respect to ionic species of V in solution, time and concentration dependence, Ca sensitivity, and interaction with various anions, cations, and pH levels. The role of metabolism in V absorption was also studied using anaerobic treatment (N2 gas) and chemical inhibitors (NaN3, KCN, or 2,4-dinitrophenol). Approximately one-third of the labeled V initially taken up by excised roots was desorbed to a constant level after 45 min in unlabeled V solutions. The rate of absorption of labeled V from 5 μm NH4VO3 solutions containing 0.5 mm CaSO4 was constant for at least 3 hours. Omission of Ca resulted in a 72% reduction in V uptake when compared to controls with 0.5 mm CaSO4. The rate of uptake of V was highest at pH 4 but dropped to a very low level at pH 10. It was relatively constant between the pH levels of 5 and 8 at which the VO3− ion is the predominant ionic species in solution. The rate of absorption of V was followed as a function of concentrations from 0.5 to 100 μm NH4VO3. It was found to be a linear function of concentration and did not follow saturation kinetics. Absorption experiments carried out with labeled V from either NaVO3 or NH4VO3 sources gave similar results. No anion studied (i.e. HPO42−, HAsO42−, MoO42−, SeO42−, SeO32−, CrO42−, BO33−, No3−, and Cl−) interfered appreciably (i.e. less than 30% inhibition) with the absorption of labeled V. Anaerobic treatment of absorption solution with N2 gas did not inhibit V absorption by excised roots. The results obtained using chemical inhibitors were not consistent. It was concluded that V is not actively absorbed by excised barley roots. PMID:16658421

  12. The Helicobacter pylori HpyAXII restriction–modification system limits exogenous DNA uptake by targeting GTAC sites but shows asymmetric conservation of the DNA methyltransferase and restriction endonuclease components

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Olivier; Salama, Nina R.

    2008-01-01

    The naturally competent organism Helicobacter pylori encodes a large number of restriction–modification (R–M) systems that consist of a restriction endonuclease and a DNA methyltransferase. R–M systems are not only believed to limit DNA exchange among bacteria but may also have other cellular functions. We report a previously uncharacterized H. pylori type II R–M system, M.HpyAXII/R.HpyAXII. We show that this system targets GTAC sites, which are rare in the H. pylori chromosome but numerous in ribosomal RNA genes. As predicted, this type II R–M system showed attributes of a selfish element. Deletion of the methyltransferase M.HpyAXII is lethal when associated with an active endonuclease R.HpyAXII unless compensated by adaptive mutation or gene amplification. R.HpyAXII effectively restricted both unmethylated plasmid and chromosomal DNA during natural transformation and was predicted to belong to the novel ‘half pipe’ structural family of endonucleases. Analysis of a panel of clinical isolates revealed that R.HpyAXII was functional in a small number of H. pylori strains (18.9%, n = 37), whereas the activity of M.HpyAXII was highly conserved (92%, n = 50), suggesting that GTAC methylation confers a selective advantage to H. pylori. However, M.HpyAXII activity did not enhance H. pylori fitness during stomach colonization of a mouse infection model. PMID:18978016

  13. Nickel uptake in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.; Mallick, S.; Maier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    Free-living Bradyrhizobium japonicum grown heterotrophically with 1 ..mu..M /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ accumulated label. Strain SR470, a Hup/sup c/ mutant, accumulated almost 10-fold more /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ on a per-cell basis than did strain SR, the wild type. Nongrowing cells were also able to accumulate nickel over a 2-h period, with the Hup/sup c/ mutant strain SR470 again accumulating significantly more /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ than strain SR. These results suggest that this mutant is constitutive for nickel uptake as well as for hydrogenase expression. The uptake process was relatively specific for nickel; only Cu/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ (10 ..mu..M) were found to appreciably inhibit the uptake of 1 ..mu..M Ni, while a 10-fold excess of Mg/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, or Mn/sup 2 +/ did not affect Ni/sup 2 +/ uptake. The lack of inhibition by Mg/sup 2 +/ indicates that nickel is not transported by a magnesium uptake system. Nickel uptake was also inhibited by cold and slightly by the ionophores nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The cytochrome c oxidase inhibitors azide, cyanide, and hydroxylamine did not inhibit Ni/sup 2 +/ uptake, even at concentrations (of cyanide and hydroxylamine) that inhibited O/sub 2/ uptake. The addition of oxidizable substrates such as succinate or gluconate did not increase nickel uptake, even though they increased respiratory activity. Nickel uptake showed a pH dependence with an optimum at 6.0. Most (approximately 85%) of the /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ taken up in 1 min by strain SR470 was not exchangeable with cold nickel.

  14. Iron Uptake by Plants from Microbial Siderophores 1

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ness, Eli; Hadar, Yitzhak; Chen, Yona; Shanzer, Abraham; Libman, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    The synthetically produced fluorescent siderophore NBD-desferrioxamine B (NBD-DFO), an analog of the natural siderophore ferrioxamine B, was used to study iron uptake by plants. Short-term (10-hour) 55Fe uptake rates by cotton (Gossypium spp.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants from the modified siderophore were similar to those of the natural one. In longer-term uptake experiments (3 weeks), both siderophore treatments resulted in similar leaf chlorophyll concentration and dry matter yield. These results suggest that the synthetic derivative acts similarly to the natural siderophore. The NBD-DFO is fluorescent only when unferrated and can thus be used as a probe to follow iron removal from the siderophore. Monitoring of the fluorescence increase in a nutrient solution containing Fe3+-NBD-DFO showed that iron uptake by plants occurs at the cell membrane. The rate of iron uptake was significantly lower in both plant species in the presence of antibiotic agent, thus providing evidence for iron uptake by rhizosphere microbes that otherwise could have been attributed to plant uptake. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that iron was taken up from the complex by cotton plants, and to a much lesser extent by maize plants. The active cotton root sites were located at the main and lateral root tips. Significant variations in the location and the intensity of the uptake were noticed under nonaxenic conditions, which suggested that rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in NBD-DFO-mediated iron uptake. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16669040

  15. NOTE: The specific uptake size index for quantifying radiopharmaceutical uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, John S.; Bolt, Livia; Stratford, Jennifer S.; Kemp, Paul M.

    2004-07-01

    Quantitative indices of radionuclide uptake in an object of interest provide a useful adjunct to qualitative interpretation in the diagnostic application of radionuclide imaging. This note describes a new measure of total uptake of an organ, the specific uptake size index (SUSI). It can either be related in absolute terms to the total activity injected or to the specific activity in a reference region. As it depends on the total activity in the object, the value obtained will not depend on the resolution of the imaging process, as is the case with some other similar quantitative indices. This has been demonstrated in an experiment using simulated images. The application of the index to quantification of dopamine receptor SPECT imaging and parathyroid thyroid subtraction planar scintigraphy is described. The index is considered to be of potential value in reducing variation in quantitative assessment of uptake in objects with applications in all areas of radionuclide imaging.

  16. Light dependence of selenium uptake by phytoplankton and implications for predicting selenium incorporation into food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, S.B.; Fisher, N.S.; Doblin, M.A.; Cutter, G.A.; Cutter, L.S.; Cole, B.

    2004-01-01

    The potentially toxic element selenium is first concentrated from solution to a large but highly variable degree by algae and bacteria before being passed on to consumers. The large loads of abiotic and detrital suspended particles often present in rivers and estuaries may obscure spatial and temporal patterns in Se concentrations at the base of the food web. We used radiotracers to estimate uptake of both selenite (Se(IV)) and C by intact plankton communities at two sites in the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta. Our goals were to determine (1) whether C and Se(IV) uptake were coupled, (2) the role of bacteria in Se(IV) uptake, and (3) the Se:C uptake ratio of newly produced organic material. Se(IV) uptake, like C uptake, was strongly related to irradiance. The shapes of both relationships were very similar except that at least 42-56% of Se(IV) uptake occurred in the dark, whereas C uptake in the dark was negligible. Of this dark Se(IV) uptake, 34-67% occurred in the 0.2-1.0-??m size fraction, indicating significant uptake by bacteria. In addition to dark uptake, total Se(IV) uptake consisted of a light-driven component that was in fixed proportion to C uptake. Our estimates of daily areal Se(IV):C uptake ratios agreed very well with particulate Se:C measured at a site dominated by phytoplankton biomass. Estimates of bacterial Se:C were 2.4-13 times higher than for the phytoplankton, suggesting that bacteriovores may be exposed to higher dietary Se concentrations than herbivores.

  17. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  18. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Karaçavuş, Seyhan; Kula, Mustafa; Cihan Karaca, Züleyha; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşad; Tutuş, Ahmet; Bayram, Fahri; Çoban, Ganime

    2012-01-01

    The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB) and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487397

  19. PSMA Uptake in Mediastinal Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ardies, Philip Junior; Gykiere, Pieterjan; Goethals, Lode; De Mey, Johan; De Geeter, Frank; Everaert, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface glycoprotein which is frequently overexpressed on prostate cancer cells. Ga-PSMA PET/CT plays an increasing role in prostate cancer management. However, growing evidence suggests increased PSMA uptake in a variety of other malignant tumor entities and in some benign lesions. This report describes PSMA uptake in numerous thoracic lymph nodes in a patient with known mediastinal sarcoidosis. Knowledge and recognition of these possibilities are important to avoid scan misinterpretation.

  20. Characterization of cadmium uptake by the water lily Nymphaea aurora.

    PubMed

    Schor-Fumbarov, Tamar; Keilin, Zvika; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2003-01-01

    This study characterizes cadmium (Cd) uptake by the waterlily Nymphaea aurora, (Nymphaeaceae) in two systems: a model hydroponic Cd solution and heavily polluted sludge from two sites in Israel. The uptake of Cd from hydroponic solution resulted in Cd storage in petioles and laminae of Nymphaea, as well as in the roots. The pH of the solution affected Cd solubility and availability, with pH 5.5 yielding maximum Cd content in the plant (140 mg Cd per g DW). Cd uptake was reduced by the addition of EDTA to the hydroponic growth medium, although EDTA enhanced heavy metal uptake by terrestrial plants. Nymphaea efficiently reduced the concentration of Cd in heavy metal polluted urban and industrial sludge and the amount of Cd uptake was enhanced by the addition of KCl to the sludge and by adjustment of the pH to 5.5. The inherent growth patterns of Nymphaea plants allowed Cd uptake by the shoot and root, and resulted in maximum contact between the various plant parts and the growth media. Thus, Nymphaea has potential as an optimal, highly effective phytoremediation tool for the removal of Cd from polluted waste sources.

  1. Uptake of {sup 64}Cu-oxine by marine phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Croot, P.L.; Karson, B.; Elteren, J.T. van; Kroon, J.J.

    1999-10-15

    Short-term uptake experiments using fie phytoplankton species (Synechococcus clone DC2, Amphidinium carterae, Chrysochromulina polylepis, Ditylum brightwelli, and Prorocentrum micans) demonstrated rapid uptake of the lipophilic complex {sup 64}Cu-oxine, presumably by diffusion of the complex across the plasma membrane. This passive uptake mechanism was extremely rapid and significantly faster than facilitated uptake by the free metal ion. Measured values of the observed permeability, P{sub obs}, ranged from 0.55 to 18.6 x 10{sup {minus}4} cm s{sup {minus}1}, showing only small differences between the various algal species. Removal rate constants, k{sup bio}, varied much more widely, 0.009--570 x 10{sup {minus}9} L cell{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus} 1}, between the algae, indicating the influence of surface area on the uptake kinetics. Maximum internal Cu levels were reached after approximately 2 h, showing that a major limiting factor in the uptake of Cu from Cu-oxine is the concentration of intracellular Cu binding sites.

  2. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. , Decatur, GA )

    1990-06-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

  3. Kinetics of platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake in headache patients.

    PubMed

    Hannah, P; Jarman, J; Glover, V; Sandler, M; Davies, P T; Clifford Rose, F

    1991-07-01

    Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake was measured in asymptomatic headache patients attending a specialist migraine clinic, and in hospital staff who did not suffer from regular or severe headache. Current levels of anxiety and depression were assessed in all subjects using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and their possible influence on the uptake kinetics taken into account during the analysis of results. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) was significantly raised in common migraine and tension headache compared with controls (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively), but not in classical migraine or cluster headache. The increase remained significant after adjusting for differences in age, sex, presence of anxiety or depression (HAD sub-scale score greater than or equal to 8), drug intake during the week before testing, time elapsed since last attack and time of assay (am or pm). No differences were observed between patients and controls in the maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) or platelet count, and previous reports of a reduction in Vmax in patients experiencing attack within 5 days prior to testing could not be confirmed. The cause and significance of an increased Km are not clear, but plasma factors acting as competitive inhibitors for the uptake site or an alteration in the configuration of the uptake site are possible explanations. If confirmed, the shared biochemical abnormality may suggest that common migraine and tension headache have a common pathogenesis.

  4. Nitrogen Uptake in Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, J.; VanBenthem, P.

    2013-12-01

    A plant's absorption of nitrogen can be encouraged by a variety of environmental factors, especially the application of fertilizers. As a common limiting factor in plant growth, not up taking enough nitrogen can be a result of an unhealthy plant. Moreover, as farmers seek out methods to increase growth of plants, fertilizers are used as a solution to the issue of nitrogen deficiency to incorporate additional nitrogen from chemical or organic sources, by not using the right fertilizer can greatly affect the plats. The point of this research project is to determine the effect of various fertilizers on the plant growth, and to correlate the measured nitrogen, water and chlorophyll content in spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were used because they are known to quickly uptake chemicals in the environment. The spinach plants were exposed to four different growing parameters, which are referred to as control, ammonium nitrate, MiracleGro , and organic. The spinach was originally placed in nitrogen deficient soil with only 2.2x10 4 weight percent (wt. %) nitrogen. The leaves in the control group were grown in this nitrogen deficient soil without any fertilizer added. Ammomium nitrate and MiracleGro were added to the spinach in the A and MG groups, respectively, and organic chicken stool was used for the O group. By using a spectral imaging system and flame combustion techniques, the chlorophyll content can be related to the nitrogen content in the spinach leaves. In these spinach leaves, nitrogen and chlorophyll content were measured, chlorophyll is a green pigment that plays a crucial role in producing nutrients for green plants. The lack of chlorophyll will allow the plant to become susceptible to diseases, so it is extremely important that the plants have a high content of chlorophyll. The role of nitrogen in chlorophyll is very important and helps in the creation of chlorophyll; therefore it is necessary that an appropriate amount of nitrogen is added for optimal growth

  5. Mechanisms of Ocean Heat Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuba, Oluwayemi

    An important parameter for the climate response to increased greenhouse gases or other radiative forcing is the speed at which heat anomalies propagate downward in the ocean. Ocean heat uptake occurs through passive advection/diffusion of surface heat anomalies and through the redistribution of existing temperature gradients due to circulation changes. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) weakens in a warming climate and this should slow the downward heat advection (compared to a case in which the circulation is unchanged). However, weakening AMOC also causes a deep warming through the redistributive effect, thus increasing the downward rate of heat propagation compared to unchanging circulation. Total heat uptake depends on the combined effect of these two mechanisms. Passive tracers in a perturbed CO2 quadrupling experiments are used to investigate the effect of passive advection and redistribution of temperature anomalies. A new passive tracer formulation is used to separate ocean heat uptake into contributions due to redistribution and passive advection-diffusion of surface heating during an ocean model experiment with abrupt increase in surface temperature. The spatial pattern and mechanisms of each component are examined. With further experiments, the effects of surface wind, salinity and temperature changes in changing circulation and the resulting effect on redistribution in the individual basins are isolated. Analysis of the passive advection and propagation path of the tracer show that the Southern ocean dominates heat uptake, largely through vertical and horizontal diffusion. Vertical diffusion transports the tracer across isopycnals down to about 1000m in 100 years in the Southern ocean. Advection is more important in the subtropical cells and in the Atlantic high latitudes, both with a short time scale of about 20 years. The shallow subtropical cells transport the tracer down to about 500m along isopycnal surfaces, below this vertical

  6. Inhibition of Water Uptake in Sugar Beet Roots by Ammonia 1

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Darrel M.; Haddock, Jay L.

    1968-01-01

    Ammonium sulfate, ammonium carbonate or ammonia gas inhibited water uptake in sugar beet roots whenever the pH was sufficiently high to cause the production of ammonia. When ammonia was removed by aeration, inhibition of the water uptake by roots was rapidly reversed. ATP at 0.2 mm appeared to either wholly or partially prevent the ammonia-induced inhibition of water uptake by roots. ATP may be involved in maintaining the structure of water pathways through the root. In roots lacking epidermis, ammonia did not inhibit water uptake by the roots. This may indicate that the site of the inhibition lies within the root epidermis. PMID:16656769

  7. The intestinal uptake of particles and the implications for drug and antigen delivery.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hagan, D T

    1996-01-01

    A number of researchers from different scientific disciplines have independently described the uptake of a variety of particulates across the gastrointestinal tract in animal models. The reports of particle uptake are briefly reviewed and the alternative mechanisms and proposed sites of uptake are discussed. Following these observations, some researchers have exploited the phenomenon of particulate uptake by using microparticles and nanoparticles as oral delivery systems for active agents, such as drugs and vaccines. The potential use of particulate carrier systems as drug and vaccine delivery systems is also briefly discussed. PMID:8982819

  8. Through form to function: root hair development and nutrient uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilroy, S.; Jones, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Root hairs project from the surface of the root to aid nutrient and water uptake and to anchor the plant in the soil. Their formation involves the precise control of cell fate and localized cell growth. We are now beginning to unravel the complexities of the molecular interactions that underlie this developmental regulation. In addition, after years of speculation, nutrient transport by root hairs has been demonstrated clearly at the physiological and molecular level, with evidence for root hairs being intense sites of H(+)-ATPase activity and involved in the uptake of Ca(2+), K(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cl(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-).

  9. Zinc uptake into endothelial cells involves a carrier mediated component

    SciTech Connect

    Bobilya, D.J.; Briske-Anderson, M.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-15

    The mechanism of zinc (Zn) uptake by endothelial cells was examined. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to a confluent monolayer in T-25 flasks with minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Zn uptake was studied by replacing the growth medium with experimental media of MEM, 14% EDTA dialyzed serum, and 250 nCi {sup 65}Zn/mL. The transport mechanism was studied by manipulating the composition of the experimental media and measuring the accumulation of {sup 65}Zn by the cells during a 10 min incubation period at 37C, 90% relative humidity, and 5% CO{sub 2}. The rate of Zn uptake increased as the Zn concentration in the media increased from 1 to 26 {mu}M. The data were described by a rectangular hyperbola with V{sub max} = 27.2 {plus minus} 0.84 pmoles Zn and K{sub m} = 4.1 {plus minus} 0.46 {mu}M Zn. The mechanism was studied further with 6 {mu}M added Zn (ZnCl{sub 2}) in the experimental media. Zn uptake was temperature dependent; the rate was less than 6C than at 24C, which was less than at 33C. The Zn uptake rate was reduced by the metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate, sodium fluoride, and N-ethylmaleimide. Cadmium competitively inhibited Zn uptake; copper and manganese had no effect. Increasing the concentration of albumin tin the media reduced the Zn uptake rate over the range from 0 to 40 {mu}M albumin in the media reduced the Zn uptake rate over the range from 0 to 40 {mu}M albumin, but not at 50 {mu}M albumin, with 10 {mu}M Zn. The addition of Zn binding ligands decreased the Zn uptake rate in the absence of serum, but increased the rate when serum was present. These results demonstrate that Zn uptake into endothelial cells is facilitated by a transporter possessing a recognition site that is saturable and at least partially energy dependent. Additionally, the uptake rate apparently is influenced by the ligand to which Zn is bound in the extracellular fluid.

  10. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake pathways.

    PubMed

    Elustondo, Pia A; Nichols, Matthew; Robertson, George S; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2017-02-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays diverse roles in all living organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. It is a structural element for bones, an essential mediator of excitation-contraction coupling, and a universal second messenger in the regulation of ion channel, enzyme and gene expression activities. In mitochondria, Ca(2+) is crucial for the control of energy production and cellular responses to metabolic stress. Ca(2+) uptake by the mitochondria occurs by the uniporter mechanism. The Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU) protein has recently been identified as a core component responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. MCU knockout (MCU KO) studies have identified a number of important roles played by this high capacity uptake pathway. Interestingly, this work has also shown that MCU-mediated Ca(2+) uptake is not essential for vital cell functions such as muscle contraction, energy metabolism and neurotransmission. Although mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was markedly reduced, MCU KO mitochondria still contained low but detectable levels of Ca(2+). In view of the fundamental importance of Ca(2+) for basic cell signalling, this finding suggests the existence of other currently unrecognized pathways for Ca(2+) entry. We review the experimental evidence for the existence of alternative Ca(2+) influx mechanisms and propose how these mechanisms may play an integral role in mitochondrial Ca(2+) signalling.

  11. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  12. Adjusting ammonium uptake via phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lanquar, Viviane; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-06-01

    In plants, AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily mediates high affinity ammonium uptake. AMT/MEP transporters form a trimeric complex, which requires a productive interaction between subunits in order to be functional. The AMT/MEP C-terminal domain is highly conserved in more than 700 AMT homologs from cyanobacteria to higher plants with no cases found to be lacking this domain. AMT1;1 exists in active and inactive states, probably controlled by the spatial positioning of the C-terminus. Ammonium triggers the phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue (T460) in the C-terminus of AMT1;1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The T460 phosphorylation level correlates with a decrease of root ammonium uptake. We propose that ammonium-induced phosphorylation modulates ammonium uptake as a general mechanism to protect against ammonium toxicity.

  13. Adjusting ammonium uptake via phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Lanquar, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    In plants, AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily mediates high affinity ammonium uptake. AMT/MEP transporters form a trimeric complex, which requires a productive interaction between subunits in order to be functional. The AMT/MEP C-terminal domain is highly conserved in more than 700 AMT homologs from cyanobacteria to higher plants with no cases found to be lacking this domain. AMT1;1 exists in active and inactive states, probably controlled by the spatial positioning of the C-terminus. Ammonium triggers the phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue (T460) in the C-terminus of AMT1;1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The T460 phosphorylation level correlates with a decrease of root ammonium uptake. We propose that ammonium-induced phosphorylation modulates ammonium uptake as a general mechanism to protect against ammonium toxicity. PMID:20418663

  14. Copper uptake by Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Tsekova, K; Dentcheva, V; Ianis, M

    2001-01-01

    The copper binding properties of Penicillium brevicompactum biomass were influenced by growth phase of mycelium and concentration of copper in reaction mixtures. The efficiency of copper uptake increased with growth time and was largest at the mid-logarithmic growth phase. The time course of copper uptake was biphasic. Double reciprocal plots of absorption velocity of copper vs. copper concentration gave straight lines at concentration between 0.5 to 4 mM. The apparent affinity of copper to the biomass of the stationary growth phase was the same as that of logarithmic growth phase and Km values were about 1.4 mM. Pretreatment of the mycelium with glucose increased the amount of metal uptake about five times in comparison with the controls.

  15. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  16. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kaya, G Capa; Demir, Y; Ozkal, S; Sengoz, T; Manisali, M; Baran, O; Koc, M; Tuna, B; Ozaksoy, D; Havitcioglu, H

    2010-05-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44 +/- 15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p = 0.002, r = 0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution.

  17. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  18. Cellular uptake and trafficking of antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Crooke, Stanley T; Wang, Shiyu; Vickers, Timothy A; Shen, Wen; Liang, Xue-Hai

    2017-03-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) modified with phosphorothioate (PS) linkages and different 2' modifications can be used either as drugs (e.g., to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and spinal muscular atrophy) or as research tools to alter gene expression. PS-ASOs can enter cells without additional modification or formulation and can be designed to mediate sequence-specific cleavage of different types of RNA (including mRNA and non-coding RNA) targeted by endogenous RNase H1. Although PS-ASOs function in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, localization to different subcellular regions can affect their therapeutic potency. Cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of PS ASOs are mediated by protein interactions. The main proteins involved in these processes have been identified, and intracellular sites in which PS ASOs are active, or inactive, cataloged.

  19. Embryonic cerebellar neurons accumulate (/sup 3/H-gamma-aminobutyric acid: visualization of developing gamma-aminobutyric acid-utilizing neurons in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hatten, M.E.; Francois, A.M.; Napolitano, E.; Roffler-Tarlov, S.

    1984-05-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the proposed neurotransmitter for four types of cerebellar neurons-Purkinje, Golgi, basket, and stellate neurons. With this investigation we have begun studies to establish when these neurons acquire their neurotransmitter ''identification''. Autoradiographic studies of both cultured embryonic (embryonic day 13) cerebellar cells and of intact embryonic cerebellum (embryonic day 13) were conducted with tritiated GABA. Two to 5% of the embryonic cerebellar cells accumulated (/sup 3/H)GABA in vitro. By morphological and immunocytochemical criteria, labeled cells were large neurons with either a thick, apical process, a multipolar shape, or were bipolar with longer processes. The identification of cells which accumulated (/sup 3/H)GABA as neuronal precursors was supported by the differential sensitivity to drugs that preferentially inhibit accumulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA by neurons and glia. The results of the in vitro experiments were confirmed and extended with in vivo experiments. When intact cerebellar tissue was removed at embryonic day 13, stripped of meninges and choroid plexus, exposed to low concentrations of (/sup 3/H)GABA, and processed for light microscopic autoradiography, heavily labeled cells were seen in the middle of the cerebellar anlage. Labeled cells were not seen in the ventricular zone of proliferating neuroblasts lining the fourth ventricle or in the external granular layer emerging at the lateral aspect of the pial surface. The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA by these cells also showed the pharmacological characteristics of uptake by neurons. This study shows that among migrating, immature forms of the larger neurons of the embryonic cerebellum, there is a select group which accumulates (/sup 3/H)GABA and other classes of cells which do not. These results indicate very early acquisition of transmitter expression by cerebellar neurons, far in advance of their final positioning and establishment of synapses.

  20. Groundwater uptake by woody vegetation in a semiarid oak savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gretchen R.; Chen, Xingyuan; Rubin, Yoram; Ma, Siyan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.

    2010-10-01

    Groundwater can serve as an important resource for woody vegetation in semiarid landscapes, particularly when soil water is functionally depleted and unavailable to plants. This study examines the uptake of groundwater by deciduous blue oak trees (Quercus douglasii) in a California oak savanna. Here we present a suite of direct and indirect methods that demonstrate its occurrence and quantify its rates. The study site is underlain by a thin soil layer and fractured metavolcanic bedrock. Typical depth to groundwater is approximately 8 m. A variety of water storage and flux measurements were collected from 2005 to 2008, including groundwater levels, soil moisture contents, sap flows, and latent heat fluxes. During the dry season, groundwater uptake rates ranged from 4 to 25 mm month-1 and approximately 80% of total ET during June, July, and August came from groundwater. Leaf and soil water potentials supported these results, indicating that groundwater uptake was thermodynamically favorable over soil water uptake for key portions of the growing season. These findings strongly suggest that blue oaks should be considered obligate phreatophytes and that groundwater reserves provide a buffer to rapid changes in their hydroclimate, if these assets are not otherwise depleted by prolonged drought or human consumption. While groundwater uptake may provide for short-term protection, it should be viewed not as a mechanism for continued plant growth. It allows the woody vegetation to subsist during the summer but not to flourish.

  1. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

  2. Pulmonary uptake of morphine (M)

    SciTech Connect

    Roerig, D.L.; Bunke, S.S.; Kotrly, K.J.; Dawson, C.A.; Kampine, J.P.

    1986-03-01

    Previously the authors reported less than 5% of M was taken up during the first pass through the human lung. The low uptake of this basic lipophilic amine was further investigated in a single pass isolated perfused rat lung (IPL) in comparison to uptake of radiolabelled H/sub 2/O, antipyrine (A), aminopyrine (AM), nicotine (N) and phenylethylamine (P). The IPL was perfused for 5 min with each drug (5nmol/ml) and effluent collected in 10 sec fractions. Pulmonary extraction was calculated using indocyanine green dye as a non-extractable reference indicator. Accumulation of all compounds in the IPL reached an apparent equilibrium within 4 min. At equilibrium lung/perfusate conc. ratios for H/sub 2/O, A, AM, N, P and M were 1.04, 0.84, 0.85, 1.44, 2.57 and 1.13 respectively. The time course of M uptake differed from the other compounds since initial extraction of M was low (23%) compared to 75%, 53%, 35%, 82% and 86% for H/sub 2/O, A, AM, N and P respectively. Also, the half time to equilibrium for M was longer (50 sec) compared to 18, 21, 26, 19 and 22 sec for H/sub 2/O, A, AM, N and P respectively. The low initial pulmonary extraction of M compared to these compounds followed by greater M extraction during the remainder of drug infusion suggests uptake mechanisms for M different than the flow limited uptake for water and other basic amine drugs.

  3. Aberrant seasonal variations of platelet serotonin uptake in endogenous depression.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, R; Aberg-Wistedt, A; Mårtensson, B

    1989-02-15

    The serotonin uptake in platelets of 120 healthy volunteers and 64 endogenously depressed patients was investigated over a 2-year period. In healthy individuals, Km exhibited a significant seasonal rhythm during the bright half of the year. The seasonal rhythm of Vmax assumes the form of a sine curve, with nadir values at the vernal and autumn equinoxes and peak values at the winter and summer solstices. Km in patients was higher than in controls in February and October, and the seasonal variation of Km differed between patients and controls. The monthly mean values of Vmax in patients were, as a rule, lower than corresponding values in controls, but significantly so only in December. Patients had higher Vmax than controls in October and November, and the seasonal variation of Vmax in patients differed from that of controls. The results suggest that Km, a measure of the affinity of the serotonin uptake site, may be subject to photoperiodic regulation in healthy individuals. The annual variation in uptake site densities, as judged by the changes in Vmax, are probably generated by an endogenous superior oscillator. The aberrant uptake kinetics found in the endogenously depressed patients may reflect seasonal susceptibility to the disorder and/or altered serotonergic rhythmicity.

  4. Uptake of auxins into membrane vesicles isolated from pea stems: an in vitro auxin transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test the applicability of the chemiosmotic theory of auxin transport to a subcellular system. Membrane vesicles were isolated from the basal portion of the third internode of etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska) by differential centrifugation. Uptake of auxin was determined by adding /sup 14/C-labeled indoleacetic acid (IAA) to vesicles. Nigericin, a monovalent cation ionophore, and the electrogenic protonophore, carbonyl-cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), at micromolar concentrations abolished saturable uptake. Bursting vesicles by sonication, osmotic shock and freeze/thawing also eliminated saturable uptake. As the temperature increased from 0 to 30/sup 0/C, saturable uptake decreased markedly. Nonsaturable auxin uptake was less affected by these treatments. The pH gradient-dependent uptake of auxin appeared to be a transmembrane uptake of auxin into the vesicles rather than surface binding. Unlabeled IAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at low concentrations reduced the saturable accumulation of (/sup 14/C)IAA in vesicles, while phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, and 1-NAA were effective only at high concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed two types of sites: a high affinity site with an uptake capacity of 25 to 40 pmoles/g tissue, and a low affinity site with an uptake capacity of 260 to 600 pmole/g tissue, fresh wt. In conclusion, several principal elements of an auxin transport system, as specific by the chemiosmotic theory of polar auxin transport, were present in membrane vesicles isolated from relatively mature pea stem tissue. However, one important aspect of the theory was not demonstrated in this in vitro system - a TIBA/NPA-sensitive auxin efflux. The kinetics and specificity of auxin uptake strongly suggested that this system was physiologically significant.

  5. Forest Transpiration: Resolving Species-Specific Root Water Uptake Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, T.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.; Stewart, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Transpiration and its spatio-temporal variability are still not fully understood, despite their importance for the global water cycle. This is in part due to our inability to measure transpiration comprehensively. Transpiration is usually either estimated with empirical equations based on climatic variables and crop factors, by measuring sap velocities, estimating sap wood area and scaling up to the forest stand based on a number of assumptions or by measuring the integral signal across a footprint with eddy flux towers. All these methods are focused on the cumulated loss of water to the atmosphere and do not provide information on where this water is coming from. In this study, spatio-temporal variability of root water uptake was investigated in a forest in the northeastern German lowlands. The soils are sandy and the depth of the unsaturated zone ranges from 1 to 30 m. We estimated root water uptake from different soil depths, from 0.1 m down to 2 m, based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content during rain-free days. The 15 field sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands: 4 pure stands of both mature and young beech and pine and 9 mixed stands. The resulting daily data set of root water uptake shows that the forest stands differ in total amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of uptake that changes with water availability. The relationship of these depth-resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. Using the physically-based soil hydrological model HYDRUS we investigated to what extent the observed patterns in uptake can be related to soil physical relationships alone and where tree species-specific aspects come into play. We furthermore used the model to test assumptions and estimate uncertainties of this soil moisture based estimation of plant water uptake. The

  6. Ferrous iron uptake in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, E S; Goodner, A P; Nyhus, K J

    1998-09-01

    Previous studies have implicated ferric reduction in the iron uptake pathway of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we studied iron uptake directly, using 55Fe in the presence of reductants. Uptake was linear with respect to time and number of yeast cells. The plot of uptake versus concentration exhibited a steep rise up to about 1 microM, a plateau between 1 and 25 microM, and a second steep rise above 25 microM, consistent with high- and low-affinity uptake systems. A Km for high-affinity uptake was estimated to be 0.6 microM Fe(II); 1 microM was used for standardized uptake assays. At this concentration, the uptake rate was 110 +/- 3 pmol/10(6) cells/h. Iron repletion (15 microM) and copper starvation drastically decreased high-affinity iron uptake. Incubation at 0 degreesC or in the presence of 2 mM KCN abolished high-affinity iron uptake, suggesting that uptake requires metabolic energy. When exogenous reducing agents were not supplied and the culture was washed free of secreted reductants, uptake was reduced by 46%; the remaining uptake activity presumably was dependent upon the cell membrane ferric reductase. Further decreases in free Fe(II) levels achieved by trapping with bathophenanthroline disulfonate or reoxidizing with potassium nitrosodisulfonate reduced iron uptake very drastically, suggesting that it is the Fe(II) species which is transported by the high-affinity transporter. The uptake of Fe was stimulated two- to threefold by deferoxamine, but this increment could be abolished by copper starvation or inhibition of the ferric reductase by Pt, indicating that Fe solubilized by this molecule also entered the reductive iron uptake pathway.

  7. Limitations to maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J R

    1992-02-01

    An increase in exercise capacity depends on the magnitude of increase in maximum aerobic capacity. Central and peripheral factors may limit oxygen uptake. Central oxygen delivery depends on cardiac output and maximal arterial oxygen content. Peripheral extraction of the delivered oxygen is expressed as a-v O2. With increasing intensities of exercise, the respiratory system may become limiting in some trained individuals. Most studies have shown a higher stroke volume in maximal as well as submaximal exercise in the trained vs untrained individuals. A variety of peripheral factors determine vascular tone. Maximal oxygen uptake depends on all components of the oxygen transporting system, but stroke volume appears to be the prime determinant in the trained subject. At maximum exercise the capacity of the muscle capillary network is never reached.

  8. A molecular recognizing system of serotonin in rat fetal axonal growth cones: uptake and high affinity binding.

    PubMed

    Mercado, R; Hernández, J

    1992-09-18

    Axonal growth cone particles (AGCP) isolated from prenatal and postnatal rat brain had different high-affinity 5-HT uptake characteristics. In postnatal AGCP the uptake behaves as in the adult rat brain, while in the prenatal AGCP the uptake characteristics seem to be in a transitional stage. Also in prenatal AGCP we observed specific, high-affinity 5-HT binding sites. These results support the idea of an important role for 5-HT during axogenesis.

  9. Organic anion uptake by hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Allan W

    2014-10-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na(+)-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na(+)/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na(+)-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na(+)-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands.

  10. Organic Anion Uptake by Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wolkoff, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na+-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na+/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na+-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na+-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands. PMID:25428858

  11. BELOWGROUND NITROGEN UPTAKE AND ALLOCATION ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs coupled with rising sea level complicate predictions of marsh stability. As marsh stability is a function of its vegetation, it is important to understand the mechanisms that drive community dynamics. Many studies have examined aboveground dynamics and nutrient cycling, but few have studied the belowground uptake and allocation of nitrogen. Literature suggests that D. spicata may dominate the marsh platform in nutrient-rich conditions, though the mechanism driving the vegetation shift is unclear. Our study examines belowground nutrient uptake and allocation underlying these patterns. To determine whether D. spicata is a more efficient scavenger of nutrients than S. alterniflora we performed a 15N pulse-chase experiment. Tracer was added to mesocosms growing D. spicata and S. alterniflora in monoculture. After the initial pulse, a subset of pots were sacrificed weekly and partitioned into detailed depth intervals for 15N analysis of several belowground pools: live coarse and fine roots, live rhizomes, dead organic matter, and bulk sediment. Comparisons between D. spicata and S. alterniflora uptake and allocation can explain mechanisms of competitive advantage and predictions of D. spicata dominance. Additionally, we used denitrification enzyme assays (DEA) and greenhouse gas slurries to quantify denitrification rates and potentials. Initial results suggest that the vegetation types support similar N-relevant microbial communities. Th

  12. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry; Gammelgaard, Bente; Furger, Evelyne; Alberto, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-) and H2O, respectively), were included as control samples. The results indicated that B12 derivatives delivered cisplatin to both cellular cytosol and nuclei with an efficiency of one third compared to the uptake of free cisplatin cis-[Pt(II)Cl2(NH3)2]. In addition, uptake of charged B12 derivatives including [Cbl-OH2](+), [{Co}-CN-{cis-PtCl(NH3)2}](+), [{Re}-{Co}-CN-{cis-PtCl(NH3)2}](+), and [{Co}-CN-{trans-Pt(Cyt)(NH3)2}](2+) (Cyt = cytarabin) was high compared to neutral B12, which implied the existence of an additional internalization pathway for charged B12 vitamin analogs. The affinities of the charged B12 derivatives to the B12 transporters HC, IF and TC were similar to that of native vitamin B12.

  13. Detecting spatio-temporal controls on depth distributions of root water uptake using soil moisture patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Landscape scale soil moisture patterns show a pronounced shift when plants become active during the growing season. Soil moisture patterns are then not only controlled by soils, topography and related abiotic site characteristics as well as site characteristic throughfall patterns but also by root water uptake. In this study root water uptake from different soil depths is estimated based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content and was investigated with a setup of 15 field sites in a forest in northeastern Germany. These sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands. Vegetation types include pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 5 soil moisture and soil temperature profiles, matric potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors as well as standard climate data. The resulting comprehensive data set of depth distributed root water uptake shows differences in overall amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions between different forest stands, but also related to slope position and thus depth to groundwater. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake depending on water availability. The relative contributions of the different depths to overall root water uptake shift as the summer progresses. However, the relationship of these depth resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. This unique data set of depth specific contributions to root water uptake down to a depth of 2 m allows a much more detailed analysis of tree response to water availability than the more common transpiration estimates generated by sapflow or eddy flux measurements.

  14. Bisphosphonate uptake in areas of tooth extraction or periapical disease.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Simon; Sun, Shuting; Kang, Benjamin; Bezouglaia, Olga; Elashoff, David; McKenna, Charles E; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2014-12-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used for the management of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone malignancy. However, osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a serious complication of BP treatment. ONJ lesions mainly occur after extraction of teeth deemed unrestorable or around teeth with active periodontal or periapical disease. Because socket healing or dental disease shows higher bone turnover, the authors hypothesized that preferentially high BP accumulation would be observed in these areas. The authors tested the uptake of fluorescein-labeled zoledronic acid (5-FAM-ZOL) in sites of tooth extraction or experimental periapical disease in mice. Maxillary molars were extracted or the crowns of mandibular molars were drilled to induce pulp exposure. Animals were injected with 5-FAM-ZOL 200 μg/kg at various times after intervention and fluorescence was measured at healthy versus intervention sites. Fluorescein injections were used as controls. Data were analyzed by t test and mixed effects linear models were constructed because the animals had repeated measurements over time and at the 2 sites. A statistically significant (P≤.001 to .002) time-dependent uptake of 5-FAM-ZOL was detected in the areas of extraction socket and in the alveolar ridge around teeth with periapical disease compared with the healthy contralateral sites of the same animals. For the 2 conditions, the uptake reached a maximum 3 days after experimental intervention and decreased thereafter. These data suggest that sites with increased bone turnover, such as extraction sites or areas of periapical inflammation, are exposed to higher BP doses than the remaining alveolar ridge and could explain, at least in part, the susceptibility of such areas to ONJ. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bisphosphonate Uptake in Areas of Tooth Extraction or Periapical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Simon; Sun, Shuting; Kang, Benjamin; Bezouglaia, Olga; Elashoff, David; McKenna, Charles E.; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used for the management of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone malignancy. However, osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a serious complication of BP treatment. ONJ lesions mainly occur after extraction of teeth deemed unrestorable or around teeth with active periodontal or periapical disease. Because socket healing or dental disease shows higher bone turnover, the authors hypothesized that preferentially high BP accumulation would be observed in these areas. Materials and Methods The authors tested the uptake of fluorescein-labeled zoledronic acid (5-FAM-ZOL) in sites of tooth extraction or experimental periapical disease in mice. Maxillary molars were extracted or the crowns of mandibular molars were drilled to induce pulp exposure. Animals were injected with 5-FAM-ZOL 200 μg/kg at various times after intervention and fluorescence was measured at healthy versus intervention sites. Fluorescein injections were used as controls. Data were analyzed by t test and mixed effects linear models were constructed because the animals had repeated measurements over time and at the 2 sites. Results A statistically significant (P ≤ .001 to .002) time-dependent uptake of 5-FAM-ZOL was detected in the areas of extraction socket and in the alveolar ridge around teeth with periapical disease compared with the healthy contralateral sites of the same animals. For the 2 conditions, the uptake reached a maximum 3 days after experimental intervention and decreased thereafter. Conclusions These data suggest that sites with increased bone turnover, such as extraction sites or areas of periapical inflammation, are exposed to higher BP doses than the remaining alveolar ridge and could explain, at least in part, the susceptibility of such areas to ONJ. PMID:25262401

  16. Labile complexes facilitate cadmium uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, L; Degryse, F; Niewold, T; Smolders, E

    2012-06-01

    The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) predicts that metal uptake in biota is related to the free ion activity in the external solution and that metal complexes do not contribute. However, studies with plants have shown that labile metal complexes enhance metal bioavailability when the uptake is rate-limited by transport of the free ion in solution to the uptake site. Here, the role of labile complexes of Cd on metal bioavailability was assessed using Caco-2 cells, the cell model for intestinal absorption. At low Cd(2+) concentration (1 nM), the CdCl(n)(2-n) complexes contributed to the uptake almost to the same extent as the free ion. At large Cd(2+) concentration (10 μM), the contribution of the complexes was much smaller. At constant Cd(2+) concentration, Cd intake in the cells from solutions containing synthetic ligands such as EDTA increased as the dissociation rate of the cadmium complexes increased, and correlated well with the Cd diffusion flux in solution measured with the Diffusive Gradient in Thin Films technique (DGT). The Cd intake fluxes in the cells were well predicted assuming that the specific uptake is limited by diffusion of the free Cd(2+) ion to the cell surface. Our results underline that speciation of Cd has a major effect on its uptake by intestinal cells, but the availability is not simply related to the free ion concentration. Labile complexes of Cd enhance metal bioavailability in these cells, likely by alleviating diffusive limitations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strontium Uptake by Cementitious Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wieland,E.; Tits, J.; Kunz, D.; Dahn, R.

    2008-01-01

    Wet chemistry experiments and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were carried out to investigate the immobilization of nonradioactive Sr and 85Sr in calcite-free and calcite-containing Portland cement. The partitioning of pristine Sr between hardened cement paste (HCP) and pore solution, and the uptake of 85Sr and nonradioactive Sr were investigated in batch-type sorption/desorption experiments. Sr uptake by HCP was found to be fast and nearly linear for both cements, indicating that differences in the compositions of the two cements have no influence on Sr binding. The partitioning of pristine Sr bound in the cement matrix and 85Sr between HCP and pore solution could be modeled in terms of a reversible sorption process using similar Kd values. These findings allow 85Sr uptake to be interpreted in terms of an isotopic exchange process with pristine Sr. Sr K-edge EXAFS measurements on Sr doped HCP and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) samples reveal no significant differences in the local coordination environments of pristine Sr and Sr bound to the cement matrix upon sorption. The first coordination sphere consists of five to six oxygen atoms located at a distance of about 2.6 Angstroms, which corresponds to Sr-O distances in the hydration sphere of Sr2+ in alkaline solution. Sr binds to the cement matrix via two bridging oxygen atoms located at a distance of about 3.6 Angstroms. No further neighboring atoms could be detected, indicating that Sr is taken up as a partially hydrated species by HCP. Wet chemistry and spectroscopic data further indicate that Sr binding to C-S-H phases is likely to be the controlling uptake mechanism in the cement matrix, which allows Sr uptake by HCP to be predicted based on a Ca-Sr ion exchange model previously developed for Sr binding to C-S-H phases. The latter finding suggests that long-term predictions of Sr immobilization in the cementitious near field of repositories for radioactive waste can be based on a

  18. Phosphate uptake studies of cross-linked chitosan bead materials.

    PubMed

    Mahaninia, Mohammad H; Wilson, Lee D

    2017-01-01

    A systematic experimental study is reported that provides a molecular based understanding of cross-linked chitosan beads and their adsorption properties in aqueous solution containing phosphate dianion (HPO4(2-)) species. Synthetically modified chitosan using epichlorohydrin and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers result in surface modified beads with variable hydrophile-lipophile character and tunable HPO4(2-) uptake properties. The kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption properties of cross-linked chitosan beads with HPO4(2-) species were studied in aqueous solution. Complementary structure and physicochemical characterization of chitosan beads via potentiometry, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and dye adsorption measurements was carried out to establish structure-property relationships. The maximum uptake (Qm) of bead systems with HPO4(2-) at equilibrium was 52.1mgg(-1); whereas, kinetic uptake results for chitosan bead/phosphate systems are relatively rapid (0.111-0.113min(-1)) with an intraparticle diffusion rate-limiting step. The adsorption process follows a multi-step pathway involving inner- and outer-sphere complexes with significant changes in hydration. Phosphate uptake strongly depends on the composition and type of cross-linker used for preparation of chitosan beads. The adsorption isotherms and structural characterization of bead systems illustrate the role of surface charge, hydrophile-lipophile balance, adsorption site accessibility, and hydration properties of the chitosan bead surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  20. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  1. Methane Uptake in Forest Soils is Driven by Diffusivity and Methane Oxidizer Community Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, B. W.; Hart, S. C.; Kolb, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    Upland forest soils are the only known terrestrial biological sink of methane, but the mechanisms controlling methane uptake are poorly understood. Methane uptake is the result of bacterial and archaeal 'methane oxidizer' activity. Temperature, water content, and substrate availability have all been described as potential mechanisms governing methane uptake in soils. We measured methane uptake in soil across two ecological different gradients in an attempt to determine controls on methane uptake in semi-arid soils. We measured the uptake of atmospheric methane in situ across a gradient of northern Arizona, USA ponderosa pine forest disturbance. This gradient included an unthinned, unburned forest, a mechanically thinned forest, and a former forest site that completely burned 10 years prior to measurements. In laboratory incubations, we measured potential methane uptake across a soil chronosequence of basalt-cinder derived soils from 0.001 to 3 million years old by exposing soils to 10x ambient levels of methane. This chronosequence has a gradient of soil texture, which will influence the air filled pore space, and consequently methane diffusion. Both gradients experience distinct dry and wet seasons during the growing season. Our field measurements suggest that methane uptake is greatest when the forest floor is thinnest and the soil is most dry. Our laboratory incubations suggest that, during the dry season, potential methane uptake is driven by diffusion, but that during the wet season potential methane uptake is a function of methane oxidizer community size. Methane uptake patterns across both gradients demonstrates the importance of diffusion and methane oxidizer community size as codominant controlling factors.

  2. Uptake of Workplace HIV Counselling and Testing: A Cluster-Randomised Trial in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Elizabeth L; Dauya, Ethel; Matambo, Ronnie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Makamure, Beauty; Bassett, Mary T; Chandiwana, Steven; Munyati, Shungu; Mason, Peter R; Butterworth, Anthony E; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Hayes, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Background HIV counselling and testing is a key component of both HIV care and HIV prevention, but uptake is currently low. We investigated the impact of rapid HIV testing at the workplace on uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Methods and Findings The study was a cluster-randomised trial of two VCT strategies, with business occupational health clinics as the unit of randomisation. VCT was directly offered to all employees, followed by 2 y of open access to VCT and basic HIV care. Businesses were randomised to either on-site rapid HIV testing at their occupational clinic (11 businesses) or to vouchers for off-site VCT at a chain of free-standing centres also using rapid tests (11 businesses). Baseline anonymised HIV serology was requested from all employees. HIV prevalence was 19.8% and 18.4%, respectively, at businesses randomised to on-site and off-site VCT. In total, 1,957 of 3,950 employees at clinics randomised to on-site testing had VCT (mean uptake by site 51.1%) compared to 586 of 3,532 employees taking vouchers at clinics randomised to off-site testing (mean uptake by site 19.2%). The risk ratio for on-site VCT compared to voucher uptake was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 3.8) after adjustment for potential confounders. Only 125 employees (mean uptake by site 4.3%) reported using their voucher, so that the true adjusted risk ratio for on-site compared to off-site VCT may have been as high as 12.5 (95% confidence interval 8.2 to 16.8). Conclusions High-impact VCT strategies are urgently needed to maximise HIV prevention and access to care in Africa. VCT at the workplace offers the potential for high uptake when offered on-site and linked to basic HIV care. Convenience and accessibility appear to have critical roles in the acceptability of community-based VCT. PMID:16796402

  3. Modulation of extracellular GABA levels in the retina by activation of glial P2X-purinoceptors.

    PubMed

    Neal, M J; Cunningham, J R; Dent, Z

    1998-05-01

    1. In the rat retina, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) released as a transmitter is inactivated by uptake mainly into glial cells (Müller cells). Activation of P2-purinoceptors in Müller cells increases [Ca2+]i and the present study was undertaken to see whether this action affected the glial release of [3H]-GABA from the superfused rat isolated retina. 2. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and the P2X-purinoceptor agonists, alpha,beta-methylene-ATP (alpha,beta-meATP) and beta,gamma-methyleneATP (beta,gamma-meATP) significantly increased the KCl-evoked release of [3H]-GABA from the retina. 3. Adenosine and the P2Y-purinoceptor agonist, 2-chloroATP, had no effect on the KCl-evoked release of [3H]-GABA from the retina. However, 2-methylthioATP (2-Me-S-ATP) significantly enhanced the evoked release of [3H]-GABA. 4. The effect of ATP on the glial release of [3H]-GABA was abolished by the P2-antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). 5. When the superfused retina was exposed to the GABA uptake inhibitor, SKF89976A, the enhancing effect of alpha,beta-meATP on the KCl-evoked release of GABA was abolished. 6. The KCl-evoked release of [3H]-GABA from the frog retina and rat cerebrocortical slices, which take up GABA mainly into neurones, was not affected by ATP or alpha,beta-meATP. 7. We concluded that the glial Müller cells in the rat retina possess P2-receptors, activation of which increases the 'release' of preloaded [3H]-GABA apparently by reducing uptake. On balance, the results suggest the involvement of P2X-purinoceptors, although we cannot exclude the possibility that P2Y-purinoceptors may be involved. Our results suggest that ATP, as well as being a conventional transmitter in the retina, may be involved in neuronal-glial signalling and modulate the extracellular concentration of GABA.

  4. [Axolemmal transporters for neurotransmitter uptake].

    PubMed

    García-López, M

    Neurotransmission is a fundamental process in interneuronal communication. It starts with the release of the neurotransmitter following a nerve impulse and ends either by uptake by specific specific transporters or by metabolization to an inactive compound. In this review we will consider the molecular, ion dependence and electrogenic properties of the axolemal transporters for neurotransmitters and also the pathological consequences of their impairment as well as the drugs that can interact with them. Most axolemmal transporters have been cloned and grouped into two large families according to their molecular characteristics and electrogenic properties: 1. Those dependent on Na+/Cl- include transporters of GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, choline, proline, betaine, glycine and taurine, and 2. Those dependent on Na+/K+, which include the transporters of glutamate, alanine, serine and cysteine. The clonation of transporters has permitted (and will continue to permit) the correlation of molecular alterations of transporters with different neuro-degenerative disorders (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), with brain lesions (e.g. cerebral ischemia, status epilepticus) and with psychiatric alterations (e.g. schizophrenia, depression). In this respect, chemical synthesis of new selective drugs which interact with the different systems for uptake of neurotransmitters will offer new approaches to the treatment of many disorders of the central nervous system which still have no satisfactory drug treatment.

  5. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-06-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0{sup 2} include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO{sup 2} and total concentration of dissolved C0{sup 2}, sea-air pCO{sup 2} difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0{sup 2} uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0{sup 2} from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0{sup 2} fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

  6. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung ); Takahashi, Taro . Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0[sup 2] uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0[sup 2] from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0[sup 2] fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

  7. The mechanism of copper uptake by tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Kanteev, Margarita; Goldfeder, Mor; Chojnacki, Michał; Adir, Noam; Fishman, Ayelet

    2013-12-01

    Tyrosinase belongs to the type 3 copper enzyme family, containing a dinuclear copper center, CuA and CuB. It is mainly responsible for melanin production in a wide range of organisms. Although copper ions are essential for the activity of tyrosinase, the mechanism of copper uptake is still unclear. We have recently determined the crystal structure of tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium (TyrBm) and revealed that this enzyme has tighter binding of CuA in comparison with CuB. Investigating copper accumulation in TyrBm, we found that the presence of copper has a more significant effect on the diphenolase activity. By decreasing the concentration of copper, we increased the diphenolase to monophenolase activity ratio twofold. Using a rational design approach, we identified five variants having an impact on copper uptake. We have found that a major role of the highly conserved Asn205 residue is to stabilize the orientation of the His204 imidazole ring in the binding site, thereby promoting the correct coordination of CuB. Further investigation of these variants revealed that Phe197, Met61, and Met184, which are located at the entrance to the binding site, not only play a role in copper uptake, but are also important for enhancing the diphenolase activity. We propose a mechanism of copper accumulation by the enzyme as well as an approach to changing the selectivity of TyrBm towards L-dopa production.

  8. Stable Isotopic Signatures of CO Uptake and Emission by Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, E.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-12-01

    CO is important for atmospheric chemistry, is a pollutant, and it has been recognized as an important indirect greenhouse gas. Globally, soil uptake is one of main sinks of CO. On local scale, soil can be either a net sink or a net source of CO, due to the fact that both consumption and production of CO take place in soil concomitantly. These two phenomena are independent: while the uptake is microbial, the production is from abiotic oxidation of organic matter. In order to determine the isotopic signature of the exchange of CO between soil and atmosphere, soil chamber experiments were performed at a forest site in the Netherlands. Flaks samples were filled from the soil chamber, and analyzed for the stable isotopes 13C and 18O using the high precision measurement facility at IMAU. We found that the uptake of CO by soil is associated with a small positive fractionation, i.e. the lighter CO is taken up faster. Although the soil at this site was a strong sink for CO, the isotopic data show that a small emission flux was also present in all cases. The isotopic composition of the emitted CO is depleted in 13C compared to atmospheric CO, and compatible with a source from plant and soil organic matter oxidation.

  9. Conformationally gated metal uptake by apo-manganese superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Mei M.; Whittaker, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Metal uptake by apo-manganese superoxide dismutase in vitro is a complex process exhibiting multiphase “gated” reaction kinetics and a striking sigmoidal temperature profile that has led to a model of conformationally gated metal binding, requiring conversion between “closed” and “open” forms. The present work systematically explores the structural determinants of metal binding in both WT apoprotein and mutational variants as a test of mechanistic models. The pH dependence of metallation under physiological conditions (37°C) shows it is linked to ionization of a single proton with a pKa of 7.7. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the apoprotein is dimeric even when it is fully converted to the open form. The role of molecular motions in metal binding has been probed by using disulfide engineering to introduce covalent constraints into the protein. While restricting motion at domain interfaces has no effect, constraining the subunit interface significantly perturbs metal uptake, but does not prevent the process. Mutagenesis of residues in the active site environment results in a dramatic shift in the transition temperature by as much as 20°C or loss of pH-sensitivity. Based on these results, a mechanism for metal uptake by manganese superoxide dismutase is proposed involving reorientation of active site residues to form a metal entry channel. PMID:18841998

  10. Is the effect of silicon on rice uptake of arsenate (AsV) related to internal silicon concentrations, iron plaque and phosphate nutrition?

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Zhu, Y-G; Liu, W-J; Liang, Y-C; Geng, C-N; Wang, S-G

    2007-07-01

    Solution culture experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) on arsenate (As(V)) uptake by rice. The addition of Si to the pretreatment or uptake solution significantly decreased shoot and root As concentrations (P<0.001 and P<0.05). The presence of Si in the pretreatment or uptake solution also significantly decreased shoot P concentrations (P<0.001). The data demonstrated that both internal and external Si inhibited the uptake of As and P. Results of As uptake kinetics showed that the mechanism of the effect of Si on arsenate uptake is not caused by direct competition for active sites of transporters with As. The effect of Si on As uptake was not entirely mediated through the effect of Si on P uptake. Although the addition of Si to pretreatment solutions still significantly decreased shoot and root As concentrations, the extent of reduction became smaller when rice roots were coated with iron plaque.

  11. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  12. Transferrins--a mechanism for iron uptake by lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, R; Petitjean, M; El Hage Chahine, J M

    1998-05-15

    Iron uptake by bovine lactoferrin from nitrilotriacetatoFe(III) [FeN(Ac)3] in the presence of bicarbonate has been investigated at pH 7.1-8.7. Deprotonated apolactoferrin interacting with bicarbonate or carbonate extracts iron from nitrilotriacetatoFe(III); the direct second-order rate constant k1 = (4.90 +/- 0.20)x10(4) M(-1) s(-1), a reverse second-order rate constant k(-1) = (1.80+/-0.05)x10(5) M(-1) s(-1), and the iron-exchange equilibrium constant K1 = 0.25+/-0.05. The newly formed iron-protein complex loses a single proton with proton dissociation constant K3a = (17+/-0.5) nM, then undergoes a modification in its conformation followed by the loss of two or three protons; the first-order rate constant k2 = (1.0+/-0.10) s(-1). This induces a new modification in the conformation; the first-order rate constant k3 = (8.75+/-0.40)x10(-3) s(-1). This second modification in conformation controls the rate of iron uptake by the N site of the protein and is followed by a single proton loss; K5a = 8.0 nM. Finally, the holoprotein or the monoferric lactoferrin in their final equilibrated states are produced by a third modification in the conformation occurring in about 9000 s. The mechanism of iron uptake by lactoferrin is very similar to that of serum transferrin with a cooperativity between the C and N sites upon iron uptake but with lower rates, higher affinities and at least one more proton loss involved. These differences may be the result of slight discrepancies in the intimate structures of binding sites for serum transferrin and lactoferrin. In order to analyse the cooperativity between these iron-binding sites, the three-dimensional position of the chain of amino acid residues separating the N and C lobes of human apo-, holo- and dicopper-lactoferrin have been compared by the recognition of the three-dimensional shape dissimilarity program. The interlobe peptides of human hololactoferrin and apolactoferrin showed only 75.5 % tridimensional similarity, indicating

  13. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, M.; Portolés, M. T.; Marques, P. A. A. P.; Feito, M. J.; Matesanz, M. C.; Ramírez-Santillán, C.; Gonçalves, G.; Cruz, S. M. A.; Nieto, A.; Vallet-Regi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml-1 pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent’s uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  14. Neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.C.; Eschete, M.L.; Cox, M.E.; King, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.

  15. Uptake of HBR on ice films

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.T.

    1996-10-01

    Uptake is an initial step occurring in heterogeneous atmospheric reactions. It is a key step necessary to understand the reaction mechanism of heterogeneous reactions occurring on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) surfaces. The uptake of HBr on ice films has been investigated in a fast flow reactor and the amount is determined by using a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with a pulsed molecular beam sampling method. A larger uptake and the formation of hydrobromic acid hydrates were observed in the uptake experiments. The effect of the ice film temperatures, HBr pressures, and ice film morphology on the uptake is studied. We will compare the uptake of HCl, HBr and HI on the basis of our recent studies. The results will lead to an advanced understanding of heterogeneous bromine reactions on PSCs.

  16. Specific uptake of serotonin by murine lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.C.; Walker, R.F.; Brooks, W.H.; Roszman, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Recently the authors confirmed and extended earlier observations that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) can influence immune function. Both 5HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan inhibit the primary, in vivo antibody response to sheep red blood cells, in mice. Here, the authors report specific in vitro association of this amine with mouse splenocytes. Spleen cells from 6-8 week old CBA/J mice incorporated /sup 3/H-5HT(10/sup -8/ to 2.5 x 10/sup -6/M) in a saturable manner, at 37/sup 0/C. Specificity of uptake was indicated by competition with excess (10/sup -5/M) unlabelled 5HT and with 10/sup -5/M fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of active 5HT reuptake in rat brain. The 5HT receptor antagonists, methysergide and cyproheptadine, also blocked 5HT uptake. Cell lysis and displacement studies revealed largely intracellular accumulation of /sup 3/H-5HT with little membrane association, in splenocytes. Hofstee analysis of uptake kinetics yielded an apparent Km of 0.82 +/- 0.22 x 10/sup -7/M and Vmax of 501 +/- 108 pM/3 x 10/sup 6/ cells/10 min. Spleen cells fractionated on Sephadex G10 showed virtually no specific 5HT uptake while peritoneal exudate cells from thioglycollate treated mice displayed 5HT uptake kinetics similar to those of splenocytes. The site of specific /sup 3/H-5HT incorporation within a population of spleen cells and the functional significance of this phenomenon to immunomodulation by 5HT remain to be elucidated.

  17. The K+/site and H+/site stoichiometry of mitochondrial electron transport.

    PubMed

    Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1978-09-25

    Electrode measurements of the average number of H+ ejected and K+ taken up (in the presence of valinomycin) per pair of electrons passing the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain of rat liver and rat heart mitochondria have given identical values of the H+/site and 5+/site ratios very close to 4 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of interfering respiration-coupled uptake of H+ + H2PO4-. The K+/site uptake ratio of 4 not only shows that inward movement of K+ provides quantitative charge-compensation for the 4 H+ ejected, but also confirms that 4 charges are separated per pair of electrons per site. When N-ethylmaleimide is omitted, the H+/site ejection ratio is depressed, because of the interfering secondary uptake of H/+ with H2PO4- on the phosphate carrier, but the K+/site uptake ratio remains at 4.0. Addition of phosphate or acetate, which can carry H+ into respiring mitochondria, further depresses the H+/site ratio, but does not affect the K+/site ratio, which remains at 4.0. These and other considerations thus confirm our earlier stoichiometric measurements that the average H+/site ratio is 4.0 and also show that the K+/site uptake ratio can be used as a measure of the intrinsic H+/site ratio, regardless of the presence of phosphate in the medium and without the necessity of adding N-ethylmaleimide or other inhibitors of H+ + H2PO4- transport.

  18. Effectiveness of photosensitive dye during uptake and redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Yan; Jacques, Steven L.; Gofstein, Gary

    1992-06-01

    The location of photosensitive dye within a cell will affect the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This report demonstrates that during the first 3 hours of dye (Photofrin porfimer) uptake from a liquid medium, the dye is diffusely distributed within the cell. After 24 hours of dye uptake, the dye is localized in specific sites within the cell. Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the 3-hour dye's emission peak near 635 nm was slightly blue shifted for the localized 24-hour dye. This paper demonstrates that the diffuse dye (at 3 hours) is more effective for PDT than the localized dye (at 24 hours). The amount of diffuse dye within the cell that is required to achieve an LD50 (50% lethal dose) is 1.5-fold to 4.5- fold less than the amount of localized dye required, using the same light exposure. The range of 1.5 - 4.5-fold refers to the results for four cell lines.

  19. Calcium uptake in the skin of a freshwater teleost.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, S D; Hasegawa, S; Hirano, T

    1992-01-01

    The skin, particularly the opercular membrane of some teleosts, contains mitochondrion-rich "chloride" cells and has been widely used as a model to study branchial salt-extrusion mechanisms in seawater fish. Skin isolated from the operculum of the freshwater Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) can transport Ca2+ against an ionic and electrical gradient. Adaptation of Nile tilapia to a low-Ca2+ environment increased the capacity of the opercular membrane to transport Ca2+. The density of mitochondrion-rich cells increased in parallel with Ca2+ transport capacity. The results demonstrate net Ca2+ uptake by vertebrate skin and strongly implicate mitochondrion-rich cells as the site of Ca2+ uptake in fresh water. Images PMID:1565659

  20. Human enteric pathogen internalization by root uptake into food crops.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Sharma, Manan; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2012-05-01

    With an increasing number of outbreaks and illnesses associated with produce contaminated before harvest, understanding the potential and mechanisms of produce contamination by enteric pathogens can aid in the development of preventative and post-harvest processing measures to reduce microbial populations. Enteric pathogens localized at subsurface sites on leafy green plant tissue prevent their removal during washing and inactivation by sanitizers. Root uptake of enteric pathogens and subsequent internalization has been a large area of research with results varying due to differences in experimental design, systems tested, and pathogens and crops used. The potential for uptake of foodborne pathogen, both bacterial and viral, through roots into food crops is reviewed. Various factors shown to affect the ability of human pathogens to internalize include growth substrate (soil vs. hydroponic solution), plant developmental stage, pathogen genus and/or strain, inoculum level, and plant species and cultivar. Several mechanisms of internalization ("active" vs. "passive") of bacteria to plant roots have also been hypothesized.

  1. Rho GTPases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is secreted into blood vessels from β cells of pancreatic islets in response to high blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates an array of physiological responses in target tissues, including liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, thereby reducing the blood glucose level. Insulin-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is primarily mediated by the redistribution of the glucose transporter type 4 from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane. Evidence for the participation of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 in glucose uptake signaling in skeletal muscle has emerged from studies using cell cultures and genetically engineered mice. Herein, recent progress in understanding the function and regulation of Rac1, especially the cross-talk with the protein kinase Akt2, is highlighted. In addition, the role for another Rho family member TC10 and its regulatory mechanism in adipocyte insulin signaling are described. PMID:24613967

  2. Combining multiple ecosystem productivity measurements to constrain carbon uptake estimates in semiarid grasslands and shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, G. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Collins, S. L.; Litvak, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observational and modeling studies have indicated that semiarid ecosystems are more dynamic contributors to the global carbon budget than once thought. Semiarid carbon fluxes, however, are generally small, with high interannual and spatial variability, which suggests that validating their global significance may depend on examining multiple productivity measures and their associated uncertainties and inconsistencies. We examined ecosystem productivity from eddy covariance (NEE), harvest (NPP), and terrestrial biome models (NEPm) at two very similar grassland sites and one creosote shrubland site in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge of central New Mexico, USA. Our goal was to assess site and methodological correspondence in annual carbon uptake, patterns of interannual variability, and measurement uncertainty. One grassland site was a perennial carbon source losing 30 g C m-2 per year on average, while the other two sites were carbon sources or sinks depending on the year, with average net uptake of 5 and 25 g C m-2 per year at the grassland and shrubland site, respectively. Uncertainty values for cumulative annual NEE overlapped between the three sites in most years. When combined, aboveground and belowground annual NPP measurements were 15% higher than annual NEE values and did not confirm a loss of carbon at any site in any year. Despite differences in mean site carbon balance, year-to-year changes in cumulative annual NEE and NPP were similar at all sites with years 2010 and 2013 being favorable for carbon uptake and 2011 and 2012 being unfavorable at all sites. Modeled NEPm data for a number of nearby grid cells reproduced only a fraction of the observed range in carbon uptake and its interannual variability. These three sites are highly similar in location and climate and multiple carbon flux measurements confirm the high interannual variability in carbon flux. The exact magnitude of these fluxes, however, remains difficult to discern.

  3. Uptake of Polymyxin B into Renal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraouf, Kamilia; Chang, Kai-Tai; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Polymyxin B is increasingly used as a treatment of last resort against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. Using a mammalian kidney cell line, we demonstrated that polymyxin B uptake into proximal tubular epithelial cells was saturable and occurred primarily through the apical membrane, suggesting the involvement of transporters in the renal uptake of polymyxin B. Megalin might play a role in the uptake and accumulation of polymyxin B into renal cells. PMID:24733472

  4. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis.

  5. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets sup 3 H-paroxetine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P. ); Ernouf, D. ); Breton, P. ); Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding. When binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology.

  6. Uptake, Distribution and Speciation of Chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Bluskov,S.; Arocena, J.; Omotoso, O.; Young, J.

    2005-01-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) has been widely used in phytoremediation because of its capacity to accumulate high levels of chromium (Cr) and other metals. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanism(s) involved in Cr binding and sequestration by B. juncea. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in field-moist or air-dried soils, amended with 100 mg kg -1 of Cr (III or VI). The plant concentrated Cr mainly in the roots. B. juncea removed an average of 48 and 58 {mu}g Cr per plant from Cr (III) and Cr (VI)-treated soils, respectively. The uptake of Cr was not affected by the moisture status of the soils. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed only Cr (III) bound predominantly to formate and acetate ligands, in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, respectively. In the plant tissues, Cr (III) was detected, primarily as acetate in the roots and oxalate in the leaves. X-ray microprobe showed the sites of Cr localization, and probably sequestration, in epidermal and cortical cells in the roots and epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves. These findings demonstrate the ability of B. juncea to detoxify more toxic Cr (VI), thereby making this plant a potential candidate for phytostabilization.

  7. Extracellular norepinephrine reduces neuronal uptake of norepinephrine by oxidative stress in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weike; Qin, Fuzhong; Iwai, Chikao; Vulapalli, Raju; Keng, Peter C; Liang, Chang-seng

    2004-07-01

    Cardiac norepinephrine (NE) uptake activity is reduced in congestive heart failure. Our studies in intact animals suggest that this effect on the cardiac sympathetic nerve endings is caused by oxidative stress and/or NE toxic metabolites derived from NE. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of NE on neuronal NE uptake activity and NE transporter (NET), using undifferentiated PC12 cells. Cells were incubated with NE (1-500 microM) either alone or in combination of Cu(2+) sulfate (1 microM), which promotes free radical formation by Fenton reaction for 24 h. NE uptake activity was measured using [(3)H]NE. Cell viability was determined with the use of Trypan blue exclusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, and cellular oxidative stress by dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Cell viability was reduced by NE >100 microM. At lower doses, NE produced oxidative stress and a dose-dependent reduction of NE uptake activity without affecting cell viability significantly. Cu(2+), which has no direct effect on NE uptake activity, potentiated oxidative stress and reduction of NE uptake activity produced by NE. This decrease of NE uptake activity was associated with reductions of NE uptake binding sites and NET protein expression by using the radioligand assay and Western blot analysis, but no changes in NET gene expression. In addition, the free-radical scavenger mannitol, and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, reduced oxidative stress and attenuated the reductions of NE uptake activity and NET protein produced by NE/Cu. Thus our results support a functional role of oxidative stress in mediating the neuronal NE uptake reducing effect of NE and that this effect of NE on NET is a posttranscriptional event.

  8. Effect of Uptake-one inhibitors on the uptake of norepinephrine and metaiodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Tobes, M.C.; Jaques, S. Jr.; Wieland, D.M.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) were studied using cultured bovine adrenomedullary cells as an in vitro model system. Sodium-dependent and sodium-independent uptake systems have been identified and characterized for both MIBG and NE. The sodium-dependent uptake of Ne and MIBG was inhibited by the selective Uptake-one inhibitors, desmethylimipramine (DMI) and cocaine, whereas the sodium-independent uptake for NE and MIBG was much less sensitive to inhibition by these agents. The sodium-dependent uptake system fulfills the criteria for the neuronal Uptake-one system, and the sodium-independent uptake system fulfills the criteria for a passive diffusion mechanism. Arterial concentrations proximal to the dog adrenal were very small suggesting that the sodium-dependent (Uptake-one) system is predominant in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro observations, the in vivo uptake of MIBG and NE into dog adrenal medullae was effectively blocked by pretreatment with DMI or cocaine. Therefore, iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy of the adrenal appears to reflect uptake by way of the Uptake-one system.

  9. Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants

    Treesearch

    Torgny Nasholm; Knut Kielland; Ulrika. Ganeteg

    2009-01-01

    Languishing for many years in the shadow of plant inorganic nitrogen (N) nutrition research, studies of organic N uptake have attracted increased attention during the last decade. The capacity of plants to acquire organic N, demonstrated in laboratory and field settings, has thereby been well established. Even so, the ecological significance of organic N uptake for...

  10. Incidental fleurodeoxyglucose uptake in the prostate.

    PubMed

    Wong, W L; Moule, R N; Nunan, T

    2010-11-01

    This commentary confirms the rarity of prostatic cancer associated with incidental prostatic fleurodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. The study adds to the literature by showing that even if a prostate lesion is FDG avid it is unlikely to be due to cancer. The commentary considers the management of incidental prostate FDG uptake on the basis of the available evidence.

  11. Incidental fleurodeoxyglucose uptake in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Wong, W L; Moule, R N; Nunan, T

    2010-01-01

    This commentary confirms the rarity of prostatic cancer associated with incidental prostatic fleurodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. The study adds to the literature by showing that even if a prostate lesion is FDG avid it is unlikely to be due to cancer. The commentary considers the management of incidental prostate FDG uptake on the basis of the available evidence. PMID:20965899

  12. Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

    1988-01-01

    Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

  13. Gallium 67 uptake in thymic rebound

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.; Sabio, H.; Teates, C.D.

    1988-09-01

    We have reported a case of localized thymic enlargement and uptake of gallium 67 in a child who had received antineoplastic chemotherapy. The enlarged thymus showed normal histology, a picture consistent with thymic rebound after nonspecific stress. This case further demonstrates the need to consider thymic rebound as a cause of gallium 67 uptake in children with neoplastic diseases.

  14. Glucose Metabolism in Sediments of a Eutrophic Lake: Tracer Analysis of Uptake and Product Formation †

    PubMed Central

    King, Gary M.; Klug, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of glucose and the formation of end products from glucose catabolism have been measured for sediments of eutrophic Wintergreen Lake with a combination of tritiated and 14C-labeled tracers. Time course analyses of the loss of [3H]glucose from sediments were used to establish rate constants for glucose uptake at natural substrate concentrations. Turnover times from these analyses were about 1 min for littoral and profundal sediments. No seasonal or site differences were noted in turnover times. Time course analyses of [U-14C]glucose uptake and 14C-labeled end product formation indicated that glucose mass flow could not be calculated from end product formation since the specific activity of added [14C]glucose was significantly diluted by pools of intracellular glucose and glucose metabolites. Mass flow could only be accurately estimated by use of rates of uptake from tracer studies. Intermediate fermentation end products included acetate (71%), propionate (15%), lactate (9%), and only minor amounts of butyrates or valerates. Addition of H2 to sediments resulted in greater production of lactate (28%) and decreased formation of acetate (50%), but did not affect glucose turnover. Depth profiles of glucose uptake indicated that rates of uptake decreased with depth over the 0- to 18-cm interval and that glucose uptake accounted for 30 to 40% of methanogenesis in profundal sediments. PMID:16346148

  15. Interaction of metals during their uptake and accumulation in rabbit renal cortical slices.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, R L; McGuinness, S J; Gandolfi, A J; Lowe, T P; Chen, Q; Fernando, Q

    1995-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals occurs in the kidney, which is a key site for interaction between metal nephrotoxicants. The uptake/accumulation and interaction of CdCl2, HgCl2, K2Cr2O7, and NaAsO2 was examined in precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices. Slices were incubated with 10(-6) to 10(-3) M of a single metal toxicant or combinations of metal toxicants for 12 hr in DME-F12 media. Slices were blotted and sandwiched between two mylar films stretched across XRF sample cups. Quantitation of the metal in the slices was performed by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE). The uptake of the metals was rapid, often reaching a maximum between 3 to 6 hr; the accumulation of Hg was highest, followed in order by Cd, Cr, and As. When two metals were present together, substantial alterations were observed in the uptake of the metals in the slices. HgCl2 hindered the uptake of K2Cr2O7, NaAsO2, CdCl2 (in this order), whereas these metals facilitated the uptake of HgCl2. However, a decreased uptake of both metals was often noted after exposure to other combinations of metals. PIXE analysis of metal content in slices is attractive since all elements (atomic number > 20) can be determined simultaneously. This information will be particularly useful in studying potential toxic interactions. PMID:7621806

  16. Sorptive uptake of selenium with magnetite and its supported materials onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae H; Wilson, Lee D; Sammynaiken, R

    2015-11-01

    Kinetic and equilibrium uptake studies of selenite in aqueous solution with synthetic magnetite (Mag-P), commercial magnetite (Mag-C), goethite, activated carbon (AC), and a composite material containing 19% magnetite supported on activated carbon (CM-19) were investigated. Kinetic uptake studies used a one-pot setup at pH 5.26 at variable temperature. Sampling of unbound selenite in-situ was achieved with analytical detection by atomic absorbance. The sorptive uptake at equilibrium and kinetic conditions are listed in descending order: goethite>Mag-P>Mag-C>CM-19. Kinetic uptake parameters reveal that Mag-P showed apparent negative values for the activation energy (E(a)) and the enthalpy of activation (ΔH(‡)), in agreement with a multi-step process for the kinetic uptake of selenite. By contrast, Mag-C, CM-19, and goethite showed positive values for E(a) and ΔH(‡). The uptake properties of the various sorbent materials with selenite are in accordance with the formation of inner- and out-sphere complexes. Leaching of iron from the composite material (CM-19) was attenuated due to the stabilizing effect of the magnetite within the pore sites and the surface of AC. Supported iron oxide nanomaterial composites represent a unique sorbent material with tunable uptake properties toward inorganic selenite in aqueous solution.

  17. Kinetic Characterization of Nitrite Uptake and Reduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Francisco; Cárdenas, Jacobo; Fernández, Emilio

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of nitrite uptake and reduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells growing phototrophically has been studied by means of progress curves and the Michaelis-Menten integrated equation. Both uptake and reduction processes exhibited hyperbolic saturation kinetics, the nitrite uptake system lacking a diffusion component. Nitrite uptake and reduction showed significant differences in Ks for nitrite at pH 7.5 (1.6 versus 20 micromolar, respectively), optimal pH, activation energy values, and sensitivity toward reagents of sulfhydryl groups. Ks values for nitrite uptake were halved in cells subjected to darkness or to nitrogen-starvation. Nitrate inhibited nitrite uptake by a partially competitive mechanism. The same inhibition pattern was found for nitrite uptake by C. reinhardtii mutant 305 cells incapable of nitrate assimilation. The results demonstrate that C. reinhardtii cells take up nitrite via a highly specific carrier, probably energy-dependent, kinetically responsive to environmental changes, distinguishable from the enzymic nitrite reduction and endowed with an active site for nitrite not usable for nitrate transport. PMID:16665164

  18. Highly infectious symbiont dominates initial uptake in coral juveniles.

    PubMed

    Abrego, David; VAN Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2009-08-01

    The majority of reef-building corals acquire their obligate algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) from the environment. However, factors shaping the initial establishment of coral-algal symbioses, including parental effects, local environmental conditions and local availability of symbionts, are not well understood. This study monitored the uptake and maintenance of Symbiodinium in juveniles of two common corals, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora, that were reciprocally explanted between sites where adult colonies host different types of Symbiodinium. We found that coral juveniles were rapidly dominated by type D Symbiodinium, even though this type is not found in adult colonies (including the parental colonies) in four out of the five study populations. Furthermore, type D Symbiodinium was found in less than one-third of a wide range of coral species (n > 50) sampled at the two main study sites, suggesting that its dominance in the acroporid juveniles is not because it is the most abundant local endosymbiotic type. Moreover, dominance by type D was observed irrespective of the light intensity to which juveniles were exposed in a field study. In summary, despite its relatively low abundance in coral assemblages at the study sites and irrespective of the surrounding light environment, type D Symbiodinium is the main symbiont type initially acquired by juveniles of A. millepora and A. tenuis. We conclude that during early ontogeny in these corals, there are few barriers to the uptake of Symbiodinium types which differ from those found in parental colonies, resulting in dominance by a highly infectious and potentially opportunistic symbiont.

  19. Stoichiometry and kinetics of mercury uptake by photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kis, Mariann; Sipka, Gábor; Maróti, Péter

    2017-05-01

    Mercury adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular uptake by bacteria represent the key first step in the production and accumulation of highly toxic mercury in living organisms. In this work, the biophysical characteristics of mercury bioaccumulation are studied in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria by use of analytical (dithizone) assay and physiological photosynthetic markers (pigment content, fluorescence induction, and membrane potential) to determine the amount of mercury ions bound to the cell surface and taken up by the cell. It is shown that the Hg(II) uptake mechanism (1) has two kinetically distinguishable components, (2) includes co-opted influx through heavy metal transporters since the slow component is inhibited by Ca(2+) channel blockers, (3) shows complex pH dependence demonstrating the competition of ligand binding of Hg(II) ions with H(+) ions (low pH) and high tendency of complex formation of Hg(II) with hydroxyl ions (high pH), and (4) is not a passive but an energy-dependent process as evidenced by light activation and inhibition by protonophore. Photosynthetic bacteria can accumulate Hg(II) in amounts much (about 10(5)) greater than their own masses by well-defined strong and weak binding sites with equilibrium binding constants in the range of 1 (μM)(-1) and 1 (mM)(-1), respectively. The strong binding sites are attributed to sulfhydryl groups as the uptake is blocked by use of sulfhydryl modifying agents and their number is much (two orders of magnitude) smaller than the number of weak binding sites. Biofilms developed by some bacteria (e.g., Rvx. gelatinosus) increase the mercury binding capacity further by a factor of about five. Photosynthetic bacteria in the light act as a sponge of Hg(II) and can be potentially used for biomonitoring and bioremediation of mercury-contaminated aqueous cultures.

  20. Amino Acid Uptake in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Matthew D.; Garcia, Maria O.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the extent to which arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi root improved the acquisition of simple organic nitrogen (ON) compounds by their host plants. In a greenhouse-based study, we used quantum dots (fluorescent nanoparticles) to assess uptake of each of the 20 proteinaceous amino acids by AM-colonized versus uncolonized plants. We found that AM colonization increased uptake of phenylalanine, lysine, asparagine, arginine, histidine, methionine, tryptophan, and cysteine; and reduced uptake of aspartic acid. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization had the greatest effect on uptake of amino acids that are relatively rare in proteins. In addition, AM fungi facilitated uptake of neutral and positively-charged amino acids more than negatively-charged amino acids. Overall, the AM fungi used in this study appeared to improve access by plants to a number of amino acids, but not necessarily those that are common or negatively-charged. PMID:23094070

  1. Cadmium and calcium uptake in the mollusc donax rugosus and effect of a calcium channel blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sidoumou, Z.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Romeo, M.

    1997-02-01

    Donax rugosus, a common bivalve mollusc in the coastal waters of Mauritania, has been studied for trace metal concentrations as a function of sampling site (from South of Mauritania to the North of this country) and of season. In this paper, the uptake of cadmium was experimentally studied in the different organs of D. rugosus. Since metals such as cadmium, copper and mercury may alter calcium homeostasis, calcium uptake was also studied in the animals treated with cadmium. Since calcium is taken up through specific channels, it appears that metals inhibit Ca uptake by interacting with these channels in the plasma membrane. Cadmium and calcium have very similar atomic radii, thus cadmium may be taken up through the calcium channels, particularly through voltage-dependent channels. The uptake of cadmium and calcium by D. Rugosus was therefore also studied in the presence of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Localization of glycine, GABA and neuropeptide containing neurons in tiger salamander retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Putative glycinergic and GABAergic neurons in the salamander retina were localized by a parallel analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) and a comparative analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA, like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR) at the light microscopic level. Good correspondence of labeling of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR as well as that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake and GABA-IR were observed. In addition, GAD immunoreactive neurons contained GABA-IR as well. Extensive colocalization of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR and that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA-IR and perhaps GAD-IR were indicated by the similarities in the distribution, morphology and labeling frequency of neurons and lamination in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). However, the Gly-IR and the GABA-IR probes appeared to be more sensitive and can thus be a reliable marker for glycine and GABA containing neurons respectively.

  3. Variable effects of plant colonization on black slate uptake into microbial PLFAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dachung; Gleixner, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Microbial degradation of carbon derived from black shale and slate has been shown in vitro. However, in natural settings where other labile carbon sources are likely to exist, this has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the uptake of ancient carbon derived from slate weathering and from recently photosynthesised organic matter by different groups of microorganisms. Therefore we isolated microbial biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs) from black slates collected at a chronosequence of waste piles which differed in age and vegetation cover. We quantified the amount of PLFAs and performed stable isotope and radiocarbon measurements on individual or grouped PLFAs to quantify the fraction of slate derived carbon. We used black slate from a pile heaped in the 1950s with either uncovered black slate material (bare site) or material slightly colonized by small plants (greened site) and from a forested leaching pile (forested site) used for alum-mining in the 19th century. Colonization by plants influenced the amount and composition of the microbial community. Greater amounts of PLFAs (5410 ng PLFA/g dw) were extracted from slate sampled at the forested site as opposed to the bare site (960 ng PLFAs/g dw) or the greened (annual grasses and mosses) rock waste pile (1050 ng PLFAs/g dw). We found the highest proportion of PLFAs representing Gram-negative bacteria on the forested site and the highest proportion of PLFAs representing Gram-positive bacteria on the bare site. The fungal PLFA was most abundant at the greened site. Sites with less plant colonization (bare and greened site) tended to have more depleted δ13C values compared to the forested site. Radiocarbon measurements on PLFAs indicated that fungi and Gram-positive bacteria were best adapted to black slate carbon uptake. In the fungal PLFA (combined bare and greened waste pile sample) and in PLFAs of Gram-positive bacteria (greened site) we measured 39.7% and 28.9% ancient carbon uptake

  4. Radioiodine uptake in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Bakheet, S M; Hammami, M M; Powe, J; Larsson, S

    2000-01-01

    To report two cases of sinusitis-associated radioiodine uptake in patients with thyroid cancer and to review the reported causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in the head and neck area. We present the radiologic findings in two patients who had undergone treatment for papillary thyroid cancer and discuss other settings in which radioiodine uptake suggested the presence of metastatic disease. Radioiodine whole-body scans of two patients who had had thyroid cancer demonstrated uptake in the sphenoid and maxillary sinuses, respectively, mimicking bone or brain metastatic involvement. The thyroglobulin levels were low. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning disclosed mucosal swelling in the sinuses, consistent with sinusitis. The radioiodine uptake cleared on a follow-up scan in one case and was more localized than the CT findings in the other. Eighteen causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in the head and neck area have been reported. On the basis of the mechanism of uptake, they can be classified into four categories: (1) physiologic uptake (ectopic thyroid tissue), (2) nonthyroidal pathologic conditions (dacryocystitis, sinusitis, sinus mucocele, sialadenitis, folliculitis, Warthin's tumor, parotid cyst, porencephaly, posttraumatic cerebromalacia, and inflammation due to dental disease or a nose ring), (3) internal retention (ectasia of the carotid artery and an artificial eye), and (4) external contamination by body secretions (sweat and nasal, tracheobronchial, lacrimal, and salivary secretions). The estimated prevalence of external contamination in the head and neck area on whole-body radioiodine scans is 0.3%. Physicians should rule out the presence of radioiodine uptake by inflamed mucosa of the paranasal sinuses, as well as various other causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake, before metastatic thyroid cancer in the head and neck area is diagnosed.

  5. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  6. Atmospheric CO and hydrogen uptake and CO oxidizer phylogeny for miyake-jima, Japan volcanic deposits.

    PubMed

    King, Gary M; Weber, Carolyn F; Nanba, Kenji; Sato, Yoshinori; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We have assayed rates of atmospheric CO and hydrogen uptake, maximum potential CO uptake and the major phylogenetic composition of CO-oxidizing bacterial communities for a variety of volcanic deposits on Miyake-jima, Japan. These deposits represented different ages and stages of plant succession, ranging from unvegetated scoria deposited in 1983 to forest soils on deposits >800 yr old. Atmospheric CO and hydrogen uptake rates varied from -2.0±1.8-6.3±0.1 mg CO m(-2) d(-1) and 0.0±0.4-2.0±0.2 mg H(2) m(-2) d(-1), respectively, and were similar to or greater than values reported for sites on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA. At one of the forested sites, CO was emitted to the atmosphere, while two vegetated sites did not consume atmospheric hydrogen, an unusual observation. Although maximum potential CO uptake rates were also comparable to values for Kilauea, the relationship between these rates and organic carbon contents of scoria or soil indicated that CO oxidizers were relatively more abundant in Miyake-jima deposits. Phylogenetic analyses based on the large sub-unit gene for carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (coxL) indicated that many novel lineages were present on Miyake-jima, that CO-oxidizing Proteobacteria were prevalent in vegetated sites and that community structure appeared to vary more than composition among sites.

  7. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature.

  8. [Correlation of the uptake of nitrate, nitrite and phosphate to the photosynthetic reduction of nitrate and nitrite and to the ATP-level in Ankistrodesmus braunii].

    PubMed

    Ullrich-Eberius, C I

    1973-03-01

    The pH-dependence of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake is different from that of phosphate uptake, but similar to that of sulfate uptake, with optima between pH 7.4 and 8.2 and smaller peaks at higher H(+)-concentration.Since the ATP-level is not affected by addition of ions and since phosphate uptake is not depressed by NO 3 (-) , the inhibition of phosphate uptake by K(+) reported in former papers cannot be explained by competition for the available energy(ATP) at the site of uptake.NO 3 (-) uptake is strongly dependent on the activity of the NO 3 (-) reducting system, as can be seen from the inhibition of NO 3 (-) uptake in light by N2 compared with that in air. Furthermore, the pH-dependences of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake correspond to the pH-optima known for the reductases.Phosphate uptake is enhanced by NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) in N2. Since the enhancement of phosphate uptake is sensitive to DCMU and since this DCMU-sensitive phosphate uptake is accompanied by O2-evolution, it is probably due to an NO 3 (-) -stimulated noncyclic photophosphorylation which enhances the ATP-turnover and hence the incorporation of phosphate into organic compounds.

  9. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  10. Uptake of HNO3 on hexane and aviation kerosene soots.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Ranajit K; Loukhovitskaya, Ekaterina E; Popovicheva, Olga B; Ravishankara, A R

    2006-08-10

    The uptake of HNO(3) on aviation kerosene (TC-1) soot was measured as a function of temperature (253-295 K) and the partial pressure of HNO(3), and the uptake of HNO(3) on hexane soot was studied at 295 K and over a limited partial pressure of HNO(3). The HNO(3) uptake was mostly reversible and did not release measurable amounts of gas-phase products such as HONO, NO(3), NO(2) or N(2)O(5). The heat of adsorption of HNO(3) on soot was dependent on the surface coverage. The isosteric heats of adsorption, Delta(0)H(isosteric), were determined as a function of coverage. Delta(0)H(isosteric) values were in the range -16 to -13 kcal mol(-1). The heats of adsorption decrease with increasing coverage. The adsorption data were fit to Freundlich and to Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms. The heterogeneity parameter values were close to 0.5, which suggested that a HNO(3) molecule can occupy two sites on the surface with or without being dissociated and that the soot surface could be nonuniform. Surface FTIR studies on the interaction of soot with HNO(3) did not reveal formation of any minor product such as organic nitrate or nitro compound on the soot surface. Using our measured coverage, we calculate that the partitioning of gas-phase nitric acid to black carbon aerosol is not a significant loss process of HNO(3) in the atmosphere.

  11. Cystine and dibasic amino acid uptake by opossum kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    States, B.; Segal, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The characteristics of the uptake of L-cystine by the continuous opossum kidney cell line, OK, were examined. Uptake of cystine is rapid and, in contrast to other continuous cultured cell lines, these cells retain the cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system which is found in vivo and in freshly isolated kidney tissue. Confluent monolayers of cells also fail to show the presence of the cystine/glutamate transport system present in LLC-PK1 cells, fibroblasts, and cultured hepatocytes. Uptake of cystine occurs via a high-affinity saturable process which is independent of medium sodium concentration. The predominant site of cystine transport is across the apical cell membrane. The intracellular concentration of GSH far exceeds that of cystine with a ratio greater than 100:1 for GSH:cysteine. Incubation of cells for 5 minutes with a physiological level of labelled cystine resulted in the labelling of 66% and 5% of the total intracellular cysteine and glutathione, respectively. The ability of these cells to reflect the shared cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system makes them a suitable model for investigation of the cystine carrier which is altered in human cystinuria.

  12. Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils.

  13. The uptake of water hardness metals by human hair.

    PubMed

    Evans, A O; Marsh, J M; Wickett, R R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the variables that influence the interaction between water hardness metals and human hair. Hair extracts various constituents from the tap water used during daily hygiene practices and chemical treatments. Calcium and magnesium metal ions are the most prevalent and give water "hardness." Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was employed to quantify the metal content of hair, which was studied as a function of the following variables: hair condition (oxidative damage), level of water hardness, and water pH. We have demonstrated that these variables impact water hardness metal uptake to varying extents, and the effects are driven primarily by the binding capacity (available anionic sites) of the hair. The condition of the hair, a key representation of the binding capacity, was most influential. Interestingly, water hardness levels had only a small effect on uptake; hair became saturated with notable amounts of water hardness metals even after repeated exposure to soft water. Water pH influenced metal uptake since side chains of hair proteins deprotonate with increasing alkalinity. These insights highlight the importance to the hair care industry of understanding the interaction between water hardness metals and hair.

  14. Temperature responses of carbon monoxide and hydrogen uptake by vegetated and unvegetated volcanic cinders

    PubMed Central

    King, Caitlin E; King, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem succession on a large deposit of volcanic cinders emplaced on Kilauea Volcano in 1959 has resulted in a mosaic of closed-canopy forested patches and contiguous unvegetated patches. Unvegetated and unshaded surface cinders (Bare) experience substantial diurnal temperature oscillations ranging from moderate (16 °C) to extreme (55 °C) conditions. The surface material of adjacent vegetated patches (Canopy) experiences much smaller fluctuations (14–25 °C) due to shading. To determine whether surface material from these sites showed adaptations by carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) consumption to changes in ambient temperature regimes accompanying succession, we measured responses of CO and H2 uptake to short-term variations in temperature and long-term incubations at elevated temperature. Based on its broader temperature optimum and lower activation energy, Canopy H2 uptake was less sensitive than Bare H2 uptake to temperature changes. In contrast, Bare and Canopy CO uptake responded similarly to temperature during short-term incubations, indicating no differences in temperature sensitivity. However, during extended incubations at 55 °C, CO uptake increased for Canopy but not Bare material, which indicated that the former was capable of thermal adaptation. H2 uptake for material from both sites was completely inhibited at 55 °C throughout extended incubations. These results indicated that plant development during succession did not elicit differences in short-term temperature responses for Bare and Canopy CO uptake, in spite of previously reported differences in CO oxidizer community composition, and differences in average daily and extreme temperatures. Differences associated with vegetation due to succession did, however, lead to a notable capacity for thermophilic CO uptake by Canopy but not Bare material. PMID:22258097

  15. Temperature responses of carbon monoxide and hydrogen uptake by vegetated and unvegetated volcanic cinders.

    PubMed

    King, Caitlin E; King, Gary M

    2012-08-01

    Ecosystem succession on a large deposit of volcanic cinders emplaced on Kilauea Volcano in 1959 has resulted in a mosaic of closed-canopy forested patches and contiguous unvegetated patches. Unvegetated and unshaded surface cinders (Bare) experience substantial diurnal temperature oscillations ranging from moderate (16 °C) to extreme (55 °C) conditions. The surface material of adjacent vegetated patches (Canopy) experiences much smaller fluctuations (14-25 °C) due to shading. To determine whether surface material from these sites showed adaptations by carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H(2)) consumption to changes in ambient temperature regimes accompanying succession, we measured responses of CO and H(2) uptake to short-term variations in temperature and long-term incubations at elevated temperature. Based on its broader temperature optimum and lower activation energy, Canopy H(2) uptake was less sensitive than Bare H(2) uptake to temperature changes. In contrast, Bare and Canopy CO uptake responded similarly to temperature during short-term incubations, indicating no differences in temperature sensitivity. However, during extended incubations at 55 °C, CO uptake increased for Canopy but not Bare material, which indicated that the former was capable of thermal adaptation. H(2) uptake for material from both sites was completely inhibited at 55 °C throughout extended incubations. These results indicated that plant development during succession did not elicit differences in short-term temperature responses for Bare and Canopy CO uptake, in spite of previously reported differences in CO oxidizer community composition, and differences in average daily and extreme temperatures. Differences associated with vegetation due to succession did, however, lead to a notable capacity for thermophilic CO uptake by Canopy but not Bare material.

  16. Myocardial uptake of bone scintigraphic agents associated with increased pulmonary uptake.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, Tore; Wien, Tale N; Løndalen, Ayca; Halvorsen, Erling

    2016-05-01

    Due to delivery problems with the most commonly used bone scintigraphic agent medronate-(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) (medronate), several regional institutions changed, at various time points, to (99m)Tc-dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) (Teceos) from 2010. Extraosseous uptake, in particular, myocardial uptake, was observed in a number of patient examined with DPD, with reduced quality of the bone scans. Additionally, an increase in pulmonary uptake was apparent in many of these patients. The aim of this quality control was to assess pulmonary soft tissue uptake in the patients with high myocardial uptake. A retrospective analysis of the 2435 bone scintigraphies performed during a 3-year period revealed relatively intense myocardial uptake in 10 of the 1195 patients examined with DPD (Teceos). A comparison of pulmonary uptake in a control group of age- and gender-matched subjects and a control group of patients examined with the same preparation of DPD were assessed. In patients with cardiac uptake of DPD, it could also be shown a relatively intense background uptake in the lungs with significantly higher uptake ratio over intercostals regions versus the abdomen, compared to the control groups. Furthermore, we found, as already well documented, a significantly lower bone to soft tissue uptake in these patients, as quantified by a femur to surrounding soft tissue ratio. Cardiac uptake of bone scintigraphic agents is associated with high pulmonary uptake. This may be a sign of pulmonary involvement which may give extraosseous bone tracer uptake its own importance and DPD a new role. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nutrient Uptake and Metabolism Along a Large Scale Tropical Physical-Chemical Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromboni, F.; Neres-Lima, V.; Saltarelli, W. A.; Miwa, A. C. P.; Cunha, D. G. F.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient spiraling is a whole-system approach for estimating nutrient uptake that can be used to assess aquatic ecosystems' responses to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts. Historically research on nutrient dynamic uptake in streams has focused on single nutrient dynamics and only rarely the stoichiometric uptake has been considered and linked to carbon metabolism driven by autotrophic and heterotrophic production. We investigated the relationship between uptake of phosphate (PO43-), nitrate (NO3-) ammonium (NH4+) and total dissolve nitrogen (DIN)/ PO43-; and gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in six relatively pristine streams with differences regarding canopy cover and physical characteristics, located in a large scale gradient from tropical Atlantic Forest to an Atlantic forest/Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) transition. We carried out whole stream instantaneous additions of PO43-, NO3- and NH4+ added to each stream in combination, using the TASCC (Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization) method. Metabolism measurements were performed in the same streams right after uptake was measured, using one-station open channel method and re-aeration estimations for those sites. We found different background concentrations in the streams located in the Atlantic forest compared with the transition area with Cerrado. In general PO43- and NO3- uptake increased with the decreasing of canopy cover, while a positive relation with background concentration better explained NH4+uptake. DIN/PO43- uptake increased with increasing R and NEP. Little work on functional characteristics of pristine streams has been conducted in this region and this work provides an initial characterization on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics as well as their stoichiometric uptake in streams.

  18. Ca(2+)-dependent Focal Exocytosis of Golgi-derived Vesicles Helps Phagocytic Uptake in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Nimi; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Ghanwat, Swapnil; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2017-03-31

    The role of Golgi apparatus during phagocytic uptake by macrophages has been ruled out in the past. Notably, all such reports were limited to Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we unravel a highly devolved mechanism for recruitment of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles during phagosome biogenesis, which was important for uptake of most cargos, except the IgG-coated ones. We report recruitment of mannosidase-II-positive Golgi-derived vesicles during uptake of diverse targets, including latex beads, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human and mouse macrophages. The recruitment of mannosidase-II vesicles was an early event mediated by focal exocytosis and coincided with the recruitment of transferrin receptor, VAMP3, and dynamin-2. Brefeldin A treatment inhibited mannosidase-II recruitment and phagocytic uptake of serum-coated or -uncoated latex beads and E. coli However, consistent with previous studies, brefeldin A treatment did not affect uptake of IgG-coated latex beads. Mechanistically, recruitment of mannosidase-II vesicles during phagocytic uptake required Ca(2+) from both extra- and intracellular sources apart from PI3K, microtubules, and dynamin-2. Extracellular Ca(2+) via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels established a Ca(2+)-dependent local phosphatidylinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate gradient, which guides the focal movement of Golgi-derived vesicles to the site of uptake. We confirmed Golgi-derived vesicles recruited during phagocytosis were secretory vesicles as their recruitment was sensitive to depletion of VAMP2 or NCS1, whereas recruitment of the recycling endosome marker VAMP3 was unaffected. Depletion of both VAMP2 and NCS1 individually resulted in the reduced uptake by macrophages. Together, the study provides a previously unprecedented role of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles in phagocytic uptake, the key innate defense function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Modeling the effects of organic nitrogen uptake by plants on the carbon cycling of boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.

    2013-08-01

    Boreal forest and tundra are the major ecosystems in the northern high latitudes in which a large amount of carbon is stored. These ecosystems are nitrogen-limited due to slow mineralization rate of the soil organic nitrogen. Recently, abundant field studies have found that organic nitrogen is another important nitrogen supply for boreal ecosystems. In this study, we incorporated a mechanism that allowed boreal plants to uptake small molecular amino acids into a process-based biogeochemical model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to evaluate the impact of organic nitrogen uptake on ecosystem carbon cycling. The new version of the model was evaluated at both boreal forest and tundra sites. We found that the modeled organic nitrogen uptake accounted for 36-87% of total nitrogen uptake by plants in tundra ecosystems and 26-50% for boreal forests, suggesting that tundra ecosystem might have more relied on the organic form of nitrogen than boreal forests. The simulated monthly gross ecosystem production (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) tended to be larger with the new version of the model since the plant uptake of organic nitrogen alleviated the soil nitrogen limitation especially during the growing season. The sensitivity study indicated that the most important factors controlling the plant uptake of organic nitrogen were the maximum root uptake rate (Imax) and the radius of the root (r0) in our model. The model uncertainty due to uncertain parameters associated with organic nitrogen uptake at tundra ecosystem was larger than at boreal forest ecosystems. This study suggests that considering the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is important to boreal ecosystem carbon modeling.

  20. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  1. Dynamic model of flexible phytoplankton nutrient uptake

    PubMed Central

    Bonachela, Juan A.; Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic machinery of marine microbes can be remarkably plastic, allowing organisms to persist under extreme nutrient limitation. With some exceptions, most theoretical approaches to nutrient uptake in phytoplankton are largely dominated by the classic Michaelis–Menten (MM) uptake functional form, whose constant parameters cannot account for the observed plasticity in the uptake apparatus. Following seminal ideas by earlier researchers, we propose a simple cell-level model based on a dynamic view of the uptake process whereby the cell can regulate the synthesis of uptake proteins in response to changes in both internal and external nutrient concentrations. In our flexible approach, the maximum uptake rate and nutrient affinity increase monotonically as the external nutrient concentration decreases. For low to medium nutrient availability, our model predicts uptake and growth rates larger than the classic MM counterparts, while matching the classic MM results for large nutrient concentrations. These results have important consequences for global coupled models of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, which lack this regulatory mechanism and are thus likely to underestimate phytoplankton abundances and growth rates in oligotrophic regions of the ocean. PMID:22143781

  2. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    DOE PAGES

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; ...

    2015-01-13

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, longterm free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwoodmore » species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.« less

  3. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    PubMed

    Fulweiler, Robinson W; Maguire, Timothy J; Carey, Joanna C; Finzi, Adrien C

    2014-01-01

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  4. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    PubMed Central

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems. PMID:25628636

  5. Inhibited muscle amino acid uptake in sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Hasselgren, P O; James, J H; Fischer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Amino acid uptake in vivo was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle, diaphragm, heart, and liver following intravenous injection of [3H]-alpha-amino-isobutyric acid ([3H]-AIB) in rats made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and in sham-operated controls. Muscle amino acid transport was also measured in vitro by determining uptake of [3H]-AIB in incubated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and SOL muscles. Results were expressed as distribution ratio between [3H]-AIB in intracellular and extracellular fluid. AIB uptake in vivo was reduced by 90% in SOL and cardiac muscle and by 45% in diaphragm 16 hours after CLP. In contrast, AIB uptake by liver was almost four times higher in septic than in control animals. AIB uptake in vitro was reduced by 18% in EDL 8 hours after CLP but was not significantly altered in SOL at the same time point. Sixteen hours after CLP, AIB uptake was significantly reduced in both muscles, i.e., by 17% in EDL and by 65% in SOL. When muscles from untreated rats were incubated in the presence of plasma from septic animals (16 hours CLP) or from animals injected with endotoxin (2 mg/kg body weight), AIB uptake was reduced. Addition of endotoxin in vitro (2-200 micrograms/ml) to incubated muscles did not affect AIB uptake. The results suggest that sepsis leads to marked impairment of amino acid transport system A in muscle and that this impairment is mediated by a circulating factor that is not endotoxin. Reduced uptake of amino acids by skeletal muscle during sepsis may divert amino acids to the liver for increased gluconeogenesis and protein synthesis. PMID:3963895

  6. Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2014-05-01

    This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

  7. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P M; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J L; Elzenga, Theo J T M

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form ((15)N-ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands.

  8. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  9. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  10. Valine uptake in the tap root of sugar beet: a comparative analysis with sucrose uptake.

    PubMed

    Michonneau, Philippe; Roblin, Gabriel; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette

    2004-12-01

    Given the lack of data on the absorption of amino acids in the tap root of Beta vulgaris, we studied the uptake of valine and compared it with that of sucrose at the same concentration (1 mM). The uptake of both substrates shared some similar characteristics. In particular, the absorption in both cases was controlled by an active process as evidenced by the inhibitory effect of CCCP and inhibitors of ATPases (DES, DCCD, orthovanadate). Both absorptions also involved the thiol and histidyl groups of protein carriers included in the plasmalemma as shown by treatment with specific compounds (PCMBS, mersalyl, NEM) inhibiting the transport of the nutrients in tissues and in purified PMV. However, it was shown that these uptakes present major differences. Firstly, unlike sucrose uptake, valine uptake was very sensitive to transmembrane electrical potential. Indeed, hyperpolarizing treatment with FC increased valine uptake but did not modify sucrose uptake. By contrast, treatment with high concentrations of KCl, which should result in depolarization of the cells, considerably decreased valine uptake and activated sucrose uptake. Secondly, ion mobilizations were different in the two types of transport. Unlike sucrose, application of valine to tissues strongly modified the time course of H+ influx. By contrast, sucrose uptake was controlled by K+ involvement as shown by effects either of modulators of K+ mobilization (LiCl, TEA) or of treatments inducing K+ starvation from the external medium.

  11. Inhibition of neuronal uptake of noradrenaline in the isolated perfused rat heart by pancuronium and its homologues, Org. 6368, Org. 7268 and NC 45.

    PubMed

    Salt, P J; Barnes, P K; Conway, C M

    1980-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of pancuronium may be caused partly by an interaction of this drug with the sympathetic nervous system. We examined one possible mechanism of interaction, the effect on the re-uptake processes for noradrenaline. Pancuronium and its closely related steroidal homologues, Org. 6368, Org. 7268 and NC 45, were studied at a high concentration (500 mumol litre-1) for inhibition of the uptake of tritiated noradrenaline into neuronal sites (Uptake1) and extraneuronal sites (Uptake2) in the isolated perfused rat heart. All drugs tested caused almost total inhibition of Uptake1. The bis-quaternary steroids pancuronium and Org. 6368 were selective for Uptake1 inhibition, the mono-quaternary steriods Org. 7268 and NC45 also produced significant inhibition of Uptake2. Uptake1 inhibition was investigated in detail using lesser concentrations of the compounds. All four steroids were found to cause a concentration-dependent inhibition of Uptake1. It seems likely, therefore, that inhibition of neuronal uptake of noradrenaline plays a significant role in the aetiology of the chronotropic actions of pancuronium in the rat.

  12. Value siting

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.A.; Howes, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Finding an appropriate site is becoming an increasing challenge in building new power projects. One of the first orders of business in project development is identifying a site that offers the maximum spread between the cost of fuel and net power price. The collection of sites that exhibit an adequate spread - presenting a first-order, acceptable economic expectation - must now be subjected to an ever increasing number of political, societal, technical, and economic exclusion screens. The barriers can include cooling water constraints, community resistance, visual incompatibility, archaeological concerns and endangered species preservation issues. Most power siting difficulties can be substantially mitigated by gaining access to developed, but under-used sites, whose current owners are bound by circumstances - political or financial - that prevent them from using such locations. There are two such categories of sites: Utilities that have sites on which depreciated power production assets rest; and, The federal government, with numerous sites throughout the country, particularly military bases subject to closure under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) proceedings. It is in the interests of developers, as well as consumers, investors and taxpayers, ti undertake a thorough examination of these overlooked pearls of opportunities and develop their potential.

  13. A surface-adaptive nanocarrier to prolong circulation time and enhance cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tangjian; Ma, Rujiang; Zhang, Yumin; Ding, Yuxun; Liu, Jinjian; Ou, Hanlin; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2015-10-18

    Based on the protonation/deprotonation of poly(β-amino ester) (PAE), mixed-shell micelles (MSMs) with adaptive surfaces could rapidly and reversibly change surface properties to prolong circulation time in blood (pH 7.4) and enhance cellular uptake at tumor sites (pH 6.5).

  14. Fire effects on the mobilization and uptake of nitrogen by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

    Treesearch

    Brittany G. Johnson; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank

    2011-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive annual grass, is displacing native species and causing increased fire frequency in the Great Basin of the southwestern United States. Growth and nitrogen uptake patterns by cheatgrass were examined in a greenhouse study using soils from sites with the same soil type but different fire histories: 1) an area that burned in...

  15. Converging patterns of uptake and hydraulic redistribution of soil water in contrasting woody vegetation types.

    Treesearch

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; S. Bucci; G. Goldstein; F.G. Scholz; J.M. Arren

    2004-01-01

    We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water potential (Ψsoil) to assess the effects of Ψsoil on uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles at six sites characterized by differences in the types and amounts of woody vegetations and...

  16. CONVERGING PATTERNS OF UPTAKE AND HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER IN CONTRASTING WOODY VEGETATION TYPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water potential (Ysoil) to assess the effects of Ysoil on uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles in six sites characterized by different types and amounts of woo...

  17. Examining College Students' Uptake of Facebook through the Lens of Domestication Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes Watulak, Sarah; Whitfield, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Given the prevalence of social network sites (SNS) uptake among college students, and Facebook use in particular, we seek to understand the variety of ways in which Facebook is embedded in the routine, everyday lives of undergraduates. In addition to Facebook use, we aim to shed light on non-use; why do some American undergraduates choose to use…

  18. Fire effects on the mobilization and uptake of nitrogen by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive annual grass, is displacing native species and causing increased fire frequency in the Great Basin of the southwestern United States. Growth and nitrogen uptake patterns by cheatgrass were examined in a greenhouse study using soils from sites with the sa...

  19. CONVERGING PATTERNS OF UPTAKE AND HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER IN CONTRASTING WOODY VEGETATION TYPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water potential (Ysoil) to assess the effects of Ysoil on uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles in six sites characterized by different types and amounts of woo...

  20. Nitrogen uptake and utilization by intact plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D., Jr.; Tolley-Henry, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of experiments support the proposed conceptual model that relates nitrogen uptake activity by plants as a balanced interdependence between the carbon-supplying function of the shoot and the nitrogen-supplying function of the roots. The data are being used to modify a dynamic simulation of plant growth, which presently describes carbon flows through the plant, to describe nitrogen uptake and assimilation within the plant system. Although several models have been proposed to predict nitrogen uptake and partitioning, they emphasize root characteristics affecting nutrient uptake and relay on empirical methods to describe the relationship between nitrogen and carbon flows within the plant. Researchers, on the other hand, propose to continue to attempt a mechanistic solution in which the effects of environment on nitrogen (as well as carbon) assimilation are incorporated through their direct effects on photosynthesis, respiration, and aging processes.

  1. Caged mussels and semipermeable membrane devices as indicators of organic contaminant uptake in Dorchester and Duxbury Bays, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Peven, C.S.; Uhler, A.D.; Querzoli, F.J.

    1996-02-01

    An experiment to measure organic contaminant depuration by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was carried out by transplanting mussels in stainless steel cages from a known contaminated site in Dorchester Bay, Massachusetts to a documented clean site in Duxbury Bay, Massachusetts approximately 30 nmi south of the original collection site. A parallel contaminant uptake experiment was performed in which mussels from Duxbury Bay were collected and deployed in similar cages in Dorchester Bay. The bivalves were collected from each transplant site at set intervals over a period of 95 days to monitor the rates and selectivity of depuration and uptake, respectively, of polynuclear atomic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and chlorinated pesticides. In a related study, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD: polyethylene bags) containing the lipid material triolein were deployed in Dorchester Bay and collected at the same frequency as the caged mussels to evaluate their effectiveness as models for estimating bioconcentration of target organic contaminants. At the Duxbury site, results suggest that the caged mussels depurated contaminants within 68 days to levels found in native animals at the site. At the Dorchester site, bivalves concentrated the contaminants to a level similar to the native M. edulis. PCB and DDT uptake rates were found to be similar between caged mussels and SPMDs; PAH uptake by the SPMDs was initially lower than by transplanted bivalves. PCB and PAH assemblages were noticeably different between bivalves and SPMDs deployed at the same site.

  2. Uptake of AV-1451 in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Tyler J; Johnson, Derek R; Fang, Ping; Senjem, Matthew; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Boeve, Bradley F; Pandey, Mukesh K; Kantarci, Kejal; Jones, David T; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murray, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Schwarz, Christopher G; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J

    2017-09-08

    AV-1451 is an imaging agent labeled with the positron-emitting radiolabel Fluorine-18. 18F-AV-1451 binds paired helical filament tau (PHF-tau), a pathology related to Alzheimer's disease. In our study of AV-1451 uptake in the brains of cognitively normal subjects, we noted a case of a meningioma with visually significant uptake of AV-1451. We initiated the present retrospective study to further examine cases of meningioma that underwent AV-1451 imaging. We searched the patient records of 650 patients who had undergone AV-1451 at our institution for the keyword "meningioma" to identify potential cases. PET/CT and MRI results were visually reviewed and semi-quantitative analysis of PET was performed. A paired student's t test was run between background and tumor standard uptake values. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications on CT. We identified 12 cases of meningioma, 58% (7/12) of which demonstrated uptake greater than background using both visual analysis and tumor-to-normal cortex ratios (T/N + 1.90 ± 0.83). The paired student's t test revealed no statistically significant difference between background and tumor standard uptake values (p = 0.09); however, cases with a T/N ratio greater than one showed statistically higher uptake in tumor tissue (p = 0.01). A significant association was noted between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications (p = 0.01). AV-1451 PET imaging should be reviewed concurrently with anatomic imaging to prevent misleading interpretations of PHF-tau distribution due to meningiomas.

  3. Neptunium uptake by serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Isabelle; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moisy, Philippe; Ansoborlo, Eric; Vidaud, Claude; Funke, Harld

    2005-04-01

    Although of major impact in terms of biological and environmental hazards, interactions of actinide cations with biological molecules are only partially understood. Human serum transferrin (Tf) is one of the major iron carriers in charge of iron regulation in the cell cycle and consequently contamination by actinide cations is a critical issue of nuclear toxicology. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and near infrared absorption spectrometry were used to characterize a new complex between Tf and Np (IV) with the synergistic nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anion. Description of the neptunium polyhedron within the iron coordination site is given.

  4. General aspects of muscle glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Rafael O; Cheuhen, Marcel R; Machado, Silmara R; Sousa, André Gustavo P; Santos, Paulo C J L

    2015-03-01

    Glucose uptake in peripheral tissues is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. Studies have shown the existence of two major signaling pathways that lead to the translocation of GLUT4. The first, and widely investigated, is the insulin activated signaling pathway through insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The second is the insulin-independent signaling pathway, which is activated by contractions. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle due to the phenomenon of insulin resistance. However, those individuals have normal glucose uptake during exercise. In this context, physical exercise is one of the most important interventions that stimulates glucose uptake by insulin-independent pathways, and the main molecules involved are adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide, bradykinin, AKT, reactive oxygen species and calcium. In this review, our main aims were to highlight the different glucose uptake pathways and to report the effects of physical exercise, diet and drugs on their functioning. Lastly, with the better understanding of these pathways, it would be possible to assess, exactly and molecularly, the importance of physical exercise and diet on glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it would be possible to assess the action of drugs that might optimize glucose uptake and consequently be an important step in controlling the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, in addition to being important to clarify some pathways that justify the development of drugs capable of mimicking the contraction pathway.

  5. Nod factor enhances calcium uptake by soybean.

    PubMed

    Supanjani, S; Habib, A; Mabood, F; Lee, K D; Donnelly, D; Smith, D L

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation with rhizobia or application of Nod factors (lipo-chitooligosaccharides, LCOs) causes transient increases in cytosolic calcium concentration in root hairs of legume plants. We conducted experiments to evaluate whether application of LCO and inoculation with rhizobia improved (45)CaCl(2) uptake into soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves. Roots of soybean seedlings with one developing trifoliolate were immersed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal liquid medium containing treatment solutions and (45)CaCl(2), and the plants were incubated under continuous light. After 24 h, leaf samples were taken, and their radioactivity levels were determined. Addition of NodBj-V (C18:1 MeFuc) at a concentration of 10(-7) M increased (45)Ca(2+) uptake. Inoculation with genistein-induced Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 532C and USDA3 also increased (45)Ca(2+) uptake; whereas, inoculation with strain Bj-168, a nodC-mutant incapable of producing LCO, did not. Rhizobia that do not normally nodulate soybean, i.e. Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Sinorhizobium meliloti did not affect calcium uptake, nor did the tetramer or pentamer of chitosan, or lumichrome. Surprisingly, Rhizobium sp. NGR234, which can nodulate some types of soybean, although without effective N(2)-fixation, also did not affect calcium uptake. This work suggests that the rhizobial symbiosis, in addition to its known role in provision of nitrogen fixation, also improves early calcium uptake into soybean plants.

  6. Statins impair glucose uptake in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Malenda, Agata; Skrobanska, Anna; Issat, Tadeusz; Winiarska, Magdalena; Bil, Jacek; Oleszczak, Bozenna; Sinski, Maciej; Firczuk, Małgorzata; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Chlebowska, Justyna; Staruch, Adam D; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Krolicki, Leszek; Szablewski, Leszek; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Koziak, Katarzyna; Jakobisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub; Nowis, Dominika A

    2012-04-01

    Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases owing to their lipid-lowering effects. Previous studies revealed that, by modulating membrane cholesterol content, statins could induce conformational changes in cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) tetraspanin. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the influence of statins on glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated glucose uptake in tumor cells. We observed a significant concentration- and time-dependent decrease in glucose analogs' uptake in several tumor cell lines incubated with statins. This effect was reversible with restitution of cholesterol synthesis pathway with mevalonic acid as well as with supplementation of plasma membrane with exogenous cholesterol. Statins did not change overall GLUT1 expression at neither transcriptional nor protein levels. An exploratory clinical trial revealed that statin treatment decreased glucose uptake in peripheral blood leukocytes and lowered (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake by tumor masses in a mantle cell lymphoma patient. A bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the structure of human GLUT1 and to identify putative cholesterol-binding motifs in its juxtamembrane fragment. Altogether, the influence of statins on glucose uptake seems to be of clinical significance. By inhibiting (18)F-FDG uptake, statins can negatively affect the sensitivity of positron emission tomography, a diagnostic procedure frequently used in oncology.

  7. Modelling uptake and toxicity of nickel in solution to Enchytraeus crypticus with biotic ligand model theory.

    PubMed

    He, Erkai; Qiu, Hao; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-05-01

    Protons and other cations may inhibit metal uptake and alleviate metal toxicity in aquatic organisms, but less is known about these interactions in soil organisms. The present study investigated the influence of solution chemistry on uptake and toxicity of Ni in Enchytraeus crypticus after 14 days exposure. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Na(+) were found to exert significant effects on both uptake and toxicity of Ni. An extended Langmuir model, which incorporated cation competition effects, well predicted Ni uptake. The LC50{Ni(2+)} predicted by a developed Biotic Ligand Model matched well with observed values. These suggest that cation competition needs to be taken into account when modelling uptake and effects. The binding constants of Ni(2+), Mg(2+) and Na(+) on the uptake and toxic action sites were similar, but for Ca(2+) they differed. This indicates that the effect of Ca(2+) on Ni(2+) toxicity cannot simply be explained by the competition for entry into organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    PubMed

    Millett, J; Foot, G W; Svensson, B M

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant-prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific.

  9. Utilization of a Model for Uptake of Cadmium by Plants as a Phytoremediation Assessment Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Furbish, D. J.; Clarke, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some traditional methods of environmental remediation, such as removal and disposal of contaminated soil, are loosing economic favor and public acceptance, while others, such as in situ phytoremediation, are being carefully examined because of their attractiveness as environmentally friendly, low-cost solutions to site clean-up. The success of phytoremediation strategies, however, hinges on the ability of selected plants, or plant communities, to effectively uptake, accumulate and tolerate targeted contaminants. Heavy metals, specifically cadmium (Cd), are not essential nutrients to plants. However, chemically similar zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient and is actively taken up by hyperaccumulators. For this reason, the mechanisms involved in uptake of Cd parallel those of Zn. Ideally, Cd would be allocated to the stem, leaf, and/or flower, where it becomes harvestable. Our modeling work simulates the uptake and the storage of Cd in a growing hyperaccumulator. After uptake, Cd is partitioned between adsorption to plant tissue and upward movement to leaves driven by transpiration. Uptake, adsorption and transport are also regulated by phytotoxicity. Simulations suggest that a young plant with small biomass can quickly reach phytotoxicity, which shuts down the normal operation of the plant. Conversely, mature plants on a mildly contaminated site, if harvested before the plants die due to phytotoxicity or natural cause, not only survive but may occasionally thrive. The immediate aim is to estimate the effectiveness and limitations of Cd uptake by hyperaccumulators. The eventual goal of this study is to expand the model in spatial and temporal scales, from individual plants to the community scale, and from one harvest interval to several generations. Understanding the interface between physical and biological processes, specifically the uptake and release of contaminants, provides scientists and engineers tools to assess whether phytoremediation is a reasonable strategy for a

  10. Relating phosphorus uptake to changes in transient storage and streambed sediment characteristics in headwater tributaries of Valley Creek, an urbanizing watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert J.; Packman, Aaron I.; Kilham, Susan S.

    2007-04-01

    SummaryPhosphorus uptake dynamics were examined in two small streams in the Valley Creek watershed, located in an urbanizing area approximately 30 km west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The goal of this research was to examine how phosphorus uptake is influenced by temporal changes in bed sediment characteristics and transient storage in streams within an urbanizing watershed. We conducted tracer studies with a conservative solute, observed phosphorus uptake in situ and in laboratory experiments, and measured fine bed sediment grain size distributions and chemical compositions at both sites. At the Morehall Rd. site, the total laboratory and in situ uptake rates were related to the silt-clay ( d < 50 μm) content of the fine ( d < 2 mm) bed sediment and the sediment phosphorus concentration. The in situ uptake rate was also related to the sediment magnesium content and the transient storage exchange rate and area. At the Sheldrake Rd. site, the phosphorus uptake rates observed in situ and in the laboratory were not significantly related to any of the measured stream or sediment characteristics. However, the areal average uptake (uptake flux), was related to the transient storage exchange rate. In addition, the abiotic contribution to in situ uptake was evaluated by comparing the in situ and laboratory measured uptake rates. The total abiotic in situ uptake rate was found to be related to the bed sediment silt-clay content and the transient storage residence time, while the abiotic uptake flux was related to the transient storage residence time. Overall, these urbanizing streams were less efficient at removing phosphorus from the water column than forested streams in non-urban settings.

  11. Site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO/sub 2/ content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate.

  12. The soil H2 uptake in a future hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Y.; Chan, W.; Scott, N. A.; Layzell, D. B.

    2009-05-01

    Hydrogen as a source of energy has been proposed as the next generation of fuel that would decrease dependence on fossil fuels. Using H2 as an alternative energy source could lead to an increase in atmospheric H2 concentration above the current level of 0.55 ppm. Recent studies have proposed that the potential increase in atmospheric H2 concentration may lead to changes in atmospheric chemistry, notably that the atmospheric lifetime of methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas) will increase. In terms of hydrogen sinks, soil microbes currently account for about 80% of the H2 removed from our current atmosphere. A key question is whether the sink strength of soil will change with an increase in atmospheric H2 concentrations. Soil microbes would be expected to respond by increasing their number or capacity for H2 consumption. This study tests the hypothesis that H2 uptake by soils will adapt to long term exposure to elevated H2 and provide an increased feedback regulation over atmospheric H2 levels. In a laboratory study with constant soil temperature and moisture, soil was exposed to 0.5 ppm (current atmospheric), 1.4 ppm (two and half-fold enrichment) and 2.5 ppm (five-fold enrichment) H2 for 243 days. After 67 days, H2 uptake rates increase linearly in response to different H2 concentrations with a 4 and 7 fold increase in the 1.4 ppm and 2.5 ppm H2 treatment, respectively, relative to current atmospheric H2. However, at a longer term H2 exposure, a convex relationship of H2 uptake rates to H2 concentrations was found. After 8 months H2 exposure, soil showed a 7 and 10 fold increase in the 1.4 ppm and 2.5 ppm H2 treatment respectively, relative to current atmospheric H2. The active site of soil H2 uptake was found to be in the very surface soil layer, and was only active as long as soils were kept moist. This suggests that soil has a high capacity of H2 deposition, but some factor may ultimately limit H2 uptake rates in soils, and that soil may not have an infinite

  13. Cellular uptake of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA).

    PubMed

    Haldane, A; Finlay, G J; Hay, M P; Denny, W A; Baguley, B C

    1999-06-01

    N-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA), a DNA intercalating dual topoisomerase I/II poison, has high experimental antitumour activity, is able to overcome several forms of multidrug resistance, and is undergoing clinical trial. We prepared 3H-labelled DACA and investigated its uptake using cultured Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLTC), P388 leukaemia cells and P/DACT cells that were multidrug resistant. The kinetics of uptake and efflux were very rapid and equilibrium was obtained within seconds of drug addition. Fluorescence microscopy of LLTC cells treated with DACA showed punctate fluorescence in the cytoplasm, consistent with uptake into vesicles. To investigate the role of lipophilicity in drug uptake, a fluorimetric assay was developed to measure uptake of a more hydrophilic derivative, 9-amino-5-sulphonylmethyl-DACA (as-DACA). The calculated n-octanol-water partition coefficient for as-DACA was 20-fold lower than that for DACA. On the other hand, as determined by ethidium displacement from DNA, as-DACA bound DNA 16-fold more strongly than did DACA. Uptake and efflux of DACA and as-DACA were very rapid and the uptake ratios in LLTC cells were 550 for DACA and 54 for as-DACA. At equitoxic concentrations (corresponding to the IC50 values), LLTC cell association was estimated to be approximately 1.6 x 10(8) molecules per cell for DACA and 3.0 x 10(6) molecules per cell for as-DACA. It is argued that DACA binds predominantly to lipophilic sites such as proteins and cellular membranes, while as-DACA associates predominantly with DNA. The high affinity of DACA for membranes may contribute to the rapidity of its uptake and efflux, as well as to its ability to overcome multidrug resistance.

  14. Uptake and modeling of pesticides by roots and shoots of parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum).

    PubMed

    Turgut, Cafer

    2005-11-01

    Aquatic plants have a great potential to function as in situ, on-site biosinks and biofilters of pollutants. They are used for phytoremediation and phytotoxicity studies. Pesticide uptake studies are very important to predict contaminant accumulation, translocation, and transformation. There are a lot of models which have been developed for emergent plants, but there are not any existing models for submerged aquatic plants for assessing pesticide uptake. In this study, uptake of selected pesticides in parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) were studied and the results were modeled with the aid of Log Kow and the concentration of pesticides. At the end, the developed model was compared to other existing models. The test was conducted with parrotfeather as a model plant. The bioassay and cultivation of this plant were examined. Pesticide uptake by roots and shoots was determined using 14C-radiolabeled materials. The results were fitted with an equation that showed a relationship between uptake and lipophilicity of pesticides. The model was compared with other pesticide uptake models developed for other plants. Atrazine and cycloxidim were taken up more by roots than by shoots in comparison to other pesticides used. The total uptake, both in shoots and roots, was lower than for terbutryn and trifluralin. The best appropriate model was developed from the results against the other models seen in the literature. The concentration factors (Root Concentration Factor (RCF) and Submerged Shoot Concentration Factor (SSCF)) increased with a higher Kow of the substances. The Submerged Shoot Concentration Factor (SSCF) revealed a better relationship of the chemicals than did the Root Concentration Factor (RCF). In this study, an uptake model was developed for rooted, submerged aquatic plants. Further studies are necessary to develop and compare models with different plants and pesticides. Such studies as this one may be extended to other environmental pollutants in the aquatic

  15. Follow-up bone scan in breast cancer patients: what is the appropriate interpretation of purely rib uptake?

    PubMed

    Seo, Minjung; Ko, Byung Kyun; Tae, Soon Young; Koh, Su-Jin; Noh, Young Ju; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Bae, Kyungkyg; Bang, Minseo; Jun, Sungmin; Park, Seol Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Although rib uptake is frequently detected in follow-up bone scans of breast cancer patients, few studies have assessed its clinical significance. Among 1208 breast cancer patients who underwent a bone scan between 2011 and 2014, 157 patients presented with newly detected rib uptake at follow-up. Patients who had underlying bone metastases (n=8) or had simultaneous new uptake in sites other than the rib (n=13) were excluded. The patients enrolled finally were those who had purely rib uptakes. The location, intensity, and final diagnosis of the uptake were evaluated by nuclear medicine physicians. A total of 275 new instances of rib uptake were detected in follow-up bone scans of 136 patients. These were more frequently located on the ipsilateral side of the breast cancer (61.1%) and the anterior arc (65.1%), and they presented as moderate to intense (93.1%) uptakes. Among these, 265 lesions in 130 patients turned out to be benign fractures (96.4%), whereas only 10 lesions in six patients were metastases. The proportion of metastases was significantly higher if the uptake was linear or if the patient had recurrence. It was marginally higher if the uptake was located in the posterior arc. The proportion of metastases within the radiation field was significantly lower in patients with a history of irradiation. Newly detected purely rib uptake on a follow-up bone scan in patients who have been treated for breast cancer is mostly because of fractures and rarely signals metastasis. However, if the patient has disease recurrence, metastasis should strongly be suspected, particularly when uptake is linear or located in the posterior arc.

  16. The effects of (-)-daurisoline on Ca2+ influx in presynaptic nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. M.; Liu, G. Q.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of (-)-daurisoline on 45Ca2+ uptake and [3H]-gamma-aminobutyric acid ([3H]-GABA) release from synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex and on contractile activity of rat aorta were examined. 2. Application of (-)-daurisoline (1-100 microM) produced concentration-related inhibition of high K(+)-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake and [3H]-GABA release (IC50 = 7.7 +/- 0.9 microM and 10.0 +/- 1.5 microM, respectively) in synaptosomes but verapamil was only weakly active. 3. Neither (-)-daurisoline (100 microM) nor verapamil (100 microM) modified 45Ca2+ uptake in control medium (5 mM K+, resting uptake) and [3H]-GABA release in Ca-free medium (45 mM K+ basal release). 4. High K+ and noradrenaline-evoked contractions of rat aorta were inhibited by both (-)-daurisoline and verapamil. 5. In conclusion, (-)-daurisoline, which differed from verapamil in its mode of blocking Ca2+ influx may be a potent Ca2+ antagonist of Ca2+ channels in neurones. PMID:2282465

  17. Function of taurine transporter (Slc6a6/TauT) as a GABA transporting protein and its relevance to GABA transport in rat retinal capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tomi, Masatoshi; Tajima, Ayumi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the uptake mechanism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via taurine transporter (Slc6a6/TauT) and its relationship with GABA transport at the inner BRB. Rat Slc6a6/TauT-transfected HeLa cells exhibited Na(+)-, Cl(-)-, and concentration-dependent [3H]GABA uptake with a Km of 1.5 mM. Taurine, beta-alanine, and GABA markedly inhibited Slc6a6/TauT-mediated uptake of [3H]GABA. The uptake of [3H]GABA by a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2) was Na(+)-, Cl(-)-, and concentration-dependent with a Km of 2.0 mM. This process was more potently inhibited by substrates of Slc6a6/TauT, taurine and beta-alanine, than those of GABA transporters, GABA and betaine. In the presence of taurine, there was competitive inhibition with a Ki of 74 microM. [3H]Taurine also exhibited competitive inhibition with a Ki of 1.8 mM in the presence of GABA. In conclusion, rat Slc6a6/TauT has the ability to use GABA as a substrate and Slc6a6/TauT-mediated GABA transport appears to be present at the inner BRB.

  18. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  19. [The influence of sodium and potassium ions on the uptake of phosphate by Ankistrodesmus braunii].

    PubMed

    Ullrich-Eberius, C I; Simonis, W

    1970-09-01

    The uptake of phosphate as influenced by sodium and potassium ions was investigated in the light and in the dark. It was found to be a function of the external phosphate concentration. At a low concentration (up to 10(-5) mol/l) in the presence of Na(+) phosphate is quickly absorbed and hence phosphate is the limiting factor for further labelling. In the presence of K(+) phosphate uptake is constant over a long period.The enhancement of phosphate uptake by Na(+) is also found when the external concentration of P is raised up to 10(-4) mol/l. Then the gross uptake proceeds over six hours, with the greatest Na(+)-dependent increase occurring in the label of the TCA-insoluble phosphate fraction (Pu).The phosphate uptake is strongly dependent on the pH of the reaction mixture. In the presence of Na(+) it is highest between pH 5.6 and 7. As the uptake in the presence of K(+) parallels the dissociation curve of the dihydrogen form H2PO 4 (-) , the Na(+)-enhancement is optimal in the alkaline pH range (pH 8).On the basis of a comparison between the pH-dependence of phosphate uptake and the dependence of the uptake on the external phosphate concentration analysed by a method of enzyme kinetics, it is suggested that Ankistrodesmus metabolically transports H2PO 4 (-) but not HPO 4 (=) . Moreover, it is concluded from the absence of light stimulation and the weak inhibition of the uptake by DCMU or CCCP in the presence of K(+) that at low P-concentrations the diffusion is limiting the uptake. Only at higher concentrations is an active phosphate uptake measured.Furthermore it is concluded that the observed Na(+)-stimulation of the (32)P-labelling of the TCA-soluble and insoluble compounds inside the cell is indirect and depends only on the action of Na(+) and K(+) ions at the first transport site in the plasmalemma.

  20. Fluvoxamine, a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Claassen, V; Davies, J E; Hertting, G; Placheta, P

    1977-08-01

    1. On the basis of both in vitro and in vivo experiments fluvoxamine has been characterized as a potential anti-depressant drug with almost exclusively 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake inhibiting properties. 2. Fluvoxamine is effective in inhibiting 5-ht uptake by blood platelets and brain synaptosomes. Due to inhibition of the membrane pump the compound prevents 5-HT depletion by the tyramine-derivatives H 75/12 and H 77/77. As a result of the interference with the neuronal re-uptake mechanism for 5-HT, fluvoxamine produces a decreased 5-HT turnover in the brain. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are potentiated in mice and in combination with pargyline, fluvoxamine induces 5-HT-like behavioural effects. 3. In contrast to tricyclic antidepressants, noradrenaline uptake processes are either unaffected or only slightly inhibited by fluvoxamine. The noradrenaline depleting effects of tyramine derivates are not influenced by fluvoxamine. Reserpine effects, such as ptosis are affected only at very high doses of the test compound. The antagonism by fluvoxamine of the reserpine-induced lowering of the pentamethylenetetrazole convulsive threshold can be regarded as due to an effect upon 5-HT uptake. In contrast to the effects of desmethylimipramine and imipramine, no stimulatory effects are found in rats when rapidly acting reserpine-like compounds are given following a dose of fluvoxamine.

  1. Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Torgny; Kielland, Knut; Ganeteg, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    Languishing for many years in the shadow of plant inorganic nitrogen (N) nutrition research, studies of organic N uptake have attracted increased attention during the last decade. The capacity of plants to acquire organic N, demonstrated in laboratory and field settings, has thereby been well established. Even so, the ecological significance of organic N uptake for plant N nutrition is still a matter of discussion. Several lines of evidence suggest that plants growing in various ecosystems may access organic N species. Many soils display amino acid concentrations similar to, or higher than, those of inorganic N, mainly as a result of rapid hydrolysis of soil proteins. Transporters mediating amino acid uptake have been identified both in mycorrhizal fungi and in plant roots. Studies of endogenous metabolism of absorbed amino acids suggest that L- but not D-enantiomers are efficiently utilized. Dual labelled amino acids supplied to soil have provided strong evidence for plant uptake of organic N in the field but have failed to provide information on the quantitative importance of this process. Thus, direct evidence that organic N contributes significantly to plant N nutrition is still lacking. Recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant organic N uptake may open new avenues for the exploration of this subject.

  2. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Manuela; Stork, Michiel

    2014-12-01

    Plasmids confer genetic information that benefits the bacterial cells containing them. In pathogenic bacteria, plasmids often harbor virulence determinants that enhance the pathogenicity of the bacterium. The ability to acquire iron in environments where it is limited, for instance the eukaryotic host, is a critical factor for bacterial growth. To acquire iron, bacteria have evolved specific iron uptake mechanisms. These systems are often chromosomally encoded, while those that are plasmid-encoded are rare. Two main plasmid types, ColV and pJM1, have been shown to harbor determinants that increase virulence by providing the cell with essential iron for growth. It is clear that these two plasmid groups evolved independently from each other since they do not share similarities either in the plasmid backbones or in the iron uptake systems they harbor. The siderophores aerobactin and salmochelin that are found on ColV plasmids fall in the hydroxamate and catechol group, respectively, whereas both functional groups are present in the anguibactin siderophore, the only iron uptake system found on pJM1-type plasmids. Besides siderophore-mediated iron uptake, ColV plasmids carry additional genes involved in iron metabolism. These systems include ABC transporters, hemolysins, and a hemoglobin protease. ColV- and pJM1-like plasmids have been shown to confer virulence to their bacterial host, and this trait can be completely ascribed to their encoded iron uptake systems.

  3. Fluvoxamine, a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, V; Davies, J E; Hertting, G; Placheta, P

    1977-01-01

    1. On the basis of both in vitro and in vivo experiments fluvoxamine has been characterized as a potential anti-depressant drug with almost exclusively 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake inhibiting properties. 2. Fluvoxamine is effective in inhibiting 5-ht uptake by blood platelets and brain synaptosomes. Due to inhibition of the membrane pump the compound prevents 5-HT depletion by the tyramine-derivatives H 75/12 and H 77/77. As a result of the interference with the neuronal re-uptake mechanism for 5-HT, fluvoxamine produces a decreased 5-HT turnover in the brain. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are potentiated in mice and in combination with pargyline, fluvoxamine induces 5-HT-like behavioural effects. 3. In contrast to tricyclic antidepressants, noradrenaline uptake processes are either unaffected or only slightly inhibited by fluvoxamine. The noradrenaline depleting effects of tyramine derivates are not influenced by fluvoxamine. Reserpine effects, such as ptosis are affected only at very high doses of the test compound. The antagonism by fluvoxamine of the reserpine-induced lowering of the pentamethylenetetrazole convulsive threshold can be regarded as due to an effect upon 5-HT uptake. In contrast to the effects of desmethylimipramine and imipramine, no stimulatory effects are found in rats when rapidly acting reserpine-like compounds are given following a dose of fluvoxamine. PMID:302726

  4. Water uptake mechanism in crispy bread crust.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Neleke H; Meinders, Marcel B J; Tromp, R Hans; Hamer, Rob J; van Vliet, Ton

    2008-08-13

    Crispness is an important quality characteristic of dry solid food products such as crispy rolls. Its retention is directly related to the kinetics of water uptake by the crust. In this study, a method for the evaluation of the water sorption kinetics in bread crust is proposed. Two different sorption experiments were used: an oscillatory sorption test and a sorption test in which the air relative humidity (RH) was increased stepwise. These two experiments had different time scales, which made it possible to get a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. Results show that the adsorption and desorption dynamics of the oscillatory sorption test could be described by a single exponential in time. The water uptake rate ( k) was one of the fitting parameters. A maximum in the water uptake rate was found for a RH value between 50 and 70%. The rate parameters of the experiment where RH was increased stepwise were around a factor 10 lower than those derived from oscillatory sorption experiments. This is an important factor when designing experiments for the determination of water uptake rates. In addition, also a parameter describing the time dependence of the rate parameters of the oscillatory sorption experiment was calculated (C), again by fitting a single exponential to the rate parameters. C was in the same range as the rate parameter of the isotherm experiment. This indicates that different (relaxation) processes are acting at the same time in the bread crust during water uptake.

  5. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  6. Action on low immunization uptake.

    PubMed

    Azubuike, M C; Ehiri, J E

    1998-01-01

    Despite a number of initiatives and campaigns over the years, immunization coverage in most parts of Nigeria remains low. That low coverage contributes to high morbidity and mortality levels among children. Poor transport, an ineffective cold chain, shortages of trained manpower, and inadequate community support and involvement are some of the factors which explain the underutilization of the immunization service. Aba is a city of approximately 500,000 people in eastern Nigeria in which the majority of inhabitants are traders. Aba's primary health care committee decided that immunization centers should be established in or near main trading areas to accommodate traders who did not want to leave their goods in order to take their children to primary care facilities for immunization. Traders' representatives helped to identify 8 suitable locations for vaccination sites in 3 shopping centers, the local authority provided financial and political support, and the state government gave technical and logistical assistance. The project began in September 1990 and was publicized through the traders' networks, which also helped to mobilize the relevant resources. Since many trading families were reached for the first time at the special centers, immunization coverage improved significantly for the 6 vaccine-preventable childhood diseases. Moreover, the project gave health workers the opportunity to deliver other services and counseling on matters of public health importance.

  7. Characterization of a Dipartite Iron Uptake System from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain F11*

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Doreen; Chan, Anson C. K.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Lilie, Hauke; Grass, Gregor; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2011-01-01

    In the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11, in silico genome analysis revealed the dicistronic iron uptake operon fetMP, which is under iron-regulated control mediated by the Fur regulator. The expression of fetMP in a mutant strain lacking known iron uptake systems improved growth under iron depletion and increased cellular iron accumulation. FetM is a member of the iron/lead transporter superfamily and is essential for iron uptake by the Fet system. FetP is a periplasmic protein that enhanced iron uptake by FetM. Recombinant FetP bound Cu(II) and the iron analog Mn(II) at distinct sites. The crystal structure of the FetP dimer reveals a copper site in each FetP subunit that adopts two conformations: CuA with a tetrahedral geometry composed of His44, Met90, His97, and His127, and CuB, a second degenerate octahedral geometry with the addition of Glu46. The copper ions of each site occupy distinct positions and are separated by ∼1.3 Å. Nearby, a putative additional Cu(I) binding site is proposed as an electron source that may function with CuA/CuB displacement to reduce Fe(III) for transport by FetM. Together, these data indicate that FetMP is an additional iron uptake system composed of a putative iron permease and an iron-scavenging and potentially iron-reducing periplasmic protein. PMID:21596746

  8. Isotopic signatures of production and uptake of H2 by soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Popa, M. E.; Batenburg, A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-09-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the second most abundant reduced trace gas (after methane) in the atmosphere, but its biogeochemical cycle is not well understood. Our study focuses on the soil production and uptake of H2 and the associated isotope effects. Air samples from a grass field and a forest site in the Netherlands were collected using soil chambers. The results show that uptake and emission of H2 occurred simultaneously at all sampling sites, with strongest emission at the grassland sites where clover (N2 fixing legume) was present. The H2 mole fraction and deuterium content were measured in the laboratory to determine the isotopic fractionation factor during H2 soil uptake (αsoil) and the isotopic signature of H2 that is simultaneously emitted from the soil (δDsoil). By considering all net-uptake experiments, an overall fractionation factor for deposition of αsoil = kHD/kHH = 0.945 ± 0.004 (95 % CI) was obtained. The difference in mean αsoil between the forest soil 0.937 ± 0.008 and the grassland 0.951 ± 0.025 is not statistically significant. For two experiments, the removal of soil cover increased the deposition velocity (vd) and αsoil simultaneously, but a general positive correlation between vd and αsoil was not found in this study. When the data are evaluated with a model of simultaneous production and uptake, the isotopic composition of H2 that is emitted at the grassland site is calculated as δDsoil = (-530 ± 40) ‰. This is less deuterium-depleted than what is expected from isotope equilibrium between H2O and H2.

  9. Isotopic signatures of production and uptake of H2 by soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Popa, M. E.; Batenburg, A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-11-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the second most abundant reduced trace gas (after methane) in the atmosphere, but its biogeochemical cycle is not well understood. Our study focuses on the soil production and uptake of H2 and the associated isotope effects. Air samples from a grass field and a forest site in the Netherlands were collected using soil chambers. The results show that uptake and emission of H2 occurred simultaneously at all sampling sites, with strongest emission at the grassland sites where clover (N2 fixing legume) was present. The H2 mole fraction and deuterium content were measured in the laboratory to determine the isotopic fractionation factor during H2 soil uptake (αsoil) and the isotopic signature of H2 that is simultaneously emitted from the soil (δDsoil). By considering all net-uptake experiments, an overall fractionation factor for deposition of αsoil = kHD / kHH = 0.945 ± 0.004 (95 % CI) was obtained. The difference in mean αsoil between the forest soil 0.937 ± 0.008 and the grassland 0.951 ± 0.026 is not statistically significant. For two experiments, the removal of soil cover increased the deposition velocity (vd) and αsoil simultaneously, but a general positive correlation between vd and αsoil was not found in this study. When the data are evaluated with a model of simultaneous production and uptake, the isotopic composition of H2 that is emitted at the grassland site is calculated as δDsoil = (-530 ± 40) ‰. This is less deuterium depleted than what is expected from isotope equilibrium between H2O and H2.

  10. Inhibition of nitrate transporter 1.1-controlled nitrate uptake reduces cadmium uptake in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qian Qian; Guan, Mei Yan; Lu, Kai Xing; Du, Shao Ting; Fan, Shi Kai; Ye, Yi-Quan; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-10-01

    Identification of mechanisms that decrease cadmium accumulation in plants is a prerequisite for minimizing dietary uptake of cadmium from contaminated crops. Here, we show that cadmium inhibits nitrate transporter 1.1 (NRT1.1)-mediated nitrate (NO3 (-)) uptake in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and impairs NO3 (-) homeostasis in roots. In NO3 (-)-containing medium, loss of NRT1.1 function in nrt1.1 mutants leads to decreased levels of cadmium and several other metals in both roots and shoots and results in better biomass production in the presence of cadmium, whereas in NO3 (-)-free medium, no difference is seen between nrt1.1 mutants and wild-type plants. These results suggest that inhibition of NRT1.1 activity reduces cadmium uptake, thus enhancing cadmium tolerance in an NO3 (-) uptake-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a treatment rotation system allowing synchronous uptake of NO3 (-) and nutrient cations and asynchronous uptake of cadmium, the nrt1.1 mutants had similar cadmium levels to wild-type plants but lower levels of nutrient metals, whereas the opposite effect was seen using treatment rotation allowing synchronous uptake of NO3 (-) and cadmium and asynchronous uptake of nutrient cations. We conclude that, although inhibition of NRT1.1-mediated NO3 (-) uptake by cadmium might have negative effects on nitrogen nutrition in plants, it has a positive effect on cadmium detoxification by reducing cadmium entry into roots. NRT1.1 may regulate the uptake of cadmium and other cations by a common mechanism. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Contributions of Atmospheric CO and Hydrogen Uptake to Microbial Dynamics on Recent Hawaiian Volcanic Deposits†

    PubMed Central

    King, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    A series of sites were established on Hawaiian volcanic deposits ranging from about 18 to 300 years old. Three sites occurred in areas that supported tropical rain forests; the remaining sites were in areas that supported little or no plant growth. Sites >26 years old consumed atmospheric CO and hydrogen at rates ranging from about 0.2 to 5 mg of CO m−2 day−1 and 0.1 to 4 mg of H2 m−2 day−1, respectively. Respiration, measured as CO2 production, for a subset of the sites ranged from about 40 to >1,400 mg of CO2 m−2 day−1. CO and H2 accounted for about 13 to 25% of reducing equivalent flow for all but a forested site, where neither substrate appeared significant. Based on responses to chloroform fumigation, hydrogen utilization appeared largely due to microbial uptake. In contrast to results for CO and hydrogen, methane uptake occurred consistently only at the forest site. Increasing deposit age was generally accompanied by increasing concentrations of organic matter and microbial biomass, measured as phospholipid phosphate. Exoenzymatic activities (acid and alkaline phosphatases and α- and β-glucosidases) were positively correlated with deposit age in spite of considerable variability within sites. The diversity of substrates utilized in Biolog Ecoplate assays also increased with deposit age, possibly reflecting changes in microbial community complexity. PMID:12839783

  12. The uptake of HO2 on meteoric smoke analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Alexander D.; Moon, Daniel R.; Feng, Wuhu; Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Frankland, Victoria L.; Heard, Dwayne E.; Plane, John M. C.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of heterogeneous HO2 uptake onto meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) has been studied in the laboratory using analogues of MSP aerosol entrained into a flow tube. The uptake coefficient, γ, was determined on synthetic amorphous olivine (MgFeSiO4) to be (6.9 ± 1.2) × 10-2 at a relative humidity (RH) of 10%. On forsterite (Mg2SiO4), γ = (4.3 ± 0.4) × 10-3 at RH = 11.6% and (7.3 ± 0.4) × 10-2 at RH = 9.9% on fayalite (Fe2SiO4). These results indicate that Fe plays a more important mechanistic role than Mg in the removal of HO2 from the gas phase. Electronic structure calculations show that Fe atoms exposed at the particle surface provide a catalytic site where HO2 is converted to H2O2 via an Eley-Rideal mechanism, but this does not occur on exposed surface Mg atoms. The impact of this heterogeneous process in the middle atmosphere was then investigated using a whole atmosphere chemistry-climate model which incorporates a microphysical treatment of MSPs. Using a global MSP production rate from meteoric ablation of 44 t/day, heterogeneous uptake (with γ = 0.2) on MSPs significantly alters the HOx budget in the nighttime polar vortex. This impact is highly latitude dependent and thus could not be confirmed using currently available satellite measurements of HO2, which are largely unavailable at latitudes greater than 70°.

  13. Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Feng; Yamaji, Naoki

    2006-08-01

    Silicon (Si) accumulation differs greatly between plant species because of differences in Si uptake by the roots. Recently, a gene encoding a Si uptake transporter in rice, a typical Si-accumulating plant, was isolated. The beneficial effects of Si are mainly associated with its high deposition in plant tissues, enhancing their strength and rigidity. However, Si might play an active role in enhancing host resistance to plant diseases by stimulating defense reaction mechanisms. Because many plants are not able to accumulate Si at high enough levels to be beneficial, genetically manipulating the Si uptake capacity of the root might help plants to accumulate more Si and, hence, improve their ability to overcome biotic and abiotic stresses.

  14. Dioxin uptake by Indian plant species.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J S; Kumar, R; Wate, S R

    2008-08-01

    Dioxins like various gaseous pollutants and aerosols can be scavenged by appropriate vegetative greenbelts. Based on their stomatal properties and the models for contaminant uptake, uptake of dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by three important Indian plant species, viz. Eugenia jambolana (Jamun), Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal), has been estimated. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is a contaminant with severe harmful ecological ramifications. Computations show that Ficus religiosa has highest uptake capacity. The present exercise has its utility in designing appropriate green-belts for mitigating adverse environmental and human health impacts due to dioxins. This can be an effective management option for mitigating the damages caused by dioxins.

  15. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheloske, Stefan; Maetz, Mischa; Schüßler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  16. Plant Water Uptake in Drying Soils1

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Guillaume; Couvreur, Valentin; Meunier, Félicien; Javaux, Mathieu; Draye, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, investigations on root water uptake have evolved toward a deeper integration of the soil and roots compartment properties, with the goal of improving our understanding of water acquisition from drying soils. This evolution parallels the increasing attention of agronomists to suboptimal crop production environments. Recent results have led to the description of root system architectures that might contribute to deep-water extraction or to water-saving strategies. In addition, the manipulation of root hydraulic properties would provide further opportunities to improve water uptake. However, modeling studies highlight the role of soil hydraulics in the control of water uptake in drying soil and call for integrative soil-plant system approaches. PMID:24515834

  17. Tracking the diurnal signal of plant water uptake through the hydrologic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Weiler, Markus; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Plant water uptake during summer is characterized by strong diurnal fluctuations. As a result a diurnal sink term is imposed on catchment storage, affecting the unsaturated zone, sometimes the saturated zone and even streamflow. Detecting this signal and understanding its propagation through the hydrological system may help to better quantify eco-hydrological connectivity. The extent and strength of the propagation of this signal from plant to soil to ground- and stream water was investigated with a unique setup of 46 field sites in Luxemburg and 15 field sites in Germany. These sites cover a range of geologies, soils, topographies and types of vegetation. Vegetation types include grassland, pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 3-5 soil moisture profiles, matrix potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors (as proxy for plant water uptake) as well as standard climate data. At sites with access to a stream, discharge or water level is also recorded. Signal strength (amplitude of diurnal fluctuations) can thus be traced through the system and gives an indication of the physical sphere of influence of plant water uptake i.e. the "eco-hydro-connectivity". Temporal dynamics of signal strength furthermore suggest a shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake with time. The analysis of time lags (or phase shifts) between daily fluctuations in temperature, radiation, sapflow, soil water, groundwater and streamflow gives further insights into the processes driving and propagating these signals and inter-site comparison allows for the investigation of local controls.

  18. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  19. MTOR downregulates iodide uptake in thyrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Elaine Cristina Lima; Padrón, Alvaro Souto; Braga, William Miranda Oliveira; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; Vaisman, Mário; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2010-07-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition increases functional sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression in both FRTL-5 rat thyroid cell line and papillary thyroid cancer lineages. In several cell types, the stimulation of PI3K results in downstream activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), a serine-threonine protein kinase that is a critical regulator of cellular metabolism, growth, and proliferation. MTOR activation is involved in the regulation of thyrocyte proliferation by TSH. Here, we show that MTOR inhibition by rapamycin increases iodide uptake in TSH-stimulated PCCL3 thyroid cell line, although the effect of rapamycin was less pronounced than PI3K inhibition. Thus, NIS inhibitory pathways stimulated by PI3K might also involve the activation of proteins other than MTOR. Insulin downregulates iodide uptake and NIS protein expression even in the presence of TSH, and both effects are counterbalanced by MTOR inhibition. NIS protein expression levels were correlated with iodide uptake ability, except in cells treated with TSH in the absence of insulin, in which rapamycin significantly increased iodide uptake, while NIS protein levels remained unchanged. Rapamycin avoids the activation of both p70 S6 and AKT kinases by TSH, suggesting the involvement of MTORC1 and MTORC2 in TSH effect. A synthetic analog of rapamycin (everolimus), which is clinically used as an anticancer agent, was able to increase rat thyroid iodide uptake in vivo. In conclusion, we show that MTOR kinase participates in the control of thyroid iodide uptake, demonstrating that MTOR not only regulates cell survival, but also normal thyroid cell function both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Capillary uptake in macroporous compressible sponges.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Soumyajyoti; Doshi, Pankaj; Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy

    2017-08-30

    The capillarity-driven uptake of liquid in swellable, highly porous sponges is of significant industrial importance. Sponges prepared using polymers and their composites with carbon nanotubes and graphene have been reported, with extraordinary solvent uptake capacities and with the ability to separate oil from water. However, the effect of systematic variation of sponge characteristics on solvent uptake has not been investigated. Here, we report experiments that study capillary uptake in a variety of flexible, centimetre-sized macroporous cylindrical sponges. We used ice-templating to prepare a series of model macroporous sponges in which the porosity, modulus and composition were systematically varied. We investigated two kinds of sponge: (a) those composed purely of cross-linked polymers and (b) those prepared as composites of inorganic particles and polymers. Both kinds of sponge are flexible and exhibit elastic recovery after large compressive deformation. All sponges were characterized thoroughly with respect to their pore microstructure and elastic modulus. When one end of a sponge is plunged into a large reservoir, water rises through capillary action against gravity. We observed a transition from an inertial capillary regime, where the liquid column height rose linearly with time, t, to a viscous capillary regime, where the liquid height rose with time t(0.5). We showed that these results can be rationalized using analyses developed for rigid sponges. We combined differential momentum balance equations for uptake in rigid capillaries with the phenomenological Ergun-Forchheimer relations to account for the effect of the sponge microstructure. This approach works remarkably well in the viscous capillary regime and shows that capillary uptake is governed primarily by the total porosity and pore dimensions of soft sponges.

  1. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  2. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, I. V.; Kuznetsova, V. A.; Litvinov, I. K.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Fedorov, A. V.; Dubavik, A.; Purcell-Milton, F.; Gun'ko, Yu K.; Baranov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells.

  3. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  4. Diffuse FDG renal uptake in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Szyszko, Teresa; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Nunan, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In patients presenting with acute renal failure and known/suspected lymphoma, the diagnosis of diffuse renal involvement is important, as there is potential for rapid resolution with chemotherapy. Although FDG is excreted through the kidneys and focal renal disease may be difficult to identify, diffuse renal FDG is more easily recognized and is always abnormal. We report a patient presenting with acute renal failure and suspected lymphoma. F-18 FDG PET/CT study demonstrated diffuse increased FDG uptake in bilaterally enlarged kidneys. Following 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the renal function normalized. An interim F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrated normal size and FDG uptake within both kidneys.

  5. Iron uptake and translocation by macrocystis pyrifera

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, S.L.

    1981-10-01

    Parameters of iron uptake have been determined for blade tissue of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. These include the effects of iron concentration, light, various inhibitors, and blade type. All experiments were conducted in the defined artificial seawater Aquil. Iron uptake is light independent, energy dependent, and dependent on the reduction from Fe/sup 3+/ to Fe/sup 2+/. Iron is concentrated in the sieve tube exudate; exudate analysis revealed the presence of other micronutrients. Iron and other micronutrient translocation is discussed.

  6. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  7. UPTAKE OF MAMMALIAN CHROMOSOMES BY MAMMALIAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    ChoraŻy, M.; Bendich, A.; Borenfreund, E.; Ittensohn, O. L.; Hutchison, D. J.

    1963-01-01

    Chromosomes isolated from mouse leukemia L1210 cells were taken up by mouse macrophages, HeLa cells, and rat embryo fibroblasts following simple exposure in vitro. The process, which resembles pinocytosis or phagocytosis, was traced by autoradiography of chromosomes prelabeled with thymidine-H3, and by staining techniques and phase contrast microscopy. During the first six hours, the uptake of chromosomes was restricted to the cytoplasm, but there was some evidence of penetration into the nucleus after 16 and 26 hours of exposure. Treatment of rat fibroblasts with glucose and insulin markedly enhanced the uptake of chromosomes, whereas iodoacetate inhibited their penetration. PMID:14069803

  8. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Martynenko, I V; Kuznetsova, V A; Litvinov, I K; Orlova, A O; Maslov, V G; Fedorov, A V; Dubavik, A; Purcell-Milton, F; Gun'ko, Yu K; Baranov, A V

    2016-02-19

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells.

  9. Cadmium uptake and resistance among selected bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between Cd resistance and Cd uptake by lake sediment bacteria. For the Gram positive and gram negative sediment bacteria that were tested, the relationship between resistance and Cd uptake varied and was dependent on the isolate under consideration. Results of this study indicated that bacterial communities in lake sediments may influence the concentration and availability of Cd in sediments and the water column. In addition, results of this study did not support the theory that the genes encoding for Cd resistance are usually carried on antibiotic resistance plasmids.

  10. Site Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a guide to planning and building a Web site, with an emphasis on setting up a Web server. Discussion includes hiring a consultant, contracts and payment, assembly of teams, training, development of a business plan, registration of domain name, purchase of hardware and software, local area networks, and types of Internet connection. (JKP)

  11. Effects of cadmium on the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in rat brain synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) a known environmental contaminant is neurotoxic. Kinetics of cadmium inhibition indicate that the metal may compete with ATP and Na/sup +/ sites on Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes. Uptake and release processes of catecholamines into the central nervous system are dependent on membrane bound Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ ATPase. It is suggested that the uptake and release processes of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in neurons are energy utilizing and hence are dependent on active ion transport. If the two aforementioned mechanisms are truly interdependent, then any alteration caused by a toxin to either of the above two mechanisms should also cause a parallel change in the other. The purpose of this study was to examine in vitro effects of cadmium chloride on the uptake of DA and NE and the activity of ATPase in the rat brain synaptosome.

  12. Ozone uptake, water loss and carbon exchange dynamics in annually drought-stressed Pinus ponderosa forests: measured trends and parameters for uptake modeling.

    PubMed

    Panek, Jeanne A

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes 3 years of physiological measurements on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) growing along an ozone concentration gradient in the Sierra Nevada, California, including variables necessary to parameterize, validate and modify photosynthesis and stomatal conductance algorithms used to estimate ozone uptake. At all sites, gas exchange was under tight stomatal control during the growing season. Stomatal conductance was strongly correlated with leaf water potential (R2=0.82), which decreased over the growing season with decreasing soil water content (R2=0.60). Ozone uptake, carbon uptake, and transpirational water loss closely followed the dynamics of stomatal conductance. Peak ozone and CO2 uptake occurred in early summer and declined progressively thereafter. As a result, periods of maximum ozone uptake did not correspond to periods of peak ozone concentration, underscoring the inappropriateness of using current metrics based on concentration (e.g., SUM0, W126 and AOT40) for assessing ozone exposure risk to plants in this climate region. Both Jmax (maximum CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate, limited by electron transport) and Vcmax (maximum rate of Rubisco-limited carboxylation) increased toward the middle of the growing season, then decreased in September. Intrinsic water-use efficiency rose with increasing drought stress, as expected. The ratio of Jmax to Vcmax was similar to literature values of 2.0. Nighttime respiration followed a Q10 of 2.0, but was significantly higher at the high-ozone site. Respiration rates decreased by the end of the summer as a result of decreased metabolic activity and carbon stores.

  13. Complementary N Uptake Strategies between Tree Species in Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Roggy, J C; Schimann, H; Sabatier, D; Molino, J F; Freycon, V; Domenach, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Within tree communities, the differential use of soil N mineral resources, a key factor in ecosystem functioning, may reflect functional complementarity, a major mechanism that could explain species coexistence in tropical rainforests. Eperua falcata and Dicorynia guianensis, two abundant species cooccurring in rainforests of French Guiana, were chosen as representative of two functional groups with complementary N uptake strategies (contrasting leaf δ (15)N signatures related to the δ (15)N of their soil N source, NO3 (-) or NH4 (+)). The objectives were to investigate if these strategies occurred under contrasted soil N resources in sites with distinct geological substrates representative of the coastal rainforests. Results showed that species displayed contrasting leaf δ (15)N signatures on both substrates, confirming their complementary N uptake strategy. Consequently, their leaf (15)N can be used to trace the presence of inorganic N-forms in soils (NH4 (+) and NO3 (-)) and thus to indicate the capacity of soils to provide each of these two N sources to the plant community.

  14. Exceptional ammonia uptake by a covalent organic framework.

    PubMed

    Doonan, Christian J; Tranchemontagne, David J; Glover, T Grant; Hunt, Joseph R; Yaghi, Omar M

    2010-03-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are porous crystalline materials composed of light elements linked by strong covalent bonds. A number of these materials contain a high density of Lewis acid boron sites that can strongly interact with Lewis basic guests, which makes them ideal for the storage of corrosive chemicals such as ammonia. We found that a member of the covalent organic framework family, COF-10, shows the highest uptake capacity (15 mol kg⁻¹, 298 K, 1 bar) of any porous material, including microporous 13X zeolite (9 mol kg⁻¹), Amberlyst 15 (11 mol kg⁻¹) and mesoporous silica, MCM-41 (7.9 mol kg⁻¹). Notably, ammonia can be removed from the pores of COF-10 by heating samples at 200°C under vacuum. In addition, repeated adsorption of ammonia into COF-10 causes a shift in the interlayer packing, which reduces its apparent surface area to nitrogen. However, owing to the strong Lewis acid-base interactions, the total uptake capacity of ammonia and the structural integrity of the COF are maintained after several cycles of adsorption/desorption.

  15. Exceptional ammonia uptake by a covalent organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doonan, Christian J.; Tranchemontagne, David J.; Glover, T. Grant; Hunt, Joseph R.; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2010-03-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are porous crystalline materials composed of light elements linked by strong covalent bonds. A number of these materials contain a high density of Lewis acid boron sites that can strongly interact with Lewis basic guests, which makes them ideal for the storage of corrosive chemicals such as ammonia. We found that a member of the covalent organic framework family, COF-10, shows the highest uptake capacity (15 mol kg-1, 298 K, 1 bar) of any porous material, including microporous 13X zeolite (9 mol kg-1), Amberlyst 15 (11 mol kg-1) and mesoporous silica, MCM-41 (7.9 mol kg-1). Notably, ammonia can be removed from the pores of COF-10 by heating samples at 200 °C under vacuum. In addition, repeated adsorption of ammonia into COF-10 causes a shift in the interlayer packing, which reduces its apparent surface area to nitrogen. However, owing to the strong Lewis acid-base interactions, the total uptake capacity of ammonia and the structural integrity of the COF are maintained after several cycles of adsorption/desorption.

  16. Cadmium toxicity and uptake by mats of the freshwater diatom: Navicula pelliculosa (Bréb) Hilse.

    PubMed

    Irving, Elaine C; Baird, Donald J; Culp, Joseph M

    2009-10-01

    Contaminant uptake by algae, and its subsequent toxicity, has important ramifications for aquatic biomonitoring and environmental risk assessment. To study the effects of cadmium on diatom mats, a series of experiments was undertaken. These investigated the sensitivity of Navicula pelliculosa mats to cadmium, uptake of cadmium across a range of exposure concentrations, influence of mat biomass and thickness on uptake, and cadmium uptake by mats over time. Diatom mat formation proved to be sensitive to cadmium exposure, with a 96-h EC(50) of 31 microg/L. The rapid uptake of cadmium over 15 min was a linear function of exposure concentration and was not significantly affected by mat thickness. Cadmium uptake over time was also a linear function of exposure concentration for time periods up to 5 h. Linear uptake was likely due to the availability of algal binding sites as cadmium ions diffused through the diatom mats. Internal high-pH microenvironments may also have influenced uptake, through cadmium precipitation or enhanced adsorption within the mats. The lack of a significant relationship between mat biomass and uptake could be explained by the static water exposure conditions. Other studies have shown that cadmium uptake by algal mats was only significantly affected by biomass under flowing water conditions. Flowing water appeared to facilitate the diffusion of cadmium ions through the algal mats. Our research demonstrates the propensity of diatom mats to adsorb cadmium to achieve concentrations that could inhibit macroinvertebrate grazing. Overall, these findings contribute to a greater understanding of cadmium bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems and to the further development of benthic algae as an effective biomonitoring tool.

  17. The four human gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters: pharmacological characterization and validation of a highly efficient screening assay.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Trine; Christiansen, Bolette; Jensen, Anders A; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-03-01

    The neurotransmission mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the mammalian brain is terminated by a family of four GABA transporters (GATs). Inhibition of GATs is currently used in the treatment of epilepsy and these proteins are generally considered as important drug targets. In this study, we perform the first elaborate pharmacological characterization of all four human GAT subtypes. We conduct the experiments in parallel in a [3H]GABA uptake assay using 14 standard GAT substrates and inhibitors. This setup enables direct comparison of the absolute values of inhibitory activities of the compounds between the different GAT subtypes. The results are overall in agreement with data reported by other groups for the orthologous murine GATs. However, there do seem to be some minor variations among species. In contrast to the several subtype selective ligands identified for the GAT-1 subtype, no subtype selective ligands have been reported for the three remaining GATs. Given the potential therapeutic relevance of the individual GAT subtypes, a search for novel structures displaying selectivities for specific GAT subtypes is important. In this study, we validate our [3H]GABA uptake assay for use in high throughput screening. We find that the assay is categorized by high Z'-factors (Z' > 0.5) for all four GAT subtypes, demonstrating that the assay is excellent for a high throughput screen. This [3H]GABA uptake assay therefore enables future high throughput screening of compound libraries at the four human GATs.

  18. Comparative studies of endotoxin uptake by isolated rat Kupffer and peritoneal cells.

    PubMed

    Fox, E S; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1987-12-01

    The process of uptake of endotoxin by cells of the reticuloendothelial system is of current interest. Rabbit peritoneal macrophages have been used to study macrophage-endotoxin interactions and have suggested a receptor-mediated process. It is generally believed that the site of in vivo endotoxin clearance is the liver and that this clearance involves the Kupffer cell population. In the current report, the uptake characteristics of iodine-125-labeled Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were compared in both isolated rat Kupffer cells and elicited rat peritoneal cells. Both types of cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semisynthetic AIN-76 5% saturated-fat diet either by peritoneal lavage for peritoneal cells or by collagenase perfusion followed by purification on a 17.5% metrizamide gradient for Kupffer cells. Hot phenol water-extracted S. minnesota LPS was labeled with iodine by the chloramine-T method following a reaction with methyl-p-hydroxybenzimidate. The in vitro uptake of [125I]LPS by Kupffer cells was unsaturable up to concentrations of 33.33 micrograms/ml, while peritoneal cells became saturated at between 16.67 and 25 micrograms of LPS per ml. Uptake by both types of cells could be inhibited by a 10-fold excess of unlabeled LPS. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Kupffer cells were unsaturable after 60 min of incubation, while peritoneal cells were saturable after 40 min of incubation. Pretreatment with 75 mM colchicine inhibited uptake by peritoneal cells but not Kupffer cells, while pretreatment with 12 mM 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake by Kupffer cells but not peritoneal cells. These results are consistent with a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for peritoneal cells, while Kupffer cells may internalize endotoxins by absorptive pinocytosis. These results suggest that studies of peritoneal cell-endotoxin interactions do not accurately describe the physiologic process within the liver, the major site for the

  19. Comparative studies of endotoxin uptake by isolated rat Kupffer and peritoneal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, E S; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1987-01-01

    The process of uptake of endotoxin by cells of the reticuloendothelial system is of current interest. Rabbit peritoneal macrophages have been used to study macrophage-endotoxin interactions and have suggested a receptor-mediated process. It is generally believed that the site of in vivo endotoxin clearance is the liver and that this clearance involves the Kupffer cell population. In the current report, the uptake characteristics of iodine-125-labeled Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were compared in both isolated rat Kupffer cells and elicited rat peritoneal cells. Both types of cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semisynthetic AIN-76 5% saturated-fat diet either by peritoneal lavage for peritoneal cells or by collagenase perfusion followed by purification on a 17.5% metrizamide gradient for Kupffer cells. Hot phenol water-extracted S. minnesota LPS was labeled with iodine by the chloramine-T method following a reaction with methyl-p-hydroxybenzimidate. The in vitro uptake of [125I]LPS by Kupffer cells was unsaturable up to concentrations of 33.33 micrograms/ml, while peritoneal cells became saturated at between 16.67 and 25 micrograms of LPS per ml. Uptake by both types of cells could be inhibited by a 10-fold excess of unlabeled LPS. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Kupffer cells were unsaturable after 60 min of incubation, while peritoneal cells were saturable after 40 min of incubation. Pretreatment with 75 mM colchicine inhibited uptake by peritoneal cells but not Kupffer cells, while pretreatment with 12 mM 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake by Kupffer cells but not peritoneal cells. These results are consistent with a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for peritoneal cells, while Kupffer cells may internalize endotoxins by absorptive pinocytosis. These results suggest that studies of peritoneal cell-endotoxin interactions do not accurately describe the physiologic process within the liver, the major site for the

  20. Alterations in dopamine and serotonin uptake systems in the striatum of the weaver mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Stotz, E H; Palacios, J M; Landwehrmeyer, B; Norton, J; Ghetti, B; Simon, J R; Triarhou, L C

    1994-01-01

    In the striatum of the homozygous weaver mutant mouse (wv/wv), dopamine content, uptake and tyrosine hydroxylase activity are decreased compared to wild-type (+/+) mice. In mice heterozygous for the weaver gene (wv/+), these dopaminergic parameters exhibit only minor reductions compared to +/+ mice. The wv/wv striatum has recently been shown to have an increase in serotonin content. In the present study, the serotonin uptake system of the weaver striatum was investigated. Synaptosomal uptake of [3H] serotonin was determined in the dorsal portion of wv/wv and +/+ striatum, and serotonin uptake sites were examined by the binding of [3H] citalopram in the striatum of wv/wv, wv/+ and +/+ mice. The dopamine uptake system was also investigated in all three genotypes via the binding of [3H] mazindol. Synaptosomal uptake of [3H] serotonin was increased by 79% in the dorsal portion of the wv/wv striatum compared to that seen in the +/+ striatum. The binding of [3H] citalopram was increased by 62% in the dorsolateral and by 111% in the dorsomedial portions of the wv/wv striatum compared to +/+. [3H] Citalopram binding in the wv/+ striatum was also higher than +/+, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. Within the wv/wv striatum, [3H] mazindol binding was almost completely absent (88-89% reduction) in the dorsal portion and severely reduced in the other striatal areas. These data support the notion that the dorsal portion of the wv/wv striatum, which has the severest reduction in dopamine uptake, is hyperinnervated by serotonin fibers.

  1. Inhibition of Phosphate Uptake in Corn Roots by Aluminum-Fluoride Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Façanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Okorokova-Façanha, Anna L.

    2002-01-01

    F forms stable complexes with Al at conditions found in the soil. Fluoroaluminate complexes (AlFx) have been widely described as effective analogs of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in Pi-binding sites of several proteins. In this work, we explored the possibility that the phytotoxicity of AlFx reflects their activity as Pi analogs. For this purpose, 32P-labeled phosphate uptake by excised roots and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity were investigated in an Al-tolerant variety of maize (Zea mays L. var. dwarf hybrid), either treated or not with AlFx. In vitro, AlFx competitively inhibited the rate of root phosphate uptake as well as the H+-ATPase activity. Conversely, pretreatment of seedlings with AlFx in vivo promoted no effect on the H+-ATPase activity, whereas a biphasic effect on Pi uptake by roots was observed. Although the initial rate of phosphate uptake by roots was inhibited by AlFx pretreatment, this situation changed over the following minutes as the rate of uptake increased and a pronounced stimulation in subsequent 32Pi uptake was observed. This kinetic behavior suggests a reversible and competitive inhibition of the phosphate transporter by fluoroaluminates. The stimulation of root 32Pi uptake induced by AlFx pretreatment was tentatively interpreted as a phosphate starvation response. This report places AlF3 and AlF4− among Al-phytotoxic species and suggests a mechanism of action where the accumulation of Pi-mimicking fluoroaluminates in the soil may affect the phosphate absorption by plants. The biochemical, physiological, and environmental significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:12177489

  2. Characterization of taurine binding, uptake, and release in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Hanretta, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neurotransmitter criteria of specific receptors, inactivation, and release were experimentally examined for taurine in the hypothalamus. Specific membrane binding and synaptosomal uptake of taurine both displayed high affinity and low affinity systems. The neurotransmitter criterion of release was studied in superfused synaptosomes. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of (/sup 3/H)taurine in the high affinity uptake range (1.5 ..mu..M) to either 56 mM K/sup +/ or 100 ..mu..M veratridine evoked a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent release. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of (/sup 3/H)taurine in the low affinity uptake range (2 mM) to 56 mM K/sup +/ induced a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent release, whereas 100 /sup +/M veratridine did not, either in the presence or absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Based on these results, as well as other observations, a model is proposed in which the high affinity uptake system is located on neuronal membranes and the low affinity uptake system is located on glial membranes. The mechanisms of binding, uptake, and release in relation to the cellular location of each are discussed. We conclude that the neurotransmitter criterion of activation by re-uptake is satisfied for taurine in the hypothalamus. However, the failure to demonstrate both a specific taurine receptor site and a Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent evoked release, necessitates that we conclude that taurine appears not to function as a hypothalamic neurotransmitter, at least not in the classical sense.

  3. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Grosell, Martin; Gregory, Sean M; Wood, Chris M

    2002-04-15

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates: (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarusdiogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together, these results clearly point out the possibility of incorporating the Na+ uptake rate into the current version of the Biotic Ligand Model to improve the predictive capacity of this model. In the absence of information on Na+ uptake rate, then body mass may serve as a surrogate.

  4. Comparison of inorganic nitrogen uptake dynamics following snowmelt and at peak biomass in subalpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legay, N.; Grassein, F.; Robson, T. M.; Personeni, E.; Bataillé, M.-P.; Lavorel, S.; Clément, J.-C.

    2013-05-01

    Subalpine grasslands are highly seasonal environments and likely subject to strong variability in nitrogen (N) dynamics. Plants and microbes typically compete for N acquisition during the growing season and particularly at plant peak biomass. During snowmelt, plants could potentially benefit from a decrease in competition by microbes because of greater plant N uptake associated with active growth and freeze-thaw cycles restricting microbial growth. In managed subalpine grasslands, we expect these interactions to be influenced by recent changes in agricultural land-use, and associated modifications in plant and microbial communities. At a subalpine grassland site in the Central French Alps, a pulse of 15N was added to the soil at the end of snowmelt, allowing us to compare the dynamics of inorganic N uptake in plants and microbes during this period with that previously reported at the peak biomass in July. In all grasslands, specific plant (per g of biomass) dissolved inorganic N (DIN) uptake was two to five times greater at snow-melt than at peak biomass, whereas the specific microbial DIN uptakes were similar between the two sampling dates. On an area basis, plant communities took more DIN than microbial communities at the end of snowmelt, and the intensity of this DIN uptake by plants differed across land use types. Consequently, N partitioning after snowmelt switches in favor of plant communities allowing them to support their growing capacities at this period of the year. Seasonal differences in microbial and plant N-related dynamics were also affected by past (terraced vs. unterraced) rather than current (mown vs. unmown) land use. In terraced grasslands, microbial biomass N remained similar across seasons, whereas in unterraced grasslands, microbial biomass N was higher and microbial C : N lower at the end of snowmelt as compared to peak biomass. Further investigations on microbial community composition and their organic N uptake dynamics are required to

  5. Inhibition of phosphate uptake in corn roots by aluminum-fluoride complexes.

    PubMed

    Façanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Okorokova-Façanha, Anna L

    2002-08-01

    F forms stable complexes with Al at conditions found in the soil. Fluoroaluminate complexes (AlF(x)) have been widely described as effective analogs of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in Pi-binding sites of several proteins. In this work, we explored the possibility that the phytotoxicity of AlF(x) reflects their activity as Pi analogs. For this purpose, (32)P-labeled phosphate uptake by excised roots and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity were investigated in an Al-tolerant variety of maize (Zea mays L. var. dwarf hybrid), either treated or not with AlF(x). In vitro, AlF(x) competitively inhibited the rate of root phosphate uptake as well as the H(+)-ATPase activity. Conversely, pretreatment of seedlings with AlF(x) in vivo promoted no effect on the H(+)-ATPase activity, whereas a biphasic effect on Pi uptake by roots was observed. Although the initial rate of phosphate uptake by roots was inhibited by AlF(x) pretreatment, this situation changed over the following minutes as the rate of uptake increased and a pronounced stimulation in subsequent (32)Pi uptake was observed. This kinetic behavior suggests a reversible and competitive inhibition of the phosphate transporter by fluoroaluminates. The stimulation of root (32)Pi uptake induced by AlF(x) pretreatment was tentatively interpreted as a phosphate starvation response. This report places AlF(3) and AlF(4)(-) among Al-phytotoxic species and suggests a mechanism of action where the accumulation of Pi-mimicking fluoroaluminates in the soil may affect the phosphate absorption by plants. The biochemical, physiological, and environmental significance of these findings is discussed.

  6. Patterns of uptake of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted (18)F-DCFPyL in peripheral ganglia.

    PubMed

    Werner, Rudolf A; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Jones, Krystyna M; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Solnes, Lilja B; Ross, Ashley E; Allaf, Mohamad E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Lapa, Constantin; Buck, Andreas K; Higuchi, Takahiro; Pomper, Martin G; Gorin, Michael A; Rowe, Steven P

    2017-08-22

    Radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have increasingly been recognized as showing uptake in a number of normal structures, anatomic variants, and non-prostate-cancer pathologies. We aimed to explore the frequency and degree of uptake in peripheral ganglia in patients undergoing PET with the PSMA-targeted agent (18)F-DCFPyL. A total of 98 patients who underwent (18)F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging were retrospectively analyzed. This included 76 men with prostate cancer (PCa) and 22 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC; 13 men, 9 women). Scans were evaluated for uptake in the cervical, stellate, celiac, lumbar and sacral ganglia. Maximum standardized uptake value corrected to body weight (SUVmax), and maximum standardized uptake value corrected to lean body mass (SULmax) were recorded for all ganglia with visible uptake above background. Ganglia-to-background ratios were calculated by dividing the SUVmax and SULmax values by the mean uptake in the ascending aorta (Aortamean) and the right gluteus muscle (Gluteusmean). Overall, 95 of 98 (96.9%) patients demonstrated uptake in at least one of the evaluated peripheral ganglia. With regard to the PCa cohort, the most frequent sites of radiotracer accumulation were lumbar ganglia (55/76, 72.4%), followed by the cervical ganglia (51/76, 67.1%). Bilateral uptake was found in the majority of cases [lumbar 44/55 (80%) and cervical 30/51 (58.8%)]. Additionally, discernible radiotracer uptake was recorded in 50/76 (65.8%) of the analyzed stellate ganglia and in 45/76 (59.2%) of the celiac ganglia, whereas only 5/76 (6.6%) of the sacral ganglia demonstrated (18)F-DCFPyL accumulation. Similar findings were observed for patients with RCC, with the most frequent locations of radiotracer uptake in both the lumbar (20/22, 90.9%) and cervical ganglia (19/22, 86.4%). No laterality preference was found in mean PSMA-ligand uptake for either the PCa or RCC cohorts. As PSMA-targeted agents become more widely

  7. The gut wall provides an effective barrier against nanoparticle uptake

    PubMed Central

    Sinnecker, Heike; Krause, Thorsten; Koelling, Sabine; Lautenschläger, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: The omnipresence of nanoparticles (NPs) in numerous goods has led to a constant risk of exposure and inadvertent uptake for humans. This situation calls for thorough investigation of the consequences of NP intake. As the vast mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract represents an attractive site of entry, we wanted to take a look on the fate that ingested NPs suffer in the gut. As a model to investigate NP uptake we used the isolated perfused rat small intestine. Differently sized fluorescent latex particles were used as exemplary anthropogenic NPs. Results: The particles were administered as bolus into the isolated intestine, and samples from the luminal, vascular and lymphatic compartments were collected over time. NP amounts in the different fluids were determined by fluorescence measurements. No particles could be detected in the vascular and lymphatic system. By contrast a major amount of NPs was found in luminal samples. Yet, a substantial share of particles could not be recovered in the fluid fractions, indicating a sink function of the intestinal tissue for NPs. A histological examination of the gut revealed that virtually no particles adhered to the epithelium or resided in the tissue, the bulk of particles seemed to be trapped in the mucus lining the gut tube. When this mucus was dissolved and removed from the gut almost the entire amount of particles missing could be recovered: over 95% of the given NPs were present in the two fractions, the luminal samples and the dissolved mucus. To foster NP uptake via an extended interaction time with the epithelium, the intestinal peristalsis was decelerated and the duration of the experiment was prolonged. Even under those conditions, no particle fluorescence was detected in the vascular and lymphatic samples. Conclusion: We could show that after intestinal exposure with a large dose of NPs the vast majority of NPs did obviously not come into contact with the epithelium but was either directly

  8. Microdialysis of Soil P: A means to mimic root uptake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schack-Kirschner, Helmer; Demand, Dominic; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Standard procedures to assess P availability in soils are based on batch experiments with various extractants. However, in most soils P nutrition is less limited by bulk stocks but by slow diffusion of phosphate through the soil solution. More comparable to the root's approach is to strip phosphate locally from the solid phase by lowering the soil-solution concentration, which can be achieved by establishing an infinite diffusional sink, such as DGT. An alternative diffusive sampling technique is microdialysis (MD), well established in pharmacokinetics. Briefly, this method uses miniaturized flow-through probes where the perfusate gets in diffusive contact to the external solution by a semipermeable membrane. Important aspects of P supply to roots resemble MD sampling. This is not only the mostly diffusive transport, but also an elongated capillary tube-like geometry of absorption. The diameter of typical commercial MD probes is around 500μm. One additional inherent feature of microdialysis is the possibility to release low-molecular substances from the perfusate by diffusion into the matrix, such as carboxylates. However, microdialysis has yet not been used for P in soils. We tested microdialysis in topsoils of an acid beech forest, of an unfertilized grassland and of a fertilized crop site. Three perfusates have been used: 1 mM KNO3, electrolyte + 0.1 mM citric acid, and electrolyte + 1 mM citric acid. We observed rates of uptake into the probes in a range between 1.5*10-15 and 6.7*10-14 mol s-1cm-1 in case of no citrate addition. Surprisingly, these uptake rates were mostly independent of the bulk stocks. Citrate addition increased P yields only in the higher concentration but not in the forest soil. The order of magnitude of MD uptake rates from the soil samples matched root-length related uptake rates from other studies. The micro-radial citrate release in MD reflects the processes controlling phosphate mobilization in the rhizosphere better than measurements

  9. Post-Surgical Atypical FDG-PET Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Dubroff, Jacob G.; Alavi, Abass; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    False positive recognition is crucial for proper interpretation of FDG-PET studies. The authors present a case of a woman who underwent surgery over a month prior to PET/CT imaging which revealed significant tracer uptake within muscles and soft tissue in several sites contralateral to the location of surgery. The FDG-PET images of this case illustrate the importance of communication between physicians ordering and physicians reading FDG-PET/CT scans as well as atypical FDG-PET findings that could be interpreted as concerning but are, in fact, innocuous. This study also demonstrates the unusual glucose metabolic patterns which may arise following treatment be it surgical, chemotherapeutic or radiation. PMID:19851183

  10. Size-dependant cellular uptake of dendritic polyglycerol.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Stephanie; Welker, Pia; Calderón, Marcelo; Khandare, Jayant; Mangoldt, Dorothea; Licha, Kai; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Brooks, Donald E; Haag, Rainer

    2011-03-21

    To study the mechanism of cellular internalization, hyperbranched polyether derivatives consisting of amino-bearing hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) of varied molecular mass and size range are designed and synthesized. HPGs were further fluorescently labelled by conjugating maleimido indocarbocyanine dye (ICC-mal). The conjugates are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence profile, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The uptake mechanism is studied by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy with human lung cancer cells A549, human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells. For the first time, the results suggest that the higher-molecular-weight HPGs (40-870 kDa) predominantly accumulate in the cytoplasm much better than their low-molecular-weight counterparts (2-20 kDa). The HPG nanocarriers discussed here have many biomedical implications, particularly for delivering drugs to the targeted site.

  11. Uptake of cationic dyes by sulfonated coal: Sorption mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, A.K.; Venkobachar, C.

    1996-04-01

    Mechanistic aspects of sorption of Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue by sulfonated coal have been investigated. The coal surface before and after sulfonation has been characterized with the help of cation-exchange capacity measurements and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. These studies indicate that sulfuric acid treatment not only incorporates a SO{sub 3}H group on the coal surface but also oxidizes both aliphatic and aromatic fractions. The IR spectroscopy has been extensively applied to locate the active sites on the surface of the sorbent and the participating functional groups of the dye molecule. Graphical models of the sorbate-sorbent interaction have been proposed. These models are applied to explain the variation in the uptake potential of these dyes by sulfonated coal.

  12. Prevention of postvenographic thrombosis by heparin flush: fibrinogen uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Sommer, G.; Marosi, L.; Czembirek, H.

    1984-09-01

    The incidence of postphlebographic venous thrombosis was investigated by /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen uptake tests in 60 patients whose veins were flushed with saline solution containing 10,000 IU of heparin after leg phlebography. Ionic methylglucamine iodamide was used as the contrast medium. In six patients superficial thrombophlebitis extending from the contrast-medium injection site was observed after phlebography. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis was 3.3%, significantly less than that reported for studies using triiodinated ionic contrast media without flushing the veins with a heparin solution. It is comparable to the incidence of venous thrombosis reported after using nonionic contrast media. The authors conclude that flushing the veins with heparinized saline solution can improve the safety of phlebography considerably.

  13. Prevention of postvenographic thrombosis by heparin flush: fibrinogen uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Sommer, G.; Marosi, L.; Czembirek, H.

    1984-09-01

    The incidence of postphlebographic venous thrombosis was investigated by 125I-labeled fibrinogen uptake tests in 60 patients whose veins were flushed with saline solution containing 10,000 IU of heparin after leg phlebography. Ionic methylglucamine iodamide was used as the contrast medium. In six patients superficial thrombophlebitis extending from the contrast-medium injection site was observed after phlebography. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis was 3.3%, significantly less than that reported for studies using triiodinated ionic contrast media without flushing the veins with a heparin solution. It is comparable to the incidence of venous thrombosis reported after using nonionic contrast media. The authors conclude that flushing the veins with heparinized saline solution can improve the safety of phlebography considerably.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization has little consequence for plant heavy metal uptake in contaminated field soils.

    PubMed

    Dietterich, Lee H; Gonneau, Cédric; Casper, Brenda B

    2017-09-01

    The factors affecting plant uptake of heavy metals from metalliferous soils are deeply important to the remediation of polluted areas. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), soil-dwelling fungi that engage in an intimate exchange of nutrients with plant roots, are thought to be involved in plant metal uptake as well. Here, we used a novel field-based approach to investigate the effects of AMF on plant metal uptake from soils in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, USA contaminated with heavy metals from a nearby zinc smelter. Previous studies often focus on one or two plant species or metals, tend to use highly artificial growing conditions and metal applications, and rarely consider metals' effects on plants and AMF together. In contrast, we examined both direct and AMF-mediated effects of soil concentrations on plant concentrations of 8-13 metals in five wild plant species sampled across a field site with continuous variation in Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu contamination. Plant and soil metal concentration profiles were closely matched despite high variability in soil metal concentrations even at small spatial scales. However, we observed few effects of soil metals on AMF colonization, and no effects of AMF colonization on plant metal uptake. Manipulating soil chemistry or plant community composition directly may control landscape-level plant metal uptake more effectively than altering AMF communities. Plant species identities may serve as highly local indicators of soil chemical characteristics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Hardwood seeding root and nutrient parameters for a model of nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J M; Scarbrough, J D; Mays, P A

    2001-01-01

    Use of mechanistic models is an increasingly accepted way to evaluate complex processes. The Barber-Cushman model provides a means to simulate nutrient uptake once information on root system characteristics, nutrient uptake, and soil nutrient supply are developed. Objectives of this study were to determine during a growing season: (i) root growth for 1-yr-old black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) seedlings; (ii) net plant increase in N, P, K, Ca, and Mg; (iii) soil solution and solid phase nutrient concentrations; and (iv) the influence of root growth and soil nutrient supply changes on nutrient uptake using the Barber-Cushman model. Seedlings were grown in pots containing A horizon soil from two forest sites. Measurements were made on five occasions during the growing season. Root growth averaged 41.5 cm d-1 for red maple compared with 28.0 and 16.7 cm d-1 for cherry and oak, respectively. Seventy-five percent of root growth occurred at the end of the growing season. Total plant N showed the greatest change (25-58%) due to soil source. Model simulations underestimated observed uptake by 31 to 99%. A clear relationship between soil solution nutrient concentration and plant uptake, an important assumption of the model, was not observed. Results indicate care will need to be exercised in the development and use of root growth and nutrient supply values in mechanistic models.

  16. Uptake and utilization of nutrients by developing kernels of Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Lyznik, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in amino acid and sugar uptake by developing maize kernels were investigated. In the pedicel region of maize kernel, the site of nutrient unloading from phloem terminals, amino acids are accumulated in considerable amounts and undergo significant interconversion. A wide spectrum of enzymatic activities involved in the metabolism of amino acids is observed in these tissues. Subsequently, amino acids are taken up by the endosperm tissue in processes which require energy and the presence of carrier proteins. Conversely, no evidence was found that energy and carriers are involved in sugar uptake. This process of sugar uptake is not inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and shows nonsaturable kinetics, but the uptake is pH-dependent. L-glucose is taken up at a significantly reduced rate in comparison to D-glucose uptake. Based on analysis of radioactivity distribution among sugar fractions after incubations of kernels with radiolabeled D-glucose, it seems that sucrose is not efficiently resynthesized from D-glucose in the endosperm tissue. Thus, the proposed mechanism of sucrose transport involving sucrose hydrolysis in the pedicel region and subsequent resynthesis in endosperm cells may not be the main pathway. The evidence that transfer cells play an active role in D-glucose transport is presented.

  17. DOC:NO3- ratios and NO3- uptake in forested headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cardona, Bianca; Wymore, Adam S.; McDowell, William H.

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms driving the coupled interactions between inorganic nitrogen uptake and dissolved organic matter are not well understood, particularly in surface waters. To determine the relationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and nitrate (NO3-) uptake kinetics in streams, we performed a series of NO3- Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization experiments in four streams within the Lamprey River Watershed, New Hampshire, across a range in background DOC concentrations (1-8 mg C/L). Experiments were performed throughout the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Across streams and experimental dates, ambient uptake velocity (Vf) correlated positively with increasing DOC concentrations and DOC:NO3- ratios but was only weakly negatively associated with NO3- concentrations. Ambient NO3- Vf was unrelated to pH, light, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance at 254 nm. Although there were general tendencies across the entire Lamprey River Watershed, individual sites behaved differently in their uptake kinetics. NO3- uptake dynamics in the Lamprey River Watershed are most strongly influenced by DOC concentrations rather than NO3- concentrations or physicochemical parameters, which have been identified as regional- to continental-scale drivers in previous research. Understanding the fundamental relationships between dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients will be important as global and climatic changes influence the delivery and production of DOC and NO3- in aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Improving PMTCT Uptake in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S. M.; Peltzer, K.; Villar-Loubet, O.; Shikwane, M. E.; Cook, R.; Jones, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs, many women in sub-Saharan Africa do not participate in PMTCT. This pilot study aimed to utilize partner participation in an intervention to support PMTCT uptake. Methods Couples (n = 239) were randomized to receive either a comprehensive couples-based PMTCT intervention or the standard of care. Results Compared to the standard of care, participants receiving the intervention increased HIV- and PMTCT-related knowledge (F1,474 = 13.94, p = .004) and uptake of PMTCT, as defined by infant medication dosing (74% vs. 46%, χ2 = 4.69, p = .03). Discussion Results indicate that increasing male attendance at antenatal clinic visits may be “necessary but not sufficient” to increase PMTCT uptake. Increasing HIV knowledge of both partners and encouraging active male participation in the PMTCT process through psychoeducational interventions may be a strategy to increase the uptake of PMTCT in South Africa. PMID:23778240

  19. Iron, nitrate uptake by phytoplankton, and mermaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, Karl

    1991-11-01

    The critique by Martin et al. (this issue) of my recalculation of rates of nitrate uptake, and hence of algal division, from the Gulf of Alaska is shown to be incorrect. Neither can iron deficiency, if any, be shown to be connected with the demise of mermen and mermaids, although for different reasons.

  20. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  1. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  2. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  3. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-06-22

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated.

  4. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated. PMID:17148384

  5. Particle uptake and translocation across epithelial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, N W; Jenkins, P G; Howard, K A; Smith, M W; Lavelle, E C; Holland, J; Davis, S S

    1996-01-01

    Oral delivery of drugs and vaccines has many advantages over other routes of administration. For example, for vaccination, enteric delivery may result in the induction of a mucosal immune response against pathogens which colonise and invade the mucosa. However, the oral delivery of peptide or protein drugs or antigens is beset with problems, such as gastrointestinal breakdown of labile molecules, low level of macromolecular absorption and, for vaccines, the poor immune response usually elicited by orally administered soluble antigens. Investigations are therefore in progress to develop means of increasing intestinal absorption and decreasing digestion of orally administered molecules. Molecules can be incorporated into biodegradable microparticles to reduce the effect of gut secretions and to enable the absorption of bioactive agents in an unaltered form. The uptake of microparticulates through the gut wall is accepted as a true biological phenomenon but the mechanism and route of uptake have not been established. Furthermore, in general, only small numbers of microparticles are translocated across epithelial membranes, possibly making these systems inappropriate for drug or vaccine delivery. This paper reviews particle uptake across the gastrointestinal tract and describes studies carried out to determine whether a humoral response can be elicited following oral administration of an antigen associated with biodegradable poly(DL lactide-coglycolide) microparticles. The use of lipid delivery vehicles to enhance microparticle uptake and the selective transport of microspheres across M cells is also described. PMID:8982821

  6. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    DOE PAGES

    Whelan, Mary E.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Berry, Joseph A.; ...

    2016-03-21

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil–COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show small uptake of atmospheric COS. Recently, a series of studies at an agricultural site in the central United States found soilmore » COS production under hot conditions an order of magnitude greater than fluxes at other sites. To investigate the extent of this phenomenon, soils were collected from five new sites and incubated in a variety of soil moisture and temperature states. We found that soils from a desert, an oak savannah, a deciduous forest, and a rainforest exhibited small COS fluxes, behavior resembling previous studies. However, soil from an agricultural site in Illinois, >800 km away from the initial central US study site, demonstrated comparably large soil fluxes under similar conditions. These new data suggest that, for the most part, soil COS interaction is negligible compared to plant uptake of COS. We present a model that anticipates the large agricultural soil fluxes so that they may be taken into account. Furthermore, while COS air-monitoring data are consistent with the dominance of plant uptake, improved interpretation of these data should incorporate the soil flux parameterizations suggested here.« less

  7. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Mary E.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Berry, Joseph A.; Berkelhammer, Max; Desai, Ankur R.; Campbell, J. Elliott

    2016-03-21

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil–COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show small uptake of atmospheric COS. Recently, a series of studies at an agricultural site in the central United States found soil COS production under hot conditions an order of magnitude greater than fluxes at other sites. To investigate the extent of this phenomenon, soils were collected from five new sites and incubated in a variety of soil moisture and temperature states. We found that soils from a desert, an oak savannah, a deciduous forest, and a rainforest exhibited small COS fluxes, behavior resembling previous studies. However, soil from an agricultural site in Illinois, >800 km away from the initial central US study site, demonstrated comparably large soil fluxes under similar conditions. These new data suggest that, for the most part, soil COS interaction is negligible compared to plant uptake of COS. We present a model that anticipates the large agricultural soil fluxes so that they may be taken into account. Furthermore, while COS air-monitoring data are consistent with the dominance of plant uptake, improved interpretation of these data should incorporate the soil flux parameterizations suggested here.

  8. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, M. E.; Hilton, T. W.; Berry, J. A.; Berkelhammer, M.; Desai, A. R.; Campbell, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil-COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show small uptake of atmospheric COS. Recently, a series of studies at an agricultural site in the central United States found soil COS production under hot conditions an order of magnitude greater than fluxes at other sites. To investigate the extent of this phenomenon, soils were collected from 5 new sites and incubated in a variety of soil moisture and temperature states. We found that soils from a desert, an oak savannah, a deciduous forest, and a rainforest exhibited small COS fluxes, behavior resembling previous studies. However, soil from an agricultural site in Illinois, > 800 km away from the initial central US study site, demonstrated comparably large soil fluxes under similar conditions. These new data suggest that, for the most part, soil COS interaction is negligible compared to plant uptake of COS. We present a model that anticipates the large agricultural soil fluxes so that they may be taken into account. While COS air-monitoring data are consistent with the dominance of plant uptake, improved interpretation of these data should incorporate the soil flux parameterizations suggested here.

  9. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Mary E.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Berry, Joseph A.; Berkelhammer, Max; Desai, Ankur R.; Campbell, J. Elliott

    2016-03-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil-COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show small uptake of atmospheric COS. Recently, a series of studies at an agricultural site in the central United States found soil COS production under hot conditions an order of magnitude greater than fluxes at other sites. To investigate the extent of this phenomenon, soils were collected from five new sites and incubated in a variety of soil moisture and temperature states. We found that soils from a desert, an oak savannah, a deciduous forest, and a rainforest exhibited small COS fluxes, behavior resembling previous studies. However, soil from an agricultural site in Illinois, > 800 km away from the initial central US study site, demonstrated comparably large soil fluxes under similar conditions. These new data suggest that, for the most part, soil COS interaction is negligible compared to plant uptake of COS. We present a model that anticipates the large agricultural soil fluxes so that they may be taken into account. While COS air-monitoring data are consistent with the dominance of plant uptake, improved interpretation of these data should incorporate the soil flux parameterizations suggested here.

  10. Species turnover (β-diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity.

    PubMed

    Kranabetter, J M; Hawkins, B J; Jones, M D; Robbins, S; Dyer, T; Li, T

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β-diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3- and protons on excised root tips from three contrasting sites using a microelectrode ion flux measurement system. EcM fungal communities were well aligned with soil N availability and pH, with no effect of site proximity (distance-decay curve) on species assemblages. Species turnover was significant (β(1/2) = 1.48) along soil N gradients, with many more Tomentella species on high N than low N soils, in contrast to Cortinarius species. Ammonium uptake was greatest in the spring on the medium and rich sites and averaged over 190 nmol/m(2)/s for Tomentella species. The lowest uptake rates of NH4+ were by nonmycorrhizal roots of axenically grown seedlings (10 nmol/m(2)/s), followed by Cortinarius species (60 nmol/m(2)/s). EcM roots from all sites displayed only marginal uptake of nitrate (8.3 nmol/m(2)/s). These results suggest NH4+ uptake capacity is an important functional trait influencing the assembly of EcM fungal communities. The diversity of EcM fungal species across the region arguably provides critical belowground adaptations to organic and inorganic N supply that are integral to temperate rainforest ecology.

  11. The uptake of cardiac glycosides by intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig in relation to digitalis receptors

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind, T.; Lesne, M.

    1970-01-01

    1. The accumulation and release of 3H-digitoxin, 3H-digoxin and 3H-ouabain by isolated guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle has been studied and compared with a pharmacological action due to inhibition of the sodium pump. 2. The uptake of labelled cardiac glycosides can be described by means of an exponential function. The t of uptake was similar for the three compounds and did not depend on the concentration. 3. Analysis of the curve relating the uptake of cardiac glycosides at equilibrium to the bath concentration enabled a non-saturable and a saturable binding site to be distinguished. 4. In contrast to the uptake observations, the onset of the pharmacological effect was dependent on the concentration, and furthermore the t½ for this effect was shorter. 5. The release of cardiac glycosides proceeded more slowly than the uptake. 6. The uptake of a labelled glycoside was reduced in the presence of another glycoside. The amount of displaceable glycoside was nearly equivalent to the capacity of the saturable binding site. 7. The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:5417857

  12. Polystichum munitum (Dryopteridaceae) varies geographically in its capacity to absorb fog water by foliar uptake within the redwood forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Limm, Emily B; Dawson, Todd E

    2010-07-01

    Fog provides a critical water resource to plants around the world. In the redwood forest ecosystem of northern California, plants depend on fog absorbed through foliar uptake to stay hydrated during the rainless summer. In this study, we identified regions within the redwood ecosystem where the fern Polystichum munitum canopy most effectively absorbs fog drip that reaches the forest floor. • We measured the foliar uptake capacity of P. munitum fronds at seven sites along 700 km of the redwood forest ecosystem. We quantified the canopy cover of P. munitum at each site and estimated how much water the fern canopy can acquire aboveground through fog interception and absorption. • Throughout the ecosystem, nocturnal foliar uptake increased the leaf water content of P. munitum by 7.2%, and we estimated that the P. munitum canopy can absorb 5 ± 3% (mean ± SE) of intercepted fog precipitation. Strikingly, P. munitum had the highest foliar uptake capacity in the center of the ecosystem and may absorb 10% more of the fog its canopy intercepts in this region relative to other regions studied. Conversely, P. munitum had no foliar uptake capacity in the southern end of the ecosystem. • This study shows the first evidence that foliar uptake varies within species at the landscape scale. Our findings suggest that the P. munitum at the southern tip of the redwood ecosystem may suffer most from low summertime water availability because it had no potential to acquire fog as an aboveground water subsidy.

  13. Nucleoside uptake in rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, J; Gomez-Angelats, M; del Santo, B; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1996-01-01

    Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)- independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na(+)-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent K(m) values for uridine in the range 8-13 microM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 10(5) cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is inhibited by high concentrations of thymidine is similar to the guanosine-resistant fraction. These observations are consistent with the presence of at least two Na(+)-dependent transport systems. Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide treatment, but Na(+)-independent transport is not. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) stimulates Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake. The NBTI effect involves a change in Vmax, it is rapid, dose-dependent, does not need preincubation and can be abolished by depleting the Na+ transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Na(+)-independent uridine transport seems to be insensitive to NBTI. Under the same experimental conditions, NBTI effectively blocks most of the Na(+)-independent uridine uptake in hepatoma cells. Thus the stimulatory effect of NBTI on the concentrative nucleoside transporter of liver parenchymal cells cannot be explained by inhibition of nucleoside efflux. PMID:8760370

  14. Investigating phosphorus uptake in anoxic and sulfidic surface sediments with 33P radiotracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. Enhanced P availability in the water column can fuel algal blooms and the development of bottom water anoxia. Recently, it was suggested that micro-organisms in sediments overlain by anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters might take up dissolved P and form Fe(II)-P minerals, thereby enhancing P removal. In this study, we investigated the uptake of P in surface sediments with 33P radiotracer experiments. The sediments were recovered from the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin of the Black Sea and, for comparison, from the adjacent oxic shelf. Results suggest a very fast sedimentary uptake of 33P at all sites but in particular for sediments from the oxic shelf. At all sites, most 33P was sequestered in the citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate-(CDB)-extractable sediment P fraction. No significant differences with abiotic controls were observed, implying that micro-organisms were not directly involved in the P uptake. Whereas 33P uptake by the oxic shelf sediment was likely controlled by sorption of 33P to iron(Fe)-(oxyhydr)oxides, the nature of the CDB-extractable P fraction in the deep basin sediments remains unclear. We discuss whether authigenic formation of Fe(II)-P minerals or fast adsorption of P to calcites may explain our findings.

  15. A quantitative model for oxygen uptake and release in a family of hemeproteins.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan P; Szretter, María E; Sued, Mariela; Martí, Marcelo A; Estrin, Darío A; Boechi, Leonardo

    2016-06-15

    Hemeproteins have many diverse functions that largely depend on the rate at which they uptake or release small ligands, like oxygen. These proteins have been extensively studied using either simulations or experiments, albeit only qualitatively and one or two proteins at a time. We present a physical-chemical model, which uses data obtained exclusively from computer simulations, to describe the uptake and release of oxygen in a family of hemeproteins, called truncated hemoglobins (trHbs). Through a rigorous statistical analysis we demonstrate that our model successfully recaptures all the reported experimental oxygen association and dissociation kinetic rate constants, thus allowing us to establish the key factors that determine the rates at which these hemeproteins uptake and release oxygen. We found that internal tunnels as well as the distal site water molecules control ligand uptake, whereas oxygen stabilization by distal site residues controls ligand release. Because these rates largely determine the functions of these hemeproteins, these approaches will also be important tools in characterizing the trHbs members with unknown functions. lboechi@ic.fcen.uba.ar Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. FDG Uptake by Prosthetic Arterial Grafts in Large Vessel Vasculitis Is Not Specific for Active Disease.

    PubMed

    Youngstein, Taryn; Tombetti, Enrico; Mukherjee, Jaita; Barwick, Tara D; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Humphreys, Emyr; Nash, Julian; Andrews, Jacqueline; Incerti, Elena; Tombolini, Elisabetta; Salerno, Annalaura; Sartorelli, Silvia; Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Papa, Maurizio; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Gianolli, Luigi; De Cobelli, Francesco; Fallanca, Federico; Baldissera, Elena; Manfredi, Angelo A; Picchio, Maria; Mason, Justin C

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the incidence and clinical significance of arterial graft-associated uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). The role of (18)F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) in the management of LVV remains to be defined. Although [(18)F]FDG uptake at arterial graft sites raises concerns regarding active arteritis or infection, its clinical significance in LVV has never been formally studied. An observational prospective study sought to identify patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) undergoing [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT more than 6 months after graft surgery from a large cohort of patients from 2 tertiary referral centers. [(18)F]FDG uptake by the graft and native arteries was scored on a scale of 0 to 3 relative to hepatic uptake, and periprosthetic maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. Periprosthetic [(18)F]FDG uptake in active disease was compared with that in inactive disease, and arterial progression was assessed by prospective magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Twenty-six subjects with TA were enrolled. All were afebrile with negative blood culture. Periprosthetic uptake was significant in 23 of 26 patients, and the mean SUVmax was 4.21 ± 1.46. Median periprosthetic [(18)F]FDG uptake score (3; interquartile range [IQR]: 3 to 3) was higher than in native aorta (1; IQR: 0 to 1; p < 0.001). Graft-specific [(18)F]FDG uptake was unrelated to disease activity. Despite the high frequency of graft-associated [(18)F]FDG uptake, sequential MRAs did not reveal arterial progression in 25 of 26 patients; the 1 remaining case showed minor progression limited to native arteries. Nine patients underwent repeated PET/CT scanning without showing changes in graft-specific uptake, despite increased treatment. Significant [(18)F]FDG uptake that is confined to arterial graft sites in patients with LVV does not reflect clinically relevant disease activity or

  17. Quantifying Substrate Uptake by Individual Cells of Marine Bacterioplankton by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Combined with Microautoradiography▿

    PubMed Central

    Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO-CARD-FISH) is increasingly being used to obtain qualitative information on substrate uptake by individual members of specific prokaryotic communities. Here we evaluated the potential for using this approach quantitatively by relating the measured silver grain area around cells taking up 3H-labeled leucine to bulk leucine uptake measurements. The increase in the silver grain area over time around leucine-assimilating cells of coastal bacterial assemblages was linear during 4 to 6 h of incubation. By establishing standardized conditions for specific activity levels and concomitantly performing uptake measurements with the bulk community, MICRO-CARD-FISH can be used quantitatively to determine uptake rates on a single-cell level. Therefore, this approach allows comparisons of single-cell activities for bacterial communities obtained from different sites or growing under different ecological conditions. PMID:16950912

  18. Effects of ammonium and nitrate on nutrient uptake and activity of nitrogen assimilating enzymes in western hemlock

    SciTech Connect

    Knoepp, J.D.; Turner, D.P.; Tingey, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    Western hemlock seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions with ammonium, nitrate or ammonium plus nitrate as nitrogen sources. The objectives were to examine (1) possible selectivity for ammonium or nitrate as an N source, (2) the maintenance of charge balance during ammonium and nitrate uptake, and (3) the activity of the nitrogen assimilating enzymes, nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamine dehydrogenase, in relation to the uptake of different nitrogen sources. The uptake studies revealed that western hemlock takes up ammonium faster than nitrate and that ammonium partially inhibits nitrate uptake. Nitrate reductase activity varied with nitrate availability in root tissue, but showed no response in needles, indicating that most nitrate is reduced in the roots. Results indicate that western hemlock may be adapted to sites where NH(4+) is the predominate N source.

  19. Insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Elmendorf, J S; Damrau-Abney, A; Smith, T R; David, T S; Turinsky, J

    1995-03-28

    To date there is suggestive evidence that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase participates in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. However, its involvement in skeletal muscle, a major site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, has not been addressed. Therefore, we tested the effects of wortmannin, a known inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, on insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat soleus muscle in vitro: Wortmannin (1 microM) reversibly inhibited insulin-induced 2-deoxyglucose uptake in soleus muscle by 44%. Inclusion of 5 microM wortmannin in the incubation medium completely abolished the insulin-induced increment in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In conclusion, the insulin-signaling cascade linking insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activation to glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

  20. Imipramine treatment differentially affects platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding and serotonin uptake in depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Suranyi-Cadotte, B.E.; Quirion, R.; Nair, N.P.V.; Lafaille, F.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-02-25

    Uptake of serotonin and /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in platelets of depressed patients were investigated simultaneously with changes in clinical state. Both V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake and B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding were significantly lower in unmedicated depressed patients with respect to normal subjects. Successful treatment with imipramine led to a significant increase in B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding, without significant change in V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake. B/sub max/ values increased to the normal range following complete, rather than partial clinical improvement. These data indicate that successful antidepressant treatment may increase the density of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites on platelets by a process which is independent of the uptake of serotonin. 29 references, 1 table.

  1. Do interventions that improve immunisation uptake also reduce social inequalities in uptake?

    PubMed Central

    Reading, R.; Colver, A.; Openshaw, S.; Jarvis, S.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether an intervention designed to improve overall immunisation uptake affected social inequalities in uptake. DESIGN--Cross-sectional small area analyses measuring immunisation uptake in cohorts of children before and after intervention. Small areas classified into five groups, from most deprived to most affluent, with Townsend deprivation score of census enumeration districts. SETTING--County of Northumberland. SUBJECTS--All children born in country in four birth cohorts (1981-2, 1985-6, 1987-8, and 1990-1) and still resident at time of analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall uptake in each cohort of pertussis, diphtheria, and measles immunisation, difference in uptake between most deprived and most affluent areas, and odds ratio of uptake between deprived and affluent areas. RESULTS--Coverage for pertussis immunisation rose from 53.4% in first cohort to 91.1% in final cohort. Coverage in the most deprived areas was lower than in the most affluent areas by 4.7%, 8.7%, 10.2%, and 7.0% respectively in successive cohorts, corresponding to an increase in odds ratio of uptake between deprived and affluent areas from 1.2 to 1.6 to 1.9 to 2.3. Coverage for diphtheria immunisation rose from 70.0% to 93.8%; differences between deprived and affluent areas changed from 8.6% to 8.3% to 9.0% to 5.5%, corresponding to odds ratios of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 2.6. Coverage for measles immunisation rose from 52.5% to 91.4%; differences between deprived and affluent areas changed from 9.1% to 5.7% to 8.2% to 3.6%, corresponding to odds ratios of 1.4, 1.4, 1.7, and 1.5. CONCLUSION--Despite substantial increase in immunisation uptake, inequalities between deprived and affluent areas persisted or became wider. Any reduction in inequality occurred only after uptake in affluent areas approached 95%. Interventions that improve overall uptake of preventive measures are unlikely to reduce social inequalities in uptake. PMID:8173457

  2. Comparing Measures of Fine Root Uptake by Mature Trees: Applications for Determining the Potential Impacts of Climate Change-Induced Soil Freezing on Nutrient Uptake by Sugar Maple and Red Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    and the peak growing seasons. Rates of nutrient uptake by intact roots were significantly greater than rates of uptake by excised roots for both sugar maple and red spruce. Despite this difference, the patterns of NH4+ uptake compared to NO3- uptake were consistent across both methods. These results suggest that both means of measuring root nutrient uptake may be sufficient for comparing relative treatment effects across sites. However, the observed variation in magnitude suggests that caution must be taken in interpreting actual rates of uptake from either method.

  3. Field uptake rates of hydrophobic organic contaminants by semipermeable membrane devices: environmental monitoring considerations.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Borghini, F; Corral, A; Grimalt, J O

    2004-11-01

    The uptake rates of selected hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--a polyethylene layflat containing the lipid triolein--were investigated under natural conditions. SPMDs were exposed in three sampling sites (industrial, urban, and agricultural areas) in the Tajo River (Toledo, Spain) for 5, 11 and 20 d. The organochlorine compounds 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in the SPMDs deployed in the three sampling sites. A linear uptake rate was found for DDTs and for 4-Cl- and 5-Cl-substituted PCB congeners in all sampling sites. Concentrations of HCHs (80.3 ng g(-1) SPMD for alpha-HCH and 109 ng g(-1) SPMD for gamma-HCH after 20 d of exposure) increased according to a linear uptake rate in the SPMDs deployed in the sampling site located in the agricultural area. Likewise, a marked increase of total PAH concentration (up to 300 ng g(-1) SPMD after 20 d of exposure) was solely found in the sampling site situated near a thermoelectric power station. Examination of individual PAHs revealed that PAHs with log K(OW) between 4.2 and 5.7 displayed a linear uptake rate over the 20 d of exposure. Water concentrations (ng L(-1)) of HCB (0.80-2.48), lindane (1.30-11.5), 4,4'-DDT (0.61-2.02), 4,4'-DDE (6.89-11.6) and total PAHs (12.0-26.7) estimated by a linear uptake kinetic model were found to be high in comparison with other polluted aquatic systems, and similar to concentrations in other Spanish rivers. Our results suggest that SPMD kinetic uptake studies in the natural environment are recommended for identifying point-pollution sources, and that shorter times of SPMD exposure (approximately 1 week) are desirable to minimize one of the main problems of field SPMD deployment, i.e., the biofouling, which negatively affects the estimation of the dissolved HOC

  4. Influence of the physicochemical characteristics of pollutants on their uptake in moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Z.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Bryophytes are commonly used as biomonitors to estimate the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the tissue concentrations of these elements in moss do not always accurately reflect atmospheric levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether element uptake in moss is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the elements. Factor analysis was used to identify any patterns of covariance in the accumulation of elements in samples of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum collected from the surroundings of different factories and from control sites. The variation in the concentrations of elements was similar in moss from both types of sites and was related to the binding properties of the elements. This suggests that the physicochemical characteristics of the elements determine the uptake of metals and metalloids from the atmosphere. Therefore, in studies that use multiple correlations among elements as indicators of a common origin of contaminants, erroneous conclusions may be reached by overlooking the adsorption properties of the moss.

  5. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  6. Stimulation of Cadmium Uptake in Relation to the Cadmium Content of Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Charles M.; Ringoet, Arthur; Myttenaere, Constant

    1978-01-01

    The time course of cadmium uptake by the roots of intact tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was measured in a nutrient solution with a micromolar cadmium concentration until all cadmium in the medium was exhausted. Exhaustion taking a few hours, cadmium was repeatedly added to the nutrient solution. The initial rate of cadmium uptake was computed for each cadmium addition. This rate sharply increased and ultimately leveled off, the maximum value being about three times higher than the value measured after the first cadmium addition. The stimulating effect of cadmium was associated with an inhibitory effect at higher levels of cadmium concentrations. An increase in the net cadmium influx with time could not be explained by the binding of heavy metal to a fixed number of organic compounds. Conceivably, the production of binding sites could be increased and cadmium might play a part in controlling the rate of sites production. PMID:16660557

  7. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart.

  8. Modeling the effects of organic nitrogen uptake by plants on the carbon cycling of boreal forest and tundra ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal forest and tundra are the major ecosystems in the northern high latitudes in which a large amount of carbon is stored. These ecosystems are nitrogen-limited due to slow mineralization rate of the soil organic nitrogen. Recently, abundant field studies have found that organic nitrogen is another important nitrogen supply for boreal forest and tundra ecosystems. In this study, we incorporated a mechanism that allowed boreal plants to uptake small molecular amino acids into a process-based biogeochemical model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to evaluate the impact of organic nitrogen uptake on ecosystem carbon cycling. The new version of the model was evaluated for both boreal forest and tundra sites. We found that the modeled organic nitrogen uptake accounted for 36-87% of total nitrogen uptake by plants in tundra ecosystems and 26-50% for boreal forests, suggesting that tundra ecosystem might have more relied on the organic form of nitrogen than boreal forests. The simulated monthly gross ecosystem production (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) tended to be larger with the new version of the model since the plant uptake of organic nitrogen alleviated the soil nitrogen limitation especially during the growing season. The sensitivity study indicated that the most important factors controlling the plant uptake of organic nitrogen was the soil amino acid diffusion coefficient (De) in our model, suggesting that the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is likely to be regulated by the edaphic characteristics of diffusion. The model uncertainty due to uncertain parameters associated with organic nitrogen uptake of the tundra ecosystem was larger than the boreal forest ecosystems. This study suggests that considering the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is important to carbon modeling of boreal forest and tundra ecosystems.

  9. Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

    2014-01-15

    Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amino Acid Neurotransmitters; Mechanisms of Their Uptake into Synaptic Vesicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine and the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is essential for the understanding of the...1987)i Biochemistry, anatomy, and pharmacology of GABA neurons, In- Meltzer H Y (ed) Psycopharmacology : The third generation of progress, Raven Press...calculated with a linear GABA uptake experiments, regression program (Chou and Chou, 1985). Assay for GABA uptake GABA uptake was determined essentially as

  11. Hydrogen Uptake of DPB Getter Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Herberg, J L; Saab, A P; Weigle, J; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; McLean II, W

    2008-05-30

    The physical and chemical properties of 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne (DPB) blended with carbon-supported Pd (DPB-Pd/C) in the form of pellets during hydrogenation were investigated. A thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) was employed to measure the kinetics of the hydrogen uptake by the DPB getter pellets. The kinetics obtained were then used to develop a semi-empirical model, based on gas diffusion into solids, to predict the performance of the getter pellets under various conditions. The accuracy of the prediction model was established by comparing the prediction models with independent experimental data on hydrogen pressure buildup in sealed systems containing DPB getter pellets and subjected to known rates of hydrogen input. The volatility of the hydrogenated DPB products and its effects on the hydrogen uptake kinetics were also analyzed.

  12. Quantifying uncertainty in future ocean carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.

    2016-10-01

    Attributing uncertainty in ocean carbon uptake between societal trajectory (scenarios), Earth System Model construction (structure), and inherent natural variation in climate (internal) is critical to make progress in identifying, understanding, and reducing those uncertainties. In the present issue of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Lovenduski et al. (2016) disentangle these drivers of uncertainty in ocean carbon uptake over time and space and assess the resulting implications for the emergence timescales of structural and scenario uncertainty over internal variability. Such efforts are critical for establishing realizable and efficient monitoring goals and prioritizing areas of continued model development. Under recently proposed climate stabilization targets, such efforts to partition uncertainty also become increasingly critical to societal decision-making in the context of carbon stabilization.

  13. Uptake of cadmium by eggs and alevins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as influenced by acidic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.H.; Metcalfe, J.L.; Ray, S.

    1985-03-01

    The toxicity of Cd to salmonid eggs and alevins, its uptake by them and distribution in them have been the subject of several studies. In a study of Zn absorption onto the salmoid chorion, it was suggested that the Zn/sup + +/ ions were bound to anionic sites of the chorion. Lowering the incubation pH could affect heavy metal binding to the chorion by neutralization of these anionic sites. It is important, in view of the acidification problem, to know the pH range at which chlorionic binding of metals is reduced and whether metal uptake by the embryo is affected. In this study the authors have examined the uptake of Cd by chorion, embryo and yolk of Atlantic salmon eggs and of alevins resulting from three levels of Cd exposure, at each of four incubation pH's.

  14. Inhibitory action of sphingosine, sphinganine and dexamethasone on glucose uptake: Studies with hydrogen peroxide and phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.; Hill, M.E.; Nelson, D.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of the inhibitory action of glucocorticoids on glucose uptake is incompletely understood. Treatment with corticosteriods of cells in which glucose uptake is stimulated at insulin postbinding and postreceptor sites may clarify the site of the steroid inhibitory action. Hydrogen peroxide, which has been shown to stimulate the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) which stimulates protein kinase C were, therefore, used as stimulators of glucose transport in this study. These studies demonstrate that dexamethasone and the sphingoid bases, sphinganine and sphingosine, inhibit glucose uptake that has been stimulated at either the receptor kinase or protein kinase C level in both 3T3-L1 and 3T3-C2 cells. These data confirm glucocorticoid inhibitory action at a post binding level and support the suggestion that some corticosteriod inhibitory effects may be mediated by an action on sphingolipid metabolism.

  15. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Dvořáková, Marcela; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC(50) value about 0.1mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC(50)=0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1mM or 0.5mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, A.; Kleidon, A.; Bechmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    By extracting bound water from the soil and lifting it to the canopy, root systems of vegetation perform work. Here we describe how the energetics involved in root water uptake can be quantified. The illustration is done using a simple, four-box model of the soil-root system to represent heterogeneity and a parameterization in which root water uptake is driven by the xylem potential of the plant with a fixed flux boundary condition. We use this approach to evaluate the effects of soil moisture heterogeneity and root system properties on the dissipative losses and export of energy involved in root water uptake. For this, we derive an expression that relates the energy export at the root collar to a sum of terms that reflect all fluxes and storage changes along the flow path in thermodynamic terms. We conclude that such a thermodynamic evaluation of root water uptake conveniently provides insights into the impediments of different processes along the entire flow path and explicitly accounting not only for the resistances along the flow path and those imposed by soil drying but especially the role of heterogenous soil water distribution. The results show that least energy needs to be exported and dissipative losses are minimized by a root system if it extracts water uniformly from the soil. This has implications for plant water relations in forests where canopies generate heterogenous input patterns. Our diagnostic in the energy domain should be useful in future model applications for quantifying how plants can evolve towards greater efficiency in their structure and function, particularly in heterogenous soil environments. Generally, this approach may help to better describe heterogeneous processes in the soil in a simple, yet physically-based way.

  17. Uptake of Nickel by Synthetic Mackinawite

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of aqueous Ni(II) by synthetic mackinawite (FeS) was examined in anaerobic batch experiments at near-neutral pH (5.2 to 8.4). Initial molar ratios of Ni(II) to FeS ranged from 0.008 to 0.83 and maximum Ni concentrations in mackinawite, expressed as the cation mol fract...

  18. Computer program for calculation of oxygen uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, B. L.; Castle, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operational precedures are presented for a computer program, written in Super Basic, that calculates oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and related ventilation parameters. Program features include: (1) the option of entering slope and intercept values of calibration curves for the O2 and CO2 and analyzers; (2) calculation of expired water vapor pressure; and (3) the option of entering inspured O2 and CO2 concentrations. The program is easily adaptable for programmable laboratory calculators.

  19. PARTITIONING THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF SOIL N, MYCORRHIZAE, AND FOLIAR N UPTAKE ON FOLIAR δ15N PATTERNS: CAN WE DETECT FOLIAR UPTAKE OF REACTIVE N?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive N in N-limited systems and may be capable of incorporating reactive N compounds directly into leaves through the foliar uptake pathway. A proxy for atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation would be useful to estimate the impact of direct foliar N uptake on plant metabolism. Natural abundance foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) is a practical tool for this purpose because plant-available N sources often have different isotopic compositions. Current understanding of foliar δ15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of soil δ15N, direct foliar N uptake, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we estimated the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N patterns in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along an N deposition gradient in New York State. We found that mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ15N in red maple seedlings from 0.03 - 1.01‰ across sites. Along the same temporal and spatial scales, we examined the influence of soil δ15N, foliar N uptake, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in adult stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), red maple (A. rubrum), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Using multiple regression models, atmospheric NO2 concentration explained 0%, 69%, 23%, and 45% of the residual variation in foliar δ15N remaining in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for soil δ15N. Our results suggest that foliar δ15N may be used to estimate pollution-derived atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation via the foliar N uptake pathway.

  20. 21 CFR 892.1320 - Nuclear uptake probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear uptake probe. 892.1320 Section 892.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1320 Nuclear uptake probe. (a) Identification. A nuclear uptake probe is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclide taken up by...

  1. Uptake as a Mechanism to Promote Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare Valerie

    2013-01-01

    This study is a descriptive examination of uptake that occurred during classroom discourse in 33 Algebra I classrooms in nine U.S. states. Uptake refers to the act of taking up mathematical comments, questions, and constructions as objects of discourse. Uptake is important because it can be used for scaffolding authentic opportunities to learn and…

  2. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…

  3. New etiology for intestinal uptake of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M.; Fairholm, S.; Freeman, M.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A patient with both rest and exercise thallium images for unstable angina demonstrated marked large intestinal uptake of thallium. However, the thallium uptake in the large intestine was noted only after exercise. The only change in the patient status between the two studies was the administration of verapamil. Thus, verapamil administration has been demonstrated to be a new cause for gut uptake of thallium.

  4. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  9. Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony H.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    Water uptake profiles of proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in the form of capillary-pressure saturation (Pc-S) curves. The curves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly hydrophilic and require capillary pressures as low as -80 kPa to eject imbibed water. Comparison of materials made with and without Pt indicates a difference in water ejection and uptake phenomena due to the presence of Pt. The addition of Pt increases the tendency of the catalyst layer to retain water. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is used to characterize the water-vapor sorption onto Nafion, Pt/C, and C surfaces. The DVS results align with the trends found from the Pc-S curves and show an increased propensity for water uptake in the presence of Pt. The effect of the ion in Nafion, sodium or protonated form, is also compared and demonstrates that although the protonation of the Nafion in the catalyst layer also increases hydrophilicity, the effect is not as great as that caused by Pt.

  10. Plant uptake of non ionic organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris; Fryer, Mike; Grosso, Albania

    2006-01-01

    Plant uptake of organic chemicals is an important process when considering the risks associated with land contamination, the role of vegetation in the global cycling of persistent organic pollutants, and the potential for industrial discharges to contaminate the food chain. There have been some significant advances in our understanding of the processes of plant uptake of organic chemicals in recent years; most notably there is now a better understanding of the air to plant transfer pathway, which may be significant for a number of industrial chemicals. This review identifies the key processes involved in the plant uptake of organic chemicals including those for which there is currently little information, e.g., plant lipid content and plant metabolism. One of the principal findings is that although a number of predictive models exist using established relationships, these require further validation if they are to be considered sufficiently robust for the purposes of contaminated land risk assessment or for prediction of the global cycling of persistent organic pollutants. Finally, a number of processes are identified which should be the focus of future research.

  11. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake

    PubMed Central

    Smithen, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A.; Winkfein, Robert; Zakharian, Eleonora; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polymer which belongs to the class of polyesters and is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. Mammalian mitochondrial membranes contain PHB consisting of up to 120 hydroxybutyrate residues. Roles played by PHB in mammalian mitochondria remain obscure. It was previously demonstrated that PHB of the size similar to one found in mitochondria mediates calcium transport in lipid bilayer membranes. We hypothesized that the presence of PHB in mitochondrial membrane might play a significant role in mitochondrial calcium transport. To test this, we investigated how the induction of PHB hydrolysis affects mitochondrial calcium transport. Mitochondrial PHB was altered enzymatically by targeted expression of bacterial PHB hydrolyzing enzyme (PhaZ7) in mitochondria of mammalian cultured cells. The expression of PhaZ7 induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 but not in U87 and HeLa cells. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake in intact HepG2, U87 and HeLa cells stimulated by the ATP or by the application of increased concentrations of calcium to the digitonin permeabilized cells. Calcium uptake in PhaZ7 expressing cells was restored by mimicking calcium uniporter properties with natural electrogenic calcium ionophore - ferutinin. We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system. PMID:23702223

  12. Uptake and retention of amitriptyline by kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guocheng; Stockwell, Christie; Niles, Jacqueline; Minegar, Skylar; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2013-12-01

    As the most commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline (AT) is frequently detected in wastewater, surface runoff, and effluents from sewage treatment plants, and could potentially reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water. Kaolinite is one of the most important soil components under warm and humid climate conditions. In this study, the uptake and retention of AT by kaolinite from aqueous solution were investigated by batch tests, XRD, and FTIR analyses. The uptake of AT on kaolinite was instantaneous, attributed to surface adsorption as confirmed by XRD analyses. Quantitative correlation between desorption of exchangeable cations and AT adsorption confirmed experimentally that cation exchange was the dominant mechanism of AT uptake on kaolinite. The values for free energy of adsorption also suggested physi-sorption such as cation exchange. Solution pH had minimal influence at pH 5-11 even though the pKa value of AT was 9.4 and the surface charge of kaolinite was pH-dependent.

  13. A thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Kleidon, Axel; Bechmann, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    By extracting bound water from the soil and lifting it to the canopy, root systems of vegetation perform work. Here we describe how root water uptake can be evaluated thermodynamically and demonstrate that this evaluation provides additional insights into the factors that impede root water uptake. We derive an expression that relates the energy export at the base of the root system to a sum of terms that reflect all fluxes and storage changes along the flow path in thermodynamic terms. We illustrate this thermodynamic formulation using an idealized setup of scenarios with a simple model. In these scenarios, we demonstrate why heterogeneity in soil water distribution and rooting properties affect the impediment of water flow even though the mean soil water content and rooting properties are the same across the scenarios. The effects of heterogeneity can clearly be identified in the thermodynamics of the system in terms of differences in dissipative losses and hydraulic energy, resulting in an earlier start of water limitation in the drying cycle. We conclude that this thermodynamic evaluation of root water uptake conveniently provides insights into the impediments of different processes along the entire flow path, which goes beyond resistances and also accounts for the role of heterogeneity in soil water distribution.

  14. Intracerebroventricular administration of okadaic acid induces hippocampal glucose uptake dysfunction and tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Broetto, Núbia; Hansen, Fernanda; Brolese, Giovana; Batassini, Cristiane; Lirio, Franciane; Galland, Fabiana; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Intraneuronal aggregates of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), together with beta-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis, are histological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of sporadic AD remains poorly understood, but abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is suggested to have a role in NFTs genesis, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. Okadaic acid (OKA), a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, has been used to induce dementia similar to AD in rats. We herein investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of OKA (100 and 200ng) on hippocampal tau phosphorylation at Ser396, which is considered an important fibrillogenic tau protein site, and on glucose uptake, which is reduced early in AD. ICV infusion of OKA (at 200ng) induced a spatial cognitive deficit, hippocampal astrogliosis (based on GFAP increment) and increase in tau phosphorylation at site 396 in this model. Moreover, we observed a decreased glucose uptake in the hippocampal slices of OKA-treated rats. In vitro exposure of hippocampal slices to OKA altered tau phosphorylation at site 396, without any associated change in glucose uptake activity. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of OKA neurotoxicity, in vivo and vitro, particularly with regard to the role of tau phosphorylation, and reinforce the importance of the OKA dementia model for studying the neurochemical alterations that may occur in AD, such as NFTs and glucose hypometabolism.

  15. Cloning, expression, and characterization of cadmium and manganese uptake genes from Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Z.; Chen, S.; Wilson, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    An Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake gene, mntA, was cloned from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 into Escherichia coli. Its expression conferred on E. coli cells increased Cd{sup 2+} sensitivity as well as energy-dependent Cd{sup 2+} uptake activity. Both transcription and translation of mntA were induced by Mn{sup 2+} starvation in L. plantarum, as indicated by reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblotting. Two Cd{sup 2+} uptake systems have been identified in L. plantarum: one is a high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake system that is expressed in Mn{sup 2+}-starved cells, and the other is a nonsaturable Cd{sup 2+} uptake system that is expressed in Cd{sup 2+}-sufficient cells. MntA was not detected in an Mn{sup 2+}-dependent mutant of L. plantarum which had lost high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake activity. The results suggest that mntA is the gene encoding the high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} transporter. On the basis of its predicted amino acid sequence, MntA belongs to the family of P-type cation-translocating ATPases. The topology and potential Mn{sup 2+}- and Cd{sup 2+}-binding sites of MntA are discussed. A second clone containing a low-affinity Cd{sup 2+} transport system was also isolated.

  16. Vitamin b(1) and b(12) uptake and cycling by plankton communities in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Goleski, Jennifer A; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S; Gobler, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    While vitamin B(12) has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B(1) and B(12) have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B(12) uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2 μm phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2 μm) were always responsible for the majority of B(12)-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B(12) occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession.

  17. Vitamin B1 and B12 Uptake and Cycling by Plankton Communities in Coastal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Goleski, Jennifer A.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2 μm phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2 μm) were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession. PMID:23091470

  18. Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, N. R.

    2012-07-01

    Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant) into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into subtropical mode water (STMW) of the North Atlantic. STMW forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg-1 yr-1 between 1988 and 2011, but also an increase in ocean acidification indicators such as pH at rates (-0.0022 ± 0.0002 yr-1) higher than the surface ocean (Bates et al., 2012). It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C) between 1988 and 2011 (70 ± 1.8% of which is due to uptake of Cant). The sink of CO2 into the STMW is 20% of the CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic Ocean between 14°-50° N (Takahashi et al., 2009). However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s during a predominantly NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

  19. Sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) enhances cellular uptake of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/- mice, but not in Sglt2-/- mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2-/- mice compared to Sglt2+/- mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/- mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/- mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity.

  20. Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) Enhances Cellular Uptake of Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/− mice, but not in Sglt2−/− mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2−/− mice compared to Sglt2+/− mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/− mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/− mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25268124

  1. Estradiol Uptake in a Combined Magnetic Ion Exchange - Ultrafiltration (MIEX-UF) Process During Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, Alessandra; Biscarat, Jennifer; Schafer, Andrea Iris

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens and their synthetic analogues are widely used as pharmaceuticals. Upon oral administration these drugs are eventually excreted via urine. The persistence of these pharmaceuticals and inefficient removal by water treatment lead to accumulation in surface water and effluents with negative effects for aquatic life and human health. In this study, the uptake of estradiol by a combined magnetic ion exchange resin - ultrafiltration process (MIEX-UF) was investigated. This is a relatively common process used in drinking water treatment for the removal of natural organic matter. However, uptake of micropollutants, such as steroidal pharmaceuticals, may occur as a side effect of water treatment due to the high affinity for polymeric materials. To elucidate the mechanism governing estradiol partitioning between water, resin and membrane, the influence of different parameters, such as pH, humic acid concentration and membrane molecular-weight-cut-off (MWCO) was studied. Humic acid concentration and pH affected estradiol uptake most. At pH 11 the most significant increase of estradiol uptake was observed for MIEX-UF process (30 ng/g corresponding to 80%) compared with individual UF (17 ng/g corresponding to 12%). The presence of humic acid slightly reduced estradiol uptake at pH 11 (about 55%) due to competition for the ion exchange binding sites. Results demonstrated that the uptake of estradiol, which is amongst the most potent EDCs detected in surface water, in the MIEX-UF process can reach significant quantities (30 ng/g of resin) leading to uncontrolled accumulation of this micropollutant during drinking water treatment. This study gives a novel contribution in the understanding the mechanism of the unanticipated accumulation of pharmaceuticals, such as estradiol, in the drinking water treatment process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Nitrate uptake varies with tide height and nutrient availability in the intertidal seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Benes, Kylla M; Bracken, Matthew E S

    2016-10-01

    Intertidal seaweeds must cope with a suite of stressors imposed by aerial exposure at low tide, including nutrient limitation due to emersion. Seaweeds can access nutrients only when submerged, so individuals living higher compared to lower on the shore may have adaptations allowing them to acquire sufficient amounts of nutrients to survive and maintain growth. Using a combination of observations and experiments, we aimed to identify intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake rates across the intertidal distribution of F. vesiculosus, as well as test for acclimation in response to a change in tide height. We replicated our study at sites spanning nearly the entire Gulf of Maine coastline, to examine how local environmental variability may alter intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake. We found that average nitrate uptake rates were ~18% higher in upper compared to lower intertidal Fucus vesiculosus. Furthermore, we found evidence for both acclimation and adaptation to tide height during a transplant experiment. F. vesiculosus transplanted from the lower to the upper intertidal zone was characterized by increased nitrate uptake, but individuals transplanted from the upper to the lower intertidal zone retained high uptake rates. Our observations differed among Gulf of Maine regions and among time points of our study. Importantly, these differences may reflect associations between nitrate uptake rates and abiotic environmental conditions and seaweed nutrient status. Our study highlights the importance of long-term variation in ambient nutrient supply in driving intraspecific variation of seaweeds across the intertidal gradient and local and seasonal variation in ambient nutrient levels in mediating intraspecific differences.

  3. Light Conditions Affect the Measurement of Oceanic Bacterial Production via Leucine Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiance in the range of 400 to 700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on bacterial heterotrophic production estimated by the incorporation of 3H-leucine (referred to herein as Leu) was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and in a coastal North Atlantic site, with Leu uptake rates ranging over 3 orders of magnitude. We performed in situ incubations under natural irradiance levels of Mediterranean samples taken from five depths around solar noon and compared them to incubations in the dark. In two of the three stations large differences were found between light and dark uptake rates for the surfacemost samples, with dark values being on average 133 and 109% higher than in situ ones. Data obtained in coastal North Atlantic waters confirmed that dark enclosure may increase Leu uptake rates more than threefold. To explain these differences, on-board experiments of Leu uptake versus irradiance were performed with Mediterranean samples from depths of 5 and 40 m. Incubations under a gradient of 12 to 1,731 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 evidenced a significant increase in incorporation rates with increasing PAR in most of the experiments, with dark-incubated samples departing from this pattern. These results were not attributed to inhibition of Leu uptake in the light but to enhanced bacterial response when transferred to dark conditions. The ratio of dark to light uptake rates increased as dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, suggesting that bacterial nutrient deficiency was overcome by some process occurring only in the dark bottles. PMID:11525969

  4. The Global Influence of Cloud Optical Thickness on Terrestrial Carbon Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; Cheng, S. J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Butterfield, Z.; Steiner, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Clouds play a critical role in regulating Earth's climate. One important way is by changing the type and intensity of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which impacts plant photosynthesis. Specifically, the presence of clouds modifies photosynthesis rates by influencing the amount of diffuse radiation as well as the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Satellite-derived cloud optical thickness (COT) may provide the observational constraint necessary to assess the role of clouds on ecosystems and terrestrial carbon uptake across the globe. Previous studies using ground-based observations at individual sites suggest that below a COT of 7, there is a greater increase in light use efficiency than at higher COT values, providing evidence for higher carbon uptake rates than expected given the reduction in radiation by clouds. However, the strength of the COT-terrestrial carbon uptake correlation across the globe remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the influence of COT on terrestrial carbon uptake on a global scale, which may provide insights into cloud conditions favorable for plant photosynthesis and improve our estimates of the land carbon sink. Global satellite-derived MODIS data show that tropical and subtropical regions tend to have COT values around or below the threshold during growing seasons. We find weak correlations between COT and GPP with Fluxnet MTE global GPP data, which may be due to the uncertainty of upscaling GPP from individual site measurements. Analysis with solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) as a proxy for GPP is also evaluated. Overall, this work constructs a global picture of the role of COT on terrestrial carbon uptake, including its temporal and spatial variations.

  5. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  6. Cloning and characterization of hydrogen uptake genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, A; Palacios, J M; Mozo, T; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1987-01-01

    A gene library of genomic DNA from the hydrogen uptake (Hup)-positive strain 128C53 of Rhizobium leguminosarum was constructed by using the broad-host-range mobilizable cosmid vector pLAFR1. The resulting recombinant cosmids contained insert DNA averaging 21 kilobase pairs (kb) in length. Two clones from the above gene library were identified by colony hybridization with DNA sequences from plasmid pHU1 containing hup genes of Bradyhizobium japonicum. The corresponding recombinant cosmids, pAL618 and pAL704, were isolated, and a region of about 28 kb containing the sequences homologous to B. japonicum hup-specific DNA was physically mapped. Further hybridization analysis with three fragments from pHU1 (5.9-kb HindIII, 2.9-kb EcoRI, and 5.0-kb EcoRI) showed that the overall arrangement of the R. leguminosarum hup-specific region closely parallels that of B. japonicum. The presence of functional hup genes within the isolated cosmid DNA was demonstrated by site-directed Tn5 mutagenesis of the 128C53 genome and analysis of the Hup phenotype of the Tn5 insertion strains in symbiosis with peas. Transposon Tn5 insertions at six different sites spanning 11 kb of pAL618 completely suppressed the hydrogenase activity of the pea bacteroids. Images PMID:2822654

  7. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  8. Xylose uptake by the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D K; Martin, S A

    1990-01-01

    Selenomonas ruminantium HD4 does not use the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system to transport xylose (S. A. Martin and J. B. Russell, J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:819-827, 1988). Xylose uptake by whole cells of S. ruminantium HD4 was inducible. Uptake was unaffected by monensin or lasalocid, while oxygen, o-phenanthroline, and HgCl2 were potent inhibitors. Menadione, antimycin A, and KCN had little effect on uptake, and acriflavine inhibited uptake by 23%. Sodium fluoride decreased xylose uptake by 10%, while N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide decreased uptake by 31%. Sodium arsenate was a strong inhibitor (83%), and these results suggest the involvement of a high-energy phosphate compound and possibly a binding protein in xylose uptake. The protonophores carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and SF6847 inhibited xylose uptake by 88, 82, and 43%, respectively. The cations Na+ and K+ did not stimulate xylose uptake. The kinetics of xylose uptake were nonlinear, and it appeared that more than one uptake mechanism may be involved or that two proteins (i.e., a binding protein and permease protein) with different affinities for xylose were present. Excess (10 mM) glucose, sucrose, or maltose decreased xylose uptake less than 40%. Uptake was unaffected at extracellular pH values between 6.0 and 8.0, while pH values of 5.0 and 4.0 decreased uptake 28 and 24%, respectively. The phenolic monomers p-coumaric acid and vanillin inhibited growth on xylose and xylose uptake more than ferulic acid did. The predominant end products resulting from the fermentation of xylose were lactate (7.5 mM), acetate (4.4 mM), and propionate (5.1 nM), and the Yxylose was 24.1 g/mol. PMID:2383009

  9. Xylose uptake by the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Williams, D K; Martin, S A

    1990-06-01

    Selenomonas ruminantium HD4 does not use the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system to transport xylose (S. A. Martin and J. B. Russell, J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:819-827, 1988). Xylose uptake by whole cells of S. ruminantium HD4 was inducible. Uptake was unaffected by monensin or lasalocid, while oxygen, o-phenanthroline, and HgCl2 were potent inhibitors. Menadione, antimycin A, and KCN had little effect on uptake, and acriflavine inhibited uptake by 23%. Sodium fluoride decreased xylose uptake by 10%, while N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide decreased uptake by 31%. Sodium arsenate was a strong inhibitor (83%), and these results suggest the involvement of a high-energy phosphate compound and possibly a binding protein in xylose uptake. The protonophores carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and SF6847 inhibited xylose uptake by 88, 82, and 43%, respectively. The cations Na+ and K+ did not stimulate xylose uptake. The kinetics of xylose uptake were nonlinear, and it appeared that more than one uptake mechanism may be involved or that two proteins (i.e., a binding protein and permease protein) with different affinities for xylose were present. Excess (10 mM) glucose, sucrose, or maltose decreased xylose uptake less than 40%. Uptake was unaffected at extracellular pH values between 6.0 and 8.0, while pH values of 5.0 and 4.0 decreased uptake 28 and 24%, respectively. The phenolic monomers p-coumaric acid and vanillin inhibited growth on xylose and xylose uptake more than ferulic acid did. The predominant end products resulting from the fermentation of xylose were lactate (7.5 mM), acetate (4.4 mM), and propionate (5.1 nM), and the Yxylose was 24.1 g/mol.

  10. Modeling vapor uptake induced mobility shifts in peptide ions observed with transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vivek K; Vidal-de-Miguel, Guillermo; Hogan, Christopher J

    2015-10-21

    Low field ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) techniques exhibit low orthogonality, as inverse mobility often scales with mass to charge ratio. This inadequacy can be mitigated by adding vapor dopants, which may cluster with analyte ions and shift their mobilities by amounts independent of both mass and mobility of the ion. It is therefore important to understand the interactions of vapor dopants with ions, to better quantify the extent of dopant facilitated mobility shifts. Here, we develop predictive models of vapor dopant facilitated mobility shifts, and compare model calculations to measurements of mobility shifts for peptide ions exposed to variable gas phase concentrations of isopropanol. Mobility measurements were made at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a recently developed transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometer (TMIMS). Results are compared to three separate models, wherein mobility shifts due to vapor dopants are attributed to changes in gas composition and (I) no vapor dopant uptake is assumed, (II) site-specific dopant uptake by the ion is assumed (approximated via a Langmuir adsorption model), and (III) site-unspecific dopant uptake by the ion is assumed (approximated via a classical nucleation model). We find that mobility shifts in peptide ions are in excellent agreement with model II, site-specific binding predictions. Conversely, mobility shifts of tetraalkylammonium ions from previous measurements were compared with these models and best agreement was found with model III predictions, i.e. site-unspecific dopant uptake.

  11. Focal 99mTc-DMSA Uptake in Lung Parenchyma Without Structural Alterations on SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Nursal, Gül Nihal; Reyhan, Mehmet; Yapar, Ali Fuat

    2015-11-01

    Static renal scintigraphy with Tc-DMSA is commonly used for the evaluation of renal morphology and function. Extrarenal uptake of Tc-DMSA is a rare finding described previously on sites such as bone metastasis, hemangioma, and splenic amyloidosis. We report a case with Tc-DMSA activity in the lungs.

  12. Uptake of tributyltin into willow trees.

    PubMed

    Ciucani, Giovannella; Mosbaek, Hans; Trapp, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Organotins have been used world-wide as antifoulants in ship paints. Repeatedly, severe effects on aquatic species have resulted. The use of organotins for this purpose was ruled out, and dumping of contaminated harbor sludge into the sea was prohibited. Land-based dumping is seen as an alternative. This study investigates sorption, uptake and translocation of tributyltin (TBT) to willow trees in order to evaluate phytoremediation as treatment option. The study considers the influence of pH on the plant uptake of organotins. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP: Chemicals investigated were the weak base tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) and the neutral tributyltin hydride (TBTH). Organotins were extracted from solution and plant material with toluene, and analyzed as tin by AAS with graphite oven. The pH in solution varied from pH 4 to pH 7. The sorption to living and dead roots, stems and leaves was measured in shaking experiments. The uptake into intact trees was measured at nominal levels of 1 and 10 mg TBT/l for TBTH and TBTCl at low and high pH. The sorption to roots and leaves dropped for dead tissue, but did not vary much with pH. The sorption to stems increased for dead stems and with pH. The solubility of TBTCl in water was below 10 mg/l and lowest at pH 4. Concentrations of TBTCl and TBTH in solutions with trees dropped rapidly to low values. Highest TBT contents in trees were found in roots and lower stems. The concentrations followed the concentrations in solution. The pH had only a small effect on the plant uptake of TBTCl, and no effect on the uptake of TBTH. No effective translocation to higher stems or leaves was found. An ion trap mechanism that accumulates the weak base TBTCl in the xylem sap of plants and leads to upward translocation could not be detected. Neither TBTCl at low or high pH, nor the neutral lipophilic chemical TBTH, were translocated effectively to leaves. The TBT+ cation sorbed strongly to plant tissue. The exact mechanism for the strong sorption of

  13. Uptake and withdrawal of droplets from carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schebarchov, D.; Hendy, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We give an account of recent studies of droplet uptake and withdrawal from carbon nanotubes using simple theoretical arguments and molecular dynamics simulations. Firstly, the thermodynamics of droplet uptake and release is considered and tested via simulation. We show that the Laplace pressure acting on a droplet assists capillary uptake, allowing sufficiently small non-wetting droplets to be absorbed. We then demonstrate how the uptake and release of droplets of non-wetting fluids can be exploited for the use of carbon nanotubes as nanopipettes. Finally, we extend the Lucas-Washburn model to deal with the dynamics of droplet capillary uptake, and again test this by comparison with molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. First respiration estimates of cold-seep vesicomyid bivalves from in situ total oxygen uptake measurements.

    PubMed

    Decker, Carole; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Khripounoff, Alexis; Olu, Karine

    2012-04-01

    Vesicomyid bivalves are one of the most abundant symbiont-bearing species inhabiting deep-sea reducing ecosystems. Nevertheless, except for the hydrothermal vent clam Calyptogena magnifica, their metabolic rates have not been documented, and only assessed with ex situ experiments. In this study, gathering benthic chamber measurements and biomass estimation, we give the first in situ assessment of the respiration rate of these bivalves. The giant pockmark Regab, located at 3160m depth along the Congo-Angola margin, is a cold-seep site characterised by dense assemblages of two species of vesicomyids: Christineconcha regab and Laubiericoncha chuni with high dominance of C. regab. Two sites with dense aggregates of vesicomyids were selected to measure total oxygen uptake (TOU), and methane fluxes using IFREMER's benthic chamber CALMAR deployed by the ROV Quest 4000 (MARUM). Photographs were taken and bivalves were sampled using blade corers to estimate density and biomass. Total oxygen uptake was higher at Site 2 compared to Site 1 (respectively 492 mmol.m(-2).d(-1) and 332 mmol.m(-2).d(-1)). However, given vesicomyid densities and biomass, mean oxygen consumption rates were similar at both sites (1.9 to 2.5 μmol.g total dry mass(-1).h(-1) at the Site 1 and 1.8 to 2.3 μmol.g total dry mass(-1).h(-1) at Site 2). These respiration rates are higher than published ex situ estimates for cold-seep or hydrothermal vent bivalves. Although methane fluxes at the base of sulphide production were clearly higher at Site 2 (14.6 mmol.m(-2).d(-1)) than at Site 1 (0.3 mmol.m(-2).d(-1)), they do not seem to influence the respiration rates of these bivalves associated to sulphide-oxidizing symbionts. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium uptake in brain synaptosomes: a pharmacologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Rampe, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Pinched-off nerve endings (synaptosomes) from rat and guinea pig brain were used as a model to study Ca/sup 2 +/ entry mechanisms in neuronal tissue. Synaptosomes contain high affinity binding sites for both, 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, and activators. The thermodynamic characteristics of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine building in synaptosomes were similar to those seen in both cardiac and smooth muscle preparations. Synaptosomes display two distinct K/sup +/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ entry mechanisms. These are kinetically distinct with the faster of the two terminating in approx. 1 second while the slower persists for approx. minute. The slow phase uptake process is abolished in Na/sup +/-free media, is sensitive to antagonism by 3,4-dichlorobenzamil and displays a more rapid ontogenic appearance relative to the fast phase. It is likely that the slow phase represents Ca/sup 2 +/ entry via Na/sup +//Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange. The rapid inactivation of the fast phase coupled with its voltage dependence suggest that it represents Ca/sup 2 +/ entry via one or more types of voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels. These channels may not be dihydropyridin sensitive since neither nitrendipine nor Bay K 8644 were shown to modulate synaptosomal Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. The benzodiazepine receptor ligands Ro 5-4864, PK 11195 and diazepam all selectively inhibited fast phase Ca/sup 2 +/ entry relative to slow phase entry. In addition, these compounds altered (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding affinity. It is concluded that certain benzodiazepine receptor ligands can interact specifically with voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels.

  16. Oxygen uptake efficiency plateau: physiology and reference values.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Guo; Hansen, James E; Stringer, William W

    2012-03-01

    The relationship of oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] to ventilation [Formula: see text], i.e., oxygen uptake efficiency (OUE) is known to differ between normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure. However, only the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES, i.e., slope of [Formula: see text] has previously been reported. To understand the physiology and to improve the usefulness of OUE in assessing cardiovascular function, we analyzed the complete response pattern of OUE during entire incremental exercise tests and ascertained effect of age, body size, gender, fitness, and ergometer type on exercise OUE to generate reference values in normal healthy subjects. We investigated the effect of age, gender, and fitness on OUE using incremental cardiopulmonary exercise in 474 healthy subjects, age 17-78 years, of which 57 were highly fit. The final methods of OUE analysis were: (1) OUE plateau at the highest values (OUEP), (2) OUE at anaerobic threshold (OUE@AT), and (3) OUES using the entire exercise period. The OUEP and OUE@AT were similar, highly reproducible, less variable than the OUES (p < 0.0001), and unaffected by the study sites or types of ergometry. The resultant prediction equations from 417 normal subjects for men were OUEP (mL/L) = 42.18 - 0.189 × years + 0.036 × cm and OUES [L/min/log(L/min)] = -0.610 - 0.032 × years + 0.023 × cm + 0.008 × kg. For women, OUEP (mL/L) = 39.16 - 0.189 × years + 0.036 × cm and OUES [L/min/log(L/min)] = -1.178 - 0.032 × years + 0.023 × cm + 0.008 × kg. OUE@AT was similar to OUEP. Extreme fitness has a minimal effect on OUEP. OUEP is advantageous, since it measures maximal oxygen extraction from ventilated air but does not require high intensity exercise. The OUEP is a non-invasive parameter dependent only on age, gender, height, and cardiovascular health.

  17. Evaluation of 18F-FDG uptake and arterial wall calcifications using 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, Simona; Kupzov, Ela; Tamir, Ada; Israel, Ora

    2004-11-01

    Glucose metabolic activity expressed as (18)F-FDG uptake may be increased in active atherosclerotic plaque. Calcium depositions are often increased in mature atherosclerotic plaque. The purpose of the present study was to assess the patterns of vascular-wall (18)F-FDG uptake and CT calcifications using combined PET/CT. One hundred twenty-two consecutive patients over the age of 50 (47 women and 75 men; mean age, 66 +/- 9 y) undergoing whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT for tumor assessment were retrospectively evaluated. PET, CT, and PET/CT slices were generated for review. Abnormal vascular findings in major arteries in the chest and abdomen were categorized as PET positive (PET+), PET negative (PET-), CT positive (CT+), or CT negative (CT-). The topographic relationship between increased vascular-wall (18)F-FDG uptake on PET and the presence of calcifications on CT was assessed on PET/CT fused images, with abnormal sites further classified as PET+/CT+, PET+/CT-, or PET-/CT+. The presence of CT calcifications and increased vascular-wall (18)F-FDG uptake was correlated with age, sex, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease. Abnormal findings were identified at 349 sites. CT calcifications (CT+) were observed at 320 sites (92%) of 100 patients (82%), more commonly in men (P < 0.03), in older patients (P < 0.0001), in patients with hypertension (P < 0.003) or hyperlipidemia (P < 0.04), and in smokers (P < 0.008). Increased vascular-wall (18)F-FDG uptake (PET+) was observed at 52 sites (15%) of 38 patients (31%), more commonly in men (P < 0.02), in older patients (P < 0.0001), and in patients with hypertension (P < 0.02), and was borderline in patients with cardiovascular disease (P = 0.057). PET+ and CT+ findings correlated in 12 patients, a PET+/CT- pattern was found in 18 patients, and 8 patients had increased vascular-wall (18)F-FDG uptake in sites with and without calcifications (PET+/CT+, CT-). Twenty-two patients (18%) had a PET

  18. Calcium uptake in vascular smooth muscle during exposure to NE

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.L.

    1986-03-05

    Calcium uptakes were determined in canine mesenteric and ulnar arteries and in rabbit abdominal aortas. All vessels were excised, cut into 1 mm rings, mounted at near in-situ circumferences on stainless steel holders, and run in triplicate. Calcium uptakes were carried out in HEPES-buffered PSS using /sup 45/Ca 5 sec uptake durations. Uptakes were quenched in 5 mM EGTA-O-Ca-PSS at 1-2/sup 0/C. Tissues were weighed and leached with 10 mM EDTA before counting with a liquid scintillation counter. Calcium uptakes were obtained first at resting conditions and then at successive 5 sec intervals throughout 90 sec exposure periods to various concentrations of NE. Resting Ca uptakes ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 nanomoles/sec/g tissue (wet). Peak Ca uptakes during exposure to 10/sup -5/M NE ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 nanomoles/sec/g tissue. Increases in rates of uptake occurred early in the exposure period to NE (within 5-10 sec) and did not appear to be associated only with the tonic phase of the response. These data provide evidence that increased Ca uptake by the cells occurs early in the response to NE. They also indicate that short-term Ca uptake determinations (5 sec) provide reliable estimates of calcium uptake occurring throughout the NE-induced contractile response.

  19. Antihistamine effect on synaptosomal uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the effects of five H1 and H2 antihistamines on the synaptosomal uptake of serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) is presented. Brain homogenates from female rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer solution in the presence of one of three radioactive neurotransmitters, and one of the five antihistamines. Low concentrations of pyrilamine competitively inhibited 5HT uptake, had little effect on NE uptake, and no effect on DA uptake. Promethazine, diphenhydramine, metiamide, and cimetidine had no effect on 5HT or DA uptake at the same concentration. Diphenhydramine had a small inhibitory effect on NE uptake. It is concluded that pyrilamine is a selective and potent competitive inhibitor of 5HT uptake at concentrations between .05 and .5 micromolars.

  20. Constraining water uptake depths in semiarid environments using water stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Königer, Paul; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The biophysical process of transpiration recently received increased attention by ecohydrologists as it has been proven the largest flux of the global water balance. However, fundamental aspects related to the questions how and from which sources plants receive their water are not fully understood. Especially the process of plant water uptake from deeper soil and its impact on the water balance requires increased scientific effort. In this study we combined tracer experiments with the analysis of natural isotopic compositions in order to: i) derive a suitable site-specific root water uptake distribution for hydrological modeling; ii) find indicators for groundwater use by specific plants; and iii) evaluate the importance of deep unsaturated zone water uptake using HYDRUS 1D. The bayesian mixing model MixSIAR was applied at a semiarid site with a deep unsaturated zone in northern Namibia in order to identify source water contributions of the most abundant species (A.erioloba, B.plurijuga, C.collinum, S.luebertii and T.sericea). In addition, a previously developed method for the investigation of root water uptake depths based on deuterium labeling (2H2O) at specific depths (0.5 to 4 m) and monitoring of tracer uptake by plants was carried out with a focus on the deeper unsaturated zone. With the experimental results a root water uptake distribution for the lateral root zone was derived which allows to constrain the source water contributions estimated with MixSIAR. Finally, a HYDRUS 1D model was established and unsaturated zone water transport was evaluated. The analysis of the natural isotopic compositions reveals a significant contribution of groundwater (median: 48%) to the isotopic composition of A.erioloba at the end of the dry season indicating the presence of deep tap roots for a number of individuals. All other investigated species obtain their water from the shallow (median: 22%) or deeper (median: 62%) unsaturated zone at this time of the year. The water

  1. Elevated uptake of plasma macromolecules by regions of arterial wall predisposed to plaque instability in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mohri, Zahra; Rowland, Ethan M; Clarke, Lindsey A; De Luca, Amalia; Peiffer, Véronique; Krams, Rob; Sherwin, Spencer J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where plaques of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing plaque rupture.

  2. A primary fish gill cell culture model to assess pharmaceutical uptake and efflux: Evidence for passive and facilitated transport

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Lucy C.; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer; Owen, Stewart F.; Bury, Nic R.

    2015-01-01

    The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L−1), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport. PMID:25544062

  3. Subunit III-depleted cytochrome c oxidase provides insight into the process of proton uptake by proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varanasi, Lakshman; Hosler, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    We review studies of subunit III-depleted cytochrome c oxidase (CcO III (−)) that elucidate the structural basis of steady-state proton uptake from solvent into an internal proton transfer pathway. The removal of subunit III from R. sphaeroides CcO makes proton uptake into the D pathway a rate-determining step, such that measurements of the pH dependence of steady-state O2 consumption can be used to compare the rate and functional pKa of proton uptake by D pathways containing different initial proton acceptors. The removal of subunit III also promotes spontaneous suicide inactivation by CcO, greatly shortening its catalytic lifespan. Because the probability of suicide inactivation is controlled by the rate at which the D pathway delivers protons to the active site, measurements of catalytic lifespan provide a second method to compare the relative efficacy of proton uptake by engineered CcO III (−) forms. These simple experimental systems have been used to explore general questions of proton uptake by proteins, such as the functional value of an initial proton acceptor, whether an initial acceptor must be surface-exposed, which side chains will function as initial proton acceptors and whether multiple acceptors can speed proton uptake. PMID:22023935

  4. Elevated Uptake of Plasma Macromolecules by Regions of Arterial Wall Predisposed to Plaque Instability in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohri, Zahra; Rowland, Ethan M.; Clarke, Lindsey A.; De Luca, Amalia; Peiffer, Véronique; Krams, Rob; Sherwin, Spencer J.; Weinberg, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where plaques of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing plaque rupture. PMID:25531765

  5. Increasing informed uptake and non-uptake of screening: evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jepson, R G; Forbes, C A; Sowden, A J; Lewis, R A

    2001-06-01

    To report data relating to the informed uptake of screening tests. Electronic databases, bibliographies and experts were used to identify relevant published and unpublished studies up until August 2000. RCTs, quasi-RCTs and controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing the informed uptake of screening. All participants were eligible as defined by the entry criteria of individual programmes. Studies had to report actual uptake and meet three out of four criteria used to define informed uptake. Relevant studies were identified, data extracted and their validity assessed by two reviewers independently. Outcome data included screening uptake, knowledge, informed decision-making and attitudes to screening. A random-effects model was used to calculate individual relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Six controlled trials (five RCTs and one quasi-RCT), focusing on antenatal and prostate specific antigen screening, were included. All reported risks/benefits of screening and assessed knowledge. Two also assessed decision-making. Two reported risks/benefits to all randomized groups and evaluated different ways of presenting information. Neither found that interventions such as videos, information leaflets with decision trees, or touch screen computers conveyed any additional benefits over well-prepared leaflets. There is some evidence to suggest that changing the format of informed choice interventions in screening does not alter knowledge, satisfaction or decisions about screening. It is not clear whether informed choice in screening affects uptake. More well-designed RCTs are required and further research should also be directed towards the development of a valid instrument for measuring all components of informed choice in screening.

  6. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon-complexed ⁶⁵Cu by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huan; Evans, Douglas; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-02-21

    Stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) was complexed with various representative dissolved organic carbon (DOC) types, including coastal seawater DOC, fulvic acid (FA), cyanobacteria spirulina (SP) DOC, histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), and lipophilic diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) at different concentrations. The uptake of these dissolved Cu species by the coastal green mussel Perna viridis was quantified for the first time. Copper complexed with different DOC types were taken up in some measure by mussels, depending on the DOC types. However, complexation generally reduced Cu uptake as compared to that of inorganic Cu species, and DOC type-specific negative relationships were found between DOC levels and Cu uptake. Strong Cu binding sites (including His and organic sulfur functional groups) within DOC appeared to control the inhibitory effects of DOC on Cu uptake, possibly due to the competitive binding of Cu between the dissolved phase and biological membranes. Therefore, differences in strong Cu binding site levels may explain the differences in bioavailability of Cu complexed with different types of DOC. At the same time, the variations in Cu-DOC uptake may also be partly attributed to the absorption of Cu-DOC complexes, especially for the small Cu-DOC complexes (e.g., Cu-Cys, Cu-His, or Cu-DDC). Our study highlights the importance of considering the specificity of Cu-DOC complexes when assessing biological exposure to dissolved Cu in natural waters, especially during events, such as phytoplankton bloom periods, that could modify DOC composition and concentrations.

  7. Supporting the Uptake of Nursing Guidelines: what you really need to know to move nursing guidelines into practice.

    PubMed

    Matthew-Maich, Nancy; Ploeg, Jenny; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan

    2013-05-01

    There is a current push to use best practice guidelines (BPGs) in health care to enhance client care and outcomes. Even though intensive resources have been invested internationally to develop BPGs, a gap in knowledge exists about how to consistently and efficiently move them into practice. Constructivist grounded theory was used to explore the complex processes of a breastfeeding BPG implementation and uptake in three acute care hospitals. Interviews (n = 120) with 112 participants representing clients, nurses, lactation consultants, midwives, physicians, managers, administrators, and nurse educators as well as document and field note analysis informed this study. Data were analyzed using constant comparison and coding steps outlined by Charmaz: initial coding, selective (focused) coding, then theoretical coding. Triangulation of data types and sources were used as well as theoretical sampling. Data were collected from 2009 to 2010. Two sites showed BPG uptake while one did not. Factors present in the uptake sites included, ongoing passionate frontline leaders, the use of multifaceted strategies, and processes that occurred at organizational, leadership, individual and social levels. Particularly noteworthy was the transformation of individual nurses to believing in and using the BPG. Impacts occurred at client, nurse, unit, inter-professional, organizational and system levels. A conceptual framework: Supporting the Uptake of Nursing Guidelines, was developed that reveals essential processes used to facilitate BPG uptake into nursing practice and a process of nurse transformation to believing in and using the BPG. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Mycorrhizae increase arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.).

    PubMed

    Al Agely, Abid; Sylvia, David M; Ma, Lena Q

    2005-01-01

    Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a hyperaccumulator of arsenic (As) that grows naturally on soils in the southern United States. It is reasonable to expect that mycorrhizal symbiosis may be involved in As uptake by this fern. This is because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have a well-documented role in increasing plant phosphorus (P) uptake, P and As have similar chemical properties, and ferns are known to be colonized by AM fungi. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment with three levels of As (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1)) and P (0, 25, and 50 mg kg(-1)) and with and without Chinese brake fern colonized by a community of AM fungi from an As-contaminated site. We found that the AM fungi not only tolerated As amendment, but their presence increased frond dry mass at the highest As application rate. Furthermore, the AM fungi increased As uptake across a range of P levels, while P uptake was generally increased only when there was no As amendment. These data indicate that AM fungi have an important role in arsenic accumulation by Chinese brake fern. Therefore, to effectively phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, the mycorrhizal status of ferns needs to be taken into account.

  9. Bile acid inhibition of taurocholate uptake by rat hepatocytes: role of OH groups

    SciTech Connect

    Bellentani, S.; Hardison, W.G.M.; Marchegiano, P.; Zanasi, G.; Manenti, F.

    1987-03-01

    To define further the structural specificity of the taurocholate uptake site, the authors studied the ability of a variety of taurine-conjugated bile acids with differing hydroxyl substituents on the sterol moiety to inhibit (/sup 14/C) taurocholate uptake. Rat hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion were incubated in a tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane-phosphate buffer containing (/sup 14/C)taurocholate in the presence or absence of inhibitor bile acid. Stronger inhibitors were studied at a fixed concentration of 5 ..mu..M, weaker ones at 25 ..mu..M. Initial uptake velocity was measured. Uptake velocity could then be related to taurocholate concentration and a V/sub max/ and K/sub m/ could be determined by applying a nonlinear least squares fit to the data obtained with or without inhibitor. The kinetic parameters allowed the determination of the type of inhibition and of inhibition constants (K/sub i/) of the various test bile acids. The data indicate that bile acids containing a 6- or 7-OH group exhibit competitive inhibition, whereas bile acids with no 6- or 7-OH group exhibit noncompetitive inhibition. Of the compounds exhibiting competitive inhibition, K/sub i/ varied with the number of hydroxyl groups on the sterol moiety. They conclude that the presence of absence of a 6- or 7-OH group dictates the mechanism of inhibition; the number of hydroxyl substituents determines the potency of competitive inhibition.

  10. Modeling the uptake and transpiration of TCE using phreatophytic trees. Master`s Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.P.

    1997-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a recent addition to the numerous methods used today to remediate ground water contaminants. It is proving more effective and efficient compared to existing remediation techniques. The use of phreatophytes, or water seeking trees, has great potential for phytoremediation. These trees are fast growing, long lived, grow their roots down to the ground water table, transpire large amounts of water, and are proven to actively remove contaminants from the soil horizon. The purpose of this research is to develop quantitative concepts for understanding the dynamics of TCE uptake and transpiration by phreatophytic trees over a short rotation woody crop time frame. This will he done by constructing a system dynamics model of this process and running it over a wide range of conditions. This research will offer managers a tool to simulate long-term uptake and transpiration of TCE at potential sites. The results of this study indicate that TCE is actively removed from the soil horizon by phreatophytic trees and a significant proportion of this TCE is then transpired. Changes in soil horizon parameters, xylem flow rates, and variables in the uptake equation greatly influence TCE uptake rates as well as transpiration. Also, parameters used in equations representing flows in and out of the leaf greatly influence transpiration. Better understanding of these processes is essential for managers to accurately predict the amount of TCE removed and transpired during potential phytoremediation projects.

  11. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Contributes to β-Carotene Uptake in the Maternal Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shete, Varsha; Costabile, Brianna K.; Kim, Youn-Kyung; Quadro, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A regulates many essential mammalian biological processes, including embryonic development. β-carotene is the main source of vitamin A in the human diet. Once ingested, it is packaged into lipoproteins, predominantly low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and transported to different sites within the body, including the liver and developing tissues, where it can either be stored or metabolized to retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). The molecular mechanisms of β-carotene uptake by the liver or developing tissues remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the LDL receptor (LDLr) in β-carotene uptake by maternal liver, placenta and embryo. We administered a single dose of β-carotene to Ldlr+/− and Ldlr−/− pregnant mice via intraperitoneal injection at mid-gestation and monitored the changes in β-carotene content among maternal lipoproteins and the liver, as well as the accumulation of β-carotene in the placental–fetal unit. We showed an abnormal β-carotene distribution among serum lipoproteins and reduced hepatic β-carotene uptake in Ldlr−/− dams. These data strongly imply that LDLr significantly contributes to β-carotene uptake in the adult mouse liver. In contrast, LDLr does not seem to mediate acquisition of β-carotene by the placental–fetal unit. PMID:27916814

  12. Phenotype Determines Nanoparticle Uptake by Human Macrophages from Liver and Blood.

    PubMed

    MacParland, Sonya A; Tsoi, Kim M; Ouyang, Ben; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Manuel, Justin; Fawaz, Ali; Ostrowski, Mario A; Alman, Benjamin A; Zilman, Anton; Chan, Warren C W; McGilvray, Ian D

    2017-01-17

    A significant challenge to delivering therapeutic doses of nanoparticles to targeted disease sites is the fact that most nanoparticles become trapped in the liver. Liver-resident macrophages, or Kupffer cells, are key cells in the hepatic sequestration of nanoparticles. However, the precise role that the macrophage phenotype plays in nanoparticle uptake is unknown. Here, we show that the human macrophage phenotype modulates hard nanoparticle uptake. Using gold nanoparticles, we examined uptake by human monocyte-derived macrophages that had been driven to a "regulatory" M2 phenotype or an "inflammatory" M1 phenotype and found that M2-type macrophages preferentially take up nanoparticles, with a clear hierarchy among the subtypes (M2c > M2 > M2a > M2b > M1). We also found that stimuli such as LPS/IFN-γ rather than with more "regulatory" stimuli such as TGF-β/IL-10 reduce per cell macrophage nanoparticle uptake by an average of 40%. Primary human Kupffer cells were found to display heterogeneous expression of M1 and M2 markers, and Kupffer cells expressing higher levels of M2 markers (CD163) take up significantly more nanoparticles than Kupffer cells expressing lower levels of surface CD163. Our results demonstrate that hepatic inflammatory microenvironments should be considered when studying liver sequestration of nanoparticles, and that modifying the hepatic microenvironment might offer a tool for enhancing or decreasing this sequestration. Our findings also suggest that models examining the nanoparticle/macrophage interaction should include studies with primary tissue macrophages.

  13. Brain Uptake of Neurotherapeutics after Intranasal versus Intraperitoneal Delivery in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Mihir B; Chauhan, Neelima B

    There is a growing global prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Current treatment for neurodegenerative diseases is limited due to the blood brain barrier's ability to restrict the entry of therapeutics to the brain. In that context, direct delivery of drugs from nose to brain has gained emerging interest as an important alternative to oral and parenteral routes of administration. Although there are considerable reports showing promising results after intranasal drug delivery in various disease-models and investigatory human clinical trials, there are very few studies showing a detailed pharmacokinetics with regard to the uptake and retention of intranasally delivered material(s) within specific brain regions, which are critical determining factors for dosing conditions and optimal treatment regimen. This investigation compared a time-dependent brain uptake and resident time of various radiolabeled candidate neurotherapeutics after a single bolus intranasal or intraperitoneal administration in mice. Results indicate that the brain uptake of intranasally delivered therapeutic(s) is > 5 times greater than that after intraperitoneal delivery. The peak uptake and resident time of all intranasally delivered test therapeutics for all brain regions is observed to be between 30min-12h, depending upon the distance of brain region from the site of administration, followed by gradual fading of radioactive counts by 24h post intranasal administration. Current study confirms the usefulness of intranasal administration as a non- invasive and efficient means of delivering therapeutics to the brain to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Pharmacokinetic properties of peptidic radiopharmaceuticals: reduced uptake of (EH)3-conjugates in important organs.

    PubMed

    Eder, Matthias; Löhr, Thomas; Bauder-Wüst, Ulrike; Reber, Markus; Mier, Walter; Schäfer, Martin; Haberkorn, Uwe; Eisenhut, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The translation of radiolabeled tumor-targeting peptides into clinical routine is often hampered by an enhanced accumulation into the excreting organs. It has recently been reported that the (EH)3 purification tag is able to improve the biodistribution of Affibody molecules. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prove the positive influence of (EH)3 on the biodistribution of 2 peptidic radiopharmaceuticals, Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC and TATE-PEG2-HBED-CC (HBED-CC is N,N'-bis [2-hydroxy-5(carboxyethyl)benzyl] ethylenediamine-N,N'- diacetic acid, TATE is octreotate, and PEG2 is 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid spacer). Both compounds were compared with their respective (EH)3-conjugated variants in cell-based in vitro assays and organ distribution. The introduction of (EH)3 to HBED-CC significantly changed the biodistribution profiles. In both cases, the uptake in several organs was reduced whereas tumor uptake was not affected. Most importantly, (EH)3 lowered the kidney and liver uptake of the prostate-specific membrane antigen inhibitor each by a factor of 2.8 and, in the case of octreotate, the liver accumulation by a factor of 51. The biodistribution data suggest that (EH)3 is able to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of peptidic radiopharmaceuticals, leading to reduced uptake in organs such as the liver, an important site of metastatic disease.

  15. Characterization of cadmium uptake in Lactobacillus plantarum and isolation of cadmium and manganese uptake mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Z.; Reiske, H.R.; Wilson, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    Two different Cd{sup 2+} uptake systems were identified in Lactobacillus plantarum. One is a high-affinity, high-velocity Mn{sup 2+} uptake system which also takes up Cd{sup 2+} and is induced by Mn{sup 2+} starvation. The calculated K{sub m} and V{sub max} are 0.26 {mu}M and 3.6 {mu}mol g of dry cell{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Unlike Mn{sup 2+} uptake, which is facilitated by citrate and related tricarboxylic acids, Cd{sup 2+} uptake is weakly inhibited by citrate. Cd{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} are competitive inhibitors of each other, and the affinity of the system for Cd{sup 2+} is higher than that for Mn{sup 2+}. The other Cd{sup 2+} uptake system is expressed in Mn{sup 2+}-sufficient cells, and no K{sub m} can be calculated for it because uptake is nonsaturable. Mn{sup 2+} does not compete for transport through this system, nor does any other tested cation, i.e., Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, or Ni{sup 2+}. Both systems require energy, since uncouplers completely inhibit their activities. Two Mn{sup 2+}-dependent L. plantarum mutants were isolated by chemical mutagenesis and ampicillin enrichment. They required more than 5,000 times as much Mn{sup 2+} for growth as the parental strain. Mn{sup 2+} starvation-induced Cd{sup 2+} uptake in both mutants was less than 5% the wild-type rate. The low level of long-term Mn{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+} accumulation by the mutant strains also shows that the mutations eliminate the high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake system.

  16. CO and H2 uptake and emissions by soil: variability of fluxes and their isotopic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Maria Elena; Chen, Qianjie; Ferrero Lopez, Noelia; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In order to study the uptake and release of H2 and CO by soil, we performed long term, high frequency measurements with an automatic soil chamber at two sites in the Netherlands (Cabauw - grassland, and Speuld - forest). The measurements were performed over different seasons and cover in total a cumulated interval of about one year. These measurements allow determining separately, for each species, the two distinct fluxes i.e. uptake and release, and investigating their temporal variability and dependencies on environmental variables. Additional experiments were performed for determining the isotopic signatures of the H2 and CO uptake and release by soil. Flask samples were filled from the soil chamber, and then analyzed in the laboratory for the stable isotopic composition of H2 (δD) and CO (δ13C and δ18O). We find that both uptake and release are present at all times, regardless of the direction of the net flux. The emissions are significant for both species and at Cabauw, there are times and places where emissions outweigh the soil uptake. For each species, the two fluxes have different behavior and dependence on external variables, which indicates that they have different origins. The isotope results also support that, for both H2 and CO, uptake and emission occur simultaneously. We were able to determine separately the isotopic effects of the two fluxes. For both H2 and CO, soil uptake is associated with a small positive fractionation (the lighter molecule is taken up faster). The soil uptake fractionation (α = kheavy/klight) was 0.945 ± 0.004 for H2; for CO, the fractionation was 0.992 for 13C and 0.985 for 18O. The isotopic composition of the H2 emitted from the grassland was -530 ± 40 ‰, less depleted that what is expected from the isotopic equilibrium of H2 with water. For CO, the isotopic composition of the soil emission is depleted in 13C compared to atmospheric CO, and lower than the average isotopic composition of plant or soil organic matter.

  17. Sugar uptake by intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; van Os, C H; Mircheff, A K

    1980-03-27

    A high yield of membrane vesicles was prepared from the basolateral surface of rat intestinal cells using an N2 cavitation bomb and density gradient centrifugation. The membranes were enriched 10-fold and were free of significatn contamination by brush border membranes and mitochondria. The rate of D-E114C]glucose and L-E13H]glucose uptake into the vesicle was measured using a rapid filtration technique. D-Glucose equilibrated within the vesicles with a half-time 1/25th that for L-glucose. The stereospecific uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 44 mM and a V of approx. 110 nmol . mg-1 min-1 at 10 degrees C. The activation energy for the process was 14 kcal . mol-1 below 15 degrees C and it approached 3 kcal . mol-1 above 22 degrees C. Carrier-mediated uptake was eliminated in the presence of 1 mM HgCl2 and 0.5 mM phloretin. The rate of transport was unaffected by the absence or presence of sodium concentration gradients. Competition studies demonstrated that all sugars with the D-glucose pyranose ring chair conformation shared the transport system, and that, with the possible exception of the -OH group at carbon No. 1, there were no specific requirements for an equatorial -OH group at any position in the pyranose ring. In the case of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside its inability to share the D-glucose transport system may be due to steric hindrance posed by the -OCH3 group rather than by a specific requirement for a free hydroxyl group at the position in the ring. It is concluded that sugars are transported across the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium by a facilitated diffusion system reminiscent of that in human red blood cells.

  18. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  19. POLUTE. Forest Air Pollutant Uptake Model

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sinclair, T.R.

    1992-02-13

    POLUTE is a computer model designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used, with only minor changes, for any gaseous pollutant. The model provides an estimate describing the response of the vegetarian-atmosphere system to the environment as related to three types of processes: atmospheric diffusion, diffusion near and inside the absorbing plant, and the physical and chemical processes at the sink on or within the plant.

  20. Reactive uptake of pinonaldehyde on acidic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng

    2006-12-01

    The reactive uptake of pinonaldehyde, a monoterpene oxidation product, on aerosols has been studied in a reaction chamber. Monodisperse inorganic seed aerosols, consisting of acidic mixtures of (NH4)2SO4 and H2SO4, were exposed to gaseous pinonaldehyde for several hours within the chamber under relative humidity conditions of 3-65%. The aerosol inorganic and organic mass were quantitatively monitored in real time with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) which also measured the mass spectra of the aerosols. Numerous fragments in the mass spectra were observed with masses greater than what can be accounted for by pinonaldehyde alone and have arisen from oligomerization in reactive uptake processes. The evolution of the mass spectra also revealed a progression toward larger oligomers over time. Significant organic mass was added to the aerosols in most experiments immediately upon exposure, resulting in maximum organic mass loadings from 3.5-110 μgm-3 depending on the experiments. Organic mass to seed aerosol SO4= ratios were also highly variable (0.06-4.75), resulting in particles ranging in composition from primarily inorganic to mostly organic. This reactive uptake was highly dependent upon the aerosol water activity, and hence acidity and did not occur on neutral (NH4)2SO4 aerosols suggesting that acidity is necessary. Reactive uptake coefficients (γ) of pinonaldehyde were calculated by fitting a model of organic mass growth to the data. The coefficients spanned two orders of magnitude (1.2 × 10-5-1.3 × 10-3) and were primarily dependent upon aerosol water activity and acidity but independent of gas phase pinonaldehyde concentrations. These coefficients indicated that the heterogeneous reactions of pinonaldehyde are of little importance as a gas phase loss mechanism but potentially of major importance as a source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Estimates of SOA production via pinonaldehyde, using the derived γ, suggest that 1-750 ng m-3 of organic