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Sample records for 3h-inositol phosphate accumulation

  1. Effect of atropine and gammahydroxybutyrate on ischemically induced changes in the level of radioactivity in (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates in gerbil brain in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wikiel, H.; Halat, G.; Strosznajder, J.

    1988-05-01

    Brain ischemia in gerbils was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries for 1 min or 10 min. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Intracerebral injection of (3H)inositol into gerbil brain 16 hr before ischemic insult resulted in equilibration of the label between inositol lipids and water-soluble inositol phosphate. A short ischemic period (1 min) resulted in a statistically significant increase in the radioactivity of inositol triphosphate (IP3) and inositol monophosphate (IP), by about 48% and 79%, respectively, with little change in that of the intermediate inositol biphosphate (IP2), which increased by about 16%. When the ischemic period was prolonged (10 min), an increase in the radioactivity of inositol monophosphate exclusively, by about 84%, was observed. The level of radioactivity in inositol phosphates IP2 and IP3 decreased by about 50%, probably as a consequence of phosphatase activation by the ischemic insult. The agonist of the cholinergic receptor, carbachol, injected intracerebrally (40 micrograms per animal) increased accumulation of radioactivity in all inositol phosphates. The level of radioactivity in IP3, IP2, and IP was elevated by about 40, 23, and 147%, respectively. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine, injected intraperitoneally in doses of 100 mg/kg body wt. depressed phosphoinositide metabolism in control animals. The level of radioactivity in water-soluble inositol metabolites in the brain of animals pretreated with atropine was evidently about 32% lower than in untreated animals. Pretreatment with atropine decreased the radioactivity of all inositol phosphates in the brain of animals subjected to 1-min ischemia and the radioactivity of IP in the case of 10-min brain ischemia.

  2. Metabolism of myo-[2-3H]Inositol and scyllo-[R-3H]Inositol in Ripening Wheat Kernels 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Loewus, Frank A.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of myo-[2-3H]inositol or scyllo-[R-3H]inositol into the peduncular cavity of wheat stalks about 2 to 4 weeks postanthesis led to rapid translocation into the spike and accumulation of label in developing kernels, especially the bran fraction. With myo-[2-3H]inositol, about 50 to 60% of the label was incorporated into high molecular weight cell wall substance in the region of the injection. That portion translocated to the kernels was utilized primarily for cell wall polysaccharide formation and phytate biosynthesis. A small amount was recovered as free myo-inositol and galactinol. When scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was supplied, most of the label was translocated into the developing kernels where it accumulated as free scyllo-inositol and O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-scyllo-inositol in approximately equal amount. None of the label from scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was utilized for either phytate biosynthesis or cell wall polysaccharide formation. PMID:16661513

  3. Retinoic acid treatment of fibroblasts causes a rapid decrease in ( sup 3 H)inositol uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Creek, K.E.; Silverman-Jones, C.; de Luca, L.M. )

    1989-04-01

    NIH 3T3 fibroblasts treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) showed a dramatic decrease in the uptake of ({sup 3}H)inositol compared to solvent-treated controls. The onset of RA-induced inhibition of ({sup 3}H)inositol uptake was rapid with a 10-15% decrease occurring after 2-3 h of RA exposure and 60-70% reduction after 16 h of RA treatment. A progressive dose-dependent decrease in inositol uptake was found as the concentration of RA increased from 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}5} M and the effect was fully reversible within 48 h after RA removal. RA inhibition of inositol uptake was also observed in 3T3-Swiss and Balb/3T3 cells but not in two virally transformed 3T3 cell lines. Phlorizin, amiloride, and monensin inhibited inositol uptake by 66, 74, and 58%, respectively, and this inhibition was additive when the cells were treated with RA as well as these inhibitors. A decreased incorporation of ({sup 3}H)inositol into polyphosphoinositides was also observed in RA-treated cells but not to the same extent as for ({sup 3}H)inositol uptake. In conclusion, RA treatment of 3T3 fibroblasts decreases the uptake of ({sup 3}H)inositol by up to 70% within 8 to 10 h at near physiological concentrations in a reversible and specific manner.

  4. Uncoupling of attenuated myo-(3H)inositol uptake and dysfunction in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in hypergalactosemic cultured bovine lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, P.R.; Tse, D.; Yorio, T. )

    1991-06-01

    Attenuation of both the active transport of myo-inositol and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity has been implicated in the onset of sugar cataract and other diabetic complications in cell culture and animal models of the disease. Cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) maintained in galactose-free Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) or 40 mM galactose with and without sorbinil for up to 5 days were examined to determine the temporal effects of hypergalactosemia on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and myo-inositol uptake. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity after 5 days of continuous exposure to galactose did not change, as demonstrated by 86Rb uptake. The uptake of myo-(3H)inositol was lowered after 20 h of incubation in galactose and remained below that of the control throughout the 5-day exposure period. The coadministration of sorbinil to the galactose medium normalized the myo-(3H)inositol uptake. No significant difference in the rates of passive efflux of myo-(3H)inositol or 86Rb from preloaded galactose-treated and control cultures was observed. Culture-media reversal studies were also carried out to determine whether the galactose-induced dysfunction in myo-inositol uptake could be corrected. BLECs were incubated in galactose for 5 days, then changed to galactose-free physiological medium with and without sorbinil for a 1-day recovery period. myo-Inositol uptake was reduced to 34% of control after 6 days of continuous exposure to galactose. Within 24 h of media reversal, myo-inositol uptake returned to or exceeded control values in BLECs switched to either MEM or MEM with sorbinil.2+ reversible and occurred independently of changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in cultured lens epithelium, indicating that the two parameters are not strictly associated and that the deficit in myo-inositol uptake occurs rapidly during hypergalactosemia.

  5. Guanine nucleotide regulation of muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol phosphate formation in permeabilized 1321N1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orellana, S.A.; Trilivas, I.; Brown, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    Carbachol and guanine nucleotides stimulate formation of the (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates IP, IP2, and IP3 in saponin-permeabilized monolayers labelled with (/sup 3/H) inositol. Carbachol alone has little effect on formation of the (/sup 3/H) inositol phosphates (IPs), but GTP..gamma..S causes synergistic accumulation of (/sup 3/H)IPs to levels similar to those seen in intact cells. GTP, GppNHp, and GTP..gamma..S all support formation of the (/sup 3/H)IPs, with or without hormone, but GTP..gamma..S is the most effective. In the presence of GTP..gamma..S, the effect of carbachol is dose-dependent. Half-maximal and maximal accumulation of the (/sup 3/H)IPs occur at approx. 5 ..mu..M and approx. 100 ..mu..M carbachol, respectively; values close to those seen in intact cells. GTP..gamma..S alone stimulates formation of the (/sup 3/H)IPs after a brief lag time. The combination of GTP..gamma..S and carbachol both increases the rate of, and decreases the lag in, formation of the (/sup 3/H)IPs. LiCl increases (/sup 3/H)IP and IP2, but not IP3, accumulation; while 2,3-diphosphoglycerate substantially increases that of (/sup 3/H)IP3. GTP..gamma..S and carbachol cause formation of (/sup 3/H)IPs in the absence of Ca/sup + +/, but formation induced by GTP..gamma..S with or without carbachol is Ca/sup + +/-sensitive over a range of physiological concentrations. Although carbachol, Ca/sup + +/, and GTP..gamma..S all have effects on formation of (/sup 3/H)IPs, GTP..gamma..S appears to be a primary and obligatory regulator of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the permeabilized 1321N1 astrocytoma cell.

  6. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sucrose Accumulation at Low Temperature 1

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Charles L.; Huber, Joan L. A.; Huber, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of growth temperature on the free sugar and sucrose phosphate synthase content and activity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf tissue was studied. When plants were grown at 25°C for 3 weeks and then transferred to a constant 5°C, sucrose, glucose, and fructose accumulated to high levels during a 14-d period. Predawn sugar levels increased from 14- to 20-fold over the levels present at the outset of the low-temperature treatment. Sucrose was the most abundant free sugar before, during, and after exposure to 5°C. Leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was significantly increased by the low-temperature treatment, whereas sucrose synthase and invertases were not. Synthesis of the sucrose phosphate synthase subunit was increased during and after low-temperature exposure and paralleled an increase in the steady-state level of the subunit. The increases in sucrose and its primary biosynthetic enzyme, sucrose phosphate synthase, are discussed in relation to adjustment of metabolism to low nonfreezing temperature and freezing stress tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652990

  7. Relationship between Nitrite Reduction and Active Phosphate Uptake in the Phosphate-Accumulating Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain JR 12

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Phosphate uptake by the phosphate-accumulating denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. JR12 was examined with different combinations of electron and carbon donors and electron acceptors. Phosphate uptake in acetate-supplemented cells took place with either oxygen or nitrate but did not take place when nitrite served as the final electron acceptor. Furthermore, nitrite reduction rates by this denitrifier were shown to be significantly reduced in the presence of phosphate. Phosphate uptake assays in the presence of the H+-ATPase inhibitor N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), in the presence of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), or with osmotic shock-treated cells indicated that phosphate transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of this bacterium was mediated by primary and secondary transport systems. By examining the redox transitions of whole cells at 553 nm we found that phosphate addition caused a significant oxidation of a c-type cytochrome. Based on these findings, we propose that this c-type cytochrome serves as an intermediate in the electron transfer to both nitrite reductase and the site responsible for active phosphate transport. In previous studies with this bacterium we found that the oxidation state of this c-type cytochrome was significantly higher in acetate-supplemented, nitrite-respiring cells (incapable of phosphate uptake) than in phosphate-accumulating cells incubated with different combinations of electron donors and acceptors. Based on the latter finding and results obtained in the present study it is suggested that phosphate uptake in this bacterium is subjected to a redox control of the active phosphate transport site. By means of this mechanism an explanation is provided for the observed absence of phosphate uptake in the presence of nitrite and inhibition of nitrite reduction by phosphate in this organism. The implications of these findings regarding denitrifying, phosphate removal wastewater plants is discussed. PMID

  8. Effects of age on muscarinic agonist-induced contraction an IP accumulation in airway smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Wills-Karp, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age on carbachol-stimulated force development and ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production was studied in tracheal rings from guinea pigs aged 1 month and 25 months of age. The pD{sub 2} for the contractile response to carbachol was significantly reduced in tracheal tissues from old animals as compared to that of the young tissues, respectively. In contrast, inositol phosphate formation was not altered with increasing age when stimulated by carbachol or NaF, a direct activator of G proteins. Carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation was inhibited by treatment with 1{mu}g/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that IP1 accumulation is coupled to a pertussis-toxin-sensitive protein. The pD{sub 2} values for contraction were significantly different from the pD{sub 2} values for IP1 accumulation, in both young and old tissues, respectively. These data suggest that IP1 accumulation is not responsible for the decreased contractile ability in tracheal smooth muscle during aging.

  9. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. PMID:27258275

  10. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. PMID:27258275

  11. MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ALC13 INHIBITION OF AGONIST-STIMULATED INOSITOL PHOSPHATE ACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible mechanisms of AlC13-induced inhibition of agonist-stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation were investigated using rat brain cortex slices, synaptosomes or homogenates. nder conditions in which AlC13 inhibits carbachol (CARB) stimulated IP accumulation (Gp-mediate...

  12. Effect of nitrate and phosphate on accumulation of β-carotene isomers in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Chao-Yuan; Chen, Nian-Hong; Wang, Yu-Jun; Yu, Li-Dong

    1996-06-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga, can accumulate a large amount of β-carotene under certain environmental conditions. The isomers of β-carotene extracted from D. salina cultured in medium with different nitrate and phosphate concentrations were analysed by HPLC with Alox-T alumina column. At least six isomers were found in different proportions depending on the culture media's nitrate and/or phosphate concentrations. Nitrate and/or phosphate deficiency was conducive to the accumulation of total cis isomers but not of all trans isomer. It is suggested that 1 mmol/L KNO3 and 0.1 mmol/L KH2 PO4 are favourable for accumulation of total cis β-carotene.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nitrate- and Phosphate-Accumulating Bacillus sp. Strain MCC0008

    PubMed Central

    DebRoy, Shreya; Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Thakur, Ashoke Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the nitrate- and phosphate-accumulating Bacillus sp. strain MCC0008, isolated from a consortium enriched from municipal sewage in nitrate broth (HiMedia M439). The total size of the genome is 5,609,456 bp, with a G+C content of 35.1%. PMID:23409265

  14. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

  15. Inorganic phosphate accumulation and cadmium detoxification in Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 growing in continuous culture

    SciTech Connect

    Aiking, H.; Stijnman, A.; van Garderen, C.; van Heerikhuizen, H.; van Riet, J.

    1984-02-01

    Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC-418, growing in the presence of cadmium under glucose-, sulfate-, or phosphate-limited conditions in continuous culture, exhibits two different cadmium detoxifying mechanisms. In addition to sulfide formation, increased accumulation of P/sub i/ is demonstrated as a novel mechanism. Intracellular cadmium is always quantitatively counterbalanced by a concerted increase in both inorganic sulfide and P/sub i/ contents of the cells. This led to the conclusion that production of sulfide and accumulation of P/sub i/ are detoxification mechanisms present in K. aerogenes but that their relative importance is crucially dependent on the strain and the growth conditions employed.

  16. Accumulation of phosphate and polyphosphate by Cryptococcus humicola and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the absence of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Breus, Natalia A; Ryazanova, Lubov P; Dmitriev, Vladimir V; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana V; Kulaev, Igor S

    2012-09-01

    The search for new phosphate-accumulating microorganisms is of interest in connection with the problem of excess phosphate in environment. The ability of some yeast species belonging to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes for phosphate (P (i) ) accumulation in nitrogen-deficient medium was studied. The ascomycetous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kuraishia capsulata and basidiomycetous Cryptococcus humicola, Cryptococcus curvatus, and Pseudozyma fusiformata were the best in P (i) removal. The cells of Cryptococcus humicola and S. cerevisiae took up 40% P (i) from the media containing P (i) and glucose (5 and 30 mM, respectively), and up to 80% upon addition of 5 mM MgSO(4) (.) The cells accumulated P (i) mostly in the form of polyphosphate (PolyP). In the presence of Mg(2+) , the content of PolyP with longer average chain length increased in both yeasts; they both had numerous inclusions fluorescing in the yellow region of the spectrum, typical of DAPI-PolyP complexes. Among the yeast species tested, Cryptococcus humicola is a new promising model organisms to study phosphorus removal from the media and biomineralization in microbial cells. PMID:22591314

  17. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Shuhei; Yoshihara, Mai; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Aiko; Konomi, Mami; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life on earth and is also important for modern agriculture, which is dependent on inorganic fertilizers from phosphate rock. Polyphosphate is a biological polymer of phosphate residues, which is accumulated in organisms during the biological wastewater treatment process to enhance biological phosphorus removal. Here, we investigated the relationship between polyphosphate accumulation and electron-dense bodies in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, in which some symporter genes were upregulated, while others were downregulated, total phosphate accumulation increased in the early stage of culture compared to that under sulfur-replete conditions. The P signal was detected only in dense bodies by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed marked ultrastructural variations in dense bodies with and without polyphosphate. Our findings suggest that the dense body is a site of polyphosphate accumulation, and P. kessleri has potential as a phosphate-accumulating organism. PMID:27180903

  18. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Ota, Shuhei; Yoshihara, Mai; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Aiko; Konomi, Mami; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life on earth and is also important for modern agriculture, which is dependent on inorganic fertilizers from phosphate rock. Polyphosphate is a biological polymer of phosphate residues, which is accumulated in organisms during the biological wastewater treatment process to enhance biological phosphorus removal. Here, we investigated the relationship between polyphosphate accumulation and electron-dense bodies in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, in which some symporter genes were upregulated, while others were downregulated, total phosphate accumulation increased in the early stage of culture compared to that under sulfur-replete conditions. The P signal was detected only in dense bodies by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed marked ultrastructural variations in dense bodies with and without polyphosphate. Our findings suggest that the dense body is a site of polyphosphate accumulation, and P. kessleri has potential as a phosphate-accumulating organism. PMID:27180903

  19. Investigating the Contribution of the Phosphate Transport Pathway to Arsenic Accumulation in Rice1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongchang; Ren, Hongyan; McGrath, Steve P.; Wu, Ping; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) may pose a significant health risk to consumers. Plants take up different As species using various pathways. Here, we investigated the contribution of the phosphate (Pi) transport pathway to As accumulation in rice grown hydroponically or under flooded soil conditions. In hydroponic experiments, a rice mutant defective in OsPHF1 (for phosphate transporter traffic facilitator1) lost much of the ability to take up Pi and arsenate and to transport them from roots to shoots, whereas transgenic rice overexpressing either the Pi transporter OsPht1;8 (OsPT8) or the transcription factor OsPHR2 (for phosphate starvation response2) had enhanced abilities of Pi and arsenate uptake and translocation. OsPT8 was found to have a high affinity for both Pi and arsenate, and its overexpression increased the maximum influx by 3- to 5-fold. In arsenate-treated plants, both arsenate and arsenite were detected in the xylem sap, with the proportion of the latter increasing with the exposure time. Under the flooded soil conditions, the phf1 mutant took up less Pi whereas the overexpression lines took up more Pi. But there were no similar effects on As accumulation and distribution. Rice grain contained predominantly dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite, with arsenate being a minor species. These results suggest that the Pi transport pathway contributed little to As uptake and transport to grain in rice plants grown in flooded soil. Transgenic approaches to enhance Pi acquisition from paddy soil through the overexpression of Pi transporters may not increase As accumulation in rice grain. PMID:21715673

  20. Investigating the contribution of the phosphate transport pathway to arsenic accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongchang; Ren, Hongyan; McGrath, Steve P; Wu, Ping; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) may pose a significant health risk to consumers. Plants take up different As species using various pathways. Here, we investigated the contribution of the phosphate (Pi) transport pathway to As accumulation in rice grown hydroponically or under flooded soil conditions. In hydroponic experiments, a rice mutant defective in OsPHF1 (for phosphate transporter traffic facilitator1) lost much of the ability to take up Pi and arsenate and to transport them from roots to shoots, whereas transgenic rice overexpressing either the Pi transporter OsPht1;8 (OsPT8) or the transcription factor OsPHR2 (for phosphate starvation response2) had enhanced abilities of Pi and arsenate uptake and translocation. OsPT8 was found to have a high affinity for both Pi and arsenate, and its overexpression increased the maximum influx by 3- to 5-fold. In arsenate-treated plants, both arsenate and arsenite were detected in the xylem sap, with the proportion of the latter increasing with the exposure time. Under the flooded soil conditions, the phf1 mutant took up less Pi whereas the overexpression lines took up more Pi. But there were no similar effects on As accumulation and distribution. Rice grain contained predominantly dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite, with arsenate being a minor species. These results suggest that the Pi transport pathway contributed little to As uptake and transport to grain in rice plants grown in flooded soil. Transgenic approaches to enhance Pi acquisition from paddy soil through the overexpression of Pi transporters may not increase As accumulation in rice grain. PMID:21715673

  1. Inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for the improvement of lead accumulation by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Y X; Zhu, X L; Fan, D D; Ma, P; Liang, L H

    2013-01-01

    Two phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus YC-5a and Enterobacter agglomerans KMC-7 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A. calcoaceticus YC-5a is less well known as a phosphate-solubilizing plant-associated bacterium. The plant growth-promoting properties of the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were characterized in vitro, including their phosphate-solubilizing activities and their capabilities for producing indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating both strains on the growth and Pb uptake of Brassica juncea grown in different concentrations of Pb-contaminated soils. Inoculation with both PSB not only stimulated the growth of B. juncea, but it also influenced the accumulation of Pb in the shoots and roots of the host plant. The present study demonstrates that PSB are a valuable microbial resource that can be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23530360

  2. Heat accumulation regime of femtosecond laser writing in fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    We investigated refractive index induced by direct femtosecond laser writing inside fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass in heat accumulation regime. Spatial profile and magnitude of induced refractive index were investigated at various pulse repetition rates and translation velocities. It was shown that the magnitude of induced refractive index significantly rises with decreasing in time interval between successive laser pulses below the time for thermal diffusion. Going from nonthermal regime to heat accumulation regime, we achieved induced refractive index growth from 4 × 10-3 up to 6.5 × 10-3 in fused silica and from -6 × 10-3 to -9 × 10-3 in Nd:phosphate glass. Aspect ratio of treated area decreased from 2.1 down to less than 1.5 without correcting optical elements. It was shown that in heat accumulation regime, the treated area was surrounded by region of alternatively changed refractive index with significant magnitude up to -2 × 10-3. Wide regions of decreased refractive index enable fabrication of depressed cladding waveguides. We demonstrated low-loss (0.3 dB/cm) tubular waveguide inside fused silica. For orthogonal polarizations of guiding light, we achieved a small difference between losses as 0.1 dB/cm using highly symmetric written tracks forming the cladding. The desired structure was simulated with the beam propagation method, and the results were in good agreement with experiment data.

  3. Anti-bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate antibody accumulates acetylated LDL-derived cholesterol in cultured macrophages.

    PubMed

    Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle; Bouvier, Jerome; Makino, Asami; Besson, Nelly; Pageaux, Jean-François; Lagarde, Michel; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2007-03-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP), also called lysobisphosphatidic acid, is a phospholipid highly enriched in the internal membranes of multivesicular late endosomes, in which it forms specialized lipid domains. It has been suggested that BMP-rich membranes regulate cholesterol transport. Here, we examine the effects of an anti-BMP antibody on cholesterol metabolism and transport in two macrophage cell lines, RAW 264.7 and THP-1, during loading with acetylated low density lipoprotein (AcLDL). Anti-BMP antibody was internalized and accumulated in both macrophage cell types. Cholesterol staining with filipin and mass measurements indicate that AcLDL-stimulated accumulation of free cholesterol (FC) was enhanced in macrophages that had accumulated the antibody. Unlike the hydrophobic amine U18666A (3-beta-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one), esterification of AcLDL-derived cholesterol by ACAT was not modified after anti-BMP treatment. AcLDL loading led to an increase of FC in the plasma membrane. This increase was further enhanced in anti-BMP-treated macrophages. However, cholesterol efflux to HDL was reduced in antibody-treated cells. These results suggest that the accumulation of anti-BMP antibody alters cholesterol homeostasis in AcLDL-loaded macrophages. PMID:17146116

  4. Lipid accumulation and growth characteristics of Chlorella zofingiensis under different nitrate and phosphate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pingzhong; Deng, Zhongyang; Fan, Lu; Hu, Zhengyu

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of the green agla Chlorella zofingiensis as a feedstock for biodiesel production, the effects of nitrogen and phosphate on lipid accumulation and growth of C. zofingiensis were studied. The maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) reached 2.15 day⁻¹ when the concentration of NaNO₃ and K₂HPO₄·3H₂O was 1.0 g L⁻¹ and 0.01 g L⁻¹, respectively. The lipid contents of C. zofingiensis grown in media deficient of nitrogen (65.1%) or phosphate (44.7%) were both higher than that obtained from cells grown in full medium (33.5%). The highest lipid productivity (87.1 mg L⁻¹ day⁻¹) was also obtained from cells grown in nitrogen deficient media, indicating nitrogen deficiency was more effective than phosphate deficiency for inducing lipid accumulation in C. zofingiensis. In addition, the feasibility of cultivating the alga in 60 L flat plate photobioreactors and 10 L bottles outdoors for biodiesel was also tested. It was found that C. zofingiensis could adapt to fluctuating temperatures and irradiance of outdoors and the highest μ(max) and lipid productivity could reach 0.362 day⁻¹ and 26.6 mg L⁻¹ day⁻¹ outdoors, respectively. The lipid production potential of C. zofingiensis is projected to be 31.1 kg ha⁻¹ day⁻¹ in outdoor culture. These results suggested that C. zofingiensis is a promising organism for feedstock production of biofuel and can be used in scaled up culture outdoors. PMID:22698727

  5. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity. PMID:24831025

  6. Measurement of phospholipase C by monitoring inositol phosphates using [³H]inositol labeling protocols in permeabilized cells.

    PubMed

    Skippen, Alison; Swigart, Philip; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2013-01-01

    Data on the production of inositol phosphates is a useful complement to measurements of intracellular Ca(2+). The basic principle is labeling of the inositol lipids by growing the appropriate cell line in culture in the presence of [3H]inositol for 2-3 days to reach labeling equilibrium. Lithium ions at 10 mM inhibits the degradation of inositol phosphates to free inositol and is used to trap the inositol in the inositol polyphosphate forms. Inositol phosphates can be separated with ease from free inositol by using anion exchange chromatography. A method capable of easily processing approximately 40-60 samples in a single day is presented. PMID:23007585

  7. Creatine kinase expression and creatine phosphate accumulation are developmentally regulated during differentiation of mouse and human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the expression of creatine kinase (CK) and the accumulation of creatine phosphate during the differentiation of human and mouse peripheral blood monocytes. Mouse monocytes cultured for 24 h do not contain detectable levels of CK and creatine phosphate. However, resident tissue macrophages and inflammatory elicited macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavities of mice have 70 and 300 mU per mg protein of CK activity and contain 3 and 6 mol of creatine phosphate per mol of ATP, respectively. The major isozyme of CK in these cells has been identified as the brain form. These findings suggest that the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages is associated with the expression of CK and the accumulation of creatine phosphate. We have found a similar pattern in human monocytes. Human blood monocytes, maintained in culture for 24 or 48 h, do not contain detectable levels of CK or creatine phosphate. Monocyte-derived macrophages (monocytes maintained in tissue cultures for 1 to 2 wk) have up to 100 mU per mg protein of CK activity and contain 0.5 mol of creatine phosphate per mol of ATP. Human macrophages express multiple isozymes of CK including the brain (BB) and possibly the mitochondrial forms of this enzyme. Thus, the expression of CK and the accumulation of creatine phosphate in human monocytes is induced by their in vitro cultivation. The induction of CK during in vitro cultivation occurs independently of the concentration of creatine in the medium. However, the size of the creatine phosphate pool varies with respect to extracellular creatine concentration. Creatine phosphate and CK are not detectable in freshly isolated human lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes or erythrocytes, but are found in freshly isolated human platelets. PMID:6699543

  8. Renal transport of bisphosphonates: accumulation by renal cortical slices enhanced by calcium phosphate ions

    SciTech Connect

    Troehler, U.; Bonjour, J.P.; Fleisch, H.

    1985-07-01

    Bisphosphonates have been recognized as useful therapeutic agents in metabolic bone disease. Earlier studies showed a net renal secretion of 1-hydroxy-ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). They suggested a renal cellular uptake of this compound. The authors further studied this concept by investigating the uptake in vitro of /sup 14/C-HEBP by rat renal cortex slices. HEBP was accumulated against a concentration gradient, a process that was dependent on time, temperature, and substrate concentration. Unlike that of /sup 3/H-p-aminohippurate, the uptake was not affected by change in medium Na+ or glucose and acetate concentration, or by anoxia and various metabolic inhibitors. It was, however, markedly increased by raising the medium calcium and inorganic phosphate concentration. Equilibrium dialysis with renal cortex homogenates suggests that HEBP binds to a cytosolic macromolecule through a process that exhibits saturability and calcium dependency. In conclusion, the results suggest that the bisphosphonate HEBP can penetrate kidney cells by a process that does not appear to be energy dependent, but is markedly influenced by the extracellular calcium-phosphate concentration.

  9. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Kruszka, Katarzyna; Sega, Pawel; Milanowska, Kaja; Jakobsen, Iver; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge - IPS1 genes and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 - PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi accumulation in shoots. In contrast, the pho1 mutant shows a decreased level of Pi concentration in shoots. Finally, Pi starvation leads to decreased Pi concentration in all plant tissues. Little is known about plant Pi homeostasis in other abiotic stress conditions. We found that, during the first hour of heat stress, Pi accumulated in barley shoots but not in the roots, and transcriptomic data analysis as well as RT-qPCR led us to propose an explanation for this phenomenon. Pi transport inhibition from soil to roots is balanced by lower Pi efflux from roots to shoots directed by the PHO1 transporter. In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression. PMID:27446155

  10. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Kruszka, Katarzyna; Sega, Pawel; Milanowska, Kaja; Jakobsen, Iver; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge – IPS1 genes and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 – PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi accumulation in shoots. In contrast, the pho1 mutant shows a decreased level of Pi concentration in shoots. Finally, Pi starvation leads to decreased Pi concentration in all plant tissues. Little is known about plant Pi homeostasis in other abiotic stress conditions. We found that, during the first hour of heat stress, Pi accumulated in barley shoots but not in the roots, and transcriptomic data analysis as well as RT-qPCR led us to propose an explanation for this phenomenon. Pi transport inhibition from soil to roots is balanced by lower Pi efflux from roots to shoots directed by the PHO1 transporter. In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression. PMID:27446155

  11. Sucrose phosphate synthase and sucrose phosphate phosphatase interact in planta and promote plant growth and biomass accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Victoria J.; Park, Ji-Young; Unda, Faride; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatic analysis indicates that sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) contains a putative C-terminal sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP)-like domain that may facilitates the binding of SPP. If an SPS–SPP enzyme complex exists, it may provide sucrose biosynthesis with an additional level of regulation, forming a direct metabolic channel for sucrose-6-phosphate between these two enzymes. Herein, the formation of an enzyme complex between SPS and SPP was examined, and the results from yeast two-hybrid experiments suggest that there is indeed an association between these proteins. In addition, in planta bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) was observed in Arabidopsis seedlings, providing physical evidence for a protein interaction in live cells and in real time. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was employed in an attempt to detect SPS–SPP interactions visually. The findings clearly demonstrated that SPS interacts with SPP and that this interaction impacts soluble carbohydrate pools and affects carbon partitioning to starch. Moreover, a fusion construct between the two genes promotes plant growth in both transgenic Arabidopsis and hybrid poplar. PMID:25873678

  12. Accumulation of novel glycolipids and ornithine lipids in Mesorhizobium loti under phosphate deprivation.

    PubMed

    Diercks, Hannah; Semeniuk, Adrian; Gisch, Nicolas; Moll, Hermann; Duda, Katarzyna A; Hölzl, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Glycolipids are found mainly in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae, and cyanobacteria), Gram-positive bacteria, and a few other bacterial phyla. They serve as membrane lipids and play a role under phosphate deprivation as surrogates for phospholipids. Mesorhizobium loti accumulates different di- and triglycosyl diacylglycerols, synthesized by the processive glycosyltransferase Pgt-Ml, and two so far unknown glycolipids, which were identified in this study by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as O-methyl-digalactosyl diacylglycerol (Me-DGD) and glucuronosyl diacylglycerol (GlcAD). Me-DGD is a novel glycolipid, whose synthesis depends on Pgt-Ml activity and the involvement of an unknown methyltransferase, while GlcAD is formed by a novel glycosyltransferase encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) mlr2668, using UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor. Deletion mutants lacking GlcAD are not impaired in growth. Our data suggest that the different glycolipids in Mesorhizobium can mutually replace each other. This may be an adaptation mechanism to enhance the competitiveness in natural environments. A further nonphospholipid in Mesorhizobium was identified as a hydroxylated form of an ornithine lipid with the additional hydroxy group linked to the amide-bound fatty acid, introduced by the hydroxylase OlsD. The presence of this lipid has not been reported for rhizobia yet. The hydroxy group is placed on the C-2 position of the acyl chain as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the isolated ornithine lipids contained up to 80 to 90% d-configured ornithine, a stereoform so far undescribed in bacteria. PMID:25404698

  13. Accumulation of Novel Glycolipids and Ornithine Lipids in Mesorhizobium loti under Phosphate Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Hannah; Semeniuk, Adrian; Gisch, Nicolas; Moll, Hermann; Duda, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    Glycolipids are found mainly in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae, and cyanobacteria), Gram-positive bacteria, and a few other bacterial phyla. They serve as membrane lipids and play a role under phosphate deprivation as surrogates for phospholipids. Mesorhizobium loti accumulates different di- and triglycosyl diacylglycerols, synthesized by the processive glycosyltransferase Pgt-Ml, and two so far unknown glycolipids, which were identified in this study by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as O-methyl-digalactosyl diacylglycerol (Me-DGD) and glucuronosyl diacylglycerol (GlcAD). Me-DGD is a novel glycolipid, whose synthesis depends on Pgt-Ml activity and the involvement of an unknown methyltransferase, while GlcAD is formed by a novel glycosyltransferase encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) mlr2668, using UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor. Deletion mutants lacking GlcAD are not impaired in growth. Our data suggest that the different glycolipids in Mesorhizobium can mutually replace each other. This may be an adaptation mechanism to enhance the competitiveness in natural environments. A further nonphospholipid in Mesorhizobium was identified as a hydroxylated form of an ornithine lipid with the additional hydroxy group linked to the amide-bound fatty acid, introduced by the hydroxylase OlsD. The presence of this lipid has not been reported for rhizobia yet. The hydroxy group is placed on the C-2 position of the acyl chain as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the isolated ornithine lipids contained up to 80 to 90% d-configured ornithine, a stereoform so far undescribed in bacteria. PMID:25404698

  14. Impact of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-01

    The use of saline water in urban areas for non-potable purposes to cope with fresh water scarcity, intrusion of saline water, and disposal of industrial saline wastewater into the sewerage lead to elevated salinity levels in wastewaters. Consequently, saline wastewater is generated, which needs to be treated before its discharge into surface water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the effects of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which belong to the microbial populations responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems. In this study, the short-term impact (hours) of salinity (as NaCl) was assessed on the aerobic metabolism of a PAO culture, enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). All aerobic PAO metabolic processes were drastically affected by elevated salinity concentrations. The aerobic maintenance energy requirement increased, when the salinity concentration rose up to a threshold concentration of 2 % salinity (on a W/V basis as NaCl), while above this concentration, the maintenance energy requirements seemed to decrease. All initial rates were affected by salinity, with the NH4- and PO4-uptake rates being the most sensitive. A salinity increase from 0 to 0.18 % caused a 25, 46, and 63 % inhibition of the O2, PO4, and NH4-uptake rates. The stoichiometric ratios of the aerobic conversions confirmed that growth was the process with the highest inhibition, followed by poly-P and glycogen formation. The study indicates that shock loads of 0.18 % salt, which corresponds to the use or intrusion of about 5 % seawater may severely affect the EBPR process already in wastewater treatment plants not exposed regularly to high salinity concentrations. PMID:25524698

  15. Structural features of phosphate accumulations in the Gantour basin - Morocco : Application of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Laadraoui; El Hassane, Boumaggard; Essaid, Jourani

    2010-05-01

    The Moroccan Atlantic margin raises a lot of interest because of its potential resources in phosphates. It also holds in its Mesetien part one of the largest phosphatic deposit in the world. The authors present the results of their researches on structural environments of the phosphatic sedimentary sequences in the Gantour deposit in western Morocco. These investigations are mainly based on field data, data recorded from work done by the OCP (Office Chérifien des Phosphates) group, the interpretation of industrial seismic profiles and the application of GIS. Our aim are devoted to the apprehension of the geometry and the cinematic of these basins which are contemporaneous to the Central Atlantic Rifting, as well as the determination of the list of factors liable to the genesis of these phosphatic basins. Other data of field observations (cartography, study of structural features,...) permit to identify the general structure of the prospect. Sedimentation of phosphated deposits is strained by the presence of two wrench faulting systems oriented N20¬40E, N80¬120E and N140¬160E.

  16. Loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor expression promotes the accumulation of lysobisphosphatidic acid in multilamellar bodies.

    PubMed

    Reaves, B J; Row, P E; Bright, N A; Luzio, J P; Davidson, H W

    2000-11-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of lipid domains within endocytic organelles in the sorting and movement of integral membrane proteins. In particular, considerable attention has become focussed upon the role of the unusual phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). This lipid appears to be directly involved in the trafficking of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, and accumulates in a number of lysosomal storage disorders. Antibody-mediated disruption of LBPA function also leads to mis-sorting of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors. We now report that the converse is also true, and that spontaneous loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors from a rat fibroblast cell line led to the formation of aberrant late endocytic structures enriched in LBPA. Accumulation of LBPA was directly dependent upon the loss of the receptors, and could be reversed by expression of bovine cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors in the mutant cell line. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that the abnormal organelles were electron-dense, had a multi-lamellar structure, accumulated endocytosed probes, and were distinct from dense-core lysosomes present within the same cells. The late endocytic structures present at steady state within any particular cell likely reflect the balance of membrane traffic through the endocytic pathway of that cell, and the rate of maturation of individual endocytic organelles. Moreover, there is considerable evidence which suggests that cargo receptors also play a direct mechanistic role in membrane trafficking events. Therefore, loss of such a protein may disturb the overall equilibrium of the pathway, and hence cause the accumulation of aberrant organelles. We propose that this mechanism underlies the phenotype of the mutant cell line, and that the formation of inclusion bodies in many lysosomal storage diseases is also due to an imbalance in membrane trafficking within the endocytic pathway

  17. Synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate rock on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by an arsenic hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Wu, F Y; Cheung, K C; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2010-09-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and phosphate rock on the phytorextraction efficiency of a hyperaccumulator (Pteris vittata) and a non-hyperaccumulator (Cynodon dactylon) plant were studied. Both seedlings were planted in As contaminated soil under different treatments [(1) control (contaminated soil only), (2) indigenous mycorrhizas (IM), (3) mixed AM inoculum [indigenous mycorrhiza + Glomus mosseae (IM/Gm)] and (4) IM/Gm + phosphate rock (P rock)] with varying intensities (40%, 70% and 100%) of water moisture content (WMC). Significant As reduction in soil (23.8% of soil As reduction), increase in plant biomass (17.8 g/pot) and As accumulation (2054 mg/kg DW) were observed for P. vittata treated with IM/Gm + PR at 100% WMC level. The overall results indicated that the synergistic effect of mycorrhiza and P rock affected As subcellular distribution of the hyperaccumulator and thereby altered its As removal efficiency under well-watered conditions. PMID:20541316

  18. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  19. Accumulation of a novel glycolipid and a betaine lipid in cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides grown under phosphate limitation.

    PubMed

    Benning, C; Huang, Z H; Gage, D A

    1995-02-20

    Cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides grown under phosphate-limiting conditions accumulated nonphosphorous glycolipids and lipids carrying head groups derived from amino acids. Concomitantly, the relative amount of phosphoglycerolipids decreased from 90 to 22 mol% of total polar lipids in the membranes. Two lipids, not detectable in cells grown under standard conditions, were synthesized during phosphate-limited growth. Fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, exact mass measurements, 1H NMR spectroscopy, sugar composition analysis, and methylation analysis of the predominant glycolipid led to the identification of the novel compound 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyr anosyl]glycerol. The second lipid was identified as the betaine lipid 1,2-di-O-acyl-[4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-homoserine]glycerol by cochromatography employing an authentic standard from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, exact mass measurements, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Prior to this observation, the occurrence of this lipid was thought to be restricted to lower plants and algae. Apparently, these newly synthesized nonphosphorous lipids, in addition to the sulfo- and the ornithine lipid also found in R. sphaeroides grown under optimal conditions, take over the role of phosphoglycerolipids in phosphate-deprived cells. PMID:7872771

  20. OsPHR2 Is Involved in Phosphate-Starvation Signaling and Excessive Phosphate Accumulation in Shoots of Plants1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jiao, FangChang; Wu, Zhongchang; Li, Yiyi; Wang, Xuming; He, Xiaowei; Zhong, Weiqi; Wu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that AtPHR1 plays a central role in phosphate (Pi)-starvation signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this work, two OsPHR genes from rice (Oryza sativa) were isolated and designated as OsPHR1 and OsPHR2 based on amino acid sequence homology to AtPHR1. Their functions in Pi signaling in rice were investigated using transgenic plants. Our results showed that both OsPHR1 and OsPHR2 are involved in Pi-starvation signaling pathway by regulation of the expression of Pi-starvation-induced genes, whereas only OsPHR2 overexpression results in the excessive accumulation of Pi in shoots under Pi-sufficient conditions. Under Pi-sufficient conditions, overexpression of OsPHR2 mimics Pi-starvation stress in rice with enhanced root elongation and proliferated root hair growth, suggesting the involvement of OsPHR2 in Pi-dependent root architecture alteration by both systematic and local pathways. In OsPHR2-overexpression plants, some Pi transporters were up-regulated under Pi-sufficient conditions, which correlates with the strongly increased content of Pi. The mechanism behind the OsPHR2 regulated Pi accumulation will provide useful approaches to develop smart plants with high Pi efficiency. PMID:18263782

  1. An engineered lipid remodeling system using a galactolipid synthase promoter during phosphate starvation enhances oil accumulation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Mie; Madoka, Yuka; Fujiwara, Ryota; Murakawa, Masato; Yoshitake, Yushi; Ikeda, Keiko; Koizumi, Ryota; Endo, Keiji; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) depletion is a serious problem for plant growth. Membrane lipid remodeling is a defense mechanism that plants use to survive Pi-depleted conditions. During Pi starvation, phospholipids are degraded to supply Pi for other essential biological processes, whereas galactolipid synthesis in plastids is up-regulated via the transcriptional activation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 3 (MGD3). Thus, the produced galactolipids are transferred to extraplastidial membranes to substitute for phospholipids. We found that, Pi starvation induced oil accumulation in the vegetative tissues of various seed plants without activating the transcription of enzymes involved in the later steps of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Moreover, the Arabidopsis starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant, pgm-1, accumulated higher TAG levels than did wild-type plants under Pi-depleted conditions. We generated transgenic plants that expressed a key gene involved in TAG synthesis using the Pi deficiency–responsive MGD3 promoter in wild-type and pgm-1 backgrounds. During Pi starvation, the transgenic plants accumulated higher TAG amounts compared with the non-transgenic plants, suggesting that the Pi deficiency–responsive promoter of galactolipid synthase in plastids may be useful for producing transgenic plants that accumulate more oil under Pi-depleted conditions. PMID:26379690

  2. Accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate or fructose 6-phosphate is responsible for destabilization of glucose transporter mRNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Morita, Teppei; El-Kazzaz, Waleed; Tanaka, Yuya; Inada, Toshifumi; Aiba, Hiroji

    2003-05-01

    Previously we found that a mutation in either pgi or pfkA, encoding phosphoglucose isomerase or phosphofructokinase A, respectively, facilitates degradation of the ptsG mRNA in an RNase E-dependent manner in Escherichia coli (1). In this study, we examined the effects of a series of glycolytic genes on the degradation of ptsG mRNA and how the mutations destabilize the ptsG mRNA. The conditional lethal mutation ts8 in fda, encoding fructose-1,6-P(2) aldolase just downstream of pfkA in the glycolytic pathway, caused the destabilization of ptsG mRNA at the nonpermissive temperature. Mutations in any other gene did not destabilize the ptsG mRNA; rather, they reduced the ptsG transcription mainly by affecting the cAMP level. The rapid degradation of ptsG mRNA in mutant strains was completely dependent upon the presence of glucose or any one of its compounds, which enter the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway before the block points. A significant increase in the intracellular glucose-6-P level was observed in the presence of glucose in the pgi strain. An overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase eliminated both the accumulation and the degradation of ptsG mRNA in the pgi strain. In addition, accumulation of fructose-6-P led to the rapid degradation of ptsG mRNA in a pgi pfkA mutant strain lacking glucose-6-P. We conclude that the RNase E-dependent destabilization of ptsG mRNA occurs in response to accumulation of glucose-6-P or fructose-6-P. PMID:12578824

  3. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in the species Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Martina; Schiavon, Michela; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Malagoli, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) is recognized as a toxic pollutant in soils of many countries. Since phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) can influence arsenic mobility and bioavailability, as well as the plant tolerance to As, phytoremediation techniques employed to clean-up As-contaminated areas should consider the interaction between As and these two nutrients. In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of arsenate in the species Brassica juncea were compared between soil system and hydroponics in relation to P and S concentration of the growth substrate. In one case, plants were grown in pots filled with soil containing 878 mg As kg(-1). The addition of P to soil resulted in increased As desorption and significantly higher As accumulation in plants, with no effect on growth. The absence of toxic effects on plants was likely due to high S in soil, which could efficiently mitigate metal toxicity. In the hydroponic experiment, plants were grown with different combinations of As (0 or 100 μM) and P (56 or 112 μM). S at 400 μM was also added to the nutrient solution of control (-As) and As-treated plants, either individually or in combination with P. The addition of P reduced As uptake by plants, while high S resulted in higher As accumulation and lower P content. These results suggest that S can influence the interaction between P and As for the uptake by plants. The combined increase of P and S in the nutrient solution did not lead to higher accumulation of As, but enhanced As translocation from the root to the shoot. This aspect is of relevance for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. PMID:24677062

  4. Removal of nitrogen by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification of a phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24.

    PubMed

    Li, Chune; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Xin; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; He, Ruoxue; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-04-01

    Phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24 exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability. Single factor experiments showed that both heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification occurred with sodium citrate as carbon source and lower C/N ratio of 8. High average NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N removal rates of 8.75, 7.51 and 7.73 mg L(-1)h(-1) were achieved. The application of strain YG-24 in wastewater samples resulted in TN, NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N and P removal efficiencies of 85.28%, 88.13%, 86.15%, 70.83% and 51.21%. Sequencing and quantitative amplification by real-time PCR of napA, nirS and ppk showed that nitrogen removal pathway of strain YG-24 was achieved through heterotrophic ammonium nitrification coupled with fast nitrite denitrification (NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N and then to gaseous nitrogen) directly. These results demonstrated the strain as a suitable candidate to simultaneously remove both nitrogen and phosphate in wastewater treatment. PMID:25668754

  5. Phytic Acid Synthesis and Vacuolar Accumulation in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus Induced by High Concentration of Inorganic Phosphate and Cations1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Naoto; Ohnishi, Miwa; Sekiguchi, Yoko; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chang, Young-Tae; Chung, Sung-Kee; Inoue, Yoshinori; Reid, Robert J.; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    We have established a new system for studying phytic acid, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) synthesis in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus. InsP6 and other intermediates of myo-inositol (Ins) phosphate metabolism were measured using an ion chromatography method. The detection limit for InsP6 was less than 50 nm, which was sufficient to analyze Ins phosphates in living cells. Synthesis of Ins phosphates was induced by incubation in high inorganic phosphate medium. InsP6 was mainly accumulated in vacuoles and was enhanced when cells were grown in high concentration of inorganic phosphates with the cations K+, Ca2+, or Zn2+. However, there was a strong tendency for InsP6 to accumulate in the vacuole in the presence of Ca2+ and in nonvacuolar compartments when supplied with Zn2+, possibly due to precipitation of InsP6 with Zn2+ in the cytosol. A vesicle transport inhibitor, brefeldin A, stimulated InsP6 accumulation. The amounts of both Ins(3)P1 myo-inositol monophosphate synthase, a key enzyme for InsP6 synthesis, and Ins(1,4,5)P3 kinase were unrelated to the level of accumulation of InsP6. The mechanisms for InsP6 synthesis and localization into vacuoles in plant cells are discussed. PMID:15965017

  6. Lipid accumulation by oleaginous and non-oleaginous yeast strains in nitrogen and phosphate limitation.

    PubMed

    Kolouchová, Irena; Maťátková, Olga; Sigler, Karel; Masák, Jan; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species accumulating large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp.) and traditional biotechnological non-oleaginous ones characterized by high biomass yield (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as potential producers of biofuel-utilizable and nutritionally valuable lipids. The main objective was to increase lipid accumulation by increasing C/P ratio together with higher C/N ratio, while maintaining high biomass yield. The C/N ratio of 30 was found to lead to higher biomass content and the total lipid content increased significantly with higher C/P ratio. With higher ratios of both C/N and C/P, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in cell lipids increased while polyunsaturated FAs decreased. Oleaginous yeast species had a lower proportion of unsaturated FAs (approx. 80 %) than non-oleaginous strains (approx. 90 %). At a C/N ratio of 30 and C/P ratio 1043, T. cutaneum produced a high amount of ω-6 unsaturated linoleic acid, the precursor of some prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, while Candida sp. and K. polysporus accumulated a high content of palmitoleic acid. PMID:26931336

  7. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite. PMID:23771179

  8. SIZ1 regulation of phosphate starvation-induced root architecture remodeling involves the control of auxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Miura, Tomoko; Sato, Aiko; Bohnert, Hans J; Hasegawa, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes plants to modulate the architecture of their root systems to facilitate the acquisition of Pi. Previously, we reported that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 regulates root architecture remodeling in response to Pi limitation; namely, the siz1 mutations cause the inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation and the promotion of lateral root (LR) formation. Here, we present evidence that SIZ1 is involved in the negative regulation of auxin patterning to modulate root system architecture in response to Pi starvation. The siz1 mutations caused greater PR growth inhibition and LR development of seedlings in response to Pi limitation. Similar root phenotypes occurred if Pi-deficient wild-type seedlings were supplemented with auxin. N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux activity, reduced the Pi starvation-induced LR root formation of siz1 seedlings to a level equivalent to that seen in the wild type. Monitoring of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA indicated that auxin accumulates in PR tips at early stages of the Pi starvation response. Subsequently, DR5::uidA expression was observed in the LR primordia, which was associated with LR elongation. The time-sequential patterning of DR5::uidA expression occurred earlier in the roots of siz1 as compared with the wild type. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that several other auxin-responsive genes, including genes involved in cell wall loosening and biosynthesis, were up-regulated in siz1 relative to wild-type seedlings in response to Pi starvation. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively regulates Pi starvation-induced root architecture remodeling through the control of auxin patterning. PMID:21156857

  9. Faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart related to cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A model of the cell bioenergetic system was used to compare the effect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiencies in a broad range of moderate ATP demand in skeletal muscle and heart. Computer simulations revealed that kinetic properties of the system are similar in both cases despite the much higher mitochondria content and "basic" OXPHOS activity in heart than in skeletal muscle, because of a much higher each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS in skeletal muscle than in heart. Large OXPHOS deficiencies lead in both tissues to a significant decrease in oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) and increase in cytosolic ADP, Pi, and H(+) The main difference between skeletal muscle and heart is a much higher cytosolic Pi concentration in healthy tissue and much higher cytosolic Pi accumulation (level) at low OXPHOS activities in the former, caused by a higher PCr level in healthy tissue (and higher total phosphate pool) and smaller Pi redistribution between cytosol and mitochondria at OXPHOS deficiency. This difference does not depend on ATP demand in a broad range. A much greater Pi increase and PCr decrease during rest-to-moderate work transition in skeletal muscle at OXPHOS deficiencies than at normal OXPHOS activity significantly slows down the V̇o2 on-kinetics. Because high cytosolic Pi concentrations cause fatigue in skeletal muscle and can compromise force generation in skeletal muscle and heart, this system property can contribute to the faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart. Shortly, skeletal muscle with large OXPHOS deficiencies becomes fatigued already during low/moderate exercise. PMID:27283913

  10. Accumulation of zirconium phosphate by a Serratia sp.: a benign system for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous flows.

    PubMed

    Mennan, Claire; Paterson-Beedle, Marion; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2010-10-01

    Metal phosphate deposited enzymatically on Serratia sp. has been used successfully for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous flows. Previous studies using biogenic hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) on Serratia sp. biofilm showed removal of 100% of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (60)Co via their intercalation into biogenic HUP crystals. Zirconium phosphates (ZrP) offer a potential non-toxic and non-radioactive alternative to HUP for water decontamination. A method was developed for biomanufacturing ZrP. Biogenic ZrP removed ca. 100% of Sr(2+) and Co(2+) (0.5 mM) from solutions to a molar ratio at saturation of ca. 1:0.6 for both Zr:Sr and Zr:Co. The potential for drinking water decontamination via bio-ZrP is discussed with respect to bio-HUP and also other commercially available materials. PMID:20495949

  11. Interaction between carbon metabolism and phosphate accumulation is revealed by a mutation of a cellulose synthase-like protein, CSLF6

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cheng; Fang, Chuanying; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Shouchuang; Wu, Yangyang; Liu, Xianqing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. However, the network that affects phosphate (Pi) accumulation in crops is not well established. It is reported here that OsCSLF6, a member of the cellulose synthase-like family (CSLF), which is found only in grasses, is involved in Pi accumulation. The oscslf6 mutants (oscslf6-1 and oscslf6-2) display Pi toxic symptoms and increased Pi accumulation in both roots and shoots under the Pi-sufficient condition, which correlate with the induced expression of Pi transporters in the knockout mutants. Consistent with the over-accumulation of Pi, a significant decrease in primary root length, adventitious root length, and adventitious root number were observed in the oscslf6 mutants when compared with the wild type (WT) under Pi-sufficient conditions. In addition, the sucrose (Suc) level was increased in the oscslf6 mutants and the expression of sucrose synthases (OsSUS4/5) and sucrose transporters (OsSUT1/2/4/OsSweet14) genes were also induced in the shoots of oscslf6 mutants, suggesting that OsCSLF6 may play a role in affecting Pi accumulation by affecting the level of carbon metabolism. PMID:25740927

  12. Engineered carbon (biochar) prepared by direct pyrolysis of Mg-accumulated tomato tissues: Characterization and phosphate removal potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An innovative synthesis was developed to produce engineered biochar from magnesium (Mg) enriched tomato tissues through slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment. The resulting Mg-biochar composites showed excellent sorption ability to phosphate in aqueous solutions. The engineered biochar contained nanosc...

  13. Inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in cultured astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, T.; Cole, R.; Kim, H.S.; de Vellis, J.; Noble, E.P.

    1987-07-06

    Cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were prelabeled with /sup 3/H-inositol and the accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates was determined following stimulation with a number of neuroactive substances. In astrocytes, norepinephrine (NE) produced the greatest stimulation with significant increase also observed with bradykinin. In oligodendrocytes, the greatest stimulation was produced by carbachol with significant increase also produced by bradykinin, histamine and NE. Carbachol was found to be ineffective in producing stimulation in astrocytes. The accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates in astrocytes in response to NE was found to be dependent on the presence of Li/sup +/. The NE stimulation in astrocytes was dose-dependent and had an EC/sub 50/ of 1.2 ..mu..M. This stimulation was blocked by the low concentration of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic antagonist prazosin but not by the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. The NE-stimulated accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates in astrocytes was inhibited by the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine as well as by the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP. 34 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts. PMID:26865376

  15. The Sink-Specific Plastidic Phosphate Transporter PHT4;2 Influences Starch Accumulation and Leaf Size in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Irigoyen, Sonia; Karlsson, Patrik M.; Kuruvilla, Jacob; Spetea, Cornelia; Versaw, Wayne K.

    2011-01-01

    Nonphotosynthetic plastids are important sites for the biosynthesis of starch, fatty acids, and amino acids. The uptake and subsequent use of cytosolic ATP to fuel these and other anabolic processes would lead to the accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) if not balanced by a Pi export activity. However, the identity of the transporter(s) responsible for Pi export is unclear. The plastid-localized Pi transporter PHT4;2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is expressed in multiple sink organs but is nearly restricted to roots during vegetative growth. We identified and used pht4;2 null mutants to confirm that PHT4;2 contributes to Pi transport in isolated root plastids. Starch accumulation was limited in pht4;2 roots, which is consistent with the inhibition of starch synthesis by excess Pi as a result of a defect in Pi export. Reduced starch accumulation in leaves and altered expression patterns for starch synthesis genes and other plastid transporter genes suggest metabolic adaptation to the defect in roots. Moreover, pht4;2 rosettes, but not roots, were significantly larger than those of the wild type, with 40% greater leaf area and twice the biomass when plants were grown with a short (8-h) photoperiod. Increased cell proliferation accounted for the larger leaf size and biomass, as no changes were detected in mature cell size, specific leaf area, or relative photosynthetic electron transport activity. These data suggest novel signaling between roots and leaves that contributes to the regulation of leaf size. PMID:21960139

  16. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup +2/ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP/sub 3/ may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca/sup +2/ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-/sup 3/H) inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP/sub 3/ increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion.

  17. Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1988-08-30

    The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of (2-3H)-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates.

  18. The separation of ( sup 32 P)inositol phosphates by ion-pair chromatography: Optimization of the method and biological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sulpice, J.C.; Gascard, P.; Journet, E.; Rendu, F.; Renard, D.; Poggioli, J.; Giraud, F. )

    1989-05-15

    We have developed an ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC method to measure inositol phosphates in {sup 32}P-labeled cells. The different chromatographic parameters were analyzed to optimize the resolution of the {sup 32}P-labeled metabolites. Analysis of inositol phosphates in biological samples was improved by a single charcoal pretreatment which eliminated interfering nucleotides without removing inositol phosphates. The kinetics of production of inositol phosphates in calcium-activated erythrocytes, vasopressin-stimulated hepatocytes, and thrombin-activated platelets were analyzed. Original data on the activation of phosphoinositide phospholipase C were obtained in intact erythrocytes by direct measurement of inositol (1,4,5)P3. Data from agonist-stimulated hepatocytes and platelets were consistent with those from previous studies. In conclusion, this technique offers many advantages over the methodologies currently employed involving anion-exchange chromatography and ({sup 3}H)inositol labeling: (i) {sup 32}P labeling is less expensive and more efficient than {sup 3}H labeling and can be used with all types of cells without permeabilization treatments and (ii) ion-pair HPLC gives good resolution of inositol phosphates from nucleotides with shorter retention times, and long reequilibration periods are not required.

  19. SIZ1 Regulation of Phosphate Starvation-Induced Root Architecture Remodeling Involves the Control of Auxin Accumulation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Miura, Tomoko; Sato, Aiko; Bohnert, Hans J.; Hasegawa, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes plants to modulate the architecture of their root systems to facilitate the acquisition of Pi. Previously, we reported that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 regulates root architecture remodeling in response to Pi limitation; namely, the siz1 mutations cause the inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation and the promotion of lateral root (LR) formation. Here, we present evidence that SIZ1 is involved in the negative regulation of auxin patterning to modulate root system architecture in response to Pi starvation. The siz1 mutations caused greater PR growth inhibition and LR development of seedlings in response to Pi limitation. Similar root phenotypes occurred if Pi-deficient wild-type seedlings were supplemented with auxin. N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux activity, reduced the Pi starvation-induced LR root formation of siz1 seedlings to a level equivalent to that seen in the wild type. Monitoring of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA indicated that auxin accumulates in PR tips at early stages of the Pi starvation response. Subsequently, DR5::uidA expression was observed in the LR primordia, which was associated with LR elongation. The time-sequential patterning of DR5::uidA expression occurred earlier in the roots of siz1 as compared with the wild type. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that several other auxin-responsive genes, including genes involved in cell wall loosening and biosynthesis, were up-regulated in siz1 relative to wild-type seedlings in response to Pi starvation. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively regulates Pi starvation-induced root architecture remodeling through the control of auxin patterning. PMID:21156857

  20. Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate accumulation in macrophages induces intracellular cholesterol redistribution, attenuates liver-X receptor/ATP-Binding cassette transporter A1/ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 pathway, and impairs cholesterol efflux

    PubMed Central

    Luquain-Costaz, Céline; Lefai, Etienne; Arnal-Levron, Maud; Markina, Daria; Sakaï, Shota; Euthine, Vanessa; Makino, Asami; Guichardant, Michel; Yamashita, Shizuya; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endosomal signature phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) has been involved in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Accumulation of BMP is a hallmark of lipid storage disorders and was recently reported as a noticeable feature of oxidized LDL-laden macrophages. This study was designed to delineate the consequences of macrophage BMP accumulation on intracellular cholesterol distribution, metabolism and efflux and to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods and results We have developed an experimental design to specifically increase BMP content in RAW macrophages. Following BMP accumulation, cell cholesterol distribution was markedly altered despite no change in LDL uptake and hydrolysis, cholesterol esterification, or total cell cholesterol content. The expression of cholesterol regulated genes SREBP2 and HMGCoAR was decreased by 40%, indicative of an increase of endoplasmic reticulum associated-cholesterol. Cholesterol delivery to plasma membrane was reduced as evidenced by the 20% decrease of efflux by cyclodextrin. Functionally, BMP accumulation reduced cholesterol efflux to both apoA1 and HDL by 40%, correlated with a 40% decrease in mRNA contents of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters and LXR α and β. Foam cell formation induced by oxidized LDL exposure was exacerbated in BMP enriched cells. Conclusion The present work shows for the first time a strong functional link between BMP and cholesterol regulating genes involved in both intracellular metabolism and efflux. We propose that accumulation of cellular BMP might contribute to the deregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in atheromatous macrophages. PMID:23788762

  1. Perinatal exposure to the flame retardant triphenyl phosphate accelerates the onset of type 2 diabetes and causes adipose accumulation in UCD-type 2 diabetes mellitus rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is an additive used globally to in furniture, foams, and electronics products either as a flame retardant or plasticizer and is found in household dust. We administered TPP from gestational day 8.5 to weaning and evaluated metabolic phenotypes of 3.5 month old male and fema...

  2. A comparison of the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on parathyroid hormone release, 3',5'-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate accumulation, and the levels of inositol phosphates in bovine parathyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, E M; Fuleihan G el-H; Chen, C J; Kifor, O

    1990-09-01

    We compared the effects of a series of di- and trivalent cations on various aspects of parathyroid function to investigate whether these polyvalent cations act on the parathyroid cell through a similar mechanism. Like high extracellular concentrations of Ca2+, high levels of barium (Ba2+), strontium (Sr2+), gadolinium (Gd3+), europium (Eu3+), terbium (Tb3+), and ytterbium (Yb3+) [corrected] each inhibited low calcium-stimulated PTH release and showed IC50 values (the concentration producing half of the maximal inhibitory effect) of 1.12 mM, 1.18 mM, 2.2 microM, 2.5 microM, 0.89 microM, and 15 microM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of both divalent (Ca2+ and Ba2+) and trivalent (Gd3+) cations were reversible by 76-100% after removal of the cation, suggesting that the polyvalent cation-mediated reduction in PTH release was not due to nonspecific toxicity. The same di- and trivalent cations produced an 80-90% decrease in agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation with a similar order of potency as for their effects on PTH release. Preincubation overnight with pertussis toxin totally prevented the inhibitory effects of the trivalent cations on cAMP accumulation. The same di- and trivalent cations also increased the accumulation of inositol monophosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and inositol trisphosphate. Their effects on this parameter differed from those on PTH release and cAMP accumulation in several respects. First, Ba2+ and Sr2+, rather than being equipotent with Ca2+, were about 2-fold less potent in increasing the levels of inositol phosphates. Second, the trivalent cations were 5-50-fold less potent in raising inositol phosphates than in modulating PTH release and cAMP accumulation, and all were nearly equipotent. These results show that trivalent cations of the lanthanide series mimic the actions of divalent cations on several aspects of parathyroid function, and likely do so by interacting with the cell surface "Ca2(+)-receptor-like mechanism" through which

  3. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  4. Inositol lipid metabolism in vasopressin stimulated hepatocytes from rats infused with tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, J.A.; Rodriguez de Turco, E.B. )

    1989-05-30

    We studied the effect of i.v. infusion of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rHuTNF alpha, Cetus, 15 micrograms/100 g bw over 3 h) on vasopressin (VP)-stimulated {sup 32}P-inositol lipid turnover and the release of {sup 3}H-inositol phosphates in isolated rat hepatocytes. The early VP-induced decrease (within 30 s) in {sup 32}P-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and {sup 32}P-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling was significantly reduced (-40%) and at the same time the uptake of {sup 32}P into phosphatidic acid was 50% lower than in saline-infused (matched control) rats. Within 5 min of VP-stimulation, lower {sup 32}P phosphatidylinositol (-40%) and higher {sup 32}P-phosphatidic acid (+30%) labeling were observed in rHuTNF alpha-infused rats. Infusion of rHuTNF alpha also affected the VP-induced release of {sup 3}H-inositol phosphates. The accumulation of {sup 3}H-inositol-labeled water soluble products was decreased by 25% and 17% at 30 s and 10 min, respectively. These data show that rHuTNF alpha mimics early perturbations induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion in VP-stimulated inositol lipid metabolism in rat hepatocytes.

  5. Platelet-activating factor stimulates metabolism of phosphoinositides via phospholipase A2 in primary cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Okayasu, T.; Hasegawa, K.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-07-01

    Addition of platelet-activating factor (PAF) to cells doubly labeled with (/sup 14/C)glycerol plus (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid resulted in a transient decrease of (/sup 14/C)glycerol-labeled phosphatidylinositol (PI) and a transient increase of (/sup 14/C)glycerol-labeled lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). (/sup 3/H)Arachidonate-labeled PI, on the other hand, decreased in a time-dependent manner. The radioactivity in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylserine did not change significantly. The /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreased in PI in a time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of a phospholipase A2 activity. Although PAF also induced a gradual increase of diacylglycerol (DG), the increase of (/sup 14/C)glycerol-labeled DG paralleled the loss of triacyl (/sup 14/C)glycerol and the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio of DG was 16 times smaller than that of PI. Thus, DG seemed not to be derived from PI. In myo- (/sup 3/H)inositol-prelabeled cells, PAF induced a transient decrease of (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bis-phosphate (TPI) and (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (DPI) at 1 min. PAF stimulation of cultured hepatocytes prelabeled with /sup 32/Pi induced a transient decrease of (/sup 32/P)polyphosphoinositides at 20 sec to 1 min. (/sup 32/P)LPI appeared within 10 sec after stimulation and paralleled the loss of (/sup 32/P)PI. (/sup 3/H)Inositol triphosphate, (/sup 3/H)inositol diphosphate, and (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphate, which increased in a time-dependent manner upon stimulation with adrenaline, did not accumulate with the stimulation due to PAF. These observations indicate that PAF causes degradation of inositol phospholipids via phospholipase A2 and induces a subsequent resynthesis of these phospholipids.

  6. Responses to phosphate deprivation in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Neelima; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential nutrient because it is required for the biosynthesis of nucleotides, phospholipids and metabolites in energy metabolism. During phosphate starvation, phosphatases play a major role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing phosphorylated macromolecules. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHM8 (YER037W), a lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase, plays an important role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing lysophosphatidic acid and nucleotide monophosphate that results in accumulation of triacylglycerol and nucleotides under phosphate limiting conditions. Under phosphate limiting conditions, it is transcriptionally regulated by Pho4p, a phosphate-responsive transcription factor. In this review, we focus on triacylglycerol metabolism in transcription factors deletion mutants involved in phosphate metabolism and propose a link between phosphate and triacylglycerol metabolism. Deletion of these transcription factors results in an increase in triacylglycerol level. Based on these observations, we suggest that PHM8 is responsible for the increase in triacylglycerol in phosphate metabolising gene deletion mutants. PMID:26615590

  7. Comparison of muscarine- and vasopressin-stimulated inositol phospholipid metabolism in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, J.; Anderson, C.; Perlman, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    Both muscarine and vasopressin have previously been shown to increase the accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (/sup 3/H-IP) in superior cervical ganglia in which the phospholipids were labeled with /sup 3/H-inositol. They have compared the effects of muscarine and vasopressin on phospholipid metabolism in the ganglion. The effects of these agents on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation are additive. The response to muscarine plateaus after approximately 10 min whereas the response to vasopressin increases for at least 30 min. Decentralization and maintenance in organ culture appear to potentiate the effect of muscarine on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation but do not effect the response of the ganglia to vasopressin. Muscarine and vasopressin also increase the incorporation of /sup 3/H-inositol into phospholipids in the ganglion. Autoradiographic techniques were used to localize the inositol-containing phospholipids in the ganglion. Muscarine increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the cell bodies of the principal ganglionic neurons, whereas vasopressin increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the neuropil. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that muscarine and vasopressin stimulate the metabolism of different pools of phospholipids.

  8. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a laxative to clean the bowels before surgery or intestinal tests. Healthcare providers sometimes give potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) for treating low phosphate and high calcium levels in the blood, and for preventing low phosphate in patients who are being tube-fed.

  9. Accumulation of DOC in Low Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (LPLC) area: is it related to higher production under high N:P ratio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauriac, R.; Moutin, T.; Baklouti, M.

    2010-09-01

    The biogeochemistry of carbon and nutrients (N, P) in the surface layer of the ocean strongly depends on the interaction between C, N and P at the cell level and at the population level where interaction between primary producers (phytoplankton) and remineralizers (heterotrophic bacteria) impact the overall stock and dynamics of organic carbon. To understand these interactions in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea, we implemented, using Eco3M, a multi-element, steady state, mechanistic model. This cell-based model intend to represent the growth of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria under various amount of nutrients. As a results, it displays the expected biogeochemical characteristics of the system and give us insight on the expected interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria both in term of competition for inorganic nutrients and in term of commensalism for organic carbon. In this study, we found a good quantitative agreement between model results and literrature data for stocks and fluxes of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition, for phytoplankton we show how the uncoupling between carbon production and growth could impact the overall DOC dynamic and based on these results, we proposed a new explanantion for the observed DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  11. Phosphate uptake kinetics by Acinetobacter isolates.

    PubMed

    Pauli, A S; Kaitala, S

    1997-02-01

    Acinetobacter isolates from activated sludge treatment plants of forest industry were used as model organisms for polyphosphate accumulating bacteria to study excess phosphate uptake by the overplus phenomenon as well as luxury uptake of phosphate during growth. The initial, rapid phosphate uptake by the phosphorus-starved Acinetobacter isolates (the overplus phenomenon) followed the Michaelis-Menten model (maximum initial phosphate uptake rate 29 mg P g(-1) dry mass (DM) h(-1), half-saturation constant for excess phosphate uptake 17 mg P L(-1)). During the rapid uptake no growth was observed, but most cells contained polyphosphate granules. Also growth and luxury uptake of phosphate could be modeled with the Michaelis-Menten equation (maximum phosphate uptake rate 3.7-12 mg P g(-1) DM h(-1), half-saturation constant for growth 0.47-6.0 mg P L(-1), maximum specific growth rate 0.15-0.55 h(-1)). PMID:18633985

  12. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  13. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  14. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  15. Guanine nucleotide-dependent, pertussis toxin-insensitive, stimulation of inositol phosphate formation by carbachol in a membrane preparation from astrocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hepler, J.R.; Harden, T.K.

    1986-03-05

    Formation of the inositol phosphates (InsP), InsP/sub 3/, InsP/sub 2/, and InsP/sub 1/ was increased in a concentration dependent manner (K/sub 0.5/ approx. 5 ..mu..M) by GTP..sigma..S in washed membranes prepared from /sup 3/H-inositol-prelabelled 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Both GTP..gamma..S and GppNHp stimulated InsP formation by 2-3 fold over control; GTP and GDP were much less efficacious and GMP had no effect. Although the muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol had no effect in the absence of guanine nucleotide, in the presence of 10 ..mu..M GTP..gamma..S, carbachol stimulated (K/sub 0.5/ approx. 10 ..mu.. M) the formation of InsP above the level achieved with GTP..gamma..S alone. The effect of carbachol was completely blocked by atropine. The order of potency for a series of nucleotides for stimulation of InsP formation in the presence of 500 ..mu..M carbachol was GTP..gamma..S > GppNHp > GTP = GDP. Pertussis toxin, at concentrations that fully ADP-ribosylate and functionally inactivate G/sub i/, had no effect on InsP formation in the presence of GTP..gamma..S or GTP..gamma..S plus carbachol. Histamine and bradykinin also stimulated InsP formation in the presence of GTP..gamma..S in washed membranes from 1321N1 cells. These data are consistent with the idea that a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that is not G/sub i/ is involved in receptor-mediated stimulation of InsP formation in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.

  16. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  17. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  18. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  19. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  20. Increased accumulation of the cardio-cerebrovascular disease treatment drug tanshinone in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots by the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Luo, Xiuqin; Ju, Guanhua; Yu, Xiaohong; Hao, Xiaolong; Huang, Qiang; Xiao, Jianbo; Cui, Lijie; Kai, Guoyin

    2014-09-01

    Tanshinone is widely used for treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases with increasing demand. Herein, key enzyme genes SmHMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase) and SmDXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase) involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway were introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza (Sm) hairy roots to enhance tanshinone production. Over-expression of SmHMGR or SmDXR in hairy root lines can significantly enhance the yield of tanshinone. Transgenic hairy root lines co-expressing HMGR and DXR (HD lines) produced evidently higher levels of total tanshinone (TT) compared with the control and single gene transformed lines. The highest tanshinone production was observed in HD42 with the concentration of 3.25 mg g(-1) DW. Furthermore, the transgenic hairy roots showed higher antioxidant activity than control. In addition, transgenic hairy root harboring HMGR and DXR (HD42) exhibited higher tanshinone content after elicitation by yeast extract and/or Ag(+) than before. Tanshinone can be significantly enhanced to 5.858, 6.716, and 4.426 mg g(-1) DW by YE, Ag(+), and YE-Ag(+) treatment compared with non-induced HD42, respectively. The content of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone was effectively elevated upon elicitor treatments, whereas there was no obvious promotion effect for the other two compounds tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA. Our results provide a useful strategy to improve tanshinone content as well as other natural active products by combination of genetic engineering with elicitors. PMID:24913677

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  2. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), or any other drugs.tell your doctor ... taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

  3. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), or any other drugs.tell your doctor and ... taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

  4. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  5. Phosphoinositide metabolism and adrenergic receptors in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; de Vellis, J.

    1986-03-01

    Agonist-induced phosphoinositide (PI) breakdown functions as a signal generating system. Diacylglycerol, one breakdown product of phosphotidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate hydrolysis, can stimulate protein kinase C, whereas inositol triphosphate, the other product, has been proposed to be a second messenger for Ca/sup + +/ mobilization. Using purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat brain, the effects of adrenergic agonists and antagonists at 10/sup -5/ M were measured on PI breakdown. Astrocytes grown in culture were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, and basal (/sup 3/H) inositol phosphate (IP/sub 1/) accumulation was measured in the presence of Li/sup +/. Epinephrine > norepinephrine (NE) were the most active stimulants of IP/sub 1/ production. The ..cap alpha../sub 1/ adrenoreceptor blockers, phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine, added alone had no effect on IP/sub 1/ production was reduced below basal levels. Propranolol partially blocked the effects of NE. Clonidine and isoproterenol, separately added, reduced IP/sub 1/ below basal levels and when added together diminished IP/sub 1/ accumulation even further. The role of adrenergic stimulation in the production of c-AMP.

  6. Stimulus-response coupling in platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of stimulus-response coupling in platelets, the potentiating effect of succinate and lithium on platelet activation was examined. The action of succinate was immediate; preincubation with succinate did not lead to desensitization. Succinate was comparable to ADP in lowering cAMP levels previously elevated by PGl/sub 2/. Since inhibition of cAMP is not a prerequisite for platelet activation, the mechanism of potentiation of succinate remains undefined. Lithium has also been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase in PGl/sub 2/-pretreated platelets. Lithium, however, can also inhibit inositol phosphate (InsP) phosphatase and lead to an accumulation of InsP. In human platelets, lithium also enhanced the thrombin-induced accumulation of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labelled inositol trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/), and inositol bisphosphate (InsP/sub 2/). One hour after thrombin addition, all 3 inositol phosphates returned to near basal levels. In the presence of lithium, while labelled InsP/sub 2/ and InsP/sub 3/ returned to their respective basal levels, the InsP level remained elevated, consistent with the known inhibitory effect of lithium on InsP phosphatase. In thrombin-stimulated platelets prelabeled with (/sup 32/P)phosphate, lithium led to a decrease in labelled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) as well as an enhanced production of labelled lysophosphatidylinositol, suggesting multiple effects of lithium on platelet phosphoinositide metabolism. These observed effects, however, occurred too slowly to be the mechanism by which lithium potentiated agonist-induced platelet activation. To study the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of the specific, high affinity thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, on thrombin-induced accumulation of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labelled inositol phosphates was studied.

  7. Regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats: effects of follicle-stimulating hormone and fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, S.M.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Many hormones elicit effects on target cells by stimulating the enzyme phospholipase-C, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides to the intracellular second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates. The present study examined the roles of FSH and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) in regulating the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides in Sertoli cells. Sertoli cell cultures prepared from 16- to 18-day-old rats were incubated for 24 h with myo-(2-3H) inositol to label endogenous phospholipids. Treatment of cells from 0.5-20 min with preparations of ovine FSH ranging in potency from 1-60 times that of NIH FSH S1 did not affect accumulation of inositol phosphates. Levels of total (3H)inositol phosphates ((3H)inositol mono-, di-, and triphosphates (IP, IP2, and IP3)) in FSH-treated cultures was 75-120% the levels in control cultures over the various time intervals studied. Addition of testosterone and the combination of testosterone plus retinoic acid, agents that have been shown to potentiate effects of FSH in other systems, did not affect accumulation of inositol phosphates in response to FSH. In contrast to the lack of effect on accumulation of inositol phosphates, FSH stimulated 4- to 11-fold increases in estradiol secretion over 24 h of culture, indicating that Sertoli cells were viable and responsive to FSH. AIF4- has been shown to activate G-proteins involved in regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, AIF4- induced 4- to 5-fold increases in IP, IP2, and IP3 in experiments wherein FSH had no effect. Pretreatment of Sertoli cells with pertussis toxin (100 and 1000 ng/ml) for 24 h inhibited fluoride-induced generation of IP, IP2, and IP3 by 24-51%. Similar treatment with cholera toxin had no effect on basal or fluoride-induced generation of IP2 or IP3, but increased fluoride-induced generation of IP by 20-34%.

  8. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-15

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. PMID:26862212

  9. Phosphate sources and their suitability for remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Knox, A S; Kaplan, D I; Paller, M H

    2006-03-15

    Phosphate minerals and specifically apatite show promise for environmental cleanup because they can form stable compounds with a wide range of cationic contaminants. However, phosphate minerals naturally accumulate some heavy metals that may cause additional contamination of the environment if used improperly. Nine commercially available phosphate materials were evaluated for remediation of contaminated soil based on solubility, concentration of metal/metalloid impurities, and leachability of impurity metal/metalloids. The phosphate materials consisted of three groups: processed (i.e., fertilizers), mined (rock phosphates from different formations), and biogenic (ground fish bone). Processed and mined rock phosphates contained relatively high total concentrations of As, Co, Cr, and Cu but did not exceed the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Biogenic apatite contained much lower metal concentrations than processed and mined rock phosphate and was appreciably more soluble. By combining biogenic and mined phosphate it is possible to obtain a wide range of phosphate release rates, permitting rapid immobilization of contaminants while providing a slow release of phosphate for continued long-term treatment. PMID:16150478

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  11. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  12. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T. )

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with (3H)inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers.

  13. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  14. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris. PMID:25797155

  15. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  16. Photochemical behavior of organic phosphate esters in aqueous solutions irradiated with a mercury lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Seiichi; Eguchi, Yoshio; Kido, Kozo ); Uchimura, Yutaka; Baba, Kenzo )

    1992-09-01

    Pollution by toxic chemicals that are resistant to biological degradation and have a potential for accumulation in biological organisms is becoming a world-wide problem. Organic phosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as plasticizers, industrial hydraulic fluids, and lubricant additives. Various OPEs have been detected in environmental samples and in industrial and domestic wastewaters. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is known as an effective treatment for persistent chemicals in natural water or wastewater. Therefore, in order to develop a means of removal of OPEs in water, some fundamental experiments with UV irradiation were performed with a mercury lamp, and photochemical behaviors and photodecomposition products were examined for 7 OPEs, namely tributyl phosphate(TBP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), trioctyl phosphate (TOP), tris(dichloropropyl) phosphate (CRP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tricresyl phosphate (TCP). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Biosynthesis of Dolichyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, H. Esteban; Daleo, Gustavo R.; Romero, Pedro A.; Lezica, Rafael Pont

    1978-01-01

    This is the first report not only on the presence of polyprenyl phosphates and their site of synthesis in algae, but also on the formation of their sugar derivatives in this system. A glucose acceptor lipid was isolated from the nonphotosynthetic alga Prototheca zopfii. The lipid was acidic and resistant to mild acid and alkaline treatments. The glucosylated lipid was labile to mild acid hydrolysis and resistant to phenol treatment and catalytic hydrogenation, as dolichyl phosphate glucose is. These results are consistent with the properties of an α-saturated polyprenyl phosphate. The polyprenylic nature of the lipid was confirmed by biosynthesis from radioactive mevalonate. The [14C]lipid had the same chromatographic properties as dolichyl phosphate in DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex LH-20. Strong alkaline treatment and enzymic hydrolysis liberated free alcohols with chain lengths ranging from C90 to C105, C95 and C100 being the most abundant molecular forms. The glucose acceptor activity of the biosynthesized polyprenyl phosphate was confirmed. The ability of different subcellular fractions to synthesize dolichyl phosphate was studied. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus were the sites of dolichyl phosphate synthesis from mevalonate. PMID:16660269

  18. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  19. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  20. Modelling of calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, Lazaro Juan

    This work is a contribution to a large scale joint experimental and theoretical effort to understand the biological properties of silicon doped calcium phosphates undertaken by Queen's University and Millenium Biologix Corp. We have modeled calcium phosphates and silicon doped calcium phosphates in close relation to experiment in order to study possible location of silicon in the lattice. Density functional theory has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties of small systems of calcium phosphates to gain preliminary information on phosphates and the performance of the theoretical methods. The same methods were used to investigate structural and electronic properties of larger scale calcium phosphate systems, while a classical shell model was developed to investigate the dynamical properties of such large and complex systems. In the context of the shell model a method was devised to calculate the dynamical matrix corrected for the long range Coulomb interaction in the long wave length limit. It was necessary also to develop a theoretical expression for the dielectric function in the context of the shell model. Infrared spectra and thermal parameters were calculated based on these methods. We also propose some directions for future research.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Achari, A; Marshall, S E; Muirhead, H; Palmieri, R H; Noltmann, E A

    1981-06-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) is a dimeric enzyme of molecular mass 132000 which catalyses the interconversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from pig muscle has been determined at a nominal resolution of 2.6 A. The structure is of the alpha/beta type. Each subunit consists of two domains and the active site is in both the domain interface and the subunit interface (P.J. Shaw & H. Muirhead (1976), FEBS Lett. 65, 50-55). Each subunit contains 13 methionine residues so that cyanogen bromide cleavage will produce 14 fragments, most of which have been identified and at least partly purified. Sequence information is given for about one-third of the molecule from 5 cyanogen bromide fragments. One of the sequences includes a modified lysine residue. Modification of this residue leads to a parallel loss of enzymatic activity. A tentative fit of two of the peptides to the electron density map has been made. It seems possible that glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase all contain a histidine and a glutamate residue at the active site. PMID:6115414

  2. Phosphoinositides metabolism in primary culture of dog thyroid cells: Effects of thyrotropin and carbachol

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M.; Field, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) and carbachol stimulated in a dose-dependent manner the accumulation of 3H-glycerophosphoinositol (GPI), 3H-inositol monophosphate (IP1), 3H-inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and 3H-inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in primary cultures of dog thyroid cells prelabeled with myo-(2-3H)inositol. TSH, 250 mU/mL, stimulated 3H-IP3 level after a 10-minute incubation while 10 mU/mL TSH increased it during a 60-minute incubation. The effect of carbachol was more rapid and greater than that of TSH. Carbachol, 100 mumol/L, elevated 3H-IP3 after a 2-minute incubation and 3H-IP3 formation was increased by as little as 1 mumol/L carbachol. TSH stimulation was observed only if the cells were deprived of TSH for 5 days before being labeled with 3H-inositol. Prolongation of the labeling period or addition of TSH, (Bu)2cAMP or carbachol during the labeling increased 3H-inositol incorporation into polyphoinositides (PIPs). When the cells were labeled without any other addition, control and TSH-stimulated 3H-IP3 levels increased in parallel with 3H-PIP levels. However, TSH or carbachol-stimulated 3H-IP3 levels did not increase in proportion to 3H-PIPs level when the cells were labeled with TSH or (Bu)2cAMP. Thus, the ratio of 3H-IP3/3H-PIPs (both control and TSH or carbachol-stimulated) decreased in the cells labeled with TSH or (Bu)2cAMP, which might reflect TSH stimulation of 3H-inositol incorporation into PIPs pool(s) that do not participate in hormone-induced hydrolysis of PIPs.

  3. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  5. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays. The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspora, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore ("burley" clay). The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality. The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore host

  6. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  7. Inositol metabolism in WRK-1 cells. Relationship of hormone-sensitive to -insensitive pools of phosphoinositides

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, M.E.

    1987-09-25

    Previous studies have indicated the existence of two separate pools of phosphoinositides in WRK-1 cells; one is labile and hormone-sensitive with respect to turnover, while the other is stable. Hormonal stimulation results in a rapid increase in /sup 32/Pi incorporation into the sensitive pool, while in the absence of hormone, incorporation of /sup 32/Pi into this pool is slow. Results are quite different when (/sup 3/H)inositol is the precursor utilized. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)inositol into hormone-sensitive phosphoinositides is not stimulated in the presence of hormone, suggesting entry of this exogenous precursor into the cycle by a route other than the resynthetic phase of the cycle. Furthermore, failure of hormone to induce loss of (/sup 3/H)phosphoinositide in pulse-chase experiments in the absence of lithium suggests reutilization of the (/sup 3/H)inositol moiety generated by phosphodiesteratic cleavage of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide. Time course studies indicate that the relative rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)inositol into sensitive and insensitive phosphoinositide remain constant from 2 to 24 h. Several factors are capable of increasing (/sup 3/H)inositol incorporation into hormone-insensitive phosphoinositide including vasopressin, calcium ionophores, and manganese. On the other hand, vasopressin treatment appears to decrease incorporation of (/sup 3/H)inositol into the hormone-sensitive pool, probably by shifting the equilibrium between phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates, since the decrease in radioactivity observed in the phosphoinositides is equaled by the increase observed in that in the inositol phosphates.

  8. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  9. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  10. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  11. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR QUANTITATING SPHINGOID BASE 1-PHOSPHATES IN BLOOD SPOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red blood cells (RBC) accumulate, store and release sphingoid base 1-phosphates,important ligands for the extracellular receptors S1P1-5. The ability of RBC to accumulate these bioactive lipids is because, with the exception of sphingosine kinase, the enzymes responsible for metabolizing sphingosine...

  13. Review of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Reema, Sharma Dhar; Lahiri, Prateek Kumar; Roy, Shantanu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is a bioactive agent with a base of milk products, which has been formulated from two parts: casein phosphopeptides (CPP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). CPP was produced from milk protein casein and has a remarkable ability to stabilize calcium phosphate in solution and to substantially increase the level of calcium phosphate in dental plaque. CPP-ACP buffers the free calcium and phosphate ion activities, thereby helping to maintain a state of supersaturation with respect to tooth enamel, reducing demineralisation and promoting remineralisation. The free calcium and phosphate ions move out of the CPP, enter the enamel rods and reform onto apatite crystals. Laboratory, animal and human studies have shown that CPP-ACP inhibits cariogenic activity. CPP-ACP is useful in the treatment of white spot lesions, hypomineralised enamel, mild fluorosis, tooth sensitivity and erosion, and prevents plaque accumulation around brackets and other orthodontic appliances. CPP-ACP also facilitates a normal post-eruptive maturation process and is ideal for protecting primary teeth at a time when oral care is difficult. CPP-ACP has commercial potential as an additive to foods, soft drinks and chewing gum, as well as additive to toothpastes and mouthwashes to control dental caries. PMID:25028684

  14. Atypical Polyphosphate Accumulation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Polyphosphate accumulation by Paracoccus denitrificans was examined under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. Polyphosphate synthesis by this denitrifier took place with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor and in the presence of an external carbon source. Cells were capable of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis, but no polyphosphate was produced when PHB-rich cells were incubated under anoxic conditions in the absence of an external carbon source. By comparison of these findings to those with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms thought to be responsible for phosphate removal in activated sludge systems, it is concluded that P. denitrificans is capable of combined phosphate and nitrate removal without the need for alternating anaerobic/aerobic or anaerobic/anoxic switches. Studies on additional denitrifying isolates from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor suggested that polyphosphate accumulation is widespread among denitrifiers. PMID:10698794

  15. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  16. The effects of temperature and salinity on phosphate levels in two euryhaline crustacean species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaargaren, D. H.; Richard, P.; Ceccaldi, H. J.

    Total phoshate, inorganic phosphate and organic (phospholipid) phosphate concentrations were determined in the blood of Carcinus maenas and in whole-animal homogenates of Penaeus japonicus acclimatized to various salinities and a high or a low temperature. In the blood of Carcinus, total and inorganic P concentrations range between 1.0 and 4.5 mmol · l -1; the amount of phospholipids is negligeable. The higher values were found at more extreme salinities. Low temperature is associated with low phosphate concentrations, particularly at intermediate salinities. Total P concentrations in Penaeus homogenates range between 10 and 60 mmol · 1 -1; phospholipid concentrations range between zero and 50 mmol · 1 -1. The higher values are again found at the extreme salinities. Inorganic P concentrations are almost constant — ca 10 mmol · 1 -1. No apparent effect of temperature on phosphate concentrations was observed. The results show clearly that osmotic stress influences severely the phosphate metabolism of the two species studied. Both species are able to accumulate phosphate at all experimental temperature/salinity combinations used, even when deprived of food. At extreme salinities, large quantities of phosphate are accumulated and converted to organic P compounds, most likely as phospholipids associated with the cell membranes. These effects of osmotic conditions in phosphate metabolism may offer an explanation for the effect of Ca ++ on membrane permeability as the regulation of both ions may be strongly interrelated, often under hormonal control.

  17. Phosphonomethyl analogues of hexose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Webster, D; Jondorf, W R; Dixon, H B

    1976-05-01

    The analogue of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in which the phosphate group, -O-PO3H2, on C-6 is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, -CH2-PO3H2, was made enzymically from the corresponding analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate. It was a substrate for aldolase, which was used to form it, but not for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. It was hydrolysed chemically to yield the corresponding analogue of fructose 6-phosphate [i.e. 6-deoxy-6-(phosphonomethyl)-D-fructose, or, more strictly, 6,7-dideoxy-7-phosphono-D-arabino-2-heptulose]. This proved to be a substrate for the sequential actions of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Thus seven out of the nine enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways so far tested catalyse the reactions of the phosphonomethyl isosteres of their substrates. PMID:7247

  18. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Karen; Evans, Todd; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin. In vertebrates, S1P is secreted into the extracellular environment and signals via G protein-coupled S1P receptors to regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, and thereby influence cell migration, differentiation and survival. The expression and localization of S1P receptors is dynamically regulated and controls vascular development, vessel stability and immune cell trafficking. In addition, crucial events during embryogenesis, such as angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, limb development and neurogenesis, are regulated by S1P signalling. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of S1P signalling in development and in disease. PMID:24346695

  19. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  20. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  1. The rice CK2 kinase regulates trafficking of phosphate transporters in response to phosphate levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieyu; Wang, Yifeng; Wang, Fei; Yang, Jian; Gao, Mingxing; Li, Changying; Liu, Yingyao; Liu, Yu; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng; Paz-Ares, Javier; Nussaume, Laurent; Zhang, Shuqun; Yi, Keke; Wu, Zhongchang; Wu, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Phosphate transporters (PTs) mediate phosphorus uptake and are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In one key mechanism of posttranslational regulation, phosphorylation of PTs affects their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. However, the kinase(s) mediating PT phosphorylation and the mechanism leading to ER retention of phosphorylated PTs remain unclear. In this study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa) kinase subunit, CK2β3, which interacts with PT2 and PT8 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Also, the CK2α3/β3 holoenzyme phosphorylates PT8 under phosphate-sufficient conditions. This phosphorylation inhibited the interaction of PT8 with PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER TRAFFIC FACILITATOR1, a key cofactor regulating the exit of PTs from the ER to the plasma membrane. Additionally, phosphorus starvation promoted CK2β3 degradation, relieving the negative regulation of PT phosphorus-insufficient conditions. In accordance, transgenic expression of a nonphosphorylatable version of OsPT8 resulted in elevated levels of that protein at the plasma membrane and enhanced phosphorus accumulation and plant growth under various phosphorus regimes. Taken together, these results indicate that CK2α3/β3 negatively regulates PTs and phosphorus status regulates CK2α3/β3. PMID:25724641

  2. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  3. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  4. The pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. Enzyme profiles and transient and steady-state content of intermediates of alternative pathways of glucose metabolism in Krebs ascites cells

    PubMed Central

    Gumaa, K. A.; McLean, Patricia

    1969-01-01

    1. The pentose phosphate pathway in Krebs ascites cells was investigated for regulatory reactions. For comparison, the glycolytic pathway was studied simultaneously. 2. Activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes were low in contrast with those of the enzymes of glycolysis. The Km values of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase for both substrate and cofactor were about four times the reported upper limit for the enzyme from normal tissues. Fructose 1,6-diphosphate and NADPH competitively inhibited 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. 3. About 28% of the hexokinase activity was in the particulate fraction of the cells. The soluble enzyme was inhibited by fructose 1,6-diphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate, but not by 3-phosphoglycerate. The behaviour of the partially purified soluble enzyme in vitro in a system simulating the concentrations of ATP, glucose 6-phosphate and Pi found in vivo is reported. 4. Kinetics of metabolite accumulation during the transient state after the addition of glucose to the cells indicated two phases of glucose phosphorylation, an initial rapid phase followed abruptly by a slow phase extending into the steady state. 5. Of the pentose phosphate pathway intermediates, accumulation of 6-phosphogluconate, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate paralleled the accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate. Erythrose 4-phosphate reached the steady-state concentration by 2min., whereas the pentose phosphates accumulated linearly. 6. The mass-action ratios of the pentose phosphate pathway reactions were calculated. The transketolase reaction was at equilibrium by 30sec. and then progressively shifted away from equilibrium towards the steady-state ratio. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was far from equilibrium at all times. 7. Investigation of the flux of [14C]glucose carbon confirmed the existence of an operative pentose phosphate pathway in ascites cells, contributing 1% of the total flux in control cells and 10% in cells treated with

  5. Elemental analysis of Egyptian phosphate fertilizer components.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M; El-Dine, N Walley; El-Shershaby, A; Sroor, A

    2004-03-01

    The accumulation of certain elements in vitally important media such as water, soil, and food is undesirable from the medical point of view. It is clear that the fertilizers vary widely in their heavy metals and uranium content. A shielded high purity germanium HPGe detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K activities in the phosphate fertilizer and its components collected from Abu-Zaabal fertilizers and chemical industries in Egypt. The concentration ranges were 134.97-681.11 Bq kg(-1), 125.23-239.26 Bq kg(-1), and 446.11-882.45 Bq kg(-1) for 238U, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The absorbed dose rate and external hazard index were found to be from 177.14 to 445.90 nGy h(-1) and 1.03 to 2.71 nGy y(-1), respectively. The concentrations of 22 elements (Be, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ba) in the samples under investigation were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results for the input raw materials (rock phosphate, limestone and sulfur) and the output product as final fertilizer are presented and discussed. PMID:14982231

  6. Environmental monitoring of the role of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of lead in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi S; Chung, Jae Woo; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2011-08-01

    Lead is a highly toxic element and forms stable compounds with phosphate, which is commonly used to immobilize Pb in soils. However, few studies have monitored the long-term stability of immobilized Pb, which is a critical factor in determining the effectiveness of the in situ stabilization technique. Both soluble and insoluble phosphate compounds were tested for Pb immobilization, and its subsequent mobility and bioavailability in a contaminated soil from a shooting range. Adding tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, rock phosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate reduced the concentration of ammonium-nitrate-extractable Pb in the contaminated soil by 78.6%, 48.3%, 40.5% and 80.1%, respectively. Insoluble phosphate amendments significantly reduced leached Pb concentration from the column while soluble potassium dihydrogen phosphate compound increased P and Pb concentrations in the leachate. Rock phosphate reduced Pb accumulation in earthworms by 21.9% compared to earthworms in the control treatment. The long-term stability of immobilized Pb was evaluated after 2 years' incubation of the contaminated soil with rock phosphate or soluble phosphate compounds. Bioavailable Pb concentration as measured by simple bioavailability extraction test (SBET) showed the long-term stability of immobilized Pb by P amendments. Therefore, Pb immobilization using phosphate compounds is an effective remediation technique for Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:21748178

  7. Influence of phosphate on toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic in a soil isolate of microalga Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the toxicity, biotransformation and bioaccumulation of arsenite and arsenate in a soil microalga, Chlorella sp., were investigated using different phosphate levels. The results indicated that arsenate was highly toxic than arsenite to the alga, and the phosphate limitation in growth media greatly enhanced arsenate toxicity. The uptake of arsenate in algal cells was more than that of arsenite, and the predominant species in the growth media was arsenate after 8 days of exposure to arsenite or arsenate, indicating arsenite oxidation by this microalga. Arsenate reduction was also observed when the alga was incubated in a phosphate-limiting growth medium. Similar to the process of biotransformation, the alga accumulated more arsenic when it was exposed to arsenate and preferably more in a phosphate-limiting condition. Although phosphate significantly influences the biotransformation and bioaccumulation of arsenic, the oxidizing ability and higher accumulation capacity of this alga have great potential for its application in arsenic bioremediation. PMID:26438364

  8. Redfield revisited, 1, Regulation of nitrate, phosphate, and oxygen in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2000-03-01

    (negative) improve regulation toward the Redfield ratios. Variants of the model are forced with a global record of phosphorus accumulation in biogenic sediments as a proxy for changes in phosphate input to the ocean over the past 40 Myr. Nitrate is generally regulated close to Redfield ratio to phosphate, despite large changes in phosphorus input. If nitrogen fixation is strongly limited, then there is one interval (˜15 Myr ago) when a very rapid increase in phosphate input forces phosphate above Redfield ratio to nitrate. Decreases in phosphorus input cause phosphate and nitrate to quickly deviate below Redfield ratio with oxygen, removing anoxia from the ocean, while increases in phosphorus input rapidly increase anoxia. Hence we conclude that there appears to be an element of chance in observing today's ocean "on the edge of anoxia" with nitrate, phosphate, and oxygen all close to the Redfield ratios.

  9. Ethanol effects on rat brain phosphoinositide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in acidic phospholipids in brain plasma and synaptic plasma membranes upon chronic ethanol administration was observed. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in an increase in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into the acidic phospholipids in synaptosomes. Postdecapitative ischemic treatment resulted rapid degradation of poly-PI in rat brain. However, there was a rapid appearance of IP{sub 2} in ethanol group which indicated a more rapid turnover of IP{sub 3} in the ethanol-treated rats. Carbachol stimulated accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in brain slices and synaptosomes. Carbachol-stimulated release of IP and IP{sub 2} was calcium dependent and was inhibited by EGTA and atropine. Adenosine triphosphates and 1 mM further enhanced carbachol-induced formation of IP and IP{sub 2}, but showed an increase and a decrease in IP{sub 3} at 1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Guanosine triphosphate at 0.1 mM did not change in labeled IP, but there was a significant increase in labeled IP{sub 2} and decrease in IP{sub 3}. Mn and CMP greatly enhanced incorporation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol into PI, but not into poly-PI labeling in brain synaptosomes. Incubation of brain synaptosomes resulted in a Ca{sup 2+}, time-dependent release of labeled IP. However, the pool of PI labeled through this pathway is not susceptible to carbachol stimulation. When saponin permeabilized synaptosomal preparations were incubated with ({sup 3}H)-inositol-PI or ({sup 14}C)-arachidonoyl-PI, ATP enhanced the formation of labeled IP and DG.

  10. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  11. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  12. Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C.; Gibbs, S.G.; Winston, J.W.

    2008-07-01

    The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal devise

  13. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polyprenyl phosphates.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Meredith D; Larkin, Angelyn; Imperiali, Barbara

    2008-05-01

    Polyprenyl phosphates, including undecaprenyl phosphate and dolichyl phosphate, are essential intermediates in several important biochemical pathways including N-linked protein glycosylation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and prokaryotic cell wall biosynthesis. Herein, we describe the evaluation of three potential undecaprenol kinases as agents for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of polyprenyl phosphates. Target enzymes were expressed in crude cell envelope fractions and quantified via the use of luminescent lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs). The Streptococcus mutans diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) was shown to be a very useful agent for polyprenol phosphorylation using ATP as the phosphoryl transfer agent. In addition, the S. mutans DGK can be coupled with two Campylobacter jejuni glycosyltransferases involved in N-linked glycosylation to efficiently biosynthesize the undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked disaccharide needed for studies of PglB, the C. jejuni oligosaccharyl transferase. PMID:18374576

  14. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate...

  18. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  19. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  20. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  1. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  2. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  3. Phosphocitrate inhibits mitochondrial and cytosolic accumulation of calcium in kidney cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tew, W P; Malis, C D; Howard, J E; Lehninger, A L

    1981-09-01

    Synthetic 3-phosphocitrate, an extremely potent inhibitor of calcium phosphate crystallization as determined in a nonbiological physical-chemical assay, has many similarities to a mitochondrial factor that inhibits crystallization of nondiffracting amorphous calcium phosphate. In order to determine whether phosphocitrate can prevent uptake and crystallization of calcium phosphate in mitochondria in vivo, it was administered intraperitoneally to animals given large daily doses of calcium gluconate or parathyroid hormone, a regimen that causes massive accumulation and crystallization of calcium phosphate in the mitochondria and cytosol of renal tubule cells in vivo. Administration of phosphocitrate greatly reduced the net uptake of Ca2+ by the kidneys and prevented the appearance of apatite-like crystalline structures within the mitochondrial matrix and cytosol of renal tubule cells. Phosphocitrate, which is a poor chelator of Ca2+, did not reduce the hypercalcemia induced by either agent. These in vivo observations therefore indicate that phosphocitrate acts primarily at the cellular level to prevent the extensive accumulation of calcium phosphate in kidney cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial accumulation or crystallization of calcium phosphate. PMID:6946490

  4. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-01-01

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. PMID:2451504

  5. Change in creep behavior of plexiform bone with phosphate ion treatment.

    PubMed

    Regimbal, R L; DePaula, C Alex; Guzelsu, N

    2003-01-01

    The effect of phosphate ions on the mechanical properties of plexiform bone in tension was investigated with an in-vitro model. Bone samples were treated with saline and phosphate ion solutions for three days at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C and tested in tension. The mechanical properties of the bone samples treated with phosphate were not different than controls (saline treated). Electro kinetic measurements on plexiform bone particles treated with phosphate ions at 37 degrees C showed that phosphate ions alter electro kinetic potentials of bone particles by interacting with bone mineral as compare to saline treated particles near physiological pH. Because of the limited diffusion properties of intact plexiform bone tissue, the tension experiments indicate that, the effect of phosphate ions on the bone mineral-matrix interface is negligible after three days treatment. On the other hand, electro kinetic measurements demonstrated that in a short period of treatment time, phosphate ions diffuse through organic matrix barrier and interact with bone mineral when plexiform bone is in the particle form. As a final experiments bone samples were tested at 37 degrees C in three point bending configuration for three days in saline and phosphate buffer solution. The maximum tension stress generated in bending samples was about 75 percent of the tension yield stress of the samples. The creep experiments showed that the bending rigidity of bone samples tested in phosphate solution reduced in time hence the creep deformation increased compare to control samples tested in saline. This observation is attributed to the acceleration of phosphate ion diffusion into the bending samples due to micro cracks accumulation in bone tissue during the creep experiments which facilitated the phosphate ion interaction with bone mineral. PMID:12652019

  6. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Srinivasan, Manali R; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium phosphate as a bone substitute in periapical surgery. PMID:20142892

  7. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-06-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25580878

  8. Late Cretaceous multicolored shales and phosphatic sedimentary rocks in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.R.; Garrison, R.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper Cretaceous transitional fluvial to marine variegated shale (upper Nubia Formation) and the fully marine Duwi (phosphate) Formation occur as thin, widespread, shallow-marine deposits in an east-west-trending belt spanning the lower-middle latitudes of Egypt. On a larger scale, the phosphoritic rocks in Egypt represent but a small portion of a laterally extensive Middle Eastern-North African phosphogenic province of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary age that accounts for accumulation of minable marine phosphate in excess of 70 billion tons. Phosphorites, porcelanites/cherts, organic carbon-rich shales, glauconitic sandstones, and bioclastic and fine-grained carbonate rocks variously reflect major hemipelagic and shallow-water carbonate sedimentation. Biosiliceous hemipelagic deposits, now diagenetically altered to procelanite and chert, reflect low energy depositional conditions that were periodically interrupted by high energy, possibly storm-induced currents and/or down-slope redeposition. Both dark shales and porcelanites locally contain abundant organic matter and are commonly finely laminated. Porcelanites and black shales are phosphatic, containing phosphatic grains identical, morphologically and chemically, to those found in associated phosphorites, and are probably the source from which the phosphorites were derived. The organic carbon-rich shales of the Duwi Formation appear to be quite laterally extensive and may, depending on thermal maturity, represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks in other portions of the region (e.g., Western Desert, Gulf of Suez), where they are more deeply buried.

  9. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

  10. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

  11. Ligand binding and internalization by the rat hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor does not generate polyphosphoinositide derived second messengers

    SciTech Connect

    Medh, J.D.; Haynes, P.A.; Weigel, P.H.; LaBelle, E.F. )

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the effects of asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) on the hydrolysis of ({sup 32}P)-inositol phospholipids in isolated rat hepatocytes. When internalization of ASOR is maximal at 310 molecules/cell/sec, there is neither a decrease in the amount of ({sup 32}P)-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) not an increase in ({sup 32}P)-phosphatidic acid (PA) up to 30 min after stimulation. On the other hand, 10-{sup 6}M vasopressin, which was used as a positive control, caused a 35-40% decrease in the level of ({sup 32}P)-PIP{sub 2} and a 70-80% increase in ({sup 32}P)-PA within 30 sec. Addition of orosomucoid or ASOR, even at concentrations 1000-times the K{sub d}, did not change the levels of any of the six phospholipids tested. Similarly, addition of ASOR did not increase the levels of soluble ({sup 3}H)-inositol phosphates, whereas vasopressin caused a 6-fold increase in ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1,4-diphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and a 4-fold increase in ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) in isolated rat hepatocytes prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)-inositol.

  12. Agonist-induced desensitization of histamine H1 receptor-mediated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    McCreath, G; Hall, I P; Hill, S J

    1994-01-01

    1. The regulation of histamine-induced [3H]-inositol phosphate formation was studied in human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 2. Histamine (EC50 4.8 microM) produced a 12.7 fold increase in [3H]-inositol phosphate formation over basal levels. Prior exposure to 0.1 mM histamine (2 h) produced a 78% reduction in the response to subsequent histamine (0.1 mM) challenge. The IC50 for this histamine-induced desensitization was 0.9 microM. 3. The inositol phosphate response to histamine (0.1 mM) was inhibited by phorbol dibutyrate (IC50 40 nM; maximal reduction 64%). This effect was antagonized by both staurosporine (100 nM) and Ro 31-8220 (10 microM). However, the histamine-induced desensitization of the H1-receptor-mediated inositol phosphate response was insensitive to the protein kinase inhibitors, staurosporine, Ro 31-8220, K252a and KN62. 4. Prior exposure to sodium nitroprusside (100 microM), forskolin (10 microM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM) had no effect upon histamine-induced [3H]-inositol phosphate formation. 5. NaF (20 mM) and thrombin (EC50 0.4 u ml-1) also induced inositol phosphate formation in HUVEC. Histamine pretreatment (0.1 mM, 10-120 min) failed to modify the inositol phosphate response to a subsequent NaF or thrombin challenge. 6. We conclude that the desensitization of histamine H1-receptor-mediated [3H]-inositol phosphate formation occurs at the level of the receptor and involves a mechanism independent of activation of protein kinase A, G, or C, or calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. PMID:7858873

  13. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with 29Si and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca2+ concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca2+ and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation.

  15. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with (29)Si and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca(2+) concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca(2+) and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation. PMID:26559965

  16. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23. PMID:26813504

  17. Nrf2-driven TERT regulates pentose phosphate pathway in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, F; Dixit, D; Sharma, V; Kumar, A; Joshi, S D; Sarkar, C; Sen, E

    2016-01-01

    Given the involvement of telomerase activation and dysregulated metabolism in glioma progression, the connection between these two critical players was investigated. Pharmacological inhibition of human Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by Costunolide induced glioma cell apoptosis in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Costunolide induced an ROS-dependent increase in p53 abrogated telomerase activity. Costunolide decreased Nrf2 level; and ectopic Nrf2 expression decreased Costunolide-induced ROS generation. While TERT knock-down abrogated Nrf2 levels, overexpression of Nrf2 increased TERT expression. Inhibition of hTERT either by Costunolide, or by siRNA or dominant-negative hTERT (DN-hTERT) abrogated (i) expression of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and Transketolase (TKT) – two major nodes in the pentose phosphate (PPP) pathway; and (ii) phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS). hTERT knock-down decreased TKT activity and increased glycogen accumulation. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated knock-down of TKT elevated glycogen accumulation. Coherent with the in vitro findings, Costunolide reduced tumor burden in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. Costunolide-treated tumors exhibited diminished TKT activity, heightened glycogen accumulation, and increased senescence. Importantly, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient tumors bearing TERT promoter mutations (C228T and C250T) known to be associated with increased telomerase activity; exhibited elevated Nrf2 and TKT expression and decreased glycogen accumulation. Taken together, our findings highlight the previously unknown (i) role of telomerase in the regulation of PPP and glycogen accumulation and (ii) the involvement of Nrf2-TERT loop in maintaining oxidative defense responses in glioma cells. PMID:27148686

  18. Nrf2-driven TERT regulates pentose phosphate pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, F; Dixit, D; Sharma, V; Kumar, A; Joshi, S D; Sarkar, C; Sen, E

    2016-01-01

    Given the involvement of telomerase activation and dysregulated metabolism in glioma progression, the connection between these two critical players was investigated. Pharmacological inhibition of human Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by Costunolide induced glioma cell apoptosis in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Costunolide induced an ROS-dependent increase in p53 abrogated telomerase activity. Costunolide decreased Nrf2 level; and ectopic Nrf2 expression decreased Costunolide-induced ROS generation. While TERT knock-down abrogated Nrf2 levels, overexpression of Nrf2 increased TERT expression. Inhibition of hTERT either by Costunolide, or by siRNA or dominant-negative hTERT (DN-hTERT) abrogated (i) expression of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and Transketolase (TKT) - two major nodes in the pentose phosphate (PPP) pathway; and (ii) phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS). hTERT knock-down decreased TKT activity and increased glycogen accumulation. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated knock-down of TKT elevated glycogen accumulation. Coherent with the in vitro findings, Costunolide reduced tumor burden in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. Costunolide-treated tumors exhibited diminished TKT activity, heightened glycogen accumulation, and increased senescence. Importantly, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient tumors bearing TERT promoter mutations (C228T and C250T) known to be associated with increased telomerase activity; exhibited elevated Nrf2 and TKT expression and decreased glycogen accumulation. Taken together, our findings highlight the previously unknown (i) role of telomerase in the regulation of PPP and glycogen accumulation and (ii) the involvement of Nrf2-TERT loop in maintaining oxidative defense responses in glioma cells. PMID:27148686

  19. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  20. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  2. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  3. Long-Sought Vacuolar Phosphate Transporters Identified.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Marcel; Fabiańska, Izabela

    2016-06-01

    The vacuole is an important subcellular compartment that serves as main phosphate storage in plants among other functions. Three recent studies shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms for vacuolar phosphate transport that had long remained unknown. PMID:27160805

  4. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white...

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  17. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  5. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. IRON NUTRITION INFLUENCE ON CADMIUM ACCUMULATION BY ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) HEYNH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine whether Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, a putative Fe-efficient species, accumulated higher concentrations of Cd from a sparingly soluble Cd source (cadmium dihydrogen phosphate) when growing in Fe-deficient rather than in Fe-su...

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate regulate phagolysosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Andreas; Zehethofer, Nicole; Lindner, Buko; Krupp, Jessica; Schwudke, Dominik; Haneburger, Ina; Jovic, Marko; Backer, Jonathan M.; Balla, Tamas; Hilbi, Hubert; Haas, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Professional phagocytic cells ingest microbial intruders by engulfing them into phagosomes, which subsequently mature into microbicidal phagolysosomes. Phagosome maturation requires sequential fusion of the phagosome with early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Although various phosphoinositides (PIPs) have been detected on phagosomes, it remained unclear which PIPs actually govern phagosome maturation. Here, we analyzed the involvement of PIPs in fusion of phagosomes with various endocytic compartments and identified phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P], phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P], and the lipid kinases that generate these PIPs, as mediators of phagosome–lysosome fusion. Phagosome–early endosome fusion required PI(3)P, yet did not depend on PI(4)P. Thus, PI(3)P regulates phagosome maturation at early and late stages, whereas PI(4)P is selectively required late in the pathway. PMID:25825728

  1. Geology and phosphate resources of the Hawley Creek area, Lemhi County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberlindacher, Peter; Hovland, Robert David

    1979-01-01

    Phosphate resources occur within the Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the Hawley Creek area, near Leadore, in east-central Idaho. About 12 square miles (31 km2 ) of the Retort Member and enclosing rocks were mapped at a scale of 1:12,000 to evaluate the leasable Federal mineral resources. The Retort has an average thickness of 73 feet (22.3 m) and 12.9 linear miles (20.8 linear km) of outcrop within the area mapped. Rock samples taken from a bulldozer trench were analyzed for phosphate content and for minor trace elements. Analyses show a cumulative thickness of 8.7 feet ( 2.7 m) of medium-grade phosphate rock ( 24 to 31 percent P2O5) and 33.4 feet (10.2 m) of low-grade phosphate rock (16 to 24 percent P2O5). Minor elements in the Retort include uranium, vanadium, fluorine, cadmium, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and rare earths. These minor elements are potential byproducts of any future phosphate production in the Hawley Creek area. In addition, analyses of six phosphate rock samples taken from a prospect trench show a cumulative thickness of 14.9 ft (4.5 m) at 17.6 percent P2O5. Indicated phosphate resources are calculated for phosphate beds under less than 600 feet (183.0 m) of overburden. Approximately 36.5 feet (11.1 m), representing 50 percent of the total Retort Member, were measured in trench CP-71. There are 80.42 million short tons (72.96 million metric tons) of medium-grade phosphate rock, and 308.76 million short tons ( 280.10 million metric tons) of low-grade phosphate rock in the Retort Member within the map area. Because the thickness and grade of the phosphate beds for each block are based on the recovered section from CP-71, the calculated phosphate resource estimates represent a minimum. Other mineral resources in the area are thorium (35 ppm) in a Precambrian (?) granite body located immediately west of the Hawley Creek area; oil and gas accumulations may occur beneath the Medicine Lodge thrust system

  2. [Regulatory mechanism of circulating inorganic phosphate].

    PubMed

    Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-02-01

    Circulating level of phosphate is altered by age and diet, and is also controlled by several hormones such as parathyroid hormone(PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]and fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23). The main function of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D is maintaining calcium homeostasis, while FGF23 plays a central role in phosphate metabolism. PTH suppresses phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubules to increase the renal phosphate wasting, while 1,25(OH)2D facilitates the intestinal phosphate absorption. FGF23 increases the renal phosphate wasting and reduces the production of 1,25(OH)2D. Of note, these hormones mutually regulate one another. The production of FGF23 is also regulated by various local factors. The mechanism for sensing the phosphate availability still remains unknown, and further investigation is required. PMID:26813498

  3. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  4. Calcium phosphate in catheter encrustation.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; Harries, J E; Hukins, D W; Kennedy, A P; Sutton, T M

    1987-02-01

    Encrusted catheters from nine female patients were the source of samples of deposits which were examined by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In eight samples the only crystalline phase which could be clearly distinguished by X-ray diffraction was ammonium magnesium orthophosphate hexahydrate, NH4MgPO4 X 6H2O, which occurs naturally as the mineral struvite. However, atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed an appreciable concentration of calcium in all samples. Calcium phosphates have previously been detected in catheter deposits. Infra-red and EXAFS spectra were consistent with the calcium phosphate being present as a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite. Thus the deposits appear to consist of a mixture of crystalline struvite and a form of hydroxyapatite which is not fully crystalline. PMID:3030487

  5. About Calcium Phosphate Cements (CPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñera, Silvia; Piña, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are used in orthopaedic surgery as bone substitution and fixation of metallic implants, showing advantages with respect to other materials like polymeric cements or ceramic blocks also used for bone repair. For example, they are easy to shape and fill bone defects, react at low temperature and their setting product is hydroxyapatite, mineral from it's composed the inorganic part of the bone, resulting a bioabsorbable material that can be replaced by new bone. Nevertheless there are still some complications like their low absorption rate, inyectability, setting times and their low strength that limits their use to only non load bearing applications. In this work we present a brief resume of some investigations that has been proposed to solve some of these problems, like the addition of phosphates solutions or seeds to increase the reaction rate, or fibers and hard particles to produce a composite material.

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. PMID:27040960

  7. Identification of plant vacuolar transporters mediating phosphate storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tzu-Yin; Huang, Teng-Kuei; Yang, Shu-Yi; Hong, Yu-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wang, Fu-Nien; Chiang, Su-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lu, Wen-Chien; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Plant vacuoles serve as the primary intracellular compartments for inorganic phosphate (Pi) storage. Passage of Pi across vacuolar membranes plays a critical role in buffering the cytoplasmic Pi level against fluctuations of external Pi and metabolic activities. Here we demonstrate that the SPX-MFS proteins, designated as PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 5 family (PHT5), also named Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter (VPT), function as vacuolar Pi transporters. Based on 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Arabidopsis pht5;1 loss-of-function mutants accumulate less Pi and exhibit a lower vacuolar-to-cytoplasmic Pi ratio than controls. Conversely, overexpression of PHT5 leads to massive Pi sequestration into vacuoles and altered regulation of Pi starvation-responsive genes. Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression of the rice homologue OsSPX-MFS1 mediates Pi influx to yeast vacuoles. Our findings show that a group of Pi transporters in vacuolar membranes regulate cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis and are required for fitness and plant growth. PMID:27029856

  8. Identification of plant vacuolar transporters mediating phosphate storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Yin; Huang, Teng-Kuei; Yang, Shu-Yi; Hong, Yu-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wang, Fu-Nien; Chiang, Su-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lu, Wen-Chien; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Plant vacuoles serve as the primary intracellular compartments for inorganic phosphate (Pi) storage. Passage of Pi across vacuolar membranes plays a critical role in buffering the cytoplasmic Pi level against fluctuations of external Pi and metabolic activities. Here we demonstrate that the SPX-MFS proteins, designated as PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 5 family (PHT5), also named Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter (VPT), function as vacuolar Pi transporters. Based on (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Arabidopsis pht5;1 loss-of-function mutants accumulate less Pi and exhibit a lower vacuolar-to-cytoplasmic Pi ratio than controls. Conversely, overexpression of PHT5 leads to massive Pi sequestration into vacuoles and altered regulation of Pi starvation-responsive genes. Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression of the rice homologue OsSPX-MFS1 mediates Pi influx to yeast vacuoles. Our findings show that a group of Pi transporters in vacuolar membranes regulate cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis and are required for fitness and plant growth. PMID:27029856

  9. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. PMID:24984987

  10. Chloride- and alkali-containing calcium phosphates as basic materials to prepare calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O; Boltong, M G; Driessens, F C; Ginebra, M P; Fernández, E; Planell, J A

    1994-10-01

    Combinations of an alkali-containing calcium phosphate-like rhenanite, sodium whitlockite or calcium potassium phosphate and a chloride-containing calcium phosphate-like spodiosite or chloroapatite with or without additions of other calcium phosphates like monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, dicalcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate were made and mixed with water into pastes. The setting time of these pastes was determined. After soaking for a day in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength were determined. Two of the combinations tried in this study resulted in the formation of cements at room temperature. One cement was of the type dicalcium phosphate, whereas the other gave octocalcium phosphate as the solid reaction product. The byproducts formed were an aqueous solution of NaCl and one of K2HPO4, respectively. Applications for bone repair and augmentation are envisaged. PMID:7841290

  11. The Rice CK2 Kinase Regulates Trafficking of Phosphate Transporters in Response to Phosphate Levels[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieyu; Wang, Yifeng; Wang, Fei; Yang, Jian; Gao, Mingxing; Li, Changying; Liu, Yingyao; Liu, Yu; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng; Paz-Ares, Javier; Nussaume, Laurent; Zhang, Shuqun; Yi, Keke; Wu, Zhongchang; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate transporters (PTs) mediate phosphorus uptake and are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In one key mechanism of posttranslational regulation, phosphorylation of PTs affects their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. However, the kinase(s) mediating PT phosphorylation and the mechanism leading to ER retention of phosphorylated PTs remain unclear. In this study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa) kinase subunit, CK2β3, which interacts with PT2 and PT8 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Also, the CK2α3/β3 holoenzyme phosphorylates PT8 under phosphate-sufficient conditions. This phosphorylation inhibited the interaction of PT8 with PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER TRAFFIC FACILITATOR1, a key cofactor regulating the exit of PTs from the ER to the plasma membrane. Additionally, phosphorus starvation promoted CK2β3 degradation, relieving the negative regulation of PT phosphorus-insufficient conditions. In accordance, transgenic expression of a nonphosphorylatable version of OsPT8 resulted in elevated levels of that protein at the plasma membrane and enhanced phosphorus accumulation and plant growth under various phosphorus regimes. Taken together, these results indicate that CK2α3/β3 negatively regulates PTs and phosphorus status regulates CK2α3/β3. PMID:25724641

  12. New compatible solutes related to Di-myo-inositol-phosphate in members of the order Thermotogales.

    PubMed Central

    Martins, L O; Carreto, L S; Da Costa, M S; Santos, H

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of intracellular organic solutes was examined in six species of the order Thermotogales by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The newly discovered compounds di-2-O-beta-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate and di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate were identified in Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana. In the latter species, at the optimum temperature and salinity the organic solute pool was composed of di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate, beta-glutamate, and alpha-glutamate in addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate and di-2-O-beta-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate. The concentrations of the last two solutes increased dramatically at supraoptimal growth temperatures, whereas beta-glutamate increased mainly in response to a salinity stress. Nevertheless, di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate was the major compatible solute at salinities above the optimum for growth. The amino acids alpha-glutamate and proline were identified under optimum growth conditions in Thermosipho africanus, and beta-mannosylglycerate, trehalose, and glycine betaine were detected in Petrotoga miotherma. Organic solutes were not detected, under optimum growth conditions, in Thermotoga thermarum and Fervidobacterium islandicum, which have a low salt requirement or none. PMID:8824608

  13. Thermostabilization of proteins by diglycerol phosphate, a new compatible solute from the hyperthermophile Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    PubMed

    Lamosa, P; Burke, A; Peist, R; Huber, R; Liu, M Y; Silva, G; Rodrigues-Pousada, C; LeGall, J; Maycock, C; Santos, H

    2000-05-01

    Diglycerol phosphate accumulates under salt stress in the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus (L. O. Martins, R. Huber, H. Huber, K. O. Stetter, M. S. da Costa, and H. Santos, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:896-902, 1997). This solute was purified after extraction from the cell biomass. In addition, the optically active and the optically inactive (racemic) forms of the compound were synthesized, and the ability of the solute to act as a protecting agent against heating was tested on several proteins derived from mesophilic or hyperthermophilic sources. Diglycerol phosphate exerted a considerable stabilizing effect against heat inactivation of rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase, baker's yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, and Thermococcus litoralis glutamate dehydrogenase. Highly homologous and structurally well-characterized rubredoxins from Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774), and Clostridium pasteurianum were also examined for their thermal stabilities in the presence or absence of diglycerol phosphate, glycerol, and inorganic phosphate. These proteins showed different intrinsic thermostabilities, with half-lives in the range of 30 to 100 min. Diglycerol phosphate exerted a strong protecting effect, with approximately a fourfold increase in the half-lives for the loss of the visible spectra of D. gigas and C. pasteurianum rubredoxins. In contrast, the stability of D. desulfuricans rubredoxin was not affected. These different behaviors are discussed in the light of the known structural features of rubredoxins. The data show that diglycerol phosphate is a potentially useful protein stabilizer in biotechnological applications. PMID:10788369

  14. [Denitrifying and phosphorus accumulating mechanisms of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) for wastewater treatment--a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongting; Li, Min

    2015-03-01

    Eutrophication has raised increasing concerns due to its adverse effects on creatures. It is widely accepted that microbes are capable of removing nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) via denitrification and P accumulation. So far, several strains can do this work. Therefore, more studies are focused on looking for micro-organisms that have both denitrification and P accumulation ability. Whether exposed to aerobic or anaerobic environment, microbial N and P removal mechanisms differ. Proton Motive Force and Electron Acceptor Theory are involved in the chemical process, whereas denitrifying enzymes polyphosphate kinases are regarded as the leading participators in the enzymatic systems. Studies have shown the influences of N on P accumulation, but further investigation should identify the influences of P on N removal. Here we reviewed the aspects of N and P removal mechanisms in denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and their potential to remove N and P from water system. Moreover, future works on clarifying denitrifying phosphorus accumulating mechanisms in depth and improving efficiency of removing N and P by DPAOs are provided. PMID:26065268

  15. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26554016

  16. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-11-24

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26554016

  17. The effects of acute exposure to ethanol on neurotensin and guanine nucleotide-stimulation of phospholipase C activity in intact NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Both ethanol and neurotensin produce sedation and hypothermia. When administered in combination the behavioral effects of these two substances are potentiated. In order to better understand the biochemical nature of this interaction, the direct effects of ethanol on neurotensin receptors and an associated signal transduction process were determined in NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol in physiologically relevant concentrations significantly reduced neurotensin stimulated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production while having no effect on the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)neurotensin. In addition, ethanol up to 200 mM had no effect on GTPYS mediated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production. The results indicate that acute exposure ethanol partially disrupts the normal coupling of activated neurotensin receptors to the guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with phospholipase C.

  18. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  19. Mechanisms of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata. Uptake Kinetics, Interactions with Phosphate, and Arsenic Speciation1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junru; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Meharg, Andrew A.; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; McGrath, Steve P.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms of arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata, the first identified As hyperaccumulator, are unknown. We investigated the interactions of arsenate and phosphate on the uptake and distribution of As and phosphorus (P), and As speciation in P. vittata. In an 18-d hydroponic experiment with varying concentrations of arsenate and phosphate, P. vittata accumulated As in the fronds up to 27,000 mg As kg−1 dry weight, and the frond As to root As concentration ratio varied between 1.3 and 6.7. Increasing phosphate supply decreased As uptake markedly, with the effect being greater on root As concentration than on shoot As concentration. Increasing arsenate supply decreased the P concentration in the roots, but not in the fronds. Presence of phosphate in the uptake solution decreased arsenate influx markedly, whereas P starvation for 8 d increased the maximum net influx by 2.5-fold. The rate of arsenite uptake was 10% of that for arsenate in the absence of phosphate. Neither P starvation nor the presence of phosphate affected arsenite uptake. Within 8 h, 50% to 78% of the As taken up was distributed to the fronds, with a higher translocation efficiency for arsenite than for arsenate. In fronds, 49% to 94% of the As was extracted with a phosphate buffer (pH 5.6). Speciation analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy showed that >85% of the extracted As was in the form of arsenite, and the remaining mostly as arsenate. We conclude that arsenate is taken up by P. vittata via the phosphate transporters, reduced to arsenite, and sequestered in the fronds primarily as As(III). PMID:12428020

  20. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  1. Phosphate-limited culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, J C; Aladegbami, S L; Vela, G R

    1979-01-01

    Batch cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii grown in phosphate-deficient media were compared with control cultures grown in phosphate-sufficient media. Phosphate limitation was assessed by total cell yield and by growth kinetics. Although cell protein, nucleic acids, and early growth rate were unaffected by phosphate deficiency, cell wall structure, oxygen uptake, and cell viability were significantly affected. Also, phosphate-limited cells contained much larger amounts of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid but lower adenylate nucleotide energy charge than did control cells. The ratio of adenosine 5'-triphosphate to adenosine 5'-diphosphate was much lower in phosphate-deficient cells. The data indicate a substrate saving choice of three metabolic pathways available to this organism under different growth conditions. Images PMID:457614

  2. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  3. Phosphate removal in oxygen minimum zones off Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoll, Sarah; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Holtappels, Moritz; Goldhammer, Tobias; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2013-04-01

    The flux of limiting nutrients (N, P, Si and Fe) to the surface ocean controls phytoplankton growth and species composition. Shelf and margin sediments release considerable amounts of nutrients into the bottom water from which they are eventually transported to surface waters. However not well understood is how the flux of phosphate (P) across the benthic boundary layer (BBL) is controlled by geochemical and biologically mediated processes such as redox reaction, chelation, particle formation, sorption and desorption to organic and inorganic particles. P transformation between the dissolved and the particulate phase significantly influences the P distribution in the water column and, for example, might lead to the significant P accumulation observed for anoxic bottom waters of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Namibia. To investigate P accumulation on particles in the water column under oxic and anoxic conditions we conducted isotope labeling experiments during two cruises in 2011 to the OMZs of Mauritania and Namibia. We applied radioactive tracer (33PO43) incubations, sequential P extraction and nanoSIMS analyses to measure particulate P formation rates and to discriminate between biotic and abiotic accumulation. Under oxic conditions, formation rates of particulate P ranged between 3.1 and 29.7 nmol P L-1 d-1 and increased in the BBL towards the seafloor. Sequential P extraction revealed that 34-67% of phosphate was taken up into biomass. Calculated cellular uptake rates of ~0.24 to 29 x 10-18 mol cell-1 d-1 were significantly above those calculated from oxygen consumption and Redfield ratio suggesting intracellular P storage. In contrast, in near anoxic bottom waters (

  4. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-08-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2,4-diphosphates and aldohexose-2,4,6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2,4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2,4,6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 µm; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2,4,-diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2,4,6-phosphates.

  5. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Ishima, Yuya; Takenaka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  6. Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    LC, Chow

    2009-01-01

    It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials. PMID:19280963

  7. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  8. A Constitutive Expressed Phosphate Transporter, OsPht1;1, Modulates Phosphate Uptake and Translocation in Phosphate-Replete Rice1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shubin; Gu, Mian; Cao, Yue; Huang, Xinpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Ai, Penghui; Zhao, Jianning; Fan, Xiaorong; Xu, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    A number of phosphate (Pi) starvation- or mycorrhiza-regulated Pi transporters belonging to the Pht1 family have been functionally characterized in several plant species, whereas functions of the Pi transporters that are not regulated by changes in Pi supply are lacking. In this study, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) Pht1;1 (OsPT1), one of the 13 Pht1 Pi transporters in rice, was expressed abundantly and constitutively in various cell types of both roots and shoots. OsPT1 was able to complement the proton-coupled Pi transporter activities in a yeast mutant defective in Pi uptake. Transgenic plants of OsPT1 overexpression lines and RNA interference knockdown lines contained significantly higher and lower phosphorus concentrations, respectively, compared with the wild-type control in Pi-sufficient shoots. These responses of the transgenic plants to Pi supply were further confirmed by the changes in depolarization of root cell membrane potential, root hair occurrence, 33P uptake rate and transportation, as well as phosphorus accumulation in young leaves at Pi-sufficient levels. Furthermore, OsPT1 expression was strongly enhanced by the mutation of Phosphate Overaccumulator2 (OsPHO2) but not by Phosphate Starvation Response2, indicating that OsPT1 is involved in the OsPHO2-regulated Pi pathway. These results indicate that OsPT1 is a key member of the Pht1 family involved in Pi uptake and translocation in rice under Pi-replete conditions. PMID:22649273

  9. Phosphate transporters and their function.

    PubMed

    Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Forster, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Plasma phosphate concentration is maintained within a relatively narrow range by control of renal reabsorption of filtered inorganic phosphate (P(i)). P(i) reabsorption is a transcellular process that occurs along the proximal tubule. P(i) flux at the apical (luminal) brush border membrane represents the rate-limiting step and is mediated by three Na(+)-dependent P(i) cotransporters (members of the SLC34 and SLC20 families). The putative proteins responsible for basolateral P(i) flux have not been identified. The transport mechanism of the two kidney-specific SLC34 proteins (NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc) and of the ubiquitously expressed SLC20 protein (PiT-2) has been studied by heterologous expression to reveal important differences in kinetics, stoichiometry, and substrate specificity. Studies on the regulation of the abundance of the respective proteins highlight significant differences in the temporal responses to various hormonal and nonhormonal factors that can influence P(i) homeostasis. The phenotypes of mice deficient in NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc indicate that NaPi-IIa is responsible for most P(i) renal reabsorption. In contrast, in the human kidney, NaPi-IIc appears to have a relatively greater role. The physiological relevance of PiT-2 to P(i) reabsorption remains to be elucidated. PMID:23398154

  10. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene. PMID:27175935

  11. The SLC37 Family of Sugar-Phosphate/Phosphate Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Janice Y.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The SLC37 family members are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated sugar-phosphate/phosphate (Pi) exchangers. Three of the four members, SLC37A1, SLC37A2, and SLC37A4, function as Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters catalyzing G6P:Pi and Pi:Pi exchanges. The activity of SLC37A3 is unknown. SLC37A4, better known as the G6P transporter (G6PT), has been extensively characterized, functionally and structurally, and is the best characterized family member. G6PT contains 10 transmembrane helices with both N and C termini facing the cytoplasm. The primary in vivo function of the G6PT protein is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen where it couples with either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-β (or G6PC3) to hydrolyze G6P to glucose and Pi. The G6PT/G6Pase-α complex maintains interprandial glucose homeostasis, and the G6PT/G6Pase-β complex maintains neutro-phil energy homeostasis and functionality. G6PT is highly selective for G6P and is competitively inhibited by cholorogenic acid and its derivatives. Neither SLC37A1 nor SLC37A2 can couple functionally with G6Pase-α or G6Pase-β, and the antiporter activities of SLC37A1 or SLC37A2 are not inhibited by cholorogenic acid. Deficiencies in G6PT cause glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), a metabolic and immune disorder. To date, 91 separate SLC37A4 mutations, including 39 missense mutations, have been identified in GSD-Ib patients. Characterization of missense mutations has yielded valuable information on functionally important residues in the G6PT protein. The biological roles of the other SLC37 proteins remain to be determined and deficiencies have not yet been correlated to diseases. PMID:24745989

  12. Serotonergic agonists stimulate inositol lipid metabolism in rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schaechter, M.; Godfrey, P.P.; Minchin, M.C.W.; McClue, S.J.; Young, M.M.

    1985-10-28

    The metabolism of inositol phospholipids in response to serotonergic agonists was investigated in rabbit platelets. In platelets prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)-inositol, in a medium containing 10 mM LiCl which blocks the enzyme inositol-1-phosphatase, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) caused a dose-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP). This suggests a phospholipase-C-mediated breakdown of phosphoinositides. Ketanserin, a selective 5-HT/sub 2/ antagonist, was a potent inhibitor of the 5-HT response, with a Ki of 28 nM, indicating that 5-HT is activating receptors of the 5-HT/sub 2/ type in the platelet. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and quipazine also caused dose-related increases in inositol phosphate levels, though these were considerably less than those produced by 5-HT. These results show that relatively small changes in phosphoinositide metabolism induced by serotonergic agonists can be investigated in the rabbit platelet, and this cell may therefore be a useful model for the study of some 5-HT receptors. 30 references, 4 figures.

  13. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Eric M; Wang, Jianmin; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan; Yan, Wengui; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Deng, Baolin

    2015-08-01

    Effects of soil-arsenic (As), phosphorus and iron oxide on As accumulation in rice grain were investigated. Cultivars that have significantly different sensitivity to As, straighthead-resistant Zhe 733 and straighthead-susceptible Cocodrie, were used to represent different cultivar varieties. The grain accumulation of other elements of concern, selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) was also monitored. Results demonstrated that high soil-As not only resulted in high grain-As, but could also result in high grain-Se, and Zhe 733 had significantly less grain-As than Cocodrie did. However, soil-As did not impact grain-Mo and Cd. Among all elements monitored, iron oxide amendment significantly reduced grain-As for both cultivars, while the phosphate application only reduced grain-Se for Zhe 733. Results also indicated that cultivar type significantly impacted grain accumulation of all monitored trace elements. Therefore, applying iron oxide to As-contaminated land, in addition to choosing appropriate rice cultivar, can effectively reduce the grain accumulation of As. PMID:25910688

  14. Deciphering the Genome of Polyphosphate Accumulating Actinobacterium Microlunatus phosphovorus

    PubMed Central

    Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Nakazawa, Hidekazu; Fukada, Junji; Sasagawa, Machi; Katano, Yoko; Nakamura, Sanae; Hosoyama, Akira; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Shuji; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) belong mostly to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria and are quite divergent. Under aerobic conditions, they accumulate intracellular polyphosphate (polyP), while they typically synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under anaerobic conditions. Many ecological, physiological, and genomic analyses have been performed with proteobacterial PAOs, but few with actinobacterial PAOs. In this study, the whole genome sequence of an actinobacterial PAO, Microlunatus phosphovorus NM-1T (NBRC 101784T), was determined. The number of genes for polyP metabolism was greater in M. phosphovorus than in other actinobacteria; it possesses genes for four polyP kinases (ppks), two polyP-dependent glucokinases (ppgks), and three phosphate transporters (pits). In contrast, it harbours only a single ppx gene for exopolyphosphatase, although two copies of ppx are generally present in other actinobacteria. Furthermore, M. phosphovorus lacks the phaABC genes for PHA synthesis and the actP gene encoding an acetate/H+ symporter, both of which play crucial roles in anaerobic PHA accumulation in proteobacterial PAOs. Thus, while the general features of M. phosphovorus regarding aerobic polyP accumulation are similar to those of proteobacterial PAOs, its anaerobic polyP use and PHA synthesis appear to be different. PMID:22923697

  15. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phospholipase C and phosphomonoesterase in Dunaliella salina membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.; Peeler, T.C.; Thompson, G.A. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    In comparison with other cell organelles, the Dunaliella salina plasma membrane was found to be highly enriched in phospholipase C activity toward exogenous ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Based on release of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates, the plasma membrane exhibited a PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C activity nearly tenfold higher than the nonplasmalemmal, nonchloroplast bottom phase (BP) membrane fraction and 47 times higher than the chloroplast membrane fraction. The majority of phospholipase activity was clearly of a phospholipase C nature since over 80% of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates released were recovered as ({sup 3}H)inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). These results suggest a plausible mechanism for the rapid breakdown of PIP{sub 2} and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) following hypoosmotic shock. The authors have also examined some of the in vitro characteristics of the plasma membrane phospholipase C activity and have found it to be calcium sensitive, reaching maximal activity at 10 micromolar free (Ca{sup 2+}). They also report here that 100 micromolar GTP{gamma}S stimulates phospholipase C activity over a range of free (Ca{sup 2+}). Together, these results provide evidence that the plasma membrane PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C of D. salina may be subject to Ca{sup 2+} and G-protein regulation.

  17. IN VIVO BIODISTRIBUTION AND ACCUMULATION OF 89Zr IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Abou, D.S.; Ku, T.; Smith-Jones, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present investigation focuses on the chemical and biological fate of 89Zr in mice. Electrophoreses of 89Zr solvated or chelated in different conditions are here presented. The biological fate of mice injected with [89Zr]Zr-oxalate, [89Zr]Zr-chloride, [89Zr]Zr-phosphate, [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine and [89Zr]Zr-citrate is studied with the biodistribution, the clearances and PET images. A special focus is also given regarding the quality of 89Zr bone accumulation. Methods Electrophoreses were carried out on chromatography paper and read by gamma counting. Then, the solutions were intravenously injected in mice, imaged at different time points and sacrificed. The bones, the epiphysis and the marrow substance were separated and evaluated with gamma counts. Results The clearances of [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate reached 20% of ID after 6 days whereas [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was only 5% of ID. [89Zr]Zr-citrate and [89Zr]Zr-DFO were noticeably excreted after the first day p.i.. [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate resulted in a respective bone uptake of ~15% ID/g and~20% ID/g at 8 h p.i. with minor losses after 6 days. [89Zr]Zr-citrate bone uptake was also observed, but [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was absorbed in high amounts in the liver and the spleen. The marrow cells were insignificantly radioactive in comparison to the calcified tissues. Conclusion Despite the complexity of Zr coordination, the electrophoretic analyses provided detailed evidences of Zr charges either as salts or as complexes. This study also shows that weakly chelated, 89Zr is a bone seeker and has a strong affinity for phosphate. PMID:21718943

  18. Isolation and characterization of a mutant defective in triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-09-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG), a major source of biodiesel production, accumulates in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, the metabolic pathway of starch-to-TAG conversion remains elusive because an enzyme that affects the starch degradation is unknown. Here, we isolated a new class of mutant bgal1, which expressed an overaccumulation of starch granules and defective photosynthetic growth. The bgal1 was a null mutant of a previously uncharacterized β-galactosidase-like gene (Cre02.g119700), which decreased total β-galactosidase activity 40% of the wild type. Upon nitrogen starvation, the bgal1 mutant showed decreased TAG accumulation mainly due to the reduced flux of de novo TAG biosynthesis evidenced by increased unsaturation of fatty acid composition in TAG and reduced TAG accumulation by additional supplementation of acetate to the culture media. Metabolomic analysis of the bgal1 mutant showed significantly reduced levels of metabolites following the hydrolysis of starch and substrates for TAG accumulation, whereas metabolites in TCA cycle were unaffected. Upon nitrogen starvation, while levels of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA remained lower, most of the other metabolites in glycolysis were increased but those in the TCA cycle were decreased, supporting TAG accumulation. We suggest that BGAL1 may be involved in the degradation of starch, which affects TAG accumulation in nitrogen-starved C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27060488

  19. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  20. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  1. Effects of Phosphate on Arsenate Uptake and Translocation in Nonmetallicolous and Metallicolous Populations of Pteris Vittata L. Under Solution Culture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Deng, Dan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L., is common in nature and could occur either on As-contaminated soils or on uncontaminated soils. However, it is not clear whether phosphate transporter play similar roles in As uptake and translocation in nonmetallicolous and metallicolous populations of P. vittata. Five populations were used to investigate effects of phosphate on arsenate uptake and translocation in the plants growing in 1.2 L 20% modified Hoagland's nutrient solution containing either 100 μM phosphate or no phosphate and 10 μM arsenate for 1, 2, 6, 12, 24 h, respectively. The results showed that the nonmetallicolous populations accumulated apparently more As in their fronds and roots than the metallicolous populations at both P supply levels. Phosphate significantly (P < 0.01) decreased frond and root concentrations of As during short time solution culture. In addition, the effects of phosphate on As translocation in P. vittata varied among different time-points during time-course hydroponics (1-24 h). The present results indicated that the inhibitory effect of phosphate on arsenate uptake was larger in the three nonmetallicolous populations than those in the two metallicolous populations of P. vittata. PMID:26083716

  2. The interaction of phosphate coatings on a carbon steel surface with a sodium nitrite and silicate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanauskas, R.; Girčienė, O.; Gudavičiūtė, L.; Selskis, A.

    2015-02-01

    Mono-cation PZn, bi-cation PZnCa, PZnNi and three-cation PZnNiMn crystalline phosphate coatings were modified with an inhibitor mixture: a sodium nitrite and sodium silicate solution with the aim to establish the reasons of protective ability enhancement of passive films on a carbon steel surface in an alkaline media. The SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS techniques were applied for the structural, phase and composition characterization of the phosphate coatings, voltammetric measurements were carried out to determine the passive layer protective ability, while EIS studies yielded information on the coatings porosity. Compact films of Si compounds were formed on the surface of the phosphate coatings during their modification procedure, which was accompanied by an increase in the protective ability of phosphate layer. A higher porosity and regularly shaped crystallites of the phosphate layer were favourable for accumulation of a greater amount of Si in the modified coatings. The protective ability of the modified coatings remains fairly pronounced, which testifies that the phosphate layer porosity is not the only factor influencing the corrosion behaviour of the coating. The difference in the nature of Si compounds comprising modified phosphate coatings leads to the differences in their protective ability.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate....

  5. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  6. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  7. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  8. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements of this section allowance is made for the added monocalcium phosphate. ... label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for flour by § 137.105, except that: (a) Monocalcium phosphate is added in a quantity not less than 0.25 percent and not more than 0.75 percent of the weight...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6290 Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium...

  10. Drug-pyridoxal phosphate interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, M; Gessert, C F; Al-Sayegh, A

    1982-01-01

    phosphate. Some interesting relationships are pointed out between vitamin B6, picolinic acid, and zinc. It is postulated that the intestinal absorption of zinc is facilitated by picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan. The derivation of picolinic acid from tryptophan depends on the action of the enzyme kynureninase, which is dependent on pyridoxal phosphate; therefore, the adequate absorption of zinc is indirectly dependent on an adequate supply of vitamin B6. The formation of pyridoxal phosphate, on the other hand, appears to be indirectly dependent on Zn2++ which activates pyridoxal kinase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6087425

  11. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  12. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, T.

    1988-03-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

  13. The role of photorespiration during astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhui; Zhang, Litao; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Most previous studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. However, the relationships between photorespiration and astaxanthin accumulation have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of photorespiration during the process of astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis. During astaxanthin accumulation, the astaxanthin content was reduced significantly when photorespiration was inhibited by its specific inhibitor, carboxymethoxylamine. The inhibition of photorespiration did not change the dry weight, chlorophyll content and OJIP transients during the incubation; however, the inhibition of photorespiration significantly decreased the photochemistry of photosystem II and total photosynthetic O2 evolution capacity. Moreover, the restriction in photorespiration was synchronized with a decrease of astaxanthin accumulation. These results suggest that the photorespiratory pathway in H. pluvialis can accelerate astaxanthin accumulation. We speculate that photorespiration can enhance astaxanthin accumulation in the following ways: (i) photorespiration directly affects the glycerate-3-phosphate (PGA) level, which is intrinsically related to the accumulation of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis; (ii) the photorespiratory pathway indirectly affects the PGA level by effecting the dark reactions of photosynthesis, which then results in the enhancement of astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis. PMID:27258571

  14. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  15. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  16. Inhibition of Phosphate Uptake in Corn Roots by Aluminum-Fluoride Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Façanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Okorokova-Façanha, Anna L.

    2002-01-01

    F forms stable complexes with Al at conditions found in the soil. Fluoroaluminate complexes (AlFx) have been widely described as effective analogs of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in Pi-binding sites of several proteins. In this work, we explored the possibility that the phytotoxicity of AlFx reflects their activity as Pi analogs. For this purpose, 32P-labeled phosphate uptake by excised roots and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity were investigated in an Al-tolerant variety of maize (Zea mays L. var. dwarf hybrid), either treated or not with AlFx. In vitro, AlFx competitively inhibited the rate of root phosphate uptake as well as the H+-ATPase activity. Conversely, pretreatment of seedlings with AlFx in vivo promoted no effect on the H+-ATPase activity, whereas a biphasic effect on Pi uptake by roots was observed. Although the initial rate of phosphate uptake by roots was inhibited by AlFx pretreatment, this situation changed over the following minutes as the rate of uptake increased and a pronounced stimulation in subsequent 32Pi uptake was observed. This kinetic behavior suggests a reversible and competitive inhibition of the phosphate transporter by fluoroaluminates. The stimulation of root 32Pi uptake induced by AlFx pretreatment was tentatively interpreted as a phosphate starvation response. This report places AlF3 and AlF4− among Al-phytotoxic species and suggests a mechanism of action where the accumulation of Pi-mimicking fluoroaluminates in the soil may affect the phosphate absorption by plants. The biochemical, physiological, and environmental significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:12177489

  17. The contribution of exopolysaccharides induced struvites accumulation to ammonium adsorption in aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y M; Bassin, J P; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-03-15

    Aerobic granular sludge from a lab-scale reactor with simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes exhibited significant amount of ammonium adsorption (1.5 mg NH4+-N/g TSS at an ammonium concentration of 30 mg N/L). Potassium release accompanied ammonium adsorption, indicating an ion exchange process. The existence of potassium magnesium phosphate (K-struvite) as one of potassium sources in the granular sludge was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Artificially prepared K-struvite was indeed shown to adsorb ammonium. Alginate-like exopolysaccharides were isolated and their inducement for struvite formation was investigated as well. Potassium magnesium phosphate proved to be a major factor for ammonium adsorption on the granular sludge. Struvites (potassium/ammonium magnesium phosphate) accumulate in aerobic granular sludge due to inducing of precipitation by alginate-like exopolysaccharides. PMID:22209260

  18. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  19. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  20. Post-adsorption process of Yb phosphate nano-particle formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, MingYu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Kamiishi, Eigo; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated the post-adsorption process of ytterbium (Yb) phosphate nano-particle formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The yeast grown in P-rich medium were exposed to 1.44 × 10-4 mol/L Yb(III) solution for 2-120 h, and 2 months at 25 ± 1 °C at an initial pH of 3, 4, or 5, respectively. Ytterbium concentrations in solutions decreased as a function of exposure time. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses revealed that nano-sized blocky Yb phosphate with an amorphous phase formed on the yeast cells surfaces in the solutions with Yb. These nano-sized precipitates that formed on the cell surfaces remained stable even after 2 months of exposure at 25 ± 1 °C around neutral pHs. The EXAFS data revealed that the chemical state of the accumulated Yb on the cell surfaces changed from the adsorption on both phosphate and carboxyl sites at 30 min to Yb phosphate precipitates at 5 days, indicating the Yb-phosphate precipitation as a major post-adsorption process. In addition, the precipitation of Yb phosphate occurred on cell surfaces during 7 days of exposure in Yb-free solution after 2 h of exposure (short-term Yb adsorption) in Yb solution. These results suggest that the released P from the inside of yeast cells reacted with adsorbed Yb on cell surfaces, resulting in the formation of Yb precipitates, even though no P was added to the exposure solution. In an abiotic system, the EXAFS data showed that the speciation of sorbed Yb on the reference materials, carboxymethyl cellulose and Ln resin, did not change even when the Yb was exposed to P solution, without forming Yb phosphate precipitates. This result strongly suggests that the cell surface of the yeast plays an important role in the Yb-phosphate precipitation process, not only as a carrier of the

  1. Lack of Control in Inorganic Phosphate Uptake by Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Cells (Cytoplasmic Inorganic Phosphate Homeostasis Depends on the Tonoplast Inorganic Phosphate Transport System?).

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, K.; Yazaki, Y.; Okihara, K.; Mimura, T.; Kiyota, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake by Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don cells was studied in relation to its apparent uncontrolled uptake using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Kinetics of Pi uptake by the cells indicated that apparent Km and Vm were about 7 [mu]M and 20 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight h-1, respectively. Pi uptake in Murashige-Skoog medium under different Pi concentrations and different initial cell densities followed basically the same kinetics. When supplied with abundant Pi, cells absorbed Pi at a constant rate (Vm) for the first hours and accumulated it in the vacuole. As the endogenous pool expanded, the rate of Pi uptake gradually decreased to nil. Maximum Pi accumulation was 100 to 120 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight if cell swelling during Pi uptake (about 2-fold in cell volume) was not considered. Results indicated that (a) the rate of Pi uptake by Catharanthus cells was independent of initial cell density and was constant over a wide range of Pi concentrations (2 mM to about 10 [mu]M) unless the cells were preloaded with excess Pi, and (b) there was no apparent feedback control over the Pi uptake process in the plasma membrane to avoid Pi toxicity. The importance of the tonoplast Pi transport system in cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis is discussed. PMID:12228474

  2. Acclimation of metabolism to light in A rabidopsis thaliana: the glucose 6‐phosphate/phosphate translocator GPT2 directs metabolic acclimation

    PubMed Central

    DYSON, BETH C.; ALLWOOD, J. WILLIAM; FEIL, REGINA; XU, YUN; MILLER, MATTHEW; BOWSHER, CAROLINE G.; GOODACRE, ROYSTON; LUNN, JOHN E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mature leaves of plants transferred from low to high light typically increase their photosynthetic capacity. In A rabidopsis thaliana, this dynamic acclimation requires expression of GPT2, a glucose 6‐phosphate/phosphate translocator. Here, we examine the impact of GPT2 on leaf metabolism and photosynthesis. Plants of wild type and of a GPT2 knockout (gpt2.2) grown under low light achieved the same photosynthetic rate despite having different metabolic and transcriptomic strategies. Immediately upon transfer to high light, gpt2.2 plants showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than wild‐type plants (35%); however, over subsequent days, wild‐type plants acclimated photosynthetic capacity, increasing the photosynthesis rate by 100% after 7 d. Wild‐type plants accumulated more starch than gpt2.2 plants throughout acclimation. We suggest that GPT2 activity results in the net import of glucose 6‐phosphate from cytosol to chloroplast, increasing starch synthesis. There was clear acclimation of metabolism, with short‐term changes typically being reversed as plants acclimated. Distinct responses to light were observed in wild‐type and gpt2.2 leaves. Significantly higher levels of sugar phosphates were observed in gpt2.2. We suggest that GPT2 alters the distribution of metabolites between compartments and that this plays an essential role in allowing the cell to interpret environmental signals. PMID:25474495

  3. Translocation of Assimilates and Phosphate in Detached Bean Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, O. A.; Glenn, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    14C-assimilates were accumulated by the veins in the blades and transported basipetally into the petioles of detached leaves of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Neither process was greatly affected by mild moisture stress, age of fully enlarged leaves, or period in the dark prior to exposure to 14CO2. However, both vein loading and transport into petioles were greatly reduced by oxygen deficiency. The basipetal transport of 32PO4 also did not appear to be greatly reduced by 6 or 8 days of darkness prior to the application of phosphate-32P, followed by a transport period of 1 day in the dark. Endothall at 5 × 10−3 m was effective in stopping basipetal flow of 32P. It is considered that transport in leaves may be powered by forces in the plasmodesmata of the cell walls between the border parenchyma and phloem. Images PMID:16656924

  4. Accumulation of d-glucose from pentoses by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Han, Qi; Costanzo, William V; Zhu, Yixuan; Urbauer, Jeffrey L; Eiteman, Mark A

    2015-05-15

    Escherichia coli that is unable to metabolize d-glucose (with knockouts in ptsG, manZ, and glk) accumulates a small amount of d-glucose (yield of about 0.01 g/g) during growth on the pentoses d-xylose or l-arabinose as a sole carbon source. Additional knockouts in the zwf and pfkA genes, encoding, respectively, d-glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and 6-phosphofructokinase I (E. coli MEC143), increased accumulation to greater than 1 g/liter d-glucose and 100 mg/liter d-mannose from 5 g/liter d-xylose or l-arabinose. Knockouts of other genes associated with interconversions of d-glucose-phosphates demonstrate that d-glucose is formed primarily by the dephosphorylation of d-glucose-6-phosphate. Under controlled batch conditions with 20 g/liter d-xylose, MEC143 generated 4.4 g/liter d-glucose and 0.6 g/liter d-mannose. The results establish a direct link between pentoses and hexoses and provide a novel strategy to increase carbon backbone length from five to six carbons by directing flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. PMID:25746993

  5. Accumulation of d-Glucose from Pentoses by Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Han, Qi; Costanzo, William V.; Zhu, Yixuan; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli that is unable to metabolize d-glucose (with knockouts in ptsG, manZ, and glk) accumulates a small amount of d-glucose (yield of about 0.01 g/g) during growth on the pentoses d-xylose or l-arabinose as a sole carbon source. Additional knockouts in the zwf and pfkA genes, encoding, respectively, d-glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and 6-phosphofructokinase I (E. coli MEC143), increased accumulation to greater than 1 g/liter d-glucose and 100 mg/liter d-mannose from 5 g/liter d-xylose or l-arabinose. Knockouts of other genes associated with interconversions of d-glucose-phosphates demonstrate that d-glucose is formed primarily by the dephosphorylation of d-glucose-6-phosphate. Under controlled batch conditions with 20 g/liter d-xylose, MEC143 generated 4.4 g/liter d-glucose and 0.6 g/liter d-mannose. The results establish a direct link between pentoses and hexoses and provide a novel strategy to increase carbon backbone length from five to six carbons by directing flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. PMID:25746993

  6. Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1968-01-01

    The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 μc per μmole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 μc per μmole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 mμmoles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 mμmoles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

  7. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  8. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  9. Distinct generation, pharmacology, and distribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate and dihydro-sphingosine 1-phosphate in human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Callihan, Phillip; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Stoeling, Michael V.; Kennedy, Perry C.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Riley, Ronald T.; Hooks, Shelley B.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies suggest a crucial role for Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the development of the nervous system. Dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (dhS1P), a reduced form of S1P, is an agonist at S1P receptors, but the pharmacology and physiology of dhS1P has not been widely studied. The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a potent inhibitor of ceramide synthases and causes selective accumulation of dihydrosphingosine and dhS1P. Recent studies suggest that maternal exposure to FB1 correlates with the development of neural tube defects (NTDs) in which the neural epithelial progenitor cell layers of the developing brain fail to fuse. We hypothesize that the altered balance of S1P and dhS1P in neural epithelial cells contributes to the developmental effects of FB1. The goal of this work was first to define the effect of FB1 exposure on levels of sphingosine and dh-sphingosine and their receptor active 1-phosphate metabolites in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural epithelial progenitor (hES-NEP) cells; and second, to define the relative activity of dhS1P and S1P in hES-NEP cells. We found that dhS1P is a more potent stimulator of inhibition of cAMP and Smad phosphorylation than is S1P in neural progenitors, and this difference in apparent potency may be due, in part, to more persistent presence of extracellular dhS1P applied to human neural progenitors rather than a higher activity at S1P receptors. This study establishes hES-NEP cells as a useful human in vitro model system to study the mechanism of FB1 toxicity and the molecular pharmacology of sphingolipid signaling. PMID:22016110

  10. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  11. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  12. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  13. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  14. TcPho91 is a contractile vacuole phosphate sodium symporter that regulates phosphate and polyphosphate metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Veronica; Docampo, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    We have identified a phosphate transporter (TcPho91) localized to the bladder of the contractile vacuole complex (CVC) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. TcPho91 has 12 transmembrane domains, an N-terminal regulatory SPX (named after SYG1, Pho81 and XPR1) domain and an anion permease domain. Functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by two-electrode voltage clamp showed that TcPho91 is a low-affinity transporter with a Km for Pi in the millimolar range, and sodium-dependency. Epimastigotes overexpressing TcPho91-green fluorescent protein have significantly higher levels of pyrophosphate (PPi ) and short-chain polyphosphate (polyP), suggesting accumulation of Pi in these cells. Moreover, when overexpressing parasites were maintained in a medium with low Pi , they grew at higher rates than control parasites. Only one allele of TcPho91 in the CL strain encodes for the complete open reading frame, while the other one is truncated encoding for only the N-terminal domain. Taking advantage of this characteristic, knockdown experiments were performed resulting in cells with reduced growth rate as well as a reduction in PPi and short-chain polyP levels. Our results indicate that TcPho91 is a phosphate sodium symporter involved in Pi homeostasis in T. cruzi. PMID:26031800

  15. GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdisse, E.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1987-05-14

    Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Ca/sup 2 +/ has opposite effects on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma S on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca/sup 2 +/ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca/sup 2 +/ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein.

  16. [Adsorption of Phosphate by Lanthanum Hydroxide/Natural Zeolite Composites from Low Concentration Phosphate Solution].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-wei; Wang, Hong; Zhan, Yan-hui; Chen, Dong-mei

    2016-01-15

    A series of composites of lanthanum hydroxide/natural zeolite ( La( OH) 3/NZ composites) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and these composites were used as adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption capacities of different composites prepared with different precipitated pH values were compared in batch mode. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 was investigated using batch experiments. The results showed that the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH values of 5-7 and 13 had a low adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous solution, while the La( OH) 3/NZ composites prepared with the precipitated pH values of 9-12 exhibited much higher phosphate adsorption capacity. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the La (OH)3/NZ composite increased with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 9 to 11, but remained basically unchanged with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 11 to 12. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La ( OH ) 3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model with the predicted maximum phosphate adsorption of 44 mg x g(-1) (phosphate solution pH 7 and 30 degrees C). The kinetic data of phosphate adsorption from low concentration phosphate solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) in low concentration phosphate solution had no negative effect on phosphate adsorption onto the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11, while the presence of HCO3- slightly inhibited the adsorption of phosphate. Coexisting humic acid had a negative effect on the adsorption of phosphate at low concentration on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the

  17. The alpha 1-adrenergic transduction system in hamster brown adipocytes. Release of arachidonic acid accompanies activation of phospholipase C.

    PubMed Central

    Schimmel, R J

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of brown adipocytes identified an increased breakdown of phosphoinositides after selective alpha 1-adrenergic-receptor activation. The present paper reports that this response, elicited with phenylephrine in the presence of propranolol and measured as the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates, is accompanied by increased release of [3H]arachidonic acid from cells prelabelled with [3H]arachidonic acid. Differences between stimulated arachidonic acid release and formation of inositol phosphates included a requirement for extracellular Ca2+ for stimulated release of arachidonic acid but not for the formation of inositol phosphates and the preferential inhibition of inositol phosphate formation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The release of arachidonic acid in response to phenylephrine was associated with an accumulation of [3H]arachidonic acid-labelled diacylglycerol, and this response was not dependent on extracellular Ca2+ but was partially prevented by treatment with the phorbol ester. The release of arachidonic acid was also stimulated by melittin, which increases the activity of phospholipase A2, by ionophore A23187, by lipolytic stimulation with forskolin and by exogenous phospholipase C. The arachidonic acid response to phospholipase C was completely blocked by RHC 80267, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, but this inhibitor had no effect on release stimulated with melittin or A23187 and inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated release by only 40%. The arachidonate response to forskolin was additive with the responses to either phenylephrine or exogenous phospholipase C. These data indicate that brown adipocytes are capable of releasing arachidonic acid from neutral lipids via triacylglycerol lipolysis, and from phospholipids via phospholipase A2 or by the sequential activities of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase. Our findings also suggest that the action of phenylephrine to promote the liberation of arachidonic acid utilizes both

  18. Phosphate stimulates CFTR Cl- channels.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M R; Travis, S M; Winter, M C; Sheppard, D N; Welsh, M J

    1994-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels appear to be regulated by hydrolysis of ATP and are inhibited by a product of hydrolysis, ADP. We assessed the effect of the other product of hydrolysis, inorganic phosphate (P(i)), on CFTR Cl- channel activity using the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Millimolar concentrations of P(i) caused a dose-dependent stimulation of CFTR Cl- channel activity. Single-channel analysis demonstrated that the increase in macroscopic current was due to an increase in single-channel open-state probability (po) and not single-channel conductance. Kinetic modeling of the effect of P(i) using a linear three-state model indicated that the effect on po was predominantly the result of an increase in the rate at which the channel passed from the long closed state to the bursting state. P(i) also potentiated activity of channels studied in the presence of 10 mM ATP and stimulated Cl- currents in CFTR mutants lacking much of the R domain. Binding studies with a photoactivatable ATP analog indicated that Pi decreased the amount of bound nucleotide. These results suggest that P(i) increased CFTR Cl- channel activity by stimulating a rate-limiting step in channel opening that may occur by an interaction of P(i) at one or both nucleotide-binding domains. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:7532021

  19. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality

  20. [Effect of cultivation conditions on the accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxy-butyric acid in Rhizobium lupini].

    PubMed

    Yushkova, L A; Fedulova, N G; Romanov, V I; Kretovich, W L

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the age of the culture and nitrogen source on the accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by different strains of Rhizobium lupini was studied. The accumulation depended on the age of the culture and reached maximum at the end of the logarithmic and at the beginning of the stationary phase of the bacterial growth (about 50-60% dry weight). The accumulation varied in relation to the nitrogen source used: it was the highest in the glutamate medium and the lowest on nitrate nitrogen; the culture grown on ammonium phosphate was intermediate. PMID:1208373

  1. Phosphate Oxygen Isotopes as a Tracer for Sources and Cycling of Phosphate in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, K.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Phosphorous is an essential macro-nutrient for primary productivity, but tracing sources and cycling of P in marine systems has been difficult to assess because P has only one stable isotope and can not be used as an isotopic tracer. Recently a new technique (McLaughlin et al., 2004) has been developed to track sources and cycling of phosphate in aquatic systems. This approach takes advantage of the strong P-O bond in phosphate, which is resistant to inorganic hydrolysis. The exchange of oxygen isotopes therein only occurs due to intracellular biological cycling. Because the d18O of phosphate will largely be determined by the isotopic composition of the water in which it is being recycled and because the isotopic composition of rivers and oceans is significantly different, the d18O of phosphate may be used as a tracer for different sources of phosphate to an estuarine system which is not phosphate limited. Consequently, the d18O of phosphate may be useful for quantifying the mixing of different sources of phosphate in estuarine systems. We applied this method to enhance our understanding of P sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay. To this end we conducted four sampling transects from Coyote Creek in the South Bay to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the North between October 2002 and August 2004. Phosphate d18O ranged from 10.1 to 20.1 per mil, with highest values at the Golden Gate and lowest at the San Joaquin River. Most of the Bay samples showed strong positive correlations with salinity, water d18O, and the inverse of phosphate concentration, suggesting a simple two-component mixing of oceanic and riverine sources. These data suggest that phosphate d18O can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in the ecosystem.

  2. The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in Elkhorn Slough, California: A tracer for phosphate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Paytan, Adina

    2006-11-01

    Elkhorn Slough, a small seasonal estuary in central California, has been subjected to increased nutrient loading from agricultural and other non-point sources. However, because nutrients do not behave conservatively, tracing nutrient sources and cycling in ecosystems like Elkhorn Slough has been difficult to assess. This is particularly true of phosphorus (P), which has only one stable isotope and cannot be used as an isotopic tracer. However, isotopic fractionation of oxygen in phosphate at surface water temperatures only occurs as a result of enzyme-mediated, biochemical reactions. Thus, if phosphate demand is low relative to input and is not heavily cycled within the ecosystem, the δ18O of phosphate will reflect the isotopic composition of phosphate sources to the system. We utilized the δ18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) within the main channel of the slough and nearby Moss Landing Harbor and the δ18O of reactive phosphate from sediment and soil samples collected within the watershed to understand phosphate sources and cycling within Elkhorn Slough. Trends in the δ18O of DIP were seasonally consistent with high values near the mouth reflecting oceanic phosphate (19.1‰-20.3‰), dropping to a minimum value near Hummingbird Island in the central slough (point source, 14.1‰-14.4‰), and increasing again near the head of the slough, reflecting fertilizer input (18.9‰-19.3‰). Reactive phosphate δ18O values extracted from sediments and soils in the watershed range from 10.6‰ in a drainage ditch to 22.3‰ in creek sediments near agriculture fields. The wide range in phosphate δ18O values reflects the variations in land use and application of different fertilizers in this agriculturally dominated landscape. These data suggest that phosphate δ18O can be an effective tool for identifying P sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine ecosystems.

  3. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  4. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  5. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie F; Li, Luen-Luen; Handley-Pendleton, Jocelyn M; van der Lelie, Daniel; Dunn, John J; Wishart, James F

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v. PMID:22001053

  7. Do osteocytes contribute to phosphate homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian Q; Ye, Ling; Schiavi, Susan

    2009-07-01

    Osteocytes, the terminally differentiated cell of the osteoblast lineage, account for over 90% of all bone cells. Due to their relative inaccessibility within mineralized matrix, little is known regarding their specific functions in comparison to the well studied surface bone cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Furthermore, bone is often viewed as a mineral reservoir that passively releases calcium and phosphate in response to hormones secreted from remote organs. Noncollagenous matrix proteins produced in osteocytes, such as dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), have also been viewed as inert scaffolds for calcium-phosphate deposition. Recent discoveries of new genetic mutations in human diseases and development of genetically engineered animal models challenge these classic paradigms, suggesting that the osteocyte plays an active role in both mineralization and total systemic phosphate regulation. In this review, we will focus on roles of osteocytes in mineralization and particularly in phosphate regulation via the DMP1- FGF23 pathway. PMID:19448536

  8. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  9. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  10. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... phosphoric acid. (b) Magnesium phosphate, dibasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which is incorporated by reference. Copies...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  15. Product inhibition of potato tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase by phosphate and pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Stitt, M

    1989-02-01

    The product inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase by inorganic pyrophosphate and inorganic phosphate has been studied. The binding of substrates for the forward (glycolytic) and the reverse (gluconeogenic) reaction is random order, and occurs with only weak competition between the substrate pair fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate, and between the substrate pair fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Pyrophosphate is a powerful inhibitor of the reverse reaction, acting competitively to fructose-1,6-biphosphate and noncompetitively to phosphate. At the concentrations needed for catalysis of the reverse reaction, phosphate inhibits the forward reaction in a largely noncompetitive mode with respect to both fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate. At higher concentrations, phosphate inhibits both the forward and the reverse reaction by decreasing the affinity for fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and thus, for the other three substrates. These results allow a model to be proposed, which describes the interactions between the substrates at the catalytic site. They also suggest the enzyme may be regulated in vivo by changes of the relation between metabolites and phosphate and could act as a means of controlling the cytosolic pyrophosphate concentration. PMID:16666593

  16. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion. PMID:25909152

  17. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24261118

  18. Disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  19. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life. PMID:20981096

  20. Characterization of phosphate films on aluminum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B.; Ramamurthy, S.; McIntyre, N.S.

    1997-08-01

    A thin layer of phosphate conversion coating was formed on pure aluminum in a commercial zinc-manganese phosphating bath. A number of surface analytical techniques were used to characterize the phosphate thin films formed after immersion times ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The coating contained mainly a crystalline structure with dispersed micrometer-scale cavities. The major constituents of the phosphate film were zinc, phosphorus, and oxygen; a small amount of manganese was also detected. Based on these results, a three-stage mechanism was proposed for the formation and the growth of phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of phosphated and uncoated aluminum samples in 0.50 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.10 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. Both types of samples exhibited a passive state in the neutral solution and general corrosion behavior in the acid solution.

  1. Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  2. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. PMID:26412420

  3. Evaluation of Simultaneous Nutrient and COD Removal with Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Accumulation Using Mixed Microbial Consortia under Anoxic Condition and Their Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Jyotsnarani; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Anshuman; Pandey, Sony; Das, Trupti

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrate-N, phosphate and COD removal was evaluated from synthetic waste water using mixed microbial consortia in an anoxic environment under various initial carbon load (ICL) in a batch scale reactor system. Within 6 hours of incubation, enriched DNPAOs (Denitrifying Polyphosphate Accumulating Microorganisms) were able to remove maximum COD (87%) at 2g/L of ICL whereas maximum nitrate-N (97%) and phosphate (87%) removal along with PHB accumulation (49 mg/L) was achieved at 8 g/L of ICL. Exhaustion of nitrate-N, beyond 6 hours of incubation, had a detrimental effect on COD and phosphate removal rate. Fresh supply of nitrate-N to the reaction medium, beyond 6 hours, helped revive the removal rates of both COD and phosphate. Therefore, it was apparent that in spite of a high carbon load, maximum COD and nutrient removal can be maintained, with adequate nitrate-N availability. Denitrifying condition in the medium was evident from an increasing pH trend. PHB accumulation by the mixed culture was directly proportional to ICL; however the time taken for accumulation at higher ICL was more. Unlike conventional EBPR, PHB depletion did not support phosphate accumulation in this case. The unique aspect of all the batch studies were PHB accumulation was observed along with phosphate uptake and nitrate reduction under anoxic conditions. Bioinformatics analysis followed by pyrosequencing of the mixed culture DNA from the seed sludge revealed the dominance of denitrifying population, such as Corynebacterium, Rhodocyclus and Paraccocus (Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria). Rarefaction curve indicated complete bacterial population and corresponding number of OTUs through sequence analysis. Chao1 and Shannon index (H’) was used to study the diversity of sampling. “UCI95” and “LCI95” indicated 95% confidence level of upper and lower values of Chao1 for each distance. Values of Chao1 index supported the results of rarefaction curve. PMID:25689047

  4. The metabolic flux phenotype of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells reveals a flexible balance between the cytosolic and plastidic contributions to carbohydrate oxidation in response to phosphate limitation.

    PubMed

    Masakapalli, Shyam K; Bryant, Fiona M; Kruger, Nicholas J; Ratcliffe, R George

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that allow plants to respond to variable and reduced availability of inorganic phosphate is of increasing agricultural importance because of the continuing depletion of the rock phosphate reserves that are used to combat inadequate phosphate levels in the soil. Changes in gene expression, protein levels, enzyme activities and metabolite levels all point to a reconfiguration of the central metabolic network in response to reduced availability of inorganic phosphate, but the metabolic significance of these changes can only be assessed in terms of the fluxes supported by the network. Steady-state metabolic flux analysis was used to define the metabolic phenotype of a heterotrophic Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture grown on a Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 1.25 or 5 mm inorganic phosphate. Fluxes through the central metabolic network were deduced from the redistribution of (13) C into metabolic intermediates and end products when cells were labelled with [1-(13) C], [2-(13) C], or [(13) C6 ]glucose, in combination with (14) C measurements of the rates of biomass accumulation. Analysis of the flux maps showed that reduced levels of phosphate in the growth medium stimulated flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme, altered the balance between cytosolic and plastidic carbohydrate oxidation in favour of the plastid, and increased cell maintenance costs. We argue that plant cells respond to phosphate deprivation by reconfiguring the flux distribution through the pathways of carbohydrate oxidation to take advantage of better phosphate homeostasis in the plastid. PMID:24674596

  5. Phosphate binders for the treatment of chronic kidney disease: role of iron oxyhydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Cernaro, Valeria; Santoro, Domenico; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Costantino, Giuseppe; Visconti, Luca; Buemi, Antoine; Buemi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is frequent in patients with renal failure. It is characterized by abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism with resulting hyperphosphatemia, low serum vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, altered bone morphology and strength, higher risk of bone fractures, and development of vascular or other soft tissue calcifications. Besides the recommendation to reduce phosphorus dietary intake, many drugs are currently available for the treatment of calcium/phosphate imbalance. Among them, phosphate binders represent a milestone. Calcium-based binders (calcium carbonate, calcium acetate) are effective in lowering serum phosphate, but their use has been associated with an increased risk of hypercalcemia and calcifications. Calcium-free binders (sevelamer hydrochloride, sevelamer carbonate, and lanthanum carbonate) are equally or slightly less effective than calcium-containing compounds. They would not induce an increase in calcium levels but may have relevant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms for sevelamer and risk of tissue accumulation for lanthanum. Accordingly, new phosphate binders are under investigation and some of them have already been approved. A promising option is sucroferric oxyhydroxide (Velphoro®, PA21), an iron-based phosphate binder consisting of a mixture of polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide, sucrose, and starches. The present review is focused on pharmacology, mode of action, and pharmacokinetics of sucroferric oxyhydroxide, with a discussion on comparative efficacy, safety, and tolerability studies of this drug in chronic kidney disease and patient perspectives such as quality of life, satisfaction, and acceptability. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide has proven to be as effective as sevelamer in reducing phosphatemia with a similar safety profile and lower pill burden. Experimental and clinical studies have documented a minimal percentage of iron absorption without inducing toxicity. In

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate in cell growth and cell death.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, S; Cuvillier, O; Edsall, L C; Kohama, T; Menzeleev, R; Olah, Z; Olivera, A; Pirianov, G; Thomas, D M; Tu, Z; Van Brocklyn, J R; Wang, F

    1998-06-19

    Recent evidence suggests that branching pathways of sphingolipid metabolism may mediate either apoptotic or mitogenic responses depending on the cell type and the nature of the stimulus. While ceramide has been shown to be an important regulatory component of apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha and Fas ligand, sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), a further metabolite of ceramide, has been implicated as a second messenger in cellular proliferation and survival induced by platelet-derived growth factor, nerve growth factor, and serum. SPP protects cells from apoptosis resulting from elevations of ceramide. Inflammatory cytokines stimulate sphingomyelinase, but not ceramidase, leading to accumulation of ceramide, whereas growth signals also leading to accumulation of ceramide, whereas growth signals also stimulate ceramidase and sphingosine kinase leading to increased SPP levels. We propose that the dynamic balance between levels of sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide, and SPP, and consequent regulation of different family members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK versus ERK), is an important factor that determines whether a cell survives or dies. PMID:9668339

  7. Impact of phosphate on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in willow.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Moingt, Matthieu; Smedbol, Elise; Paquet, Serge; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) has been shown to increase glyphosate uptake by willow, a plant species known for its phytoremediation potential. However, it remains unclear if this stimulation of glyphosate uptake can result in an elevated glyphosate toxicity to plants (which could prevent the use of willows in glyphosate-remediation programs). Consequently, we studied the effects of PO4(3-) on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in a fast growing willow cultivar (Salix miyabeana SX64). Plants were grown in hydroponic solution with a combination of glyphosate (0, 0.001, 0.065 and 1 mg l(-1)) and PO4(3-) (0, 200 and 400 mg l(-1)). We demonstrated that PO4(3-) fertilization greatly increased glyphosate uptake by roots and its translocation to leaves, which resulted in increased shikimate concentration in leaves. In addition to its deleterious effects in photosynthesis, glyphosate induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Although it has increased glyphosate accumulation, PO4(3-) fertilization attenuated the herbicide's deleterious effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant systems and alleviating glyphosate-induced oxidative stress. Our results indicate that in addition to the glyphosate uptake, PO4(3-) is involved in glyphosate toxicity in willow by preventing glyphosate induced oxidative stress. PMID:26561751

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  9. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  10. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  11. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  12. Transport and signaling through the phosphate-binding site of the yeast Pho84 phosphate transceptor.

    PubMed

    Popova, Yulia; Thayumanavan, Palvannan; Lonati, Elena; Agrochão, Margarida; Thevelein, Johan M

    2010-02-16

    A novel concept in eukaryotic signal transduction is the use of nutrient transporters and closely related proteins as nutrient sensors. The action mechanism of these "transceptors" is unclear. The Pho84 phosphate transceptor in yeast transports phosphate and mediates rapid phosphate activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during growth induction. We have now identified several phosphate-containing compounds that act as nontransported signaling agonists of Pho84. This indicates that signaling does not require complete transport of the substrate. For the nontransported agonist glycerol-3-phosphate (Gly3P), we show that it is transported by two other carriers, Git1 and Pho91, without triggering signaling. Gly3P is a competitive inhibitor of transport through Pho84, indicating direct interaction with its phosphate-binding site. We also identified phosphonoacetic acid as a competitive inhibitor of transport without agonist function for signaling. This indicates that binding of a compound into the phosphate-binding site of Pho84 is not enough to trigger signaling. Apparently, signaling requires a specific conformational change that may be part of, but does not require, the complete transport cycle. Using Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Method (SCAM) we identified Phe(160) in TMD IV and Val(392) in TMD VIII as residues exposed with their side chain into the phosphate-binding site of Pho84. Inhibition of both transport and signaling by covalent modification of Pho84(F160C) or Pho84(V392C) showed that the same binding site is used for transport of phosphate and for signaling with both phosphate and Gly3P. Our results provide to the best of our knowledge the first insight into the molecular mechanism of a phosphate transceptor. PMID:20133652

  13. Potential role of multiple carbon fixation pathways during lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a unicellular diatom in the class Bacillariophyceae. The full genome has been sequenced (<30 Mb), and approximately 20 to 30% triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation on a dry cell basis has been reported under different growth conditions. To elucidate P. tricornutum gene expression profiles during nutrient-deprivation and lipid-accumulation, cell cultures were grown with a nitrate to phosphate ratio of 20:1 (N:P) and whole-genome transcripts were monitored over time via RNA-sequence determination. Results The specific Nile Red (NR) fluorescence (NR fluorescence per cell) increased over time; however, the increase in NR fluorescence was initiated before external nitrate was completely exhausted. Exogenous phosphate was depleted before nitrate, and these results indicated that the depletion of exogenous phosphate might be an early trigger for lipid accumulation that is magnified upon nitrate depletion. As expected, many of the genes associated with nitrate and phosphate utilization were up-expressed. The diatom-specific cyclins cyc7 and cyc10 were down-expressed during the nutrient-deplete state, and cyclin B1 was up-expressed during lipid-accumulation after growth cessation. While many of the genes associated with the C3 pathway for photosynthetic carbon reduction were not significantly altered, genes involved in a putative C4 pathway for photosynthetic carbon assimilation were up-expressed as the cells depleted nitrate, phosphate, and exogenous dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels. P. tricornutum has multiple, putative carbonic anhydrases, but only two were significantly up-expressed (2-fold and 4-fold) at the last time point when exogenous DIC levels had increased after the cessation of growth. Alternative pathways that could utilize HCO3- were also suggested by the gene expression profiles (e.g., putative propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylases). Conclusions The results indicate that P. tricornutum continued

  14. [Effects of Sedum plumbizincicola--Oryza sativa rotation and phosphate amendment on Cd and Zn uptake by O. sativa].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-bo; Wu, Long-hua; Tan, Wei-na; Han, Xiao-ri; Luo, Yong-ming; Ouyang, You-nan; Jin, Qian-yu; Jiang, Yu-gen

    2010-11-01

    In a pot experiment, hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and low-cadmium accumulating Oryza sativa cultivar "Zhongxiang No. 1" were planted in rotation on a heavy metals-polluted soil, and calcium magnesium phosphate (Ca-P) and rock phosphate (P-R) were amended, aimed to study the effects of the rotation and phosphate amendment on the growth of the two plants and the zinc- and cadmium accumulation in their shoots. After the amendment of 50 g P-R x kg(-1), the Zn and Cd uptake by S. plumbizincicola was 11.5 mg x pot(-1) and 0 x 79 mg x pot(-1), respectively, being significantly higher than that after the amendment of 4 g Ca-P x kg(-1). After the planting of S. plumbizincicola, the Zn and Cd concentrations in "Zhongxiang No. 1" increased, but the amendment of Ca-P decreased the accumulation of Zn and Cd in rice shoot significantly. The rotation with S. plumbizincicola and the amendment of Ca-P and P-R could immobilize the Zn and Cd in the contaminated soil as indicated by the quantitative change of NH4OAc-extractable Cd and Zn, and the efficiency of amendment with Ca-P was better than that of amendment with P-R. Field trial showed that amendment with Ca-P could not only increase the rice yield, but also reduce the Zn and Cd accumulation in rice shoot to a certain extent. PMID:21361023

  15. Modeling of phosphate ion transfer to the surface of osteoblasts under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Risbud, Makarand; Hu, Howard H; Shapiro, Irving M

    2004-11-01

    We have modeled the transport and accumulation of phosphate ions at the remodeling site of a trabecular bone consisting of osteoclasts and osteoblasts situated adjacent to each other in straining flows. Two such flows are considered; one corresponds to shear levels representative of trabecular bone conditions at normal gravity, the other corresponds to shear level that is representative of microgravity conditions. The latter is evaluated indirectly using a simulated microgravity environment prevailing in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) designed by NASA. By solving the hydrodynamic equations governing the particle motion in a RWV using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique, the shear stress values on the surface of the microcarriers are found. In our present species transfer model, osteoclasts release phosphate ions (Pi) among other ions at bone resorption sites. Some of the ions so released are absorbed by the osteoblast, some accumulate at the osteoblast surface, and the remainder are advected away. The consumption of Pi by osteoblasts is assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics aided by a NaPi cotransporter system. MM kinetics views the NaPi cotransporter as a system for transporting extracellular Pi into the osteoblast. Our results show, for the conditions investigated here, the net accumulation of phosphate ions at the osteoblast surface under simulated microgravity conditions is higher by as much as a factor of three. Such increased accumulation may lead to enhanced apoptosis and may help explain the increased bone loss observed under microgravity conditions. PMID:15644348

  16. Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lixian; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Zhi; Yang, Baomei; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin

    2010-04-01

    Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While an animal is fed with ROX, the As compounds in the manure primarily occur as ROX and its metabolites, including arsenate (As[V]), arsenite (As[III]), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous fertilizers in China. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), with the soil amended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 g PO(4)/kg, respectively, plus 2% (w/w manure/soil) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results indicate that this species of water spinach cannot accumulate ROX and MMA at detectable levels, but As(V), As(III), and DMA were present in all plant samples. Increased phosphorous decreased the shoot As(V) and As(III) in water spinach but did not affect the root As(V). The shoot DMA and root As(III) and DMA were decreased/increased and then increased/decreased by elevated phosphorous. The total phosphorous content (P) in plant tissue did not correlate with the total As or the three As species in tissues. Arsenate, As(III), and DMA were more easily accumulated in the roots, and phosphate considerably inhibited their upward transport. Dimethylarsinic acid had higher transport efficiency than As(V) and As(III), but As(III) was dominant in tissues. Conclusively, phosphate had multiple effects on the accumulation and transport of ROX metabolites, which depended on their levels. However, proper utilization of phosphate fertilizer can decrease the accumulation of ROX metabolites in water spinach when treated with CM containing ROX and its metabolites. PMID:20821525

  17. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  18. Phosphate separation and recovery from wastewater by novel electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Desmidt, Evelyn; Van Looveren, Arnaud; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-06-01

    Stimulated by the depletion of phosphate resources, phosphate recovery systems have been studied in recent years. The use of struvite reactors has proven to be an effective phosphate recovery process. However, the struvite reactor effluent still consists of an excessive amount of phosphate that cannot be recovered nor can be directly discharged. In this study, selectrodialysis (SED) was used to improve the efficiency of phosphate recovery from a struvite reactor: SED was implemented in such a way that phosphate from the effluent of an USAB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor was transferred to the recycled effluent of a struvite reactor. Prior to the experiments, synthetic water with chloride and phosphate was used to characterize the efficiency of SED for phosphate separation. Results indicate that SED was successful in concentrating phosphate from the feed stream. The initial current efficiency reached 72%, with a satisfying (9 mmol L(-1)) phosphate concentration. In the experiments with the anaerobic effluent as the phosphate source for enrichment of the effluent of the struvite reactor, the phosphate flux was 16 mmol m(-2) h(-1). A cost evaluation shows that 1 kWh electricity can produce 60 g of phosphate by using a full scale stack, with a desalination rate of 95% on the feed wastewater. Finally, a struvite precipitation experiment shows that 93% of phosphate can be recovered. Thus, an integrated SED-struvite reactor process can be used to improve phosphate recovery from wastewater. PMID:23651001

  19. Transmembrane signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis involves ligand-dependent activation of phosphate group transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Borkovich, K A; Kaplan, N; Hess, J F; Simon, M I

    1989-01-01

    Signal transduction in Escherichia coli involves the interaction of transmembrane receptor proteins such as the aspartate receptor, Tar, and the products of four chemotaxis genes, cheA, cheY, cheW, and cheZ. It was previously shown that the cheA gene product is an autophosphorylating protein kinase that transfers phosphate to CheY, whereas the cheZ gene product acts as a specific CheY phosphatase. Here we report that the system can be reconstituted in vitro and receptor function can be coupled to CheY phosphorylation. Coupling requires the presence of the CheW protein, the appropriate form of the receptor, and the CheA and CheY proteins. Under these conditions the accumulation of CheY-phosphate is enhanced approximately 300-fold. This rate enhancement is seen in reactions using wild-type and "tumble" mutant receptors but not "smooth" mutant receptors. The increased accumulation of phosphoprotein was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of aspartate, using wild-type, but not tumble, receptors. These results provide evidence that the signal transduction pathway in bacterial chemotaxis involves receptor-mediated alteration of the levels of phosphorylated proteins. They suggest that CheW acts as the coupling factor between receptor and phosphorylation. The results also support the suggestion that CheY-phosphate is the tumble signal. Images PMID:2645576

  20. Methylerythritol phosphate pathway to isoprenoids: kinetic modeling and in silico enzyme inhibitions in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek Kumar; Ghosh, Indira

    2013-09-01

    The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has become an attractive target for anti-malarial drug discovery. This study describes a kinetic model of this pathway, its use in validating 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) as drug target from the systemic perspective, and additional target identification, using metabolic control analysis and in silico inhibition studies. In addition to DXR, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) can be targeted because it is the first enzyme of the pathway and has the highest flux control coefficient followed by that of DXR. In silico inhibition of both enzymes caused large decrement in the pathway flux. An added advantage of targeting DXS is its influence on vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis. Two more potential targets, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase, were also identified. Their inhibition caused large accumulation of their substrates causing instability of the system. This study demonstrates that both types of enzyme targets, one acting via flux reduction and the other by metabolite accumulation, exist in P. falciparum MEP pathway. These groups of targets can be exploited for independent anti-malarial drugs. PMID:23816706

  1. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  2. A Lactobacillus mutant capable of accumulating long-chain polyphosphates that enhance intestinal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Asako; Ishida, Yasuaki; Segawa, Shuichi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) was previously identified as a probiotic-derived substance that enhances intestinal barrier function. PolyP-accumulating bacteria are expected to have beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we selected Lactobacillus paracasei JCM 1163 as a strain with the potential to accumulate polyP, because among the probiotic bacteria stored in our laboratory, it had the largest amount of polyP. The chain length of polyP accumulated in L. paracasei JCM 1163 was approximately 700 phosphate (Pi) residues. L. paracasei JCM 1163 accumulated polyP when Pi was added to Pi-starved cells. We further improved the ability of L. paracasei JCM 1163 to accumulate polyP by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutant accumulated polyP at a level of 1500 nmol/mg protein-approximately 190 times that of the wild-type strain. PolyP extracted from the L. paracasei JCM 1163 significantly suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in mouse small intestine. In conclusion, we have succeeded in breeding the polyP-accumulating Lactobacillus mutant that is expected to enhance intestinal barrier function. PMID:26966939

  3. Ureolytic phosphate precipitation from anaerobic effluents.

    PubMed

    Desmidt, E; Verstraete, W; Dick, J; Meesschaert, B D; Carballa, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the elimination of phosphate from industrial anaerobic effluents was evaluated at lab-scale. For that purpose, the ureolytic method previously developed for the precipitation of Ca(2 + ) from wastewater as calcite was adapted for the precipitation of phosphate as struvite. In the first part of the study, computer simulations using MAPLE and PHREEQC were performed to model phosphate precipitation from wastewater as struvite. The results obtained showed that relative high concentrations of ammonium and magnesium are needed to precipitate phosphate as struvite. The total molar concentrations ratio of Mg(2 + ):PO(4) (3-)-P:NH(4) (+) required to decrease PO(4) (3-)-P concentrations from 20 to 6 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l at pH 8.4-8.5 was estimated on 4.6:1:8. In the second part of the study, lab-scale experiments with either synthetic wastewater or the anaerobic effluent from a vegetable processing industry were carried out in batch and continuous mode. Overall, the continuous operation at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.4 h and an added molar concentration [Mg(2 + )]:[PO(4) (3-)-P]:[NH(4) (+)] ratio of 1.6:1:2.3 resulted in a constant pH value in the reactor (around 8.5) and an efficient phosphate removal (>90%) to residual levels of 1-2 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l. Different operational conditions, such as the initial phosphate concentration, HRT and the use of CaCl(2) or MgO instead of MgCl(2), were analysed and the performance of the reactor was satisfactory under a broad range of them. Yet, overall, optimal results (higher phosphate removal) were obtained with MgCl(2). PMID:19474493

  4. An autosomal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) polymorphism in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Tan, S G; Ashton, G C

    1976-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from human saliva has been demonstrated by the zymogram technique. Three phenotypes were found. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles Sgd-1 and Sgd-2. PMID:950237

  5. COMPARATIVE KINETIC STUDIES OF PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH AND PHOSPHATE UPTAKE IN PHYTOPLANKTON IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative kinetic study of phosphate-limited growth and phosphate uptake was carried out in chemostat cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae Lyng. Breb., Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs, Asterionella formosa Hass., Fragilaria crotonensis Kitt., and Microcystis sp. Lemm. For ea...

  6. Differential sorting of lysosomal enzymes in mannose 6-phosphate receptor-deficient fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, T; Munier-Lehmann, H; Bauer, U; Hollinshead, M; Ovitt, C; Lobel, P; Hoflack, B

    1994-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the transport of soluble lysosomal enzymes involves the recognition of their mannose 6-phosphate signal by two receptors: the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (CI-MPR) and the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR). It is not known why these two different proteins are present in most cell types. To investigate their relative function in lysosomal enzyme targeting, we created cell lines that lack either or both MPRs. This was accomplished by mating CD-MPR-deficient mice with Thp mice that carry a CI-MPR deleted allele. Fibroblasts prepared from embryos that lack the two receptors exhibit a massive missorting of multiple lysosomal enzymes and accumulate undigested material in their endocytic compartments. Fibroblasts that lack the CI-MPR, like those lacking the CD-MPR, exhibit a milder phenotype and are only partially impaired in sorting. This demonstrates that both receptors are required for efficient intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. More importantly, comparison of the phosphorylated proteins secreted by the different cell types indicates that the two receptors may interact in vivo with different subgroups of hydrolases. This observation may provide a rational explanation for the existence of two distinct mannose 6-phosphate binding proteins in mammalian cells. Images PMID:8062819

  7. [Denitrifying phosphate uptake of biological phosphorous removal granular sludge in SBR].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-ying; Zhao, Hong-mei; Peng, Dang-cong; Sui, Xian-jie

    2008-08-01

    The denitrification and excessive P removal can be realized by denitrifying phosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) under low carbon condition. DNPAOs use poly-3-hydroxy- butyrate (PHB) as electron donor, and use nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor during the denitrifying phosphate uptake. In this study the biological phosphorus removal granular sludge was induced into the denitrifying and phosphate uptake granular sludge under an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic alternating operation (referred to as an A/A/O) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). When the system is stable, the P and N removal ratio is over 90% and 93% respectively; the release phosphorus is 25-33 mg/L at anaerobic stage; 1g NOx-N approximately takes up P 1.3 g at anoxic stage. In the typical cycle the anaerobic maximum specific release phosphorus rate (max. SRPR) is 18.39 mg/(g x h); the anoxic max. specific uptake phosphorus rate (SUPR) and the max. specific denitrification rate (SDNR) is 23.72 mg/(g x h) and 18.19 mg/(g x h) respectively; the aerobic max. SUPR is 17.15 mg/(g x h). The fraction of DNPAOs rises from 14.9% to 80.7%. Compared with the physical-chemical property of the biological phosphorus removal granular sludge, the settling velocity and the specific gravity of the denitrifying phosphate uptake granular sludge is elevated 0.16-0.7 times and 0.0031 respectively. PMID:18839581

  8. Adverse Renal and Metabolic Effects Associated with Oral Sodium Phosphate Bowel Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Heher, Eliot C.; Thier, Samuel O.; Rennke, Helmut; Humphreys, Benjamin D.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer can be prevented by the removal of adenomatous polyps during screening colonoscopy, but adequate bowel preparation is required. Oral sodium phosphate (OSP), an effective bowel purgative, is available over the counter and requires a substantially lower volume than polyethylene glycol-based preparative agents. Accumulating reports implicate OSP in electrolyte disturbances as well as acute kidney injury (AKI) in a syndrome termed phosphate nephropathy (a form of nephrocalcinosis). Despite published case reports and case series, the actual incidence, risk factors, and natural history of phosphate nephropathy remain largely undefined. Several recent observational studies have provided new information on these important issues while supporting a link between OSP and acute phosphate nephropathy as well as the development of chronic kidney disease in elderly patients, many of whom had a normal serum creatinine at the time of OSP ingestion. This review summarizes current knowledge about the renal complications of OSP, risk factors for its development, and the pathophysiology of acute and chronic kidney damage in nephrocalcinosis. PMID:18596115

  9. Effect of aging on alpha-1 adrenergic stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in various regions of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, D.M.; Bowyer, J.F.; Masserano, J.M.; Zahniser, N.R. )

    1990-12-01

    The effects of aging were examined on the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in three brain regions. Tissue minces of thalamus, cerebral cortex and hippocampus from 3-, 18- and 28-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)myoinositol. Exposure of these prelabeled minces to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine revealed that accumulation of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates was selectively reduced by 20 to 30% in the thalamus and cerebral cortex of the oldest age group. Analysis of concentration-response and competition binding curves indicated that this decrease was due to diminished agonist efficacy rather than diminished receptor affinity. The reduction in responsiveness to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex and the lack of any changes in the hippocampus parallel previously reported changes in the density of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors with aging. These data indicate that the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis is reduced in some, but not all, brain regions of aged Fischer 344 rats.

  10. Vasopressin receptors from cultured mesangial cells resemble V/sub 1a/ type

    SciTech Connect

    Jard, S.; Lombard, C.; Marie, J.; Devilliers, G.

    1987-07-01

    Mesangial cells respond to vasopressin by contraction and increased prostaglandin production. The purpose of the present study is to characterize vasopressin receptors from these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from rat kidneys and plated for explant growth of mesangial cells. Membranes were prepared from cells grown for 6 wk and tested for their ability to bind (/sup 3/H)vasopressin (lysine vasopressin). These membranes contained a single class of specific vasopressin binding sites. Vasopressin induced a dose-dependent accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in myo(/sup 3/H)inositol-prelabeled mesangial cells incubated in the presence of 10 mM of Li. Conversely, vasopressin failed to alter the adenylate cyclase activity of mesangial cell membranes. Competition experiments with a series of vasopressin structural analogues that have different degrees affinity for V/sub 2/- (renal), V/sub 1a/- (vascular and hepatic), and V/sub 1b/- (adenohypohyseal) receptors, indicated that vasopressin receptors from rat glomerular mesangial cells resemble the V/sub 1a/-receptor subtype.

  11. Mechanism of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate transfer from aldolase to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kvassman, J; Pettersson, G; Ryde-Pettersson, U

    1988-03-01

    The catalytic interaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate has been examined by transient-state kinetic methods. The results confirm previous reports that the apparent Km for oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate decreases at least 50-fold when the substrate is generated in a coupled reaction system through the action of aldolase on fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, but lend no support to the proposal that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is directly transferred between the two enzymes without prior release to the reaction medium. A theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the kinetic behaviour of the coupled two-enzyme system is compatible in all respects tested with a free-diffusion mechanism for the transfer of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from the producing enzyme to the consuming one. PMID:3350006

  12. Accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in mutant cells of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an evidence of phosphofructokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P C

    1986-05-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase negative mutant of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa accumulated relatively higher concentration of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-P2) when mannitol induced cells were incubated with this sugar alcohol. Also the toluene-treated cells of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase negative mutant of this organism produced Fru-1,6-P2 from fructose 6-phosphate in presence of ATP, but not from 6-phosphogluconate. The results together suggested the presence of an ATP-dependent fructose 6-phosphate kinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in mucoid P. aeruginosa. PMID:3017251

  13. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. PMID:26233656

  14. Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

    2014-03-01

    Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

  15. Accumulation of Polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and Its Involvement in Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

  16. Modulation of the interaction between aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase by fructose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Vértessy, B G; Orosz, F; Ovádi, J

    1991-06-24

    Kinetics of fructose-1,6-disphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13) catalyzed conversion of fructose phosphates was analyzed by coupling the aldolase reactions to the metabolically sequential enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.8), which interacts with aldolase. At low enzyme concentration poly(ethylene glycol) was added to promote complex formation of aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in a 3-fold increase in KM of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and no change in Vmax. Kinetic parameters for fructose-1-phosphate conversion changed inversely upon complex formation: Vmax increased while KM remained unchanged. Gel penetration and ion-exchange chromatographic experiments showed positive modulation of the interaction of aldolase and dehydrogenase by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The dissociation constant of the heterologous enzyme complex decreased 10-fold in the presence of this substrate. Fructose-1-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate had no effect on the dissociation constant of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex. In addition, titration of fluorescein-labelled glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase with aldolase indicated that both fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-biphosphate enhanced the affinity of aldolase to glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results of the kinetic and binding experiments suggest that binding of the C-6 phosphate group of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to aldolase complexed with dehydrogenase is sterically impeded while saturation of the C-6 phosphate group site increases the affinity of aldolase for dehydrogenase. The possible molecular mechanism of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate modulated interaction is discussed. PMID:2065091

  17. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  18. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  19. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands. PMID:25345061

  20. G protein in stimulation of PI hydrolysis by CCK (cholecystokinin) in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Nagao, Munehiko; Nishizaki, Hogara; Baba, Shigeaki )

    1988-11-01

    To clarify the possible role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) in the signal transducing system activated by cholecystokinin (CCK), actions of CCK on rat pancreatic acini were compared with those of fluoride, a well-known activator of stimulatory (G{sub s}) or inhibitory (G{sub i}) G protein. When acini were incubated with increasing concentrations of either CCK-octapeptide (CCK8) or NaF, a maximal stimulation of amylase release from acini occurred at 100 pM CCK8 or 10 mM NaF, respectively; this secretory rate decreased as CCK8 or NaF concentration was increased. NaF caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} concentration from the internal Ca{sup 2+} store and stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in acini, as observed with CCK. Guanylimidodiphosphate activated the generation of inositol phosphates in the ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled pancreatic acinar cell membrane preparation, with half-maximal and maximal stimulation at 1 and 10 {mu}M, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of submaximal CCK concentrations on inositol phosphate accumulation in membranes were markedly potentiated in the presence of 100 {mu}M GTP, which alone was ineffective. Combined findings of the present study strongly suggest that pancreatic CCK receptors are probably coupled to the activation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) breakdown by a G protein, which appears to be fluoride sensitive but is other than G{sub s}- or G{sub i}-like protein.

  1. The role of microbes in the formation of modern and ancient phosphatic mineral deposits

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Chris H.; Bailey, Jake V.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of marine phosphatic mineral deposits remains incompletely understood, despite decades of research. The involvement of bacteria in this process has long been suspected, and both modern and ancient associations between bacteria and phosphorites have been recorded. Only recently has a specific bacterial metabolic process associated with the formation of phosphorites been discovered. Recent studies demonstrate that polyphosphate utilization by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria results in the rapid precipitation of apatite – providing at least a partial mechanism to explain the close spatial correlation between accumulations of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria and modern phosphorites. Possible fossilized bacteria are known from ancient phosphatic mineral deposits. Potentially, the fossilized cells represent the remains of bacteria that induced the formation of those phosphorites. However, robust criteria for the recognition of these bacteria have yet to be identified. PMID:22783245

  2. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

  3. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. PMID:23827539

  4. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  5. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, François; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate. PMID:24721058

  6. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Oliver B; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  7. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  8. Phytoalexin Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana during the Hypersensitive Reaction to Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae 1

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Jun; Jackson, Evelyn P.; Gage, Douglas A.; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Somerville, Shauna C.

    1992-01-01

    Inoculation of leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. with the wheat pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae, resulted in the expression of the hypersensitive reaction and in phytoalexin accumulation. No phytoalexin accumulation was detected after infiltration of leaves with a mutant of P. s. syringae deficient in the ability to elicit a hypersensitive reaction; with the crucifer pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris; or with 10 millimolar potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). Phytoalexin accumulation was correlated with the restricted in vivo growth of P. s. syringae. A phytoalexin was purified by a combination of reverse phase flash chromatography, thin layer chromatography, followed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The Arabidopsis phytoalexin was identified as 3-thiazol-2′-yl-indole on the basis of ultraviolet, infrared, mass spectral, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance data. PMID:16668792

  9. Ecology of the Microbial Community Removing Phosphate from Wastewater under Continuously Aerobic Conditions in a Sequencing Batch Reactor▿

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Johwan; Schroeder, Sarah; Beer, Michael; McIlroy, Simon; Bayly, Ronald C.; May, John W.; Vasiliadis, George; Seviour, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    All activated sludge systems for removing phosphate microbiologically are configured so the biomass is cycled continuously through alternating anaerobic and aerobic zones. This paper describes a novel aerobic process capable of decreasing the amount of phosphate from 10 to 12 mg P liter−1 to less than 0.1 mg P liter−1 (when expressed as phosphorus) over an extended period from two wastewaters with low chemical oxygen demand. One wastewater was synthetic, and the other was a clarified effluent from a conventional activated sludge system. Unlike anaerobic/aerobic enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) processes where the organic substrates and the phosphate are supplied simultaneously to the biomass under anaerobic conditions, in this aerobic process, the addition of acetate, which begins the feed stage, is temporally separated from the addition of phosphate, which begins the famine stage. Conditions for establishing this process in a sequencing batch reactor are detailed, together with a description of the changes in poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and poly(P) levels in the biomass occurring under the feed and famine regimes, which closely resemble those reported in anaerobic/aerobic EBPR processes. Profiles obtained with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were very similar for communities fed both wastewaters, and once established, these communities remained stable over prolonged periods of time. 16S rRNA-based clone libraries generated from the two communities were also very similar. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/microautoradiography and histochemical staining revealed that “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” bacteria were the dominant poly(P)-accumulating organisms (PAO) in both communities, with the phenotype expected for PAO. FISH also identified large numbers of betaproteobacterial Dechloromonas and alphaproteobacterial tetrad-forming organisms related to Defluviicoccus in both communities, but while these organisms assimilated

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  12. Metabolic influence of lead on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production and phosphate uptake in activated sludge fed with glucose or acetic acid as carbon source.

    PubMed

    You, Sheng-Jie; Tsai, Yung-Pin; Cho, Bo-Chuan; Chou, Yi-Hsiu

    2011-09-01

    Sludge in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) system was used to investigate the effect of lead toxicity on metabolisms of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) communities fed with acetic acid or glucose as their sole carbon source, respectively. Results showed that the effect of lead on substrate utilization of both PAOs and GAOs was insignificant. However, lead substantially inhibited both of phosphate release and uptake of PAOs. In high concentration of acetic acid trials, an abnormal aerobic phosphate release was observed instead of phosphate uptake and the release rate increased with increasing lead concentration. Results also showed that PAOs could normally synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the anaerobic phase even though lead concentration was 40 mg L(-1). However, they could not aerobically utilize PHB normally in the presence of lead. On the other hand, GAOs could not normally metabolize polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) in both the anaerobic and aerobic phases. PMID:21704513

  13. Phosphate Limitation Induces Drastic Physiological Changes, Virulence-Related Gene Expression, and Secondary Metabolite Production in Pseudovibrio sp. Strain FO-BEG1.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stefano; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N; González, José M; Bondarev, Vladimir

    2015-05-15

    Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for living organisms and is obtained by bacteria primarily via phosphate uptake. However, phosphate is often scarcely accessible in nature, and there is evidence that in many areas of the ocean, its concentration limits bacterial growth. Surprisingly, the phosphate starvation response has been extensively investigated in different model organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli), but there is a dearth of studies on heterotrophic marine bacteria. In this work, we describe the response of Pseudovibrio sp. strain FO-BEG1, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium and potential symbiont of marine sponges, to phosphate limitation. We compared the physiology, protein expression, and secondary metabolite production under phosphate-limited conditions to those under phosphate surplus conditions. We observed that phosphate limitation had a pleiotropic effect on the physiology of the strain, triggering cell elongation, the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate, the degradation of polyphosphate, and the exchange of membrane lipids in favor of phosphorus-free lipids such as sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols. Many proteins involved in the uptake and degradation of phospho-organic compounds were upregulated, together with subunits of the ABC transport system for phosphate. Under conditions of phosphate limitation, FO-BEG1 secreted compounds into the medium that conferred an intense yellow coloration to the cultures. Among these compounds, we identified the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid. Finally, toxin-like proteins and other proteins likely involved in the interaction with the eukaryotic host were also upregulated. Altogether, our data suggest that phosphate limitation leads to a pronounced reorganization of FO-BEG1 physiology, involving phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur metabolism; cell morphology; secondary metabolite production; and the expression of virulence-related genes. PMID:25769826

  14. Phosphate Limitation Induces Drastic Physiological Changes, Virulence-Related Gene Expression, and Secondary Metabolite Production in Pseudovibrio sp. Strain FO-BEG1

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Bondarev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for living organisms and is obtained by bacteria primarily via phosphate uptake. However, phosphate is often scarcely accessible in nature, and there is evidence that in many areas of the ocean, its concentration limits bacterial growth. Surprisingly, the phosphate starvation response has been extensively investigated in different model organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli), but there is a dearth of studies on heterotrophic marine bacteria. In this work, we describe the response of Pseudovibrio sp. strain FO-BEG1, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium and potential symbiont of marine sponges, to phosphate limitation. We compared the physiology, protein expression, and secondary metabolite production under phosphate-limited conditions to those under phosphate surplus conditions. We observed that phosphate limitation had a pleiotropic effect on the physiology of the strain, triggering cell elongation, the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate, the degradation of polyphosphate, and the exchange of membrane lipids in favor of phosphorus-free lipids such as sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols. Many proteins involved in the uptake and degradation of phospho-organic compounds were upregulated, together with subunits of the ABC transport system for phosphate. Under conditions of phosphate limitation, FO-BEG1 secreted compounds into the medium that conferred an intense yellow coloration to the cultures. Among these compounds, we identified the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid. Finally, toxin-like proteins and other proteins likely involved in the interaction with the eukaryotic host were also upregulated. Altogether, our data suggest that phosphate limitation leads to a pronounced reorganization of FO-BEG1 physiology, involving phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur metabolism; cell morphology; secondary metabolite production; and the expression of virulence-related genes. PMID:25769826

  15. Cholesterol Accumulation Sequesters Rab9 and Disrupts Late Endosome Function in NPC1-deficient Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, Ian G.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to massive accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomes and lysosomes. To understand how cholesterol accumulation influences late endosome function, we investigated the effect of elevated cholesterol on Rab9-dependent export of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from this compartment. Endogenous Rab9 levels were elevated 1.8-fold in Niemann-Pick type C cells relative to wild type cells, and its half-life increased 1.6-fold, suggesting that Rab9 accumulation is caused by impaired protein turnover. Reduced Rab9 degradation was accompaniedby stabilization on endosome membranes, as shown by a reduction in the capacity of Rab9 for guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor-mediated extraction from Niemann-Pick type C membranes. Cholesterol appeared to stabilize Rab9 directly, as liposomes loaded with prenylated Rab9 showed decreased extractability with increasing cholesterol content. Rab9 is likely sequestered in an inactive form on Niemann-Pick type C membranes, as cation-dependent man-nose 6-phosphate receptorswere missorted to the lysosome for degradation, a process that was reversed by overexpression of GFP-tagged Rab9. In addition to using primary fibroblasts isolated from Niemann-Pick type C patients, RNA interference was utilized to recapitulate the disease phenotype in cultured cells, greatly facilitating the analysis of cholesterol accumulation and late endosome function. We conclude that cholesterol contributes directly to the sequestration of Rab9 on Niemann-Pick type C cell membranes, which in turn, disrupts mannose 6-phosphate receptor trafficking. PMID:16644737

  16. The inhibition of mitochondrial dicarboxylate transport by inorganic phosphate, some phosphate esters and some phosphonate compounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R N; Chappell, J B

    1974-02-01

    1. P(i) competitively inhibited succinate oxidation by intact uncoupled mitochondria in the presence of sufficient N-ethylmaleimide to block the phosphate carrier, with a K(i) of 2.5mm. 2. Of a large number of phosphate esters and phosphonate compounds, phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate were found to inhibit competitively uncoupled succinate oxidation by intact but not broken mitochondria. By comparison, benzoate was a relatively weak competitive inhibitor of succinate oxidation by intact mitochondria but a relatively potent inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. 3. Phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate were non-penetrant, and inhibited P(i)-dependent swelling of mitochondria suspended in isosmolar ammonium malate in a manner non-competitive with P(i). The inhibitors did not affect mitochondrial swelling when tested with P(i) alone. 4. It is concluded that: (i) phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate behaved as non-penetrant analogues of P(i), since their inhibitory properties were in strict contrast with those of benzoate; (ii) phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate interacted with the dicarboxylate carrier but not with the phosphate carrier; (iii) P(i) was effective as a competitive inhibitor of succinate oxidation because of its being either an alternative substrate for the dicarboxylate carrier or competitive with succinate for the intramitochondrial cations as proposed by Harris & Manger (1968). PMID:4822730

  17. Xenobiotic conjugation with phosphate - a metabolic rarity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    1. Although not unknown, the conjugation of a xenobiotic with phosphate appears a rarity amongst the routes available for foreign compound metabolism. This is especially true in mammals and may be somewhat surprising as conjugation with sulphate, a seemingly similar moiety, is commonplace. 2. Information from the literature, where xenobiotic phosphate conjugates have been described or suggested, has been collated and presented in this article. By bringing together this diverse material, hopefully interest will be generated in this unusual xenobiotic reaction, and perhaps further research undertaken to better understand and delineate the reasons for its relative absence from the xenobiotic scene. PMID:26611118

  18. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  19. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  20. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  1. Beta glucosidase from Bacillus polymyxa is activated by glucose-6-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Paulo H E; Álvares, Alice C M; Gomes, Anderson A; Miletti, Luiz C; Skoronski, Everton; da Silva, Gustavo F; de Freitas, Sonia M; Magalhães, Maria L B

    2015-08-15

    Optimization of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial for cost effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Enzymes involved in cellulose hydrolysis are often inhibited by their end-products, cellobiose and glucose. Efforts have been made to produce more efficient enzyme variants that are highly tolerant to product accumulation; however, further improvements are still necessary. Based on an alternative approach we initially investigated whether recently formed glucose could be phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate to circumvent glucose accumulation and avoid inhibition of beta-glucosidase from Bacillus polymyxa (BGLA). The kinetic properties and structural analysis of BGLA in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) were investigated. Kinetic studies demonstrated that enzyme was not inhibited by G6P. In contrast, the presence of G6P activated the enzyme, prevented beta glucosidase feedback inhibition by glucose accumulation and improved protein stability. G6P binding was investigated by fluorescence quenching experiments and the respective association constant indicated high affinity binding of G6P to BGLA. Data reported here are of great impact for future design strategies for second-generation bioethanol production. PMID:26116788

  2. Impact of Perturbed Pyruvate Metabolism on Adipocyte Triglyceride Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yaguang; Shi, Hai; Lee, Kyongbum

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adipocyte TG accumulation could be altered by specifically perturbing pyruvate metabolism. We treated cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes with chemical inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and characterized their global effects on intermediary metabolism using metabolic flux and isotopomer analysis. Inhibiting the enzymes over several days did not alter the adipocyte differentiation program as assessed by the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The main metabolic effects were to up-regulate intracellular lipolysis and decrease TG accumulation. Inhibiting PC also up-regulated glycolysis. Flux estimates indicated that the reduction in TG was due to decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis. Exogenous addition of free fatty acids dose-dependently increased the cellular TG level in the inhibitor-treated adipocytes, but not in untreated control cells. The results of this study support our hypothesis regarding the critical role of pyruvate reactions in TG synthesis. PMID:19683593

  3. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. PMID:25036667

  4. Cytokinin Determines Thiol-Mediated Arsenic Tolerance and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Thotegowdanapalya C; Castrillo, Gabriel; Navarro, Cristina; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Mateo, Cristian; Zamarreño, Angel M; Paz-Ares, Javier; Muñoz, Riansares; García-Mina, Jose M; Hernández, Luis E; Schmülling, Thomas; Leyva, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of arsenic in soil and water is a constant threat to plant growth in many regions of the world. Phytohormones act in the integration of growth control and stress response, but their role in plant responses to arsenic remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that arsenate [As(V)], the most prevalent arsenic chemical species in nature, causes severe depletion of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that CK signaling mutants and transgenic plants with reduced endogenous CK levels showed an As(V)-tolerant phenotype. Our data indicate that in CK-depleted plants exposed to As(V), transcript levels of As(V)/phosphate-transporters were similar or even higher than in wild-type plants. In contrast, CK depletion provoked the coordinated activation of As(V) tolerance mechanisms, leading to the accumulation of thiol compounds such as phytochelatins and glutathione, which are essential for arsenic sequestration. Transgenic CK-deficient Arabidopsis and tobacco lines show a marked increase in arsenic accumulation. Our findings indicate that CK is an important regulatory factor in plant adaptation to arsenic stress. PMID:27208271

  5. Early Events Induced by the Elicitor Cryptogein in Tobacco Cells: Involvement of a Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and Activation of Glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, A.; Frachisse, J. M.; Tavernier, E.; Bligny, R.; Gout, E.; Douce, R.; Guern, J.

    1997-01-01

    Application of the elicitor cryptogein to tobacco (cv Xanthi) is known to evoke external medium alkalinization, active oxygen species production, and phytoalexin synthesis. These are all dependent on an influx of calcium. We show here that cryptogein also induces calcium-dependent plasma membrane depolarization, chloride efflux, cytoplasm acidification, and NADPH oxidation without changes in NAD+ and ATP levels, indicating that the elicitor-activated redox system, responsible for active oxygen species production, uses NADPH in vivo. NADPH oxidation activates the functioning of the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate and to the accumulation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 3- and 2-phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvate. By inhibiting the pentose phosphate pathway, we demonstrate that the activation of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase is responsible for active oxygen species production, external alkalinization, and acidification of the cytoplasm. A model is proposed for the organization of the cryptogein responses measured to date. PMID:12237354

  6. Evaluation of Intestinal Phosphate Binding to Improve the Safety Profile of Oral Sodium Phosphate Bowel Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Robijn, Stef; Vervaet, Benjamin A.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Verhulst, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP) is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis) are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage) with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea) and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline). Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline) and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections). Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide) was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders. PMID:25790436

  7. Phosphate application to firing range soils for Pb immobilization: the unclear role of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris; Grubb, Dennis G

    2007-06-01

    Phosphate treatment has emerged as a widely accepted approach to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils and waste media, relying on the formation of the highly insoluble mineral pyromorphite as solubility-controlling phase for Pb. As such, phosphate treatment has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for firing ranges where Pb occurs in its metallic forms and several other phases (carbonates, oxides). While pyromorphite thermodynamically has the potential to control Pb solubility at low levels, its formation is kinetically controlled by pH, the solubility of the phosphate source, and the solubility of Pb species. Treatability studies have shown that excess quantities of soluble and acidic phosphate sources, such as phosphoric acid, are necessary for successful in situ treatment. Even under these conditions, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), the only reliable method to identify and quantify Pb speciation, showed that Pb conversion to pyromorphite in in situ treated soils was less than 45% after 32 months. Furthermore, the use of lime (CaO) to restore soil pH in acidified soil treatments inhibited further conversion. Additionally, phosphate treatment is known to reduce bioavailability through pyromorphite formation in the intestinal tract, and the phytoaccumulation of Pb; both desirable effects for Pb-impacted areas. Given the costs of phosphate treatment, the use of biogenic phosphate sources, such as bone meal, may be a more environmentally sustainable approach toward this end. In the many studies focusing on phosphate treatment, the attendant P leaching and eutrophication have been largely overlooked, along with other issues such as the enhanced leaching of oxyanionic contaminants, such as Se, As and W. The success and sustainability of applying phosphate as a BMP in firing range soils therefore remain questionable. PMID:17360110

  8. Sedoheptulose accumulation under CO2 enrichment in leaves of Kalanchoë pinnata: a novel mechanism to enhance C and P homeostasis?

    PubMed Central

    Van den Ende, Wim

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well-documented roles of its mono- and bisphosphate esters, the occurrence of free sedoheptulose in plant tissues remains a matter of conjecture. The present work sought to determine the origin of sedoheptulose formation in planta, as well as its physiological importance. Elevated CO2 and sucrose induction experiments were used to study sedoheptulose metabolism in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants Kalanchoë pinnata and Sedum spectabile. Experimental evidence suggested that sedoheptulose is produced from the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway intermediate sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, by a sedoheptulose-7-phosphate phosphatase. Carbon flux through this pathway was stimulated by increased triose-phosphate levels (elevated CO2, compromised sink availability, and sucrose incubation of source leaves) and attenuated by ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The accumulation of free sedoheptulose is proposed to act as a mechanism contributing to both C and P homeostasis by serving as an alternative carbon store under elevated CO2 or a compromised sink capacity to avoid sucrose accumulation, depletion of inorganic phosphate, and suppression of photosynthesis. It remains to be established whether this acclimation-avoiding mechanism is confined to CAM plants, which might be especially vulnerable to Pi imbalances, or whether some C3 and C4 plants also dispose of the genetic capacity to induce and accelerate sedoheptulose synthesis upon CO2 elevation. PMID:23378377

  9. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  10. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  11. Endogenous expression of histamine H1 receptors functionally coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in C6 glioma cells: regulation by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Peakman, M C; Hill, S J

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on phospholipid hydrolysis in rat-derived C6 glioma cells have been investigated. 2. Histamine H1 receptor-stimulation caused a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of total [3H]-inositol phosphates in cells prelabelled with [3H]-myo-inositol. The rank order of agonist potencies was histamine (EC50 = 24 microM) > N alpha-methylhistamine (EC50 = 31 microM) > 2-thiazolylethylamine (EC50 = 91 microM). 3. The response to 0.1 mM histamine was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the H1-antagonists, mepyramine (apparent Kd = 1 nM) and (+)-chlorpheniramine (apparent Kd = 4 nM). In addition, (-)-chlorpheniramine was more than two orders of magnitude less potent than its (+)-stereoisomer. 4. Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation with forskolin (10 microM, EC50 = 0.3 microM), isoprenaline (1 microM, EC50 = 4 nM) or rolipram (0.5 mM), significantly reduced the histamine-mediated (0.1 mM) inositol phosphate response by 37%, 43% and 26% respectively. In contrast, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin did not increase cyclic AMP accumulation and had no effect on the phosphoinositide response to histamine. 5. These data indicate the presence of functionally coupled, endogenous histamine H1 receptors in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, the results also indicate that H1 receptor-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis is inhibited by the elevation of cyclic AMP levels in these cells. PMID:7889313

  12. Identification of the PhoB Regulon and Role of PhoU in the Phosphate Starvation Response of Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Emma A.; Henry, Jonathan T.; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An ability to sense and respond to changes in extracellular phosphate is critical for the survival of most bacteria. For Caulobacter crescentus, which typically lives in phosphate-limited environments, this process is especially crucial. Like many bacteria, Caulobacter responds to phosphate limitation through a conserved two-component signaling pathway called PhoR-PhoB, but the direct regulon of PhoB in this organism is unknown. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation-DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to map the global binding patterns of the phosphate-responsive transcriptional regulator PhoB under phosphate-limited and -replete conditions. Combined with genome-wide expression profiling, our work demonstrates that PhoB is induced to regulate nearly 50 genes under phosphate-starved conditions. The PhoB regulon is comprised primarily of genes known or predicted to help Caulobacter scavenge for and import inorganic phosphate, including 15 different membrane transporters. We also investigated the regulatory role of PhoU, a widely conserved protein proposed to coordinate phosphate import with expression of the PhoB regulon by directly modulating the histidine kinase PhoR. However, our studies show that it likely does not play such a role in Caulobacter, as PhoU depletion has no significant effect on PhoB-dependent gene expression. Instead, cells lacking PhoU exhibit striking accumulation of large polyphosphate granules, suggesting that PhoU participates in controlling intracellular phosphate metabolism. IMPORTANCE The transcription factor PhoB is widely conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom, where it helps organisms respond to phosphate limitation by driving the expression of a battery of genes. Most of what is known about PhoB and its target genes is derived from studies of Escherichia coli. Our work documents the PhoB regulon in Caulobacter crescentus, and comparison to the regulon in E. coli reveals significant differences, highlighting the evolutionary

  13. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-01

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. PMID:25721509

  14. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xu; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Gady, Antoine; Yu, Yuan; Liang, Guolu; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2014-10-01

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and juice sacs, respectively. In flavedo, there was uncoordinated carotenoid accumulation and gene expression in RRV during green stages, which might be related to the expression of certain gene(s) in the MEP (methylerythritol phosphate) pathway. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway shifting from α,β-xanthophylls to β,β-xanthophylls synthesis occurred in RRV earlier than VAL during orange stages. In juice sacs, the low carotenoid content in both cultivars coincided with low expression of LCYE-Contig03 and LCYE-Contig24 during green stages, suggesting LCYE might be a limiting step for carotenoid accumulation. VAL mainly accumulated violaxanthin, but RRV accumulated β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin during orange stages, which corresponded to differences in juice color. Several upstream genes (PDS-Contig17, LCYB-Contig19, and ZDS members) and a downstream gene (ZEP) were expressed at higher levels in RRV than VAL, which might be responsible for greater accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin in RRV, respectively. PMID:25219303

  15. Effect of Phosphate and Uncouplers on Substrate Transport and Oxidation by Isolated Corn Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Day, David A.; Hanson, John B.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made to determine conditions under which malate oxidation rates in corn (Zea mays L.) mitochondria are limited by transport processes. In the absence of added ADP, inorganic phosphate increased malate oxidation rates by processes inhibited by mersalyl and oligomycin, but phosphate did not stimulate uncoupled respiration. However, the uncoupled oxidation rates were inhibited by butylmalonate and mersalyl. When uncoupler was added prior to substrate, subsequent O2 uptake rates were reduced when malate and succinate, but not exogenous NADH, were used. Uncoupler and butylmalonate also inhibited swelling in malate solutions and malate accumulation by these mitochondria, which were found to have a high endogenous phosphate content. Addition of uncoupler after malate or succinate produced an initial rapid oxidation which declined as the mitochondria lost solute and contracted. This decline was not affected by addition of ADP or AMP, and was not observed when exogenous NADH was substrate. Increasing K+ permeability with valinomycin increased the P-trifluoromethoxy (carboxylcyanide)phenyl hydrazone inhibition. Kinetic studies showed the slow rate of malate oxidation in the presence of uncoupler to be characterized by a high Km and a low Vmax, probably reflecting a diffusion-limited process. The results indicate that rapid malate and succinate oxidation require the operation of both the phosphate and dicarboxylate transporters, which in turn depend on maintenance of a proton motive force across the inner membrane. In addition, phosphate can stimulate acceptorless malate oxidation by reaction with the coupling mechanism, and in uncoupled mitochondria which are depleted of substrate there is a slow rate of oxidation which appears to be limited by diffusive entry. PMID:16659803

  16. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Sugar Metabolism and Accumulation during Apple Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lailiang

    2012-01-01

    Both sorbitol and sucrose are imported into apple fruit from leaves. The metabolism of sorbitol and sucrose fuels fruit growth and development, and accumulation of sugars in fruit is central to the edible quality of apple. However, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple remains quite limited. We identified members of various gene families encoding key enzymes or transporters involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit using homology searches and comparison of their expression patterns in different tissues, and analyzed the relationship of their transcripts with enzyme activities and sugar accumulation during fruit development. At the early stage of fruit development, the transcript levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, cell wall invertase, neutral invertase, sucrose synthase, fructokinase and hexokinase are high, and the resulting high enzyme activities are responsible for the rapid utilization of the imported sorbitol and sucrose for fruit growth, with low levels of sugar accumulation. As the fruit continues to grow due to cell expansion, the transcript levels and activities of these enzymes are down-regulated, with concomitant accumulation of fructose and elevated transcript levels of tonoplast monosaccharide transporters (TMTs), MdTMT1 and MdTMT2; the excess carbon is converted into starch. At the late stage of fruit development, sucrose accumulation is enhanced, consistent with the elevated expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), MdSPS5 and MdSPS6, and an increase in its total activity. Our data indicate that sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit is developmentally regulated. This represents a comprehensive analysis of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple, which will serve as a platform for further studies on the functions of these genes and subsequent manipulation of sugar metabolism and fruit quality traits related to carbohydrates. PMID:22412983

  17. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  18. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulators. 58.30-25 Section 58.30-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate may be ... Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate may be ...

  20. Regulation of hormone-sensitive renal phosphate transport.

    PubMed

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Friedman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is essential for growth and maintenance of the skeleton and for generating high-energy phosphate compounds. Evolutionary adaptation to high dietary phosphorous in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates involves regulated mechanisms assuring the efficient renal elimination of excess phosphate. These mechanisms prominently include PTH, FGF23, and Vitamin D, which directly and indirectly regulate phosphate transport. Disordered phosphate homeostasis is associated with pathologies ranging from kidney stones to kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease results in hyperphosphatemia, an elevated calcium×phosphate product with considerable morbidity and mortality, mostly associated with adverse cardiovascular events. This chapter highlights recent findings and insights regarding the hormonal regulation of renal phosphate transport along with imbalances of phosphate balance due to acquired or inherited diseases states. PMID:25817872

  1. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper bacteria" promoting establishment of both the indigenous and the introduced AM endophytes despite a gradual decrease in bacterial population size, which dropped from 10(sup7) at planting to 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) of dry rhizosphere soil at harvest. Dual inoculation with G. intraradices and B. subtilis significantly increased biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Regardless of the rhizobacterium strain and of the addition of RP, AM plants displayed lower specific activity ((sup32)P/(sup31)P) than their comparable controls, suggesting that the plants used P sources not available in their absence. The inoculated rhizobacteria may have released phosphate ions ((sup31)P), either from the added RP or from the less-available indigenous P sources, which were effectively taken up by the external AM mycelium. Soluble Ca deficiency in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. At least 75% of the P in dually inoculated plants derived from the added RP. It appears that these mycorrhizosphere interactions between bacterial and fungal plant associates contributed to the biogeochemical P cycling, thus promoting a sustainable nutrient supply to plants. PMID:16535730

  2. Insights from Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

  3. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  4. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  5. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained from the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.

  6. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  19. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  20. Psoriatic therapeutics and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cotton, D W; van Rossum, E

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of various agents on the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have been studied in vitro. Stress is laid on the calculation of kinetic parameters such as true K-I values. The most active inhibitor was methotrexate, closely followed by cGMP. The increase in inhibitory activity after incubation of methotrexate with liver slices is discussed. PMID:167665

  1. Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in SLC34A1 Encoding Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter 2A Cause Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Schlingmann, Karl P; Ruminska, Justyna; Kaufmann, Martin; Dursun, Ismail; Patti, Monica; Kranz, Birgitta; Pronicka, Ewa; Ciara, Elzbieta; Akcay, Teoman; Bulus, Derya; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Gawlik, Aneta; Sikora, Przemysław; Patzer, Ludwig; Galiano, Matthias; Boyadzhiev, Veselin; Dumic, Miroslav; Vivante, Asaf; Kleta, Robert; Dekel, Benjamin; Levtchenko, Elena; Bindels, René J; Rust, Stephan; Forster, Ian C; Hernando, Nati; Jones, Glenville; Wagner, Carsten A; Konrad, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH) is characterized by severe hypercalcemia with failure to thrive, vomiting, dehydration, and nephrocalcinosis. Recently, mutations in the vitamin D catabolizing enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) were described that lead to increased sensitivity to vitamin D due to accumulation of the active metabolite 1,25-(OH)2D3. In a subgroup of patients who presented in early infancy with renal phosphate wasting and symptomatic hypercalcemia, mutations in CYP24A1 were excluded. Four patients from families with parental consanguinity were subjected to homozygosity mapping that identified a second IIH gene locus on chromosome 5q35 with a maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 6.79. The sequence analysis of the most promising candidate gene, SLC34A1 encoding renal sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2A (NaPi-IIa), revealed autosomal-recessive mutations in the four index cases and in 12 patients with sporadic IIH. Functional studies of mutant NaPi-IIa in Xenopus oocytes and opossum kidney (OK) cells demonstrated disturbed trafficking to the plasma membrane and loss of phosphate transport activity. Analysis of calcium and phosphate metabolism in Slc34a1-knockout mice highlighted the effect of phosphate depletion and fibroblast growth factor-23 suppression on the development of the IIH phenotype. The human and mice data together demonstrate that primary renal phosphate wasting caused by defective NaPi-IIa function induces inappropriate production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 with subsequent symptomatic hypercalcemia. Clinical and laboratory findings persist despite cessation of vitamin D prophylaxis but rapidly respond to phosphate supplementation. Therefore, early differentiation between SLC34A1 (NaPi-IIa) and CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) defects appears critical for targeted therapy in patients with IIH. PMID:26047794

  2. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  3. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material

    PubMed Central

    Isherwood, F. A.; Barrett, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol–water–aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether–formic acid–2-methylpropan-2-ol–water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5′-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract

  4. Hexose phosphate synthetase from Methylococcus capsulatus makes d-arabino-3-hexulose phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The product of the reaction catalysed by hexose phosphate synthase prepared from Methylococcus capsulatus was dephosphorylated and the sugar moiety purified. The sugar and derivatives were compared by various chromatographic and other methods with authentic samples of allulose (psicose), d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose and d-erythro-d-glycero-3-hexulose. The sugar is not allulose, as was previously thought on the basis of less extensive evidence (Kemp & Quayle, 1966), but is in fact d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose (d-arabino-3-hexulose). This identification is consistent with recent studies which have shown that hexose phosphate synthase catalyses the condensation of formaldehyde with d-ribulose 5-phosphate rather than with d-ribose 5-phosphate (Kemp, 1972). PMID:4463938

  5. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell-wall invertase (CWI) are importan...

  6. The low temperature formation of octacalcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Stephan; Brown, Paul W.

    1993-09-01

    The low temperature formation of octacalcium phosphate (Ca 8(HPO 4) 2(PO 4) 4·5H 2O) was investigated. Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was formed by the hydrolysis of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), and by reaction between monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and tetracalcium phosphate (TetCP). Relationships between phase formation, microstructural evolution, and variations in solution chemistry were examined. Hydrolysis of α-TCP to form OCP occurs more rapidly at elevated temperatures. At the highest temperature studied, 70°C, initial precipitation of OCP occurs in about one hour, but its inevitable hydrolysis to the more stable HAp phase takes place over several days. At room temperature, nearly three days are required to initiate OCP formation, yet remains a final product phase for well over a period of months. When the initial solution pH is less than 7, pure phase OCP is the final product, while HAp forms when initial pH values are higher than this. Furthermore, OCP precipitates faster at the highest initial pH values where its formation is observed. OCP formation by reaction between MCPM and TetCP is also dependent on temperature and time of reaction. For temperatures between 40 and 55°C and at reasonable times (less than four days) the product is phase pure OCP. After that time, inevitable hydrolysis of the OCP product to HAp occurs. Between 30 and 40°C, DCPD (CaHPO 4·2H 2O) is simultaneously present with OCP, and below 30°C, HAp and DCPD coexist within this aforementioned time span. Conversely, between 55 and 60°C, DCP (CaHPO 4) and OCP are the product phases (in the allowed time of reaction, before the eventual degradation of OCP), and above 60°C HAp and DCP are the final products.

  7. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  8. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  12. Tetrathiafulvalene diindolylquinoxaline: a dual signaling anion receptor with phosphate selectivity†

    PubMed Central

    Bejger, Christopher; Park, Jung Su; Silver, Eric S.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of tetrathiafulvalene into the backbone of a known neutral phosphate receptor, diindolylquinoxaline, yields a dual optical-electrochemical chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate that functions in dichloromethane. This system shows selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate over other small anions and can be used to detect the presence of this analyte via fluorescence quenching or cyclic voltammetry. PMID:20856940

  13. Substitution of calcium by strontium within selected calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Hermes, C.; Nolting, H.-F.; Ryczek, J.

    1993-06-01

    Sr incorporation in the molecules of amorphous calcium phosphate, apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was investigated. The concentration of Sr ranged from 225 to 1010 μ g / g, i.e. it overlapped with the physiological range of Sr concentrations in human bone. The leading experimental technique was extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Sr K edge. Results of these studies demonstrated the following: (1) Sr incorporation in the calcium phosphates is compound-dependent, (2) the coordination of incorporated Sr atoms in the Ca-P molecules is similar to that of Ca atoms, but interatomic distances are ≈0.015 nm larger, (3) in apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate lattices Sr atoms may occupy selected Ca sites, which was not the case for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (4) in the apatite lattice Sr atoms are coordinated by 6 PO 4 tetrahedrals and (5) EXAFS spectra at the K edge of the incorporated Sr may be used to distinguish the structures of amorphous calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as well as apatite and its derivatives (apatitic tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate).

  14. Kinetic Characterization of Spinach Leaf Sucrose-Phosphate Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Jacob; Preiss, Jack

    1982-01-01

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase was partially purified via DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and its kinetic properties were studied. Fructose-6-phosphate saturation curves were sigmoidal, while UDPglucose saturation curves were hyperbolic. At subsaturating concentrations of fructose-6-phosphate, 1,5 anhydroglucitol-6-phosphate had a stimulatory effect on enzyme activity, suggesting multiple and interacting fructose-6-phosphate sites on sucrose-phosphate synthase. The concentrations required for 50% of maximal activity were 3.0 millimolar and 1.3 millimolar, respectively, for fructose-6-phosphate and UDPglucose. The enzyme was not stimulated by divalent cations. Inorganic phosphate proved to be a potent inhibitor, particularly at low concentrations of substrate. Phosphate inhibition was competitive with UDPglucose, and its Ki was determined to be 1.75 millimolar. Sucrose phosphate, the product of the reaction, was also shown to be a competitive inhibitor towards UDPglucose concentration and had Ki of 0.4 millimolar. The kinetic results suggest that spinach leaf sucrose-phospahte synthase is a regulatory enzyme and that its activity is modulated by the concentrations of phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, and UDPglucose occurring in the cytoplasm of the leaf cell. PMID:16662338

  15. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  9. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  10. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  5. Phosphate Ions - Does Exposure Lead to Degradation of Cementitious Materials?

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J; Mattus, Catherine H; Dole, Leslie Robert

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature, contacts with concrete research personnel, and conduct of a "bench-scale" laboratory investigation. Results indicate that no harmful interactions occur between phosphate ions and cememtitious materials unless phosphates are present in form of phosphoric acid.

  6. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Mikhail V; Martin, Adrian P; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting (33)P-phosphate-pulsed (32)P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5-40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate. PMID:26198420

  9. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  10. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  16. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  19. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...