Science.gov

Sample records for 3he proportional counters

  1. Alpha Backgrounds in the SNO ^3He Proportional Counter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonehill, Laura

    2006-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently deployed an array of proportional counters known as Neutral Current Detectors (NCDs) to detect thermalized neutrons via the ^3He(n,p)^3H reaction. The primary physics background to the neutron-capture signal is alpha particle emission from uranium- and thorium-chain decays in the NCD walls. The expected capture rate of neutrons from the neutral-current neutrino reaction on deuterium is three per day and the intrinsic alpha background rate is approximately 250 alphas per day. Fewer than 10% of these alphas fall into the energy range where neutron-capture signals occur, and a substantial number of these can be eliminated by pulse-shape analysis. This talk will focus on measurements of the alpha backgrounds in the NCDs and the extent to which these alphas contaminate the neutron-capture signal region.

  2. A novel method to measure low flux ambient thermal neutrons with 3He proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Gong, H.; Yue, Q.; Li, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    A pulse shape discrimination method to discriminate neutron events from backgrounds based on the double-pulse effect of 3He proportional counters is proposed and detailed in this paper. We made an ambient thermal neutron measurement system composed of a commercial 3He proportional counter tube and the corresponding readout electronics. The background of the system has been measured and the minimum detectable amount of the 3He proportional counter tube will be reduced by an order of magnitude with this method. The system was applied to measure the ambient thermal neutron flux inside a large neutron shielding structure at a deep underground laboratory and the pulse shape discrimination method proves to be effective.

  3. An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anaya, J. M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Franklin, J. E.; Geissbühler, P.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L. L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Loach, J. C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K. K. S.; Miller, G. G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N. S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B. A.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wouters, J. M.

    2007-09-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been built in order to make a unique measurement of the total active flux of solar neutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the third phase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 and 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve the neutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of 36 strings of proportional counters filled with a mixture of 3He and CF 4 gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteron neutral-current reaction in the D 2O, and four strings filled with a mixture of 4He and CF 4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counter diameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCD array is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional counters ever produced. This article describes the design, construction, deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses the electronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signatures and backgrounds.

  4. Lithium glass scintillator neutron detector as an improved alternative to the standard 3 he proportional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2011-06-01

    Lithium glass scintillator made from 6Li-enriched substrate is a well known for its neutron detection capability. In spite of neutron interaction, cross section of 6Li happens to be lower than that of 3He. However, the neutron detection efficiency could be higher due to higher volume content of 6Li nuclear in the solid scintillator vs. gas filled proportional counter. At the same time, as lithium glass is sensitive to gamma and charge particle radiation, non-neutron radiation discrimination is required. Our detector is composed of two equal-size cylindrical Li(Ce) glass scintillators. The first one is high-sensitive to thermal neutrons GS-20 (6Li doped), the second one is GS-30 (7Li doped) type Scint-Gobain made lithium glass scintillator. Each of scintillators is coupled with R7400U Hamamatsu subminiature photomultiplier tube, and all assembly is fitted into NP100H 3He tube size. 6Li absorbs thermal neutrons releasing alpha particles and triton with 4.8 MeV total energy deposit inside the scintillator (equivalent to about ~1.3 MeV gamma energy depositions). Because 7Li isotope does not absorb thermal neutrons, and the physical properties of the two scintillators are virtually identical, the difference between these two scintillators could be used to provide neutron dose rate information. Results of study of neutron detector assembled of two Li(Ce) scintillators and NP100H moderator are presented

  5. An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for theSudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbaugh, J.F.; Anaya, J.M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne,M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Dai, X.; H.Deng,X.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Franklin, J.E.; Geissbuehler, P.; Germani, J.V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A.L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L.L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko,K.T.; Loach, J.C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, G.G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N.S.; O'Kee, H.M.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner,S.D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A.R.; Smith,M.W.E.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill,L.C.; Thornewell, P.M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B.A.; VanWechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L.; Tseung, H.W.C.; Wendland,J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wouters, J.M.

    2007-02-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been builtin order to make a unique measurement of the total active ux of solarneutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the thirdphase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 andNovember 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve theneutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of36 strings of proportional counters lled with a mixture of 3He and CF4gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteronneutral current reaction in the D2O, and four strings lled with a mixtureof 4He and CF4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counterdiameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCDarray is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional countersever produced. This article describes the design, construction,deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses theelectronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signaturesand backgrounds.

  6. Design and development of a 3He replacement safeguards neutron counter based on 10B-lined proportional detector technology

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Evans, Louise; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Rael, Carlos D.; Martinez, Isaac P.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-07-16

    This presentation represents an overview of the experimental evaluation of a boron-lined proportional technology performed within an NA-241 sponsored project on testing of boron-lined proportional counters for the purpose of replacement of {sup 3}He technologies. The presented boron-lined technology will be utilized in a design of a full scale safeguards neutron coincidence counter. The design considerations and the Monte Carlo performance predictions for the counter are also presented.

  7. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boron-lined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter-Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.

  8. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    DOE PAGES

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designedmore » and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boronlined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter – Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.« less

  9. Effect of temperature on performance of {sup 3}He filled neutron proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Shraddha S.

    2014-04-24

    Neutron detectors used for cosmic neutron monitoring and various other applications are mounted in hostile environment. It is essential for detectors to sustain extreme climatic conditions, such as extreme temperature and humidity. Effort is made to evaluate the performance of detectors in extreme temperature in terms of pulse height distribution and avalanche formation. Neutron detectors filled with {sup 3}He incorporate an additive gas with quantity optimized for a particular application. Measurements are performed on neutron detectors filled with {sup 3}He and stopping gases Kr and CF{sub 4}. Detector performance for these fill gas combinations in terms of pulse height distribution is evaluated. Gas gain and Diethorn gas constants measured and analyzed for the microscopic effect on pulse formation. Results from these investigations are presented.

  10. Low-level gamma and neutron monitoring based on use of proportional counter filled with 3He in polythene moderator: study of the responses to gamma and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Pszona, S; Bantsar, A; Tulik, P; Wincel, K; Zaręba, B

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that a proportional counter filled with (3)He placed centrally inside a polythene sphere opens a new possibility for measuring gamma photons and neutrons in the separate pulse-height windows. The responses to gamma and neutrons (in terms of ambient dose equivalent) of the detector assembly consisting of 203-mm polythene sphere with centrally positioned 40-mm diameter (3)He proportional counter have been studied. The response to secondary gammas from capture process in hydrogen has also been studied. The rather preliminary studies indicate that the proposed measuring system has very promising features as an ambient dose equivalent device for mixed gamma-neutron fields.

  11. Independent measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux using an array of 3He proportional counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Amsbaugh, J F; Anthony, A E; Banar, J; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, M G; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; DiMarco, M; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Goon, J T M; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamian, A A; Harper, G C; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Henning, R; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M; Krüger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; McBryde, K; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Gann, G D Orebi; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Tesić, G; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Wechel, T; Van Berg, R; VanDevender, B A; Virtue, C J; Walker, T J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2008-09-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of 3He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (nu_x) 8B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54_-0.31;+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)x10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam2=7.59_-0.21;+0.19x10(-5) eV2 and theta=34.4_-1.2;+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  12. An Independent Measurement of the Total Active 8B Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of 3He Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO Colla

    2008-06-05

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active ({nu}{sub x}) {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54{sub -0.31}{sup +0.33}(stat){sub -0.34}{sup +0.36}(syst) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields {Delta}m{sup 2} = 7.94{sub -0.26}{sup +0.42} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2} and {theta} = 33.8{sub -1.3}{sup +1.4} degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  13. Independent Measurement of the Total Active {sup 8}B Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of {sup 3}He Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Chauhan, D.; Farine, J.; Fleurot, F.; Hallman, E. D.; Krueger, A.; Schwendener, M. H.; Virtue, C. J.; Ahmed, S. N.; Cai, B.; Chen, M.; DiMarco, M.; Earle, E. D.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Guillian, E.; Harvey, P. J.; Keeter, K. J.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.

    2008-09-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active ({nu}{sub x}) {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54{sub -0.31}{sup +0.33}(stat){sub -0.34}{sup +0.36}(syst)x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields {delta}m{sup 2}=7.59{sub -0.21}{sup +0.19}x10{sup -5} eV{sup 2} and {theta}=34.4{sub -1.2}{sup +1.3} degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  14. Coincidence Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J H

    1950-11-21

    A coincidence proportional counter having a plurality of collecting electrodes so disposed as to measure the range or energy spectrum of an ionizing particle-emitting source such as an alpha source, is disclosed.

  15. Proportional counter radiation camera

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  16. The microstrip proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

  17. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  18. Multiwire proportional counter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A test run was made at the Bevatron to check the character of signals induced in an electromagnetic delay line capacitively coupled to the wire cathode plane of a multiwire proportional chamber. In particular, these signals and the behavior of the readout electronics as a function of associated delta-ray production are studied. These measurements are important in assessing the effect of delta-ray background on the spatial resolution attainable for the primary ions. Test results are used to design a multiwire proportional chamber and readout system for use as spatial detectors in a superconducting magnetic spectrometer experiment.

  19. The 10B based Jalousie neutron detector - An alternative for 3He filled position sensitive counter tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henske, M.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Modzel, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decades 3He filled proportional counter tubes were the working horse employed to serve as neutron counters especially in cases where large area coverage was required. Today the lack of 3He demands the development of an alternative technology. Here we present a prototype neutron detector that is based on a concept with solid 10B as neutron converter and aims for large area neutron detection applications. We report on first experimental results obtained with this prototype to demonstrate the feasibility and operational readiness of our concept.

  20. A 3He counter version of the Thermo Fisher Scientific NRD neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Richard H; Seagraves, David T

    2008-01-01

    Thermo Fisher Scientific's NRD rem meter has been in production for almost 40 y and is the primary rem meter in use at many U.S. Department of Energy facilities. An upgrade project was initiated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory with the primary goal of increasing the NRD's neutron sensitivity through the substitution of pressurized 3He gas (4 atmospheres) for the stock counter tube's BF3 fill gas. Historically, BF3 counters were far less expensive relative to 3He and were usually chosen on the basis of cost. That is no longer the case, with pricing for both types of counters being similar. Test results have shown that the 3He counter version of the NRD exhibits stable operation at a reasonable bias voltage and good gamma rejection. Sensitivity has been increased by about a factor of four with no penalty in cost.

  1. Boron-Lined Multichamber and Conventional Neutron Proportional Counter Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multichamber proportional counter manufactured by LND, Inc. Also reported are results obtained with an earlier design of conventional, boron-lined, proportional counters from LND. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detectors.

  2. Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, “multitube” proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

  3. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  4. Transmission Line Properties of Nickel-Bodied Proportional Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of neutral current and charged current neutrino scattering events allowed the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to demonstrate definitively neutrino oscillation. The three phases of the SNO detector are distinguished by different techniques of detecting the neutrons produced by neutral current neutrino scattering. In the final phase, nickel-bodied proportional counters filled with ^3He were used as neutral current detectors (NCDs) by observing the charged particles produced by neutron capture on ^3He. If we can understand the electrical transmission properties of the NCDs, we can use the different pulse shapes produced by neutron captures compared to those of alphas to distinguish these events and gain more sensitivity to the neutral current events. We found that because of the ferromagnetism of the nickel, standard calculations provided for proportional counters are not accurate enough. To obtain a better calculation, we directly measured the electrical properties of the transmission line as a function of frequency. This is a presentation of our results.

  5. Neutron spectrometry with He-3 proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Manolopoulou, M.; Fragopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Vagena, E.; Westmeier, W.; Zamani, M.

    2011-07-01

    Helium filled proportional counters are widely used in the field of neutron detection and spectrometry. In this work the response of a commercially available He-3 counter is studied experimentally and calculated with Monte Carlo for the neutron energy range from 230 keV up to about 7 MeV. The calculated response of the system is used to determine neutron yield energy distribution emitted from an extended {sup nat}U/Pb assembly irradiated with 1.6 GeV deuterons. The results are in acceptable agreement with the calculated neutron distribution with DCM-DEM code. (authors)

  6. Gamma heating measurements with proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.; Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J.

    1990-05-01

    A new data acquisition technique (the Continuously-varied Bias- voltage Acquisition mode) has been developed and tested for the low-flux broad-energy regime characteristic of existing fusion blanket mock-ups. This method of analysis allows for the acquisition of data spanning several orders of magnitude in energy with a single proportional counter. Utilizing this method, the gamma energy deposition in a mixed neutron and gamma field was measured. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-06-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project “Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

  8. Novel concept for neutron detection: proportional counter filled with (10)B nanoparticle aerosol.

    PubMed

    Amaro, F D; Monteiro, C M B; Dos Santos, J M F; Antognini, A

    2017-02-09

    The high neutron detection efficiency, good gamma-ray discrimination and non-toxicity of (3)He made of proportional counters filled with this gas the obvious choice for neutron detection, particularly in radiation portal monitors (RPM), used to control the illicit transport of nuclear material, of which neutron detectors are key components. (3)He is very rare and during the last decade this gas has become increasingly difficult to acquire. With the exception of BF3, which is toxic, no other gas can be used for neutron detection in proportional counters. We present an alternative where the (3)He atoms are replaced by nanoparticles made of another neutron sensitive material, (10)B. The particles are dispersed in a gaseous volume, forming an aerosol with neutron sensitive properties. A proportional counter filled with such aerosol was exposed to a thermal neutron beam and the recorded response indicates that the neutrons have interacted with the particles in the aerosol. This original technique, which transforms a standard proportional gas mixture into a neutron sensitive aerosol, is a breakthrough in the field of radiation detection and has the potential to become an alternative to the use of (3)He in proportional counters.

  9. Novel concept for neutron detection: proportional counter filled with 10B nanoparticle aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, F. D.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Antognini, A.

    2017-02-01

    The high neutron detection efficiency, good gamma-ray discrimination and non-toxicity of 3He made of proportional counters filled with this gas the obvious choice for neutron detection, particularly in radiation portal monitors (RPM), used to control the illicit transport of nuclear material, of which neutron detectors are key components. 3He is very rare and during the last decade this gas has become increasingly difficult to acquire. With the exception of BF3, which is toxic, no other gas can be used for neutron detection in proportional counters. We present an alternative where the 3He atoms are replaced by nanoparticles made of another neutron sensitive material, 10B. The particles are dispersed in a gaseous volume, forming an aerosol with neutron sensitive properties. A proportional counter filled with such aerosol was exposed to a thermal neutron beam and the recorded response indicates that the neutrons have interacted with the particles in the aerosol. This original technique, which transforms a standard proportional gas mixture into a neutron sensitive aerosol, is a breakthrough in the field of radiation detection and has the potential to become an alternative to the use of 3He in proportional counters.

  10. Novel concept for neutron detection: proportional counter filled with 10B nanoparticle aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, F. D.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Antognini, A.

    2017-01-01

    The high neutron detection efficiency, good gamma-ray discrimination and non-toxicity of 3He made of proportional counters filled with this gas the obvious choice for neutron detection, particularly in radiation portal monitors (RPM), used to control the illicit transport of nuclear material, of which neutron detectors are key components. 3He is very rare and during the last decade this gas has become increasingly difficult to acquire. With the exception of BF3, which is toxic, no other gas can be used for neutron detection in proportional counters. We present an alternative where the 3He atoms are replaced by nanoparticles made of another neutron sensitive material, 10B. The particles are dispersed in a gaseous volume, forming an aerosol with neutron sensitive properties. A proportional counter filled with such aerosol was exposed to a thermal neutron beam and the recorded response indicates that the neutrons have interacted with the particles in the aerosol. This original technique, which transforms a standard proportional gas mixture into a neutron sensitive aerosol, is a breakthrough in the field of radiation detection and has the potential to become an alternative to the use of 3He in proportional counters. PMID:28181520

  11. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented.

  12. GSFC's Multi-Wire Gas Proportional Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The Goddard X-ray group made its appearance in 1964 as a one person (Elihu Boldt) appendage to the well established cosmic ray group, then headed by Frank MacDonald. This discipline proximity was crucial because it meant superb technical support from the start, which allowed the fledging group to quickly advance toward directions of choice. When I became the 2nd member of the group in 1966, the new discipline still relied on bulky gas counters, stacked to make up a usable detection area. Slim opportunities existed for timing or spectral inferences. Elihu's strong interest in pursuing the reported diffuse cosmic radiation had to be set aside, as improving this situation appeared to be years away. Cosmic ray researchers had long used charged particle timing techniques for cleaning up their data, but those appeared irrelevant for our purposes because of the large, background generating, mass of the gas containment vessels and the slow drift in the counter gas of the charge from photon interaction sites to the counter anode. We had to deal with these realities in whatever choices we made for our future instruments. The multi-wire gas proportional counter emerged from our still small group in the late1960s, demonstrating on several rocket and balloon flights a greatly reduced detector background, improved event timing and adequate resolution for addressing key spectral features. Three of these detectors, flown in 1975 on NASA's 8th orbiting solar observatory, were successfully used for some 3 years to conduct non dispersive, 1-10 keV spectroscopy on many galactic and extragalactic sources, including several clusters of galaxies. In 1977 we flew a set of larger detectors on the first of NASA's High Energy Astrophysical Observatories (HEAO). These were specifically designed for the study of the X-ray background. Finally, the largest instruments of this family were flown in 1995 by our group on NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, RXTE, which observed over a remarkable 16

  13. On the optimization of the isotopic neutron source method for measuring the thermal neutron absorption cross section: advantages and disadvantages of BF3 and 3He counters.

    PubMed

    Bolewski, A; Ciechanowski, M; Dydejczyk, A; Kreft, A

    2008-04-01

    The effect of the detector characteristics on the performance of an isotopic neutron source device for measuring thermal neutron absorption cross section (Sigma) has been examined by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Three specific experimental arrangements, alternately with BF(3) counters and (3)He counters of the same sizes, have been modelled using the MCNP-4C code. Results of Monte Carlo calculations show that devices with BF(3) counters are more sensitive to Sigma, but high-pressure (3)He counters offer faster assays.

  14. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  15. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Mayer, Roberto E.; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

    2015-03-01

    This work introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from detection of the burst of neutrons. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of a paraffin wax moderated 3He-filled tube is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  16. A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter with krypton filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mano, R. D. P.; Barata, E. C. G. M.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter filled with pure krypton was studied. Energy resolution below 10% for 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained with this prototype. This value is much better than the energy resolution obtained with proportional counters or other MPGDs with krypton filling. The krypton electroluminescence scintillation and ionisation thresholds were found to be about 0.5 and 3.5 kV cm-1bar-1, respectively.

  17. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  18. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, James A.; Kopp, Manfred K.

    1981-01-01

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  19. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. ); Bavdaz, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell.

  20. Modelling boron-lined proportional counter response to neutrons.

    PubMed

    Shahri, A; Ghal-Eh, N; Etaati, G R

    2013-09-01

    The detailed Monte Carlo simulation of a boron-lined proportional counter response to a neutron source has been presented. The MCNP4C and experimental data on different source-moderator geometries have been given for comparison. The influence of different irradiation geometries and boron-lining thicknesses on the detector response has been studied.

  1. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF/sub 2/, as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures.

  2. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaki, M.; Kawano, T.; Isozumi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive 55Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH4 admixed dry air or N2. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 104) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O2 has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N2.

  3. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-) filled proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Agrawal, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. Results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases are presented.

  4. Automatic method to manufacture 2D Multiwire Proportional Counter frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, J. C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Fernández, F.; Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a complete solution to manufacture anodes and cathodes for a Multiwire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is described. The solution consists of a semiautomatic winding machine and a soldering method by radiation. This method allows manufacturing one frame (electrode) in 3 h with a minimum human intervention. The machine can work with several types of frames and a great accuracy in the position and the stress of the wires can be achieved.

  5. A complete database for the Einstein imaging proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1991-01-01

    A complete database for the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) was completed. The original data that makes up the archive is described as well as the structure of the database, the Op-Ed analysis system, the technical advances achieved relative to the analysis of (IPC) data, the data products produced, and some uses to which the database has been put by scientists outside Columbia University over the past year.

  6. Broad band imaging with an imaging gas scintillation proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.

    1987-12-01

    A large imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (LIGSPC) has been built and calibrated at the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory. This instrument combines the good energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter with the good spatial resolution of a multiwire proportional counter. We present experimental results obtained with this detector and interpret them in terms of the physical processes underlying its operation. A coded aperture mask whose pattern is based on a pseudorandom sequence has been tested with the LIGSPC. We discuss the effects that several physical design limitations have on the image deconvolution and compare analytical, simulated, and experimental results. Placed at the focal plane of a grazing incidence mirror and a coded aperture mask, the LIGSPC forms the basis of a broad band X-ray imaging spectrophotometer (BBXRIS) for the study of cosmic X-ray sources. We discuss the principles involved in the design of an experiment based on the BBXRIS concept and look at two specific examples, preparations for which are now underway.

  7. Proportional counter for X-ray analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces. [a position sensitive scintillating imaging proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional scintillation detector was developed and evaluated for use in applications involving X-ray imaging as well as spectroscopy. Topics covered include limitations of the proportional scintillation counter for use in space; purification of the xenon gas in the detector, and the operation of the detector system. Results show that the light signal in a proportional scintillation detector remains well localized. With modest electric fields in xenon, the primary electrons from a photoelectric absorption of an X-ray can be brought a distance of a few millimeters to a higher field region without spreading more than a millimeter or so. Therefore, it is possible to make a proportional scintillation detector with good position sensitivity that could be used to calibrate out the difference in light collection over its sensitive volume.

  8. Response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter to neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.; Gibbons, F.; Braby, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose as a function of lineal energy was measured at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) using a 512-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and neutron dose equivalent response evaluated. Although there are some differences, the measured dose equivalent is in agreement with that measured by the 16-channel HANDI tissue equivalent counter. Comparison of TEPC measurements with those made by a silicon solid-state detector for low linear energy transfer particles produced by the same beam, is presented. The measurements show that about 4% of dose equivalent is delivered by particles heavier than protons generated in the conducting tissue equivalent plastic. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter to neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.; Gibbons, F.; Braby, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose as a function of lineal energy was measured at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) using a 512-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and neutron dose equivalent response evaluated. Although there are some differences, the measured dose equivalent is in agreement with that measured by the 16-channel HANDI tissue equivalent counter. Comparison of TEPC measurements with those made by a silicon solid-state detector for low linear energy transfer particles produced by the same beam, is presented. The measurements show that about 4% of dose equivalent is delivered by particles heavier than protons generated in the conducting tissue equivalent plastic. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proportional counter windows for the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, T. H.; Bauer, J. M.; Canizares, C. R.; Isobe, T.; Nenonen, S.; O'Connor, J.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Flanagan, K. A.; Zombeck, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    A Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) using a gas flow proportional counter as its primary detector is among the instruments under development for AXAF. The BCS will employ windows of 1-micron-thick polyimide coated on both sides with 200 A of Al; this window composition, while X-ray transmitting, will leak gas at a lower rate than the polypropylene film-based windows formerly employed. Accounts are given of the results obtained with additional innovative X-ray window materials currently under development, including diamond and Si-enriched Si3N4.

  11. Gas amplification factor in neon-nitrogen filled proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.

    1988-07-01

    The gas amplification factor in a cylindrical proportional counter filled with NeN 2 Penning mixtures has been measured (over the range 1 < A < 6.4 × 10 3) to verify the validity of the gas gain formulae of Rose and Korff, Khristov, Williams and Sara, Diethorn and Zastawny. This factor has been found to obey Zastawny's formula over the range of variables studied. The formula of Diethorn can be fitted only for small nitrogen concentrations (below 5 × 10 -4). Constants appropriate to the Zastawny and Diethorn formulae have been determined over a wide range of N 2 concentrations from spectroscopically pure Ne up to 11.1% N 2.

  12. Proportional counter windows for the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, T. H.; Bauer, J. M.; Canizares, C. R.; Isobe, T.; Nenonen, S.; O'Connor, J.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Flanagan, K. A.; Zombeck, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    A Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) using a gas flow proportional counter as its primary detector is among the instruments under development for AXAF. The BCS will employ windows of 1-micron-thick polyimide coated on both sides with 200 A of Al; this window composition, while X-ray transmitting, will leak gas at a lower rate than the polypropylene film-based windows formerly employed. Accounts are given of the results obtained with additional innovative X-ray window materials currently under development, including diamond and Si-enriched Si3N4.

  13. High speed pulse digitization in driftless gas scintillation proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, J.; Smith, A.; Peacock, A.

    1988-06-01

    In a driftless gas scintillation proportional counter the observed light burst profile provides a wealth of information both about the incident photon and the transit of the electron cloud through the scintillation region. The different features of such profiles are difficult to separate with conventional analog electronics. In this work the authors apply the technique of high speed pulse digitization to the problem. They show that by this technique not only can the performance of the instrument be improved (e.g. background rejection) but valuable data can be obtained regarding the design of both the gas cell and the analysis electronics.

  14. On accelerator-based neutron sources and neutron field characterization with low energy neutron spectrometer based on position sensitive 3He counter.

    PubMed

    Murata, I; Miyamaru, H; Kato, I; Mori, Y

    2009-07-01

    The development of new neutron sources for BNCT applications, based on particle accelerators is currently underway all over the world. Though nuclear reactors were used for a long time as the only neutron source available having the requested flux levels, the accelerator-based ones have recently been investigated on the other hand due to its easy-to-use and acceptable performances. However, when using an accelerator, various secondary particles would be emitted which forms a troublesome background. Moreover, the neutrons produced have usually an energy spectrum somewhat different from the requested one and thus should be largely moderated. An additional issue to be taken into account is the patient positioning, which should be close to the neutron source, in order to take advantage of a neutron flux level high enough to limit the BNCT treatment time within 1h. This implies that, inside a relatively narrow space, neutrons should be moderated, while unnecessary secondary particles should be shielded. Considering that a background-free neutron field from an accelerator-driven neutron source dedicated to BNCT application is generally difficult to be provided, the characterization of such a neutron field will have to be clearly assessed. In the present study, a low energy neutron spectrometer has been thus designed and is now being developed to measure the accelerator-based neutron source performance. The presently proposed spectrometer is based on a (3)He proportional counter, which is 50 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, with a gas pressure of 0.5 MPa. It is quite unique that the spectrometer is set up in parallel with the incident neutron beam and a reaction depth distribution is measured by it as a position sensitive detector. Recently, a prototype detector has been developed and the signal test is now underway. In this paper, the feature of the accelerator-based neutron sources is outlined and importance of neutron field characterization is discussed. And the developed

  15. A Complete Public Archive for the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Consistent with our proposal to the Astrophysics Data Program in 1992, we have completed the design, construction, documentation, and distribution of a flexible and complete archive of the data collected by the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter. Along with software and data delivered to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, we have compiled and, where appropriate, published catalogs of point sources, soft sources, hard sources, extended sources, and transient flares detected in the database along with extensive analyses of the instrument's backgrounds and other anomalies. We include in this document a brief summary of the archive's functionality, a description of the scientific catalogs and other results, a bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part under this contract, and a list of personnel whose pre- and post-doctoral education consisted in part in participation in this project.

  16. Calibration and optimization of proportional counter modules using Garfield

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kiwhan; Brockwell, Michael I; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Green, J Andrew; Hogan, Gary E; Makela, Mark F; Mariam, Fesseha G; Morris, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Prototypes of radiation detector arrays used for charged-particle radiography require iniliol calibration to correlate the distribution of electron arrival time to the particle track locations. This step is crucial to obtaining the spatial resolution necessary to separate particle tracks traversing the individual proportional counters in the arrays. Our past attempts to use cosmic rays alone for the initial calibration have fallen short of obtaining the desired resolution due to the insufficient cosmic ray flux to provide the necessary number of particle tracks. A theoretical relation between electron drift time and radial drift distance is obtained with Garfield, a CERN gas detector simulation program. This relation is then used as an effective starting point for the initial calibration and results in a shorter calibration period and improved spatial resolution of the detectors.

  17. A multiwire proportional counter system for high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Deney, C. L.; Golden, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Resolution tests of multiwire proportional counter delay line readout systems are reported. The system is being developed at NASA/JSC for use in a large balloon borne magnet spectrometer. The system is ultimately intended for use in Space Shuttle missions. Tests of two different types of delay line and associated electronics carried out in minimum ionizing particle beams (accelerator and sea level cosmic ray) are reported. Resolution performance is shown to be strongly dependent on type of gas mixture and in the case of inclined events upon the propagation velocity of the delay line. The resolution performance achieved for magic gas chamber filling (100 um at normal incidence) is far superior to any other state of the art technique capable of being applied to large geometry factor systems.

  18. A multiwire proportional counter system for high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Deney, C. L.; Golden, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Resolution tests of multiwire proportional counter delay line readout systems are reported. The system is being developed at NASA/JSC for use in a large balloon borne magnet spectrometer. The system is ultimately intended for use in Space Shuttle missions. Tests of two different types of delay line and associated electronics carried out in minimum ionizing particle beams (accelerator and sea level cosmic ray) are reported. Resolution performance is shown to be strongly dependent on type of gas mixture and in the case of inclined events upon the propagation velocity of the delay line. The resolution performance achieved for magic gas chamber filling (100 um at normal incidence) is far superior to any other state of the art technique capable of being applied to large geometry factor systems.

  19. An investigation of aerogels, foams, and foils for multi-wire proportional counter neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kyle Alan

    The 3He gas shortage for neutron detection has caused an increase in research efforts to develop viable alternative technologies. 3He neutron detectors cover areas ranging from 10-1000 cm2 in cylindrical form factors and are ideal for many nuclear applications due to their high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency (> 80%) and gamma-ray discrimination (GRR ≤ 1 x 10-6) capabilities. Neutron monitoring systems for nuclear security applications include Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM’s), backpack, briefcase, and hand-held sensors. A viable replacement technology is presented here and compares three neutron detectors, each with different neutron absorber materials, to current 3He standards. These materials include Li and/or B silica aerogels, LiF impregnated foams, and metallic Li foils. Additionally, other neutron absorbing materials were investigated in this work and include LiF coated Mylar, B foils, BN coated carbon foam, and BN coated plastic honeycomb. From theoretical calculations, the Li foil material showed the greatest promise as a viable 3He alternative, thus a majority of the research efforts were focused on this material. The new neutron detector was a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) constructed using alternating banks of anode wires and 95% enriched 6Li foils sheets spaced 1.63 cm apart. In total, six anode banks and five layers of foil were used, thus an anode wire bank was positioned on each side of a suspended foils. Reaction products from the 6Li(n,α)3H reaction were able to escape both side of a foil sheet simultaneously and be measured in the surrounding gas volume concurrently. This new concept of measuring both reaction products from a single neutron absorption in a solid-form absorber material increased the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray discrimination compared to coated gas-filled detectors. Three different sizes of Li foil MWPC neutron detectors were constructed ranging from 25-1250 cm2 and

  20. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Varughese, T.; Singh, Hardev; Behera, B. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2009-12-15

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20x10 cm{sup 2} and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  1. GAMMA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CONTAINING HIGH Z GAS AND LOW Z MODERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.

    1963-07-23

    A gamma radiation counter employing a gas proportional counter is described. The radiation counter comprises a cylindrical gas proportional counter which contains a high atomic number gas and is surrounded by a low atomic number gamma radiation moderator material. At least one slit is provided in the moderator to allow accident gamma radiation to enter the moderator in the most favorable manner for moderation, and also to allow low energy gamma radiation to enter the counter without the necessity of passing through the moderator. This radiation counter is capable of detecting and measuring gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.5-5 Mev. (AEC)

  2. Four pi-recoil proportional counter used as neutron spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, E. F.

    1968-01-01

    Study considers problems encountered in using 4 pi-recoil counters for neutron spectra measurement. Emphasis is placed on calibration, shape discrimination, variation of W, the average energy loss per ion pair, and the effects of differentiation on the intrinsic counter resolution.

  3. Underground low flux neutron background measurements in LSM using a large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvidis, I.; Giomataris, I.; Bougamont, E.; Irastorza, I.; Aune, S.; Chapelier, M.; Charvin, P. H.; Colas, P.; Derre, J.; Ferrer, E.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Mangier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Salin, P.; Vergados, J. D.; Zampalo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter has been developed at CEA/Saclay, for low flux neutron measurements. The high voltage is applied to a small sphere 15mm in diameter, located in the center of the counter and the wall of the counter is grounded. Neutrons can be measured successfully, with high sensitivity, using 3He gas in the detector. The proton and tritium energy deposition in the drift gaseous volume, from the reaction 3He(n,p)3H, can provide the neutron spectra from thermal neutrons up to several MeV. The detector has been installed in the underground laboratory in Modane (LSM) to measure the neutron background. The sphere has been has been filled with gas mixture of Ar + 2% CH4 +3gr He-3, at 275 mbar. The thermal neutron peak is well separated from the cosmic ray and gamma background, permitting of neutron flux calculation. Other potential applications requiring large volume of about 10 m in radius are described in detail in reference

  4. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boronlined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter – Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.

  5. Coaxial anode for background suppression in X-ray proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Mccammon, D.; Vanderhill, M.; Williamson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme which permits the ends (near the anode seals) as well as the bottom and sides of an X-ray astronomy proportional counter to be protected by anticoincidence guard counters is described. A rocket-borne test showed that the non-X-ray background is reduced by an additional factor of about 30 when the end guard counter feature is added.

  6. Large-area proportional counter camera for the US National Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abele, R.K.; Allin, G.W.; Clay, W.T.; Fowler, C.E.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering model of a multiwire position-sensitive proportional-counter (PSPC) was developed, tested, and installed at the US National Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Facility at ORNL. The PSPC is based on the RC-encoding and time-difference decoding method to measure the spatial coordinates of the interaction loci of individual scattered neutrons. The active area of the PSPC is 65 cm x 65 cm, and the active depth is 3.6 cm. The spatial uncertainty in both coordinates is approx. 1.0 cm (fwhm) for thermal neutrons; thus, a matrix of 64 x 64 picture elements is resolved. The count rate capability for randomly detected neutrons is 10/sup 4/ counts per second, with < 3% coincidence loss. The PSPC gas composition is 63% /sup 3/He, 32% Xe, and 5% CO/sub 2/ at an absolute pressure of approx. 3 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (3 atm). The detection efficiency is approx. 90% for the 0.475-nm (4.75-A) neutrons used in the scattering experiments.

  7. Drift of electrons and performance of BF3 filled neutron proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Rao, Mala N.

    2017-05-01

    10BF3 gas has regained interest among neutron detector developing laboratories as a promising alternative to globally scarce 3He. BF3 is an only direct replacement for use in proportional counter with coaxial geometry. Lower absorption cross section of 10B and constraint on fill pressure limits the efficiency of these detectors. Electronegative nature of gas and impurities, affects the pulse shape at high fill gas pressure due to loss of electrons in drift region. Effect of electron attachment and position of primary charge cloud determines the gas gain and pulse broadening. Detailed study of gas behavior is essential to facilitate its efficient use in neutron detectors. Our in-house facility for generation-distillation of BF3 gas and development of neutron detectors has enabled us to carry out the detailed characterization of BF3 filled neutron detectors. Detectors are filled with the gas of best possible purity level by processing with repeated triple point distillations. Further detector is subjected to localized fine neutron beam tests. Position of neutron beam within the drift region is varied to investigate the pulse shape. Optimization of the detector design using these parameters, results in improvement of detection efficiency.

  8. Secondary electron background produced by heavy nuclei in a multiwire proportional counter hodoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, S. H., Jr.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Schwille, H.; Pollvogt, U.

    1974-01-01

    The secondary electron background produced by heavy nuclei in a multiwire proportional counter hodoscope is calculated using both a simplified and a more complete Monte Carlo model. These results are compared with experimental data from a small multiwire proportional counter hodoscope operated in a 530 MeV/nucleon accelerator beam of nitrogen nuclei. Estimates of the secondary electron background produced by heavy relativistic nuclei are presented along with the detailed results from calculations of energy deposition in the hodoscope counter cells.

  9. Fast-neutron and photon doses determined with proportional counters and ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Higgins, P.D.; Schell, M.C.; Pearson, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    A /sup 60/Co teletherapy source has recently been coupled to an existing source of fast neutrons. These sources may be operated to provide precise and controlled mixtures of photons and neutrons. In this work we report the application of paired miniature proportional counters to n/..gamma.. dose separation. Graphite- and A150 plastic-walled proportional counters were employed. Results are compared to dose values deduced from a cnventional A150 plastic ionization chamber and a neutron insensitive GM counter.

  10. Neutron Detection Alternatives to 3He for National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Stromswold, David C.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-11-21

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to the search for an alternative technology to replace the use of 3He-based neutron detectors. In this paper, we review the testing of currently commercially available alternative technologies for neutron detection in large systems used in various national security applications.

  11. Hybrid gas scintillation proportional counter/phoswich detector for hard X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Manandhar, Raj P.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is presented for a balloon-borne imaging hybrid proportional counter/phoswich detector of medium to hard X-rays. The phoswich would be optically coupled to the exit window of the proportional counter, and both detectors would use a common position-sensitive readout. It is anticipated that such a detector could combine the good energy and position resolution and excellent background rejection ability of the proportional counter for incident photon energies less than 100 keV with the extended response of the phoswich for higher energies. The phoswich could also be used to reject Compton scattering events in the proportional counter. This detector concept is studied using numerical simulations of a 400 sq cm square prototype detector. Results from this simulation indicate that current levels of proportional counter and phoswich performance are attainable at small cost in quantum efficiency, compared to a bare phoswich detector.

  12. {sup 3}He neutral current detectors at SNO

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.R.; Browne, M.C.; Doe, P.J.

    1998-09-01

    The flux of solar neutrinos measured via charged and neutral current interactions can provide a model independent test of neutrino oscillations. Since the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory uses heavy water as a target, it has a large sensitivity to both interactions. A technique for observing the neutral current breakup of the deuteron using {sup 3}He proportional counters is described.

  13. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for the detection of subkiloelectron-volt X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H. M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A large area imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (IGSPC) was constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counted (GSPC) with a micron polyprotylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. Over a sensitive area of 21 cu cm the instrument has a measured energy resolution of 17.5% (FWHM) and 1.9 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 1.5 keV.

  14. Shielding concepts for low-background proportional counter arrays in surface laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Humble, Paul H.; Mace, Emily K.; Orrell, John L.; Seifert, Allen; Williams, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    Development of ultra low background gas proportional counters has made the contribution from naturally occurring radioactive isotopes – primarily and activity in the uranium and thorium decay chains – inconsequential to instrumental sensitivity levels when measurements are performed in above ground surface laboratories. Simple lead shielding is enough to mitigate against gamma rays as gas proportional counters are already relatively insensitive to naturally occurring gamma radiation. The dominant background in these surface laboratory measurements using ultra low background gas proportional counters is due to cosmic ray generated muons, neutrons, and protons. Studies of measurements with ultra low background gas proportional counters in surface and underground laboratories as well as radiation transport Monte Carlo simulations suggest a preferred conceptual design to achieve the highest possible sensitivity from an array of low background gas proportional counters when operated in a surface laboratory. The basis for a low background gas proportional counter array and the preferred shielding configuration is reported, especially in relation to measurements of radioactive gases having low energy decays such as 37Ar.

  15. Shielding concepts for low-background proportional counter arrays in surface laboratories.

    PubMed

    Aalseth, C E; Humble, P H; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Williams, R M

    2016-02-01

    Development of ultra low background gas proportional counters has made the contribution from naturally occurring radioactive isotopes - primarily α and β activity in the uranium and thorium decay chains - inconsequential to instrumental sensitivity levels when measurements are performed in above ground surface laboratories. Simple lead shielding is enough to mitigate against gamma rays as gas proportional counters are already relatively insensitive to naturally occurring gamma radiation. The dominant background in these surface laboratory measurements using ultra low background gas proportional counters is due to cosmic ray generated muons, neutrons, and protons. Studies of measurements with ultra low background gas proportional counters in surface and underground laboratories as well as radiation transport Monte Carlo simulations suggest a preferred conceptual design to achieve the highest possible sensitivity from an array of low background gas proportional counters when operated in a surface laboratory. The basis for a low background gas proportional counter array and the preferred shielding configuration is reported, especially in relation to measurements of radioactive gases having low energy decays such as (37)Ar.

  16. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter based on nitrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, E.; Dastgheibi, A.; Derre, J.; Galan, J.; Gerbier, G.; Giomataris, I.; Gros, M.; Katsioulas, I.; Jourde, D.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Papaevangelou, T.; Savvidis, I.; Tsiledakis, G.

    2017-03-01

    A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. The pure N2 gas is studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the 14N (n , p)C14 and 14N (n , α)B11 reactions. The detector is tested for thermal and fast neutrons detection with 252Cf and 241Am -9Be neutron sources. The atmospheric neutrons are successfully measured from thermal up to several MeV, well separated from the cosmic ray background. A comparison of the spherical proportional counter with the current available neutron counters is also presented.

  17. X-ray astronomy instrumentation studies. [design of a proportional counter and measurements of fluorescent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary designs were made for a multiplane, multiwire position sensitive proportional counter for X-ray use. Anode spacing was 2 mm and cathode spacing 1 mm. Assistance was provided in setting up and operating two multiwire proportional counters, one with 5 mm anode spacing, and the other with 2 mm spacing. Argon-based counter gases were used for preliminary work in assembling a working experimental system to measure xenon fluorescence yields. The design and specification of a high purity gas filling system capable of supplying mixtures of xenon and other gases to proportional counters was also performed. The system is mounted on a cart, is fully operational, and is flexible enough to be easily used as a pumping station for other clean applications. When needed, assistance was given to put into operation various computer-related pieces of equipment.

  18. Characteristics of a high pressure gas proportional counter filled with xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, H.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional cylindrical geometry proportional counter filled with high pressure xenon gas up to 10 atm. were fundamentally investigated for use as a detector in hard X-ray astronomy. With a 2 percent methane gas mixture the energy resolutions at 10 atm. were 9.8 percent and 7.3 percent for 22 keV and 60 keV X-rays, respectively. From calculations of the Townsend ionization coefficient, it is shown that proportional counters at high pressure operate at weaker reduced electric field than low pressure counters. The characteristics of a parallel grid proportional counter at low pressure showed similar pressure dependence. It is suggested that this is the fundamental reason for the degradation of resolution observed with increasing pressure.

  19. New cathode design boron lined proportional counters for neutron area monitoring application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Priyamvada M.

    2007-06-01

    A new cathode design boron lined proportional counter of 26 mm ID×100 mm sensitive length SS304 cathode has been developed with boron-coated baffles separated by 3 mm spacers inserted in the sensitive volume perpendicular to the axis. The baffles and the spacers were coated with indigenously available 27.7% enriched 10B. The introduction of baffles enhanced the boron coated surface area by a factor of 2.8. Tests in 120 nv thermal neutron flux show that the counter has 0.84 cps/nv thermal neutron sensitivity, which shows enhancement in the sensitivity by a factor of 2.78 due to baffle structure. For comparison standard cylindrical cathode geometry counter coated with 92% enriched 10B on its inner wall with a coating thickness of 0.8 mg/cm2 is developed with same outer dimensions for neutron area monitoring applications. The counter has 1 cps/nv thermal neutron sensitivity. Comparative tests carried out on counters with and without baffle structure show that the baffles enhance the neutron sensitivity and in 2 kR/h gamma background the effect of gamma pile up is similar on both the counters. The variation in cathode internal diameter due to baffle structure gives higher voltage plateau slope (2.8%/10 V) as compared to conventional cylindrical geometry counter (1.2%/10 V). The usability of boron lined counters for neutron area monitoring applications for the cylindrical geometry counter has been studied.

  20. Effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra measured by proportional gas counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Tanaka, M.; Isozumi, S.; Isozumi, Y.; Tosaki, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    Air exerts a negative effect on radiation detection using a gas counter because oxygen contained in air has a high electron attachment coefficient and can trap electrons from electron-ion pairs created by ionization from incident radiation in counting gas. This reduces radiation counts. The present study examined the influence of air on energy and rise-time spectra measurements using a proportional gas counter. In addition, a decompression procedure method was proposed to reduce the influence of air and its effectiveness was investigated. For the decompression procedure, the counting gas inside the gas counter was decompressed below atmospheric pressure before radiation detection. For the spectrum measurement, methane as well as various methane and air mixtures were used as the counting gas to determine the effect of air on energy and rise-time spectra. Results showed that the decompression procedure was effective for reducing or eliminating the influence of air on spectra measurement using a proportional gas counter. (authors)

  1. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst.

    PubMed

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Mayer, Roberto E; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  2. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    SciTech Connect

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  3. A Study of 3He detectors for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester

    2009-10-01

    3He proportional counters have long been used as neutron detectors for both passive and active detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The optimal configuration of these detectors as far as gas pressure, amount of moderating material, and size are concerned is highly dependent on what neutron signatures are being used to detect and identify SNM. We present here a parametric study of the neutron capture response of 3He detectors, based on Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The neutron capture response of the detectors has been modeled as a function of time after an incident neutron pulse.

  4. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for use in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) has been constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with a 1 micron polypropylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. The MWPC, filled with a mixture of argon, methane, and tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene, detects the UV photons emitted by the xenon gas in the GSPC. The measured energy resolution is 17.0 percent (fwhm) and 8.0 percent (fwhm) at 1.5 keV and 5.9 keV, respectively. The measured position resolution is 1.9 mm (fwhm) and 0.9 mm (fwhm) at 1.5 and 5.9 keV, respectively. Possible astrophysical observations which can be performed with an IGSPC at the focal plane of a grazing incidence telescope are also discussed.

  5. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for use in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) has been constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with a 1 micron polypropylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. The MWPC, filled with a mixture of argon, methane, and tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene, detects the UV photons emitted by the xenon gas in the GSPC. The measured energy resolution is 17.0 percent (fwhm) and 8.0 percent (fwhm) at 1.5 keV and 5.9 keV, respectively. The measured position resolution is 1.9 mm (fwhm) and 0.9 mm (fwhm) at 1.5 and 5.9 keV, respectively. Possible astrophysical observations which can be performed with an IGSPC at the focal plane of a grazing incidence telescope are also discussed.

  6. X-ray Polarimetry with an Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first results from an X-ray polarimeter with a micropattern gas proportional counter using an amorphous silicon active matrix readout. With 100% polarized X-rays at 4.5 keV, we obtain a modulation factor of 0.33+/- 0.03, confirming previous reports of the high polarization sensitivity of a finely segmented pixel proportional counter. The detector described here has a geometry suitable for the focal plane of an astronomical X-ray telescope. Amorphous silicon readout technology will enable additional extensions and improvements.

  7. Novel techniques for designing gas proportional scintillation counters for x-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, Joaquim M. F.; Dias, Teresa H. V. T.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D. A.; Conde, C. A. N.

    1989-08-01

    A xenon-filled gas proportional scintillation counter for X-ray spectrometry using low-cost designing techniques is described. This detector has a basic energy resolution of 8.3% for 5.9 keV photons. X-ray fluorescence spectra are presented for a variety of samples.

  8. TACI: a code for interactive analysis of neutron data produced by a tissue equivalent proportional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.

    1984-06-01

    The TEPC analysis code (TACI) is a computer program designed to analyze pulse height data generated by a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). It is written in HP BASIC and is for use on an HP-87XM personal computer. The theory of TEPC analysis upon which this code is based is summarized.

  9. The calculation of proportional counter energy-deposition spectra from experimental data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigerwalt, J. E.; Baily, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental approach considered requires the measurement of energy-absorption distributions for a set of pathlengths which define a biological volume. A suitable folding procedure is necessary to produce composite energy-absorption distributions. The investigation is concerned with the quality of the prediction of energy-deposition distributions, taking into account distributions measured with a proportional counter.

  10. 3He Neutron Detector Pressure Effect and Comparison to Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-01-14

    Reported here are the results of measurements performed to determine the efficiency of 3He filled proportional counters as a function of gas pressure in the SAIC system. Motivation for these measurements was largely to validate the current model of the SAIC system. Those predictions indicated that the neutron detection efficiency plotted as a function of pressure has a simple, logarithmic shape. As for absolute performance, the model results indicated the 3He pressure in the current SAIC system could not be reduced appreciably while meeting the current required level of detection sensitivity. Thus, saving 3He by reducing its pressure was predicted not to be a viable option in the current SAIC system.

  11. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Rogers, Jeremy L.; Schweppe, John E.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-07-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in a configuration typically used for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. The specific application selected for boron-lined tube replacement in this project was one of the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) designs. This report, providing results for model development of a UNCL, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project. The current UNCL instruments utilize 3He tubes. As the first step in developing and optimizing a boron-lined proportional counter based version of the UNCL, models of eight different 3He-based UNCL detectors currently in use were developed and evaluated. A comparison was made between the simulated results and measured efficiencies for those systems with values reported in the literature. The reported experimental measurements for efficiencies and die-away times agree to within 10%.

  12. New method of proportional counter feedback biasing for wide-range radiation dose-rate monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.; Guerrant, G.C.; Manning, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A prototypic wide-range radiation dose-rate monitor for civil defense applications has been developed and tested. The specified dose-rate range (0 to 500 R/h) was displayed on a single readout scale by using feedback-controlled biasing of a proportional counter. This new method is based on controlling the avalanche multiplication factor (gas gain) of the counter by varying its bias voltage in response to its measured output current (i.e., detected dose rate). The counter output current varies between 0 and 1.5 nA in a quasi-logarithmic response to dose rates between 0 and 500 R/h. The corresponding values of gas gain and bias voltage range from 1 to 300 and 200 to 1900 V respectively.

  13. A drift multiwire proportional counter for cosmic soft X-ray imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, P. B.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Long, K. S.; Novick, R.; Pisarski, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Multiwire proportional counters with 1 micrometer polypropylene windows, of dimensions 75 mm x 75 mm and 100 mm x 100 mm, have been built to map soft cosmic X-rays. The counters are constructed with a large drift region which makes it possible to use the center-of-gravity technique to improve the counter's efficiency and position resolution. Using 330 torr of propane as the gas fill and an anode plane composed of 20 micrometer diameter, gold-plated tungsten wire spaced 1mm apart, a position resolution of better than 280 micrometers (FWHM) in two orthogonal directions at an X-ray energy of 0.94 keV was achieved.

  14. Multiwire proportional counters for use in area X-ray diffractometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The multiwire proportional counter is at the time of this writing the only type of two dimensional position sensitive X-ray detector capable of collecting diffraction data accurate enough for solution of new protein structures. The first diffractometer system to use this type of detector (the Mark I diffractometer system) was assembled at the University of California, San Diego and has collected the data used to solve four new protein structures. Similar diffractometer systems using a single thin, flat multiwire counter are now being constructed in many other laboratories around the world, and several of these will routinely be collecting good diffraction data from protein and perhaps even virus crystals within two years. A table describing these other systems is included here. The next step in the evolution of area diffractometer systems based on the multiwire proportional counter is more complete coverage of the solid angle of the diffraction pattern: more complete than the 10% to 40% coverage possible with one flat multiwire counter. The phenomenon called ''parallax'' makes it impractical to intercept the whole diffraction pattern with one flat xenon-filled multiwire counter. Two strategies for dealing with parallax are now being pursued. One strategy involves adding a spherical drift region to the front of a flat multiwire counter and adetector using this idea will be described. The other strategy, the one being pursued by the author, involves building an array of flat detectors arranged to approximate a section of the surface of a sphere. The array of flat detectors gives more flexibility in crystal-to-detector distance and distributes the dead time over many detectors, allowing the full array to have a high counting rate capacity even using only medium speed (2 microsecond) position readout circuits for each individual detector.

  15. Use of the small gas proportional counters for the carbon-14 measurement of very small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W.; Otlet, R.L.; Evans, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    Two recent developments are: the first is the mass-spectrometric separation of /sup 14/C and /sup 12/C ions, followed by counting of the /sup 14/C, while the second is the extension of conventional proportional counter operation, using CO/sub 2/ as counting gas, to very small counters and samples. Although the second method is slow (months of counting time are required for 10 mg of carbon) it does not require operator intervention and many samples may be counted simultaneously. Also, it costs only a fraction of the capital expense of an accelerator installation. The development, construction and operation of suitable small counters are described, and results of three actual dating studies involving milligram scale carbon samples will be given. None of these could have been carried out if conventional, gram-sized samples had been needed. New installations, based on the use of these counters, are under construction or in the planning stages. These are located at Brookhaven Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards (USA) and Harwell (UK). The Harwell installation, which is in advanced stages of construction, will be described in outline. The main significance of the small-counter method is, that although it will not suffice to measure the smallest (much less than 10 mg) or oldest samples, it will permit existing radiocarbon laboratories to extend their capability considerably, in the direction of smaller samples, at modest expense.

  16. The response of tissue-equivalent proportional counters to heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Khvostunov, Igor K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical model for the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) irradiated with charged particles. Heavy ions and iron ions in particular constitute a significant part of radiation in space. TEPCs are used for all space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) missions to estimate the dose and radiation quality (in terms of lineal energy) inside spacecraft. The response of the tissue-equivalent proportional counters shows distortions at the wall/cavity interface. In this paper, we present microdosimetric investigation using Monte Carlo track structure calculations to simulate the response of a TEPC to charged particles of various LET (1 MeV protons, 2.4 MeV alpha particles, 46 MeV/nucleon 20Ne, 55 MeV/nucleon 20Ne, 45 MeV/nucleon 40Ar, and 1.05 GeV/nucleon 56Fe). Data are presented for energy lost and energy absorbed in the counter cavity and wall. The model calculations are in good agreement with the results of Rademacher et al. (Radiat. Res. 149, 387-389, 1998), including the study of the interface between the wall and the sensitive region of the counter. It is shown that the anomalous response observed at large event sizes in the experiment is due to an enhanced entry of secondary electrons from the wall into the gas cavity.

  17. Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

  18. 39Ar/Ar measurements using ultra-low background proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Jeter C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Day, Anthony R.; Humble, Paul H.; Mace, Emily K.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-01-08

    Age dating groundwater and seawater using 39Ar/Ar ratios is an important tool to understand water mass flow rates and mean residence time. For modern or contemporary argon, the 39Ar activity is 1.8 mBq per liter of argon. Radiation measurements at these activity levels require ultra low-background detectors. Low-background proportional counters have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These detectors use traditional mixtures of argon and methane as counting gas, and the residual 39Ar from commercial argon has become a predominant source of background activity in these detectors. We demonstrated sensitivity to 39Ar by using geological or ancient argon from gas wells in place of commercial argon. The low level counting performance of these proportional counters is then demonstrated for sensitivities to 39Ar/Ar ratios sufficient to date water masses as old as 1000 years.

  19. Uniformity and transmission of proportional counter window materials for use with AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, K.; Austin, G. K.; Cobuzzi, J. P.; Goddard, R.; Hughes, J. P.; Mclaughlin, E. R.; Podgorski, W. A.; Rose, V.; Roy, A. G.; Zombeck, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The X-ray detection system used to calibrate the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors will include gas flow and sealed proportional counters. To meet the ultimate 1 percent goal of the calibration project, the transmission and uniformity of the windows must be well known for the soft X-ray wavelengths involved. Various window materials for use with proportional counters are examined for transmission at X-ray wavelengths in the range of 0.1 to 5.9 keV. These include the usual window materials (polypropylene and beryllium), as well as materials only recently employed for detector applications (polyimide and diamond). The transmission uniformity of beryllium at 1.49 keV is examined with a microchannel plate detector, producing a 'shadowgraph' of the window material illuminated with soft X-rays. This technique allows us to investigate nonuniformities on a spatial scale of about .2 mm.

  20. A boron-lined proportional counter (BLPC) used in a mixed field of reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo-Yun; Wei, Zhi-Yong; Xin, Yong; Lei, Sheng-Jie; Huang, Fu-Cheng; Huang, San-Bo; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Jing-Wu; Ma, Jia-Yi

    2012-05-01

    A boron-lined proportional counter (BLPC) with a count rate limit close to the multi-wire proportional counter was manufactured to measure the mixed field around reactors. After measurement with a standard Am-Be neutron source (activity: 100 mCi), the results show that the operating voltage of the BLPC is 800 V, the plateau length is 100 V and the slope is 13.2%/100 V. The width and rise time of the output pulse of the BLPC are 1.26 μs and 370 ns, respectively. When the BLPC works at a count rate of 1.0×105 count/s, the pulse pile-up probability of the BLPC is 3.6%. A clear peak can be seen in the pulse height spectrum of the BLPC. and the performances illustrate that a BLPC working in pulse mode can serve as a source range detector of reactors.

  1. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  2. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  3. The in-orbit performance of the EXOSAT gas scintillation proportional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, A.; Courvoisier, T.; Manzo, G.; Taylor, B.G.; White, N.

    1985-02-01

    The in-orbit performance of the EXOSAT gas scintillation proportional counter spectrometer is presented. The background rejection capability in the EXOSAT deep orbit is examined as well as the overall detector response. Typical examples of the spectra from cosmic X-ray sources show that this new type of detector will make a significant advance to the field of medium energy broad band X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Sensitivity to x-ray polarization of a microgap gas proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffitta, Paolo; Costa, Enrico; Morelli, Ennio; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Raffo, R.

    1995-10-01

    We measured the average anisotropy of the primary charge cloud produced by photoelectron when an x-ray beam linearly polarized is absorbed on a Ne-DME gas mixture by using a micro-gap proportional counter. This average anisotropy is not present when an Fe55 unpolarized x-ray source is used. We discuss the results of our measurement in terms of performances of this detector as an x-ray polarimeter.

  5. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors for direct 3He replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronk, R. G.; Bellinger, S. L.; Henson, L. C.; Huddleston, D. E.; Ochs, T. R.; Sobering, T. J.; McGregor, D. S.

    2015-04-01

    High-efficiency Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors (MSNDs) have been tiled and arranged in a cylindrical form factor in order to serve as a direct replacement to aging and increasingly expensive 3He gas-filled proportional neutron detectors. Two 6-in long by 2-in diameter cylinders were constructed and populated with MSNDs which were then directly compared to a 4 atm Reuter Stokes 3He detector of the same dimensions. The Generation 1 MSND-based 3Helium-Replacement (HeRep Mk I) device contained sixty-four 1-cm2 active-area MSNDs, each with an intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of approximately 7%. A Generation 2 device (the HeRep Mk II) was populated with thirty 4-cm2 active-area MSNDs, with an intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of approximately 30%. The MSNDs of each HeRep were integrated to count as a single device. The 3He proportional counter and the HeRep devices were tested while encased in a cylinder of high-density polyethylene measuring a total of 6-in by 9-in. The 3He counter and the HeRep Mk II were each placed 1 m from a 54-ng 252Cf source and tested for efficiency. The 3He proportional counter had a net count rate of 17.13±0.10 cps at 1 m. The HeRep Mk II device had a net count rate of 17.60±0.10 cps, amounting to 102.71±2.65% of the 3He gas counter while inside of the moderator. Outside of moderator, the 3He tube had a count rate of 3.35±0.05 cps and the HeRep Mk II device reported 3.19±05, amounting to 95.15±9.04% of the 3He neutron detector.

  6. A large area imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for use in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, W. H.-M.; Lum, K. S.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    A large area (200 sq cm), broad bandwidth (0.1-70 keV), imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (IGSPC) has been constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) coupled to a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. THe MWPC, filled with a mixture of argon, methane, and tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene, detects the UV photons emitted by the xenon gas in the GSPC. The detector has a measured energy resolution of 8.0 percent (FWHM) and 4.3 percent (FWHM) at 5.9 keV and 22.1 keV, respectively. The predicted spatial resolution of the detector is less than 1 mm (FWHM) between 3-22 keV and 37-60 keV. A method to determine the three-dimensional location of detected X-rays is described. In addition, a combination of discrimination schemes designed to reduce the non-X-ray background in the IGSPC by more than two orders of magnitude is discussed.

  7. First result of the cross sectional measurement of 3He-3He solar reaction in OCEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, T.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Takahisa, K.; Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Toki, H.; Nagai, Y.; Komori, M.; Ohsumi, H.

    2001-04-01

    The first result in OCEAN measurement of the fusion reactions 3He(3He,2p)α at the energy of 40 to 50 keV by means of a low-energy, high current accelerator are reported. The accelerator in this facility can produce an intense beam of 3He1+ and 3He2+ ions of more than 1mA. A detection efficiency for proposed detector assembly of ΔE-E counter telescope is simulated with GEANT program and it expects a detection efficiency about 10% for the two proton coincidence for 3He+3He-->2p+α reaction. The accuracy of Monte Carlo program was checked by D(3He,p)α reaction by replacing the target gas to deuterium. .

  8. Lineal energy calibration of mini tissue-equivalent gas-proportional counters (TEPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Grosswendt, B.; Colautti, P.

    2013-07-01

    Mini TEPCs are cylindrical gas proportional counters of 1 mm or less of sensitive volume diameter. The lineal energy calibration of these tiny counters can be performed with an external gamma-ray source. However, to do that, first a method to get a simple and precise spectral mark has to be found and then the keV/μm value of this mark. A precise method (less than 1% of uncertainty) to identify this markis described here, and the lineal energy value of this mark has been measured for different simulated site sizes by using a 137Cs gamma source and a cylindrical TEPC equipped with a precision internal 244Cm alpha-particle source, and filled with propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture. Mini TEPCs can be calibrated in terms of lineal energy, by exposing them to 137Cesium sources, with an overall uncertainty of about 5%.

  9. Lineal energy calibration of mini tissue-equivalent gas-proportional counters (TEPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Grosswendt, B.

    2013-07-18

    Mini TEPCs are cylindrical gas proportional counters of 1 mm or less of sensitive volume diameter. The lineal energy calibration of these tiny counters can be performed with an external gamma-ray source. However, to do that, first a method to get a simple and precise spectral mark has to be found and then the keV/{mu}m value of this mark. A precise method (less than 1% of uncertainty) to identify this markis described here, and the lineal energy value of this mark has been measured for different simulated site sizes by using a {sup 137}Cs gamma source and a cylindrical TEPC equipped with a precision internal {sup 244}Cm alpha-particle source, and filled with propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture. Mini TEPCs can be calibrated in terms of lineal energy, by exposing them to {sup 137}Cesium sources, with an overall uncertainty of about 5%.

  10. High-resolution position-sensitive proportional counter camera for radiochromatographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schuresko, D.D.; Kopp, M.K.; Harter, J.A.; Bostick, W.D.

    1988-12-01

    A high-resolution proportional counter camera for imaging two- dimensional (2-D) distributions of radionuclides is described. The camera can accommodate wet or dry samples that are separated from the counter gas volume by a 6-..mu..m Mylar membrane. Using 95% Xe-5% CO/sub 2/ gas at 3-MPa pressure and electronic collimation based upon pulse energy discrimination, the camera's performance characteristics for /sup 14/C distributions are as follows: active area--10 by 10 cm, position resolution--0.5 mm, total background--300 disintegrations per minute, and count-rate capability--10/sup 5/ disintegrations per second. With computerized data acquisition, the camera is a significant improvement in analytical instrumentation for imaging 2-D radionuclide distributions over present-day commercially available technology. (Note: This manuscript was completed in July 1983). 13 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Digital dual-parameter data acquisition for SP2 hydrogen-filled proportional counters.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, N P; Roberts, N J

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen-filled proportional counters perform well as neutron spectrometers in the energy region from a few tens of keV up to ∼1.5 MeV. Unfortunately, gamma rays also generate signals in these detectors. It is possible in principle to distinguish the two types of event via the rise time of their respective signal pulses, but the data acquisition system needed for this is complex to assemble and adjust if one uses conventional modular analogue electronics. In this work a digital sampling system, in conjunction with custom software, was used to measure and acquire amplitude and rise time data from type SP2 counters. The interpretation of the data was supported by a Monte Carlo calculation. The performance of the system is compared with that of a conventional 1-parameter analogue system, and the potential of the digital technique to supplant conventional methods is discussed.

  12. A high resolution gas scintillation proportional counter for studying low energy cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, T. T.; Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the development of large area gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) suitable for use in X-ray astronomy. The paper deals with a low-energy GSPC for use in detecting sub-keV X-rays from cosmic sources. This instrument has a measured energy resolution of 85 eV (FWHM) at 149 eV over a sensitive area of 5 sq cm. The development of imaging capability for this instrument is discussed. Tests are performed on the feasibility of using an arrangement of several phototubes placed adjacent to one another to determine event locations in a large flat counter. A simple prototype has been constructed and successfully operated.

  13. A high resolution gas scintillation proportional counter for studying low energy cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, T. T.; Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the development of large area gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) suitable for use in X-ray astronomy. The paper deals with a low-energy GSPC for use in detecting sub-keV X-rays from cosmic sources. This instrument has a measured energy resolution of 85 eV (FWHM) at 149 eV over a sensitive area of 5 sq cm. The development of imaging capability for this instrument is discussed. Tests are performed on the feasibility of using an arrangement of several phototubes placed adjacent to one another to determine event locations in a large flat counter. A simple prototype has been constructed and successfully operated.

  14. Development, construction and evaluation of a multigrid planar gas-flow proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regits, Willie

    1999-12-01

    A multi-anode planar gas flow proportional counter was developed, fabricated and analyzed. Seven anode configurations were studied and compared to computer models of electric field strength. Detector performance characteristics such as pulse height, pulse width (full- width at half-maximum), rise and fall times, and spurious pulse production were analyzed and compared to electric field strength for each anode configuration. A 2000% increase in electric field strength in the direction of ion collection was achieved in increasing the anode density form 1 anode to 32 anodes per 58.06 cm2 (9 square inches). Over all detector efficiency increased 6% for alpha particles and 7% for beta particles.

  15. Magnetic monopole search by 130 m(2)sr He gas proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, T.; Hayashida, N.; Honda, M.; Kamata, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Kondo, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Mori, M.; Ohno, Y.; Tanahashi, G.

    1985-01-01

    A search experiment for cosmic ray magnetic monopoles was performed by means of atomic induction mechanism by using He mixture gas proportional counters of the calorimeter (130 square meters sr) at the center of the Akeno air shower array. In 3,482 hours operation no monopole candidate was observed. The upper limit of the monopole flux is 1.44 x 10 to the minus 13th power cm-z, sec -1, sr-1 (90% C.L.) for the velocity faster than 7 x 0.0001 c.

  16. Simulations of electron avalanches in an ultra-low-background proportional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, John W.; Aalseth, Craig; Dion, Michael P.; Overman, Cory; Seifert, Allen; VanDevender, Brent

    2016-02-01

    New classes have been added to the simulation package Garfield++ to import the potential and electric field solutions generated by ANSYS R MaxwellTM v.16. Using these tools we report results on the simulation of electron avalanches and induced signal waveforms in comparison to experimental data of the ultra-lowbackground gas proportional counters being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Furthermore, an improved mesh search algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation was implemented and provided at least a three order of magnitude time savings when compared to the built-in point-location search class of Garfield++.

  17. Two-dimensional spectrally resolved position-sensitive proportional counter for plasma imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, D.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a 160x100 mm two-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter for use in high-temperature plasma spectroscopy. The detector employs a novel design based on a printed circuit board for the cathode plane and a single-wire switchback design for the anode plane. The spacial resolution for one dimension is 200 {mu}m and for the other dimension is 2-5 mm. The integral nonlinearity is 0.08% for the first and 1% for the second dimension. We demonstrate the utility of the new detector with a spacially resolved measurement of the Lyman-{alpha} transitions in hydrogenic Ar{sup 17+}.

  18. Use of tissue equivalent proportional counters to characterize radiation quality on the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.; Conroy, T.J.; Elegy, D.C.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1992-04-01

    Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are essentially cavity ionization chambers operating at low pressure and with gas gain. A small, battery powered, TEPC spectrometer, which records lineal energy spectra at one minute intervals, has been used on several space shuttle missions. The data it has collected clearly show the South Atlantic anomaly and indicate a mean quality factor somewhat higher than expected. An improved type of instrument has been developed with sufficient memory to record spectra at 10 second intervals, and with increased resolution for low LET events. This type of instrument will be used on most future space shuttle flights and in some international experiments.

  19. Evaluation of a High Pressure Proportional Counter for the Detection of Radioactive Noble Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    The final system considered is based on the proportional counter which is often used in the detection and spectroscopy of low energy photons. Its...through the wall of the detector. These radiations give rise to photoelectrons of well-defined energy. The inherent width of the photon energy dis...concentration of 131mXe to 133 Xe was approximately 1: 100, rather than the planned 1: 50 ratio. The 164 keV 131mXe conversion electron- Xray / Auger

  20. Search for magnetic monopoles using proportional counters filled with helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuji, K.

    1985-01-01

    Slow magnetic monopoles in cosmic rays have been searched at sea level with the detector which consists of seven layers of proportional counters filled with a mixture of He + 20% CH4. The velocities and the energy losses of the incident particles are measured. The upper limit of flux for the monopoles in the velocity range of 1 x 0.001 Beta 4 x 0.001 is 2.78 x 10 to the minus 12th power square centimeters sr sec of 90% confidence level.

  1. ³⁹Ar/Ar measurements using ultra-low background proportional counters.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeter; Aalseth, Craig E; Bonicalzi, Ricco M; Brandenberger, Jill M; Day, Anthony R; Humble, Paul H; Mace, Emily K; Panisko, Mark E; Seifert, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-dating groundwater and seawater using the (39)Ar/Ar ratio is an important tool to understand water mass-flow rates and mean residence time. Low-background proportional counters developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory use mixtures of argon and methane as counting gas. We demonstrate sensitivity to (39)Ar by comparing geological (ancient) argon recovered from a carbon dioxide gas well and commercial argon. The demonstrated sensitivity to the (39)Ar/Ar ratio is sufficient to date water masses as old as 1000 years.

  2. Chemical abundances of cosmic rays greater than 4.5 GV measured with a large area proportional counter-scintillation counter stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lheureux, J.; Fan, C. Y.; Mainardi, R.; Gloeckler, G.

    1974-01-01

    A 6500 sq cm-ster cosmic-ray detector consisting of 12 gas counter trays sandwiched between two large-area circular scintillation counters was flown from Palestine, Texas in November 1972 to study the composition of primary particles greater than 1.5 GeV/nucleon in the charge range from 3 to 30. For each analyzed event, the particle trajectory was recorded, using four 20-wire proportional counter trays. Also recorded were the energy loss in each of the solid counters and the dE/dx losses in each of the 12 gas counters. The large dynamic range of the detector is established by operating six of the gas counters in the ionization mode. A description of the instrument and some preliminary results are given.

  3. Chemical abundances of cosmic rays greater than 4.5 GV measured with a large area proportional counter-scintillation counter stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lheureux, J.; Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Mainardi, R.

    1973-01-01

    A 6500 sq cm-ster cosmic ray detector consisting of twelve gas counter trays sandwiched between two large area circular scintillation counters was flown from Palestine, Texas in November of 1972 to study the composition of primary particles 1.5 GeV/nucleon in the charge range 3 to 30. For each analyzed event, a recording was made of (1) the particle trajectory using four 20 wire proportional counter trays, (2) the energy loss in each of the solid counters, and (3) the dE/dx losses in each of the twelve gas counters. The large dynamic range of the detector is established by operating six of the gas counters in the ionization mode. A description of the instrument and some preliminary results are given.

  4. Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring 37Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Bowyer, T. W.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Haas, D. A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; Humble, P. H.; Keillor, M. E.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electro-chemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with 14C/3H, age-dating of groundwater with 39Ar, and soil-gas assay for 37Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of 37Ar samples over a broad range of proportional counter operating pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for 37Ar soil gas background studies.

  5. Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Bowyer, T. W.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Haas, D. A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; Humble, P. H.; Keillor, M. E.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; and others

    2013-08-08

    An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electro-chemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with {sup 14}C/{sup 3}H, age-dating of groundwater with {sup 39}Ar, and soil-gas assay for {sup 37}Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of {sup 37}Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of {sup 37}Ar samples over a broad range of proportional counter operating pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for {sup 37}Ar soil gas background studies.

  6. Dual-Chamber/Dual-Anode Proportional Counter Incorporating an Intervening Thin-Foil Solid Neutron Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Neal, John S; Blackston, Matthew A; Kolopus, James A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine

    2012-01-01

    A dual-chamber/dual-anode gas proportional counter utilizing thin solid 6LiF or 10B neutron converters coated on a 2-micon-thick Mylar film that is positioned between the two counter chambers and anodes has been designed, fabricated, and tested using a variety of fill gases including naturally abundant helium. In this device, neutron conversion products emitted from both sides of the coated converter foil are detected rather than having half of the products absorbed in the wall of a conventional tube type counter where the solid neutron converter is deposited on the tube wall. Geant4-based radiation transport calculations were used to determine the optimum neutron converter coating thickness for both isotopes. Solution methods for applying these optimized-thickness coatings on a Mylar film were developed that were carried out at room temperature without any specialized equipment and that can be adapted to standard coating methods such as silk screen or ink jet printing. The performance characteristics of the dual-chamber/dual-anode neutron detector were determined for both types of isotopically enriched converters. The experimental performance of the 6LiF converter-based detector was described well by modeling results from Geant4. Additional modeling studies of multiple-foil/multiple-chamber/anode configurations addressed the basic issue of the relatively longer absorption range of neutrons versus the shorter range of the conversion products for 6LiF and 10B. Combined with the experimental results, these simulations indicate that a high-performance neutron detector can be realized in a single device through the application of these multiple-foil/solid converter, multiple-chamber detector concepts.

  7. Dual-chamber/dual-anode proportional counter incorporating an intervening thin-foil solid neutron converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Neal, John S.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Kolopus, James A.; Ramey, Joanne O.

    2012-11-01

    A dual-chamber/dual-anode gas proportional counter utilizing thin solid 6LiF or 10B neutron converters coated on a 2-micon-thick Mylar film that is positioned between the two counter chambers and anodes has been designed, fabricated, and tested using a variety of fill gases—including naturally abundant helium. In this device, neutron conversion products emitted from both sides of the coated converter foil are detected—rather than having half of the products absorbed in the wall of a conventional tube-type counter where the solid neutron converter is deposited on the tube wall. Geant4-based radiation transport calculations were used to determine the optimum neutron converter coating thickness for both isotopes. Solution methods for applying these optimized-thickness coatings on a Mylar film were developed that were carried out at room temperature without any specialized equipment and that can be adapted to standard coating methods such as silk screen or ink jet printing. The performance characteristics of the dual-chamber/dual-anode neutron detector were determined for both types of isotopically enriched converters. The experimental performance of the 6LiF-converter-based detector was described well by modeling results from Geant4. Additional modeling studies of multiple-foil/multiple-chamber/anode configurations addressed the basic issue of the relatively longer absorption range of neutrons versus the shorter range of the conversion products for 6LiF and 10B. Combined with the experimental results, these simulations indicate that a high-performance neutron detector can be realized in a single device through the application of these multiple-foil/solid converter, multiple-chamber detector concepts.

  8. Miniature proportional counter for compression measurements of laser-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, S.M.; Dellis, J.H.; Bennett, C.K.; Campbell, E.M.

    1981-10-01

    Direct drive laser fusion targets consisting of DT gas encapsulated in glass microshells produce 14.1 MeV neutrons that can interact with silicon-28 nuclei in the glass to produce a 2.2 minute aluminum-28 activity. From the number of /sup 28/Al nuclei created and the neutron yield, the compressed glass areal density can be found. To determine the number of activated atoms created, we collect approximately one-half of the target debris on a thin metal foil which is transferred to our beta-gamma coincidence detector. This detector consists of a 25 cm x 25 cm NaI(Tl) crystal having a 5 cm x 15 cm well. We have recently built a miniature proportional counter that fits into this well and is used to detect beta particles. It is constructed of .025 cm thick copper and has nine separate chambers through which methane flows. The coincidence background is 0.14 cpm and the measured beta efficiency is 45%. We are now building a .0125 cm thick counter made of aluminum having a predicted efficiency of > 90%.

  9. Microdosimetry study of THOR BNCT beam using tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F Y; Hsiao, H W; Tung, C-J; Liu, H M; Chou, F I

    2009-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cancer treatment modality using a nuclear reactor and a boron compound drug. In Taiwan, Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) has been modulated for the basic research of BNCT for years. A new BNCT beam port was built in 2004 and used to prepare the first clinical trial in the near future. This work reports the microdosimetry study of the THOR BNCT beam by means of the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Two self-fabricated TEPCs (the boron-doped versus the boron-free counter wall) were introduced. These dual TEPCs were applied to measure the lineal energy distributions in air and water phantom irradiated by the THOR BNCT mixed radiation field. Dose contributions from component radiations of different linear energy transfers (LETs) were analyzed. Applying a lineal energy dependent biological weighting function, r(y), to the total and individual lineal energy distributions, the effective relative biological effectiveness (RBE), neutron RBE, photon RBE, and boron capture RBE (BNC RBE) were all determined at various depths of the water phantom. Minimum and maximum values of the effective RBE were 1.68 and 2.93, respectively. The maximum effective RBE occurred at 2cm depth in the phantom. The average neutron RBE, photon RBE, and BNC RBE values were 3.160+/-0.020, 1.018+/-0.001, and 1.570+/-0.270, respectively, for the THOR BNCT beam.

  10. The particle background of the Rosat PSPC. [Position Sensitive Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Briel, U.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.

    1992-01-01

    In order to permit quantitative studies of the diffuse cosmic X-ray background and of extended X-ray sources, the particle induced background of the Roentgen Satellite, Rosat, Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) is parameterized. Data collected during 210,000 s of PSPC operation have been analyzed and the temporal, spectral, and spatial distributions investigated. About 77 percent of the residual events originate within the detector while the remainder enter through the counter window. During typical conditions, the count rate of the residual events is well correlated with the Master Veto (MV) count rate. The spectrum of these events is well described by a flat component plus a soft power law and an Al K-alpha line at 1.5 keV. Also during typical conditions, the ratio between the power law and flat components remains constant to +/- 4 while the relative Al K-alpha contribution increases with increasing MV count rate. The distribution of the counts over the field of view is uniform except for a slight radial dependence and shadowing caused by blockage of the externally produced component by the window support structure.

  11. Use of the small proportional counter for carbon 14 measurement in 10 milligram carbon samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W.; Otlet, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ten years ago, the measurement of C-14/C-12 ratios in 10 milligram carbon samples seemed to be technically out of reach. However, two developments that make this goal possible have recently occurred: the first is an entirely new mass-spectrometric separation of C-14 and C-12 ions and their subsequent estimation by counting, while the second is simply the extension of conventional proportional counter operation (using CO/sub 2/ as counter gas) to very small size carbon samples. The first method is very fast, precise, and capable of treating samples of even sub-milligram size, but requires an expensive installation. The second method is slow (counting times of two months or more are necessary), can probably be made sufficiently precise to handle most problems, works down to sample sizes of 10 mg carbon, and is relatively inexpensive, especially to install in already existing radiocarbon laboratories. It is this second method and its implications that are discussed in the present paper.

  12. A continuous mode data acquisition technique for proton recoil proportional counter neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, E.F.

    1989-03-01

    The existing proton recoil proportional counter measurement technique used at FNS for joint FNS-ANL fusion blanket neutron spectroscopy requires that numerous piece-wise (but overlapping) measurements be carried out at a sequence of fixed counter voltages. The composite results of all of these independent measurements are required to construct a single neutron spectrum. This approach has been found to be both inefficient and subject to systematic errors. An alternative approach, in which data is acquired continuously using a slow time modulation of the high voltage bias supply, is here described. The electronics requirements are consistent with the basic detector/amplifier systems now operable at FNS. Some additional hardware including a programmable high voltage bias supply and a random amplitude test pulse generator are necessary. A description of the electronics and data acquisition hardware for these measurements will be provided at a later date. In this report we emphasize the numerical procedures involved to acquire and reduce data, and provide an illustrative example using one of the hardest neutron spectra readily available for this work at ANL. 6 refs., 26 figs.

  13. Shielding experiment of heavy-ion produced neutrons using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, T; Yonai, S; Takada, M; Fukumura, A; Nakamura, T

    2003-01-01

    A shielding experiment was performed at the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba), of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), to measure neutron dose using a spherical TEPC (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) of 12.55 cm inner diameter. Neutrons are produced from a 5 cm thick stopping length Cu target bombarded by 400 MeV/nucleon C6+ ions and penetrate concrete or iron shields of various thicknesses at 0 degree to the beam direction. From this shielding experiment. y-distribution, mean lineal energy, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and mean-quality factor were obtained behind the shield as a function of shield thickness. The neutron dose attenuation lengths were also obtained as 126 g cm(-2) for concrete and 211 g cm(-2) for iron. The measured results were compared with the calculated results using the MARS Monte Carlo code.

  14. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  15. Gamma camera for medical applications, using a multiwire proportional counter. [Dogs, pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, L.J.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Babich, J.W.; Bungo, M.W.; Latson, L.A.; Lewis, R.M.; Poliner, L.R.; Jones, R.H.; Johnson, P.C.

    1984-09-01

    A multiwire proportional counter gamma camera, specially designed for nuclear medicine applications, is portable and weighs less than 50 lb including shielding and collimator. The basic operating characteristics have been investigated with various radioactive sealed sources. The camera demonstrates a peak count rate of 850,000 cps, an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.5 mm, and excellent image uniformity when used with x-ray sources in the range of 22-81 keV. Tests of the device with Ta-178 using 20 mCi injections provided images of quality comparable to those obtained from 15 mCi Tc-99m studies with conventional imaging devices. The camera used with Ta-178 offers particular promise in first-pass nuclear cardiology studies.

  16. Calibration of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahoda, Keith; Markwardt, Craig B.; Radeva, Yana; Rots, Arnold H.; Stark, Michael J.; Swank, Jean H.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Zhang, William

    2004-01-01

    We present the calibration and background model for the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The energy calibration is systematics limited below 10 keV with deviations from a power law fit to the Crab nebula plus pulsar loss than 1%. Unmodelled variations in the instrument background amount to less than 2% of the observed background below 10 keV and less than 1% between 10 and 20 keV. Individual photon arrival times are accurate to 4.4 microseconds at all times during the mission and to 2.5 microseconds after 29 April 1997. The peak pointing direction of the five collimators is known at few arcsecond precision.

  17. Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters for High-Energy X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    A focal plane array of high-pressure gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope is under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center. These detectors have an active area of approx. 20 sq cm, and are filled with a high pressure (10(exp 6) Pa) xenon-helium mixture. Imaging is via crossed-grid position-sensitive phototubes sensitive in the UV region. The performance of the GSPC is well matched to that of the telescopes x-ray optics which have response to 75 keV and a focal spot size of approx. 500 microns. The detector s energy resolution, 4% FWHM at 60 keV, is adequate for resolving the broad spectral lines of astrophysical importance and for accurate continuum measurements. Full details of the instrument and its performance will be provided.

  18. A High-Energy Focal-Plane Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Austin, R. A.; Apple, J. A.; Dietz, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a high-pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) for the focus of a hard-x-ray telescope. It features an absorption region 50 mm in diameter and 50 mm deep, filled with Xenon + 4% He at 10(exp 6) Pa total pressure, which gives useful response (greater than 75% efficiency) up to the mirror cut-off of 70 keV. Tests with a prototype unit show an energy resolution of 3.5% at 60 keV and a spatial resolution of 0.35 mm from 30-50 keV. Two flight units are currently under construction for a balloon flight in September 1999. Full details of their design and performance will be presented together with available quick-look background data from the flight.

  19. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  20. Performance of large area x-ray proportional counters in a balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Agrawal, P. C.; Dedhia, D. K.; Manchanda, R. K.; Shah, P. B.; Chitnis, V. R.; Gujar, V. M.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Kurhade, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    ASTROSAT is India's first satellite fully devoted to astronomical observations covering a wide spectral band from optical to hard X-rays by a complement of 4 co-aligned instruments and a Scanning Sky X-ray Monitor. One of the instruments is Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter with 3 identical detectors. In order to assess the performance of this instrument, a balloon experiment with two prototype Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters (LAXPC) was carried out on 2008 April 14. The design of these LAXPCs was similar to those on the ASTROSAT except that their field of view (FOV) was 3 ∘ × 3 ∘ versus FOV of 1 ∘ × 1 ∘ for the LAXPCs on the ASTROSAT. The LAXPCs are aimed at the timing and spectral studies of X-ray sources in 3-80 keV region. In the balloon experiment, the LAXPC, associated electronics and support systems were mounted on an oriented platform which could be pre-programmed to track any source in the sky. A brief description of the LAXPC design, laboratory tests, calibration and the detector characteristics is presented here. The details of the experiment and background counting rates of the 2 LAXPCs at the float altitude of about 41 km are presented in different energy bands. The bright black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) was observed in the experiment for ˜ 3 hours. Details of Cyg X-1 observations, count rates measured from it in different energy intervals and the intensity variations of Cyg X-1 detected during the observations are presented and briefly discussed.

  1. (Development of an inexpensive high resolution positron multiwire proportional counter). Progress report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The development of surgical and medical techniques for the treatment of coronary artery disease has dramatized the need for a safe, relatively non-traumatic measure of regional perfusion. This is particularly critical during the early stages of coronary artery disease, well before symptoms become severe enough to warrant characterization. The primary limitation in the implementation of this new technique is the lack of a high resolution, relatively inexpensive positron detecting system to enable myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with rubidium-82 to be performed as a screening test in hospitals without direct access to cyclotron facilities. The positron multiwire proportional counter which will result from the proposed projects will solve this problem. The dispersion of the absorbing material will be achieved by stringing wires of high Z material, such as tungsten, in a cross pattern. By stacking the wires, an efficiency of 30% can be obtained for 0.5 MeV photons. The wire layers will be at graded voltages; the ionization from the photoelectrons is thereby drifted through the stack and picked up by sense wires operating in the proportional mode. Resolutions within the 3 mm range should also be achievable. 15 figs.

  2. Imaging micro-well proportional counters fabricated with masked UV laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Black, J. K.; Crawford, H.; Hunter, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    The micro-well detector is a gas-proportional counter similar to the CAT (Bartol et al., J. Phys. III 6 (1996) 337) and WELL detectors (Bellazzini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 423 (1999) 125). The micro-well is a cylindrical hole formed in the polymer substrate of commercially fabricated copper-clad flexible printed circuit board by UV laser ablation. The micro-wells are drilled at GSFC's UV laser-ablation facility. The cathode is a metal annulus that surrounds the opening of the well. The anode is a metal pad that fills the bottom of the well. Advantages of this topology include intrinsic two-dimensional sensing, thick robust electrodes, and large localized image charge on the cathodes. We have fabricated 5 cm×5 cm micro-well detectors with segmented anodes (1-d) and with both anodes and cathodes segmented (2-d), and have demonstrated: stable, proportional operation at gas gains in excess of 30,000 in Ar- and Xe-based gases; FWHM energy resolution of 20% at 6 keV in P-10; preliminary 1-d spatial resolution of ⩽150 μm (rms) in P-10; and the capability of MWDs to produce 2-dimensional images. We report on the design, fabrication, and testing of 1-d, 2-d, and pixelized micro-well detectors.

  3. Absolute determination of radiation bursts and of proportional counters space charge effect through the influence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, I. J.; Mayer, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    When proportional counters are employed in charge integration mode to determine the magnitude of a radiation pulse, so intense that individual detection events take place in a time too short to produce individual output pulses, mostly in pulsed neutron sources, the strong build-up of positive space charge reduces the electric multiplication factor of the proportional detector. Under such conditions the ensuing measurement underestimates the amount of radiation that interacted with the detector. If the geometric characteristics, the filling gas pressure and the voltage applied to that detector are known, it becomes possible to apply an analytical correction method to the measurement. In this article we present a method that allows to determine the absolute value of the detected radiation burst without the need to know the characteristics of the employed detectors. It is necessary to employ more than one detector, taking advantage of the Influence Method. The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015 [1,2]). Its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016 [3]) and the extension for multiple detectors in (Rios and Mayer 2016 [4]).

  4. Simulated Response of a Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter on the Surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Northum, Jeremy D; Guetersloh, Stephen B; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John R

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties persist regarding the assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure during a mission to Mars. The GCR spectrum peaks in the range of 300(-1) MeV n to 700 MeV n(-1) and is comprised of elemental ions from H to Ni. While Fe ions represent only 0.03% of the GCR spectrum in terms of particle abundance, they are responsible for nearly 30% of the dose equivalent in free space. Because of this, radiation biology studies focusing on understanding the biological effects of GCR exposure generally use Fe ions. Acting as a thin shield, the Martian atmosphere alters the GCR spectrum in a manner that significantly reduces the importance of Fe ions. Additionally, albedo particles emanating from the regolith complicate the radiation environment. The present study uses the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter on the surface of Mars to produce dosimetry quantities and microdosimetry distributions. The dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars was found to be 0.18 Sv y(-1) with an average quality factor of 2.9 and a dose mean lineal energy of 18.4 keV μm(-1). Additionally, albedo neutrons were found to account for 25% of the dose equivalent. It is anticipated that these data will provide relevant starting points for use in future risk assessment and mission planning studies.

  5. HILT - A heavy ion large area proportional counter telescope for solar and anomalous cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, Berndt; Hovestadt, Dietrich; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Ertl, M.; Kaestle, H.; Kuenneth, E.; Laeverenz, P.; Seidenschwang, E.; Blake, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The HILT sensor has been designed to measure heavy ion elemental abundances, energy spectra, and direction of incidence in the mass range from He to Fe and in the energy range 4 to 250 MeV/nucleon. With its large geometric factor of 60 sq cm sr the sensor is optimized to provide compositional and spectral measurements for low intensity cosmic rays (i.e. for small solar energetic particle events and for the anomalous component of cosmic rays). The instrument combines a large area ion drift chamber-proportional counter system with two arrays of 16 Li-drift solid state detectors and 16 CsI crystals. The multi dE/dx-E technique provides a low background mass and energy determination. The sensor also measures particle direction. Combining these measurements with the information on the spacecraft position and attitude in the low-altitude polar orbit, it will be possible to infer the ionic charge of the ions from the local cutoff of the Earth's magnetic field. The ionic charge in this energy range is of particular interest because it provides unique clues to the origin of these particles and has not been investigated systematically so far. Together with the other instruments on board SAMPEX (LEICA, MAST, and PET), a comprehensive measurement of the entire solar and anomalous particle population will be achieved.

  6. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Braby, L A; Borak, T B; Lusby, T; Warner, D W; Perez-Nunez, D

    2015-10-01

    Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are such instruments. Unfortunately, present TEPCs are too large and power intensive to be used beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Here, the authors describe a prototype of a compact TEPC designed for deep space applications with the capability to detect both ambient galactic cosmic rays and intense solar particle event radiation. The device employs an approach that permits real-time determination of yD (and thus quality factor) using a single detector. This was accomplished by assigning sequential sampling intervals as detectors “1” and “2” and requiring the intervals to be brief compared to the change in dose rate. Tests with g rays show that the prototype instrument maintains linear response over the wide dose-rate range expected in space with an accuracy of better than 5% for dose rates above 3 mGy h(-1). Measurements of yD for 200 MeV n(-1) carbon ions were better than 10%. Limited tests with fission spectrum neutrons show absorbed dose-rate accuracy better than 15%.

  7. Calibration of an Ultra-Low-Background Proportional Counter for Measuring 37Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-08-08

    Abstract. An ultra-low-background proportional counter (ULBPC) design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electrochemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) constructed at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with 14C/3H, age-dating of groundwater with 39Ar, and soil-gas assay for 37Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of 37Ar samples over a broad range of pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for 37Ar soil gas background studies.

  8. ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter spectra of six Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; George, I. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter observations of six Seyfert 1 galaxies in the soft (0.1-2.0 keV) X-ray band. The sources (Mrk 335, ESO 198-G24, ESO 141-G55, Mrk 509, NGC 7469, and MCG-2-58-22) were chosen to have low absorbing column densities along the line of sight. As expected, it is found that all the sources possess significantly steeper spectra below about 1 keV than observed at higher X-ray energies. Assuming a simple absorbed power-law spectral model, the mean (photon) spectral index for the sample is Gamma = 2.38 +/- 0.25, compared to the canonical 1.7 typically observed in the 2-10 keV band. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for soft X-ray spectral features in half the sources. In NGC 7469 and ESO 198-G24, we find that the addition of a narrow emission line or an absorption edge to the underlying continuum is a significant improvement to the parameterization of the spectra. Mrk 335 also shows evidence for spectral complexity, but from these data it is not possible to unambiguously distinguish between an absorption edge and a steepening of the spectrum at low energies. We examine these results in the light of the accuracy of the PSPC spectral calibration.

  9. HILT - A heavy ion large area proportional counter telescope for solar and anomalous cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klecker, Berndt; Hovestadt, Dietrich; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Ertl, M.; Kaestle, H.; Kuenneth, E.; Laeverenz, P.; Seidenschwang, E.; Blake, J. B.

    1993-05-01

    The HILT sensor has been designed to measure heavy ion elemental abundances, energy spectra, and direction of incidence in the mass range from He to Fe and in the energy range 4 to 250 MeV/nucleon. With its large geometric factor of 60 sq cm sr the sensor is optimized to provide compositional and spectral measurements for low intensity cosmic rays (i.e. for small solar energetic particle events and for the anomalous component of cosmic rays). The instrument combines a large area ion drift chamber-proportional counter system with two arrays of 16 Li-drift solid state detectors and 16 CsI crystals. The multi dE/dx-E technique provides a low background mass and energy determination. The sensor also measures particle direction. Combining these measurements with the information on the spacecraft position and attitude in the low-altitude polar orbit, it will be possible to infer the ionic charge of the ions from the local cutoff of the Earth's magnetic field. The ionic charge in this energy range is of particular interest because it provides unique clues to the origin of these particles and has not been investigated systematically so far. Together with the other instruments on board SAMPEX (LEICA, MAST, and PET), a comprehensive measurement of the entire solar and anomalous particle population will be achieved.

  10. HILT - A heavy ion large area proportional counter telescope for solar and anomalous cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, Berndt; Hovestadt, Dietrich; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Ertl, M.; Kaestle, H.; Kuenneth, E.; Laeverenz, P.; Seidenschwang, E.; Blake, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The HILT sensor has been designed to measure heavy ion elemental abundances, energy spectra, and direction of incidence in the mass range from He to Fe and in the energy range 4 to 250 MeV/nucleon. With its large geometric factor of 60 sq cm sr the sensor is optimized to provide compositional and spectral measurements for low intensity cosmic rays (i.e. for small solar energetic particle events and for the anomalous component of cosmic rays). The instrument combines a large area ion drift chamber-proportional counter system with two arrays of 16 Li-drift solid state detectors and 16 CsI crystals. The multi dE/dx-E technique provides a low background mass and energy determination. The sensor also measures particle direction. Combining these measurements with the information on the spacecraft position and attitude in the low-altitude polar orbit, it will be possible to infer the ionic charge of the ions from the local cutoff of the Earth's magnetic field. The ionic charge in this energy range is of particular interest because it provides unique clues to the origin of these particles and has not been investigated systematically so far. Together with the other instruments on board SAMPEX (LEICA, MAST, and PET), a comprehensive measurement of the entire solar and anomalous particle population will be achieved.

  11. The Rutherford Appleton laboratory's mark I multiwire proportional counter positron camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, J. E.; Connolly, J. F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G. J.; Flesher, A. C.

    1984-08-01

    A small (30 cm × 30 cm) model of a proposed large aperture positron camera has been developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Based on multiwire proportional counter technology it uses lead foil cathodes which function simultaneously as converters for the 511 keV gamma rays and readout electrodes for a delay line readout system. The detectors have been built up into a portable imaging system complete with a dedicated computer for data taking, processing and display. This has permitted evaluation of this type of positron imaging system in the clinical environment using both cyclotron generated isotopes ( 15O, 11C, 18F, 124I) and available isotopic generator systems ( 82Rb, 68Ga). At RAL we provided a complete hardware system and sufficient software to permit our hospital based colleagues to generate useful images with the minimum of effort. A complete description of the system is given with performance figures and some of the images obtained in three hospital visits are presented. Some detailed studies of the imaging performance of the positron camera are reported which have bearing on the design of future, improved systems.

  12. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions

    PubMed Central

    Straume, T.; Braby, L.A.; Borak, T.B.; Lusby, T.; Warner, D.W.; Perez-Nunez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are such instruments. Unfortunately, present TEPCs are too large and power intensive to be used beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Here, the authors describe a prototype of a compact TEPC designed for deep space applications with the capability to detect both ambient galactic cosmic rays and intense solar particle event radiation. The device employs an approach that permits real-time determination of (and thus quality factor) using a single detector. This was accomplished by assigning sequential sampling intervals as detectors “1” and “2” and requiring the intervals to be brief compared to the change in dose rate. Tests with γ rays show that the prototype instrument maintains linear response over the wide dose-rate range expected in space with an accuracy of better than 5% for dose rates above 3 mGy h−1. Measurements of for 200 MeV n−1 carbon ions were better than 10%. Limited tests with fission spectrum neutrons show absorbed dose-rate accuracy better than 15%. PMID:26313585

  13. Performance of Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter Array for High-Energy X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeffery

    2004-01-01

    A focal plane array of high-pressure gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) for a High Energy X-Ray Observatory (HERO) is developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The array is consisted from eight GSPCs and is a part of balloon born payload scheduled to flight in May 2004. These detectors have an active area of approximately 20 square centimeters, and are filled with a high pressure (10(exp 6) Pa) xenon-helium mixture. Imaging is via crossed-grid position-sensitive phototubes sensitive in the UV region. The performance of the GSPC is well matched to that of the telescopes x-ray optics which have response to 75 keV and a focal spot size of approximately 500 microns. The detector's energy resolution, 4% FWHM at 60 keV, is adequate for resolving the broad spectral lines of astrophysical importance and for accurate continuum measurements. Results of the on-earth detector calibration will be presented and in-flight detector performance will be provided, as available.

  14. SINGLE ANODE TRIPLE GEM TISSUE EQUIVALENT PROPORTIONAL COUNTER AS THE BASIS FOR A PERSONAL NEUTRON DOSIMETER.

    PubMed

    Seydaliev, M; Dubeau, J; Ali, F

    2017-04-28

    This paper reports on a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) based on a triple gas electron multiplier structure, with a single pad readout, as a basis for a personal neutron dosimeter. Its dosimetric response was studied using the 252Cf neutron source at the Health Physics Generator Facility of the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories. Measured lineal energy spectra were found to be in agreement with numerical simulations performed with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Both simulations and measurements showed that the mean pathlength of secondary charged particles in the TEPC gas was best represented by the thickness of the drift region of the device. It was determined that the Cauchy Theorem, used to calculate the mean chord length in spherical and cylindrical TEPCs, overestimated the simulated mean chord length by nearly a factor of two. Important operational characteristics of the device were investigated, including gas gain, sensitivity and dosimetric response, as functions of tissue-equivalent gas pressure. This work demonstrates that the proposed design can serve as the basis for a personal neutron dosimeter device, which would satisfy the angular dosimetric response criteria of the personal dosimeter standard IEC61526. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Overman, C. T.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-08

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., {sup 37}Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.

  16. Initial Characterization of Unequal-Length, Low-Background Proportional Counters for Absolute Gas-Counting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily K.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-08-31

    Abstract. Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPC) designs and now operate in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of OFHC copper components for use in an above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, energy resolution, and shielding considerations. These results will be presented along with uncertainty estimates of future absolute gas counting measurements.

  17. Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter Microdosimetry Measurements Utilized Aboard Aircraft and in Accelerator Based Space Radiation Shielding Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersey, Brad B.; Wilkins, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), a description of the spatially restricted LET Model, high energy proton TEPC and the results of modeling, the study of shielding and the results from the flight exposures with the TEPC.

  18. Use of Proportional Counters for Yield Measurement in Extremely Short Pulses of Fast Neutrons: Counting Statistics and Absolute Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Mayer, R. E.; Pavez, C.; Soto, L.

    2010-08-01

    A method for absolute calibration of proportional counters for pulsed fast neutrons is presented. The method is based on the use of an isotopic standard source and development of a model for counting detected events from area of a signal compounded by single piled up neutron pulses. Effects of detection counting statistics and electrical background noise are also considered.

  19. Use of Proportional Counters for Yield Measurement in Extremely Short Pulses of Fast Neutrons: Counting Statistics and Absolute Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Tarifeno-Saldivia, A.; Mayer, R. E.; Pavez, C.; Soto, L.

    2010-08-04

    A method for absolute calibration of proportional counters for pulsed fast neutrons is presented. The method is based on the use of an isotopic standard source and development of a model for counting detected events from area of a signal compounded by single piled up neutron pulses. Effects of detection counting statistics and electrical background noise are also considered.

  20. Advances in the RXTE Proportional Counter Array Calibration: Nearing the Statistical Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Jahoda, Keith; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Strohmayer, Tod

    2012-01-01

    During its 16 years of service Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) mission has provided an extensive archive of data, which will serve as a primary source of high cadence observation of variable X-ray sources for fast timing studies. It is, therefore, very important to have the most reliable calibration of RXTE instruments. The Proportional Counter Array (PCA) is the primary instrument on-board RXTE which provides data in 2-50 keY with higher than millisecond time resolution in up to 256 energy channels. In 2009 RXTE team revised the response residual minimization method used to derive the parameters of the PCA physical model. The procedure is now based on the residual minimization between the model spectrum for Crab nebula emission and a calibration data set consisting of a number of spectra from the Crab and the on-board Am241 calibration source, uniformly covering a whole RXTE span. The new method led to a much more effective model convergence and allowed for better understanding of the behavior of the PCA energy-to-channel relationship. It greatly improved the response matrix performance. We describe the new version of the RXTE/PCA response generator PCARMF vll.7 along with the corresponding energy-to-channel conversion table (version e05v04) and their difference from the previous releases of PCA calibration. The new PCA response adequately represents the spectrum of the calibration sources and successfully predicts the energy of the narrow iron emission line in Cas-A throughout the RXTE mission.

  1. Replacement tissue-equivalent proportional counter for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Perez-Nunez, D; Braby, L A

    2011-02-01

    The tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-based dosemeters used on the International Space Station have exceeded their planned useful lives, and are scheduled to be replaced with the new units taking advantage of improved technology. The original TEPC detectors used cylindrical geometry with field tubes to achieve good energy resolution and minimum sensitivity to noise created by vibration. The inside diameter of these detectors is 5.1 cm. The new detectors developed for this application produce the resolution and vibration resistance of the cylindrical detector with the isotropic response and compact size of a spherical detector. The cathode structure consists of conductive tissue-equivalent plastic A-150 layers separated by thin polyethylene layers perpendicular to the anode. Each conductive layer is held at the electrical potential needed to produce uniform electric field strength along the anode wire, and thus the same gas gain for electrons produced in different portions of the spherical volume. The new design contains the whole preamplifier inside the vacuum chamber to reduce electronic noise. Also the vacuum chamber has a novel design with a 0.020-inch-thick aluminium wall to allow a total wall thickness of 0.5 g cm(-2), which is typical of the shielding provided by a space suit. This feature will allow measuring the dose on the astronauts' skin due to low-energy electrons and protons produced during solar events. The vacuum chamber has a new bayonet clamping system that reduces the total detector weight to less than half that of the old TEPC.

  2. ADVANCES IN THE RXTE PROPORTIONAL COUNTER ARRAY CALIBRATION: NEARING THE STATISTICAL LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Jahoda, Keith; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Strohmayer, Tod

    2012-10-01

    During its 16 years of service, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) mission has provided an extensive archive of data, which will serve as a primary source of high cadence observations of variable X-ray sources for fast timing studies. It is, therefore, very important to have the most reliable calibration of RXTE instruments. The Proportional Counter Array (PCA) is the primary instrument on board RXTE which provides data in 3-50 keV energy range with submillisecond time resolution in up to 256 energy channels. In 2009, the RXTE team revised the response residual minimization method used to derive the parameters of the PCA physical model. The procedure is based on the residual minimization between the model spectrum for Crab Nebula emission and a calibration data set consisting of a number of spectra from the Crab and the on-board Am{sub 241} calibration source, uniformly covering the whole RXTE mission operation period. The new method led to a much more effective model convergence and allowed for better understanding of the PCA energy-to-channel relationship. It greatly improved the response matrix performance. We describe the new version of the RXTE/PCA response generator PCARMF v11.7 (HEASOFT Release 6.7) along with the corresponding energy-to-channel conversion table (version e05v04) and their difference from the previous releases of PCA calibration. The new PCA response adequately represents the spectrum of the calibration sources and successfully predicts the energy of the narrow iron emission line in Cas-A throughout the RXTE mission.

  3. Isomer Tagging with a Dual Multi-Wire Proportional Counter and a Differential Plunger

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R.; Khan, S.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P.; Rahkila, P.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A. P.; Nyman, M.; Uusitalo, J.; Grahn, T.; Pakarinen, J.; Nieminen, P.

    2008-05-12

    This report details the status of an experimental research programme which has studied isomeric states in the mass 130-160 region of the nuclear chart. Several new isomers have been established and characterised near the proton drip line using a recoil isomer tagging technique at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The latest experiments have been performed with a modified setup where the standard GREAT focal-plane double-sided silicon-strip detector was changed to a dual multi-wire proportional-counter arrangement. This new setup has improved capability for short-lived isomer studies where large focal-plane rates can be tolerated. The results of key recent experiments for nuclei situated above ({sup 153}Yb, {sup 152}Tm) and below ({sup 144}Ho, {sup 142}Tb) the N = 82 shell gap were presented. These studies have charted the evolution of isomeric states across the neutron shell from K-Isomers at N = 74, to shape isomers at N = 77 and shell-model isomers at N = 82, 83. The excitation energies for some of the lowest-lying excited states in these isomeric nuclei show behaviour which is characteristic of an X(5) symmetry falling midway between the limits expected for pure vibrational and rotational behaviour. The future prospects for studies of these nuclei were discussed using an isomer-tagged differential-plunger setup. This technique will be capable of establishing the deformation of the states above the isomers and will aid in determining whether their behaviour is indeed well described by the X(5) symmetry limit.

  4. Miniature Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter dosimeter for active personal radiation monitoring of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson Huber, Aubrey

    The accurate measurement of spaceflight crew radiation exposure is of utmost importance. If onboard instrumentation shows that the pre-determined limit for radiation exposure has been met or exceeded during a mission, that mission can be greatly affected by the implementation of precautionary measures, or, in more extreme cases, the crew's health being negatively affected. Large active regional monitors determine real-time radiation risks of the crew during spaceflight, while small passive personal badges detect individual astronaut total exposure levels upon their return to Earth. At present, there are no personal active radiation dosimeters that can assess the continuous radiation risk to individual astronauts during spaceflight. Personal active radiation devices would be ideal for current operations in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as upcoming extravehicular activities on the Moon, Mars, or other planetary bodies. This project focused on the miniaturization of the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) presently being utilized on the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle, enabling them to become personal crew dosimeters. The miniaturized TEPC prototype design has dimensions of 7.6 x 10.1 x 2.54 cm (3 x 4 x 1 in). It is composed of a 3 x 4 array of 1.27 cm (0.5 in) spherical detectors for measurements equivalent to a 4.39 cm (1.73 in) spherical detector, with an additional standalone sphere of diameter 1.27 cm (0.5 in) for taking measurements in high-flux environments. The detector simulates a tissue-equivalent diameter of 2 microns, is sensitive to lineal energies of 0.3 -- 1000 keV/micron, and can measure charged particles and neutrons ranging from 0.01 -- 100 mGy/hr.

  5. The application of a drift multiwire proportional counter to the imaging of low energy X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, W. H.-M.; Reid, P. B.; Long, K. S.; Novick, R.

    1978-01-01

    A 75 mm x 75 mm multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) with a 1 micron polypropylene window has been built to map low energy X-rays. The MWPC is constructed with a large drift region which allows us to use the center-of-gravity technique to improve the counter's efficiency and position resolution. Using 330 torr of propane as the gas fill and an anode plane composed of 20 micron diameter Au-plated tungsten wire spaced 1 mm apart, a position resolution of better than 240 microns (FWHM) in two orthogonal directions at an X-ray energy of 0.94 keV has been achieved.

  6. The analysis of the X-ray event analyzer proportional counter data: A comment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The findings, based on a comparison of simultaneous observations of a number of flares obtained with the X-REA and SOLRAD 9 instruments, which reveal the degree of deterioration of the counters with time are presented.

  7. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  8. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device

    PubMed Central

    Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima. PMID:26273118

  9. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)(3)He and D(d,n)(3)He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the (9)Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  10. Factors limiting the linearity of response of tissue equivalent proportional counters used in micro- and nano-dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, T. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Proportional counters filled with tissue equivalent gas mixtures are extremely useful instruments and are being used extensively as sensitive detectors for all types of radiations to measure the energy transferred to small tissue volumes. The linearity of their response is of primary importance. So the investigation and clarification of the physical phenomena taking place in the counter and of the limits within which useful results may be obtained would contribute to a more efficient use and a wider application of these counters. The linearity of response in the dose and in the gas gain has been determined. Linearity in the dose is limited by the total count rate effect, while linearity in the gas gain is limited by secondary processes occurring in the electron avalanche and by the self-induced space charge effect.

  11. Experimental results from an X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing multi-wire proportional counter for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G. Kim, Y. S.; Yoo, J. W.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.

    2016-11-15

    The inconsistency of the first experimental results from the X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device utilizing a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) is clarified after improving the photon-count rate of the data acquisition system for the MWPC and ground loop isolator for the whole spectrometer system. The improved MWPC is successfully applied to pure Ohmic plasmas as well as plasmas with high confinement modes.

  12. TMAE vapour of CsI layers as photocathodes in a multiwire proportional counter working at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerard, B.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Tavernier, S.; Shuping, Zhang

    1991-12-01

    A multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) coupled to a BaF 2 crystal has been tested at atmospheric pressure for the detection of 511 keV photons. If TMAE is used as a photosensitive agent, we found that addition of H 2O vapour to the chamber gas is very well suited for the detection of single-photoelectrons. Encouraging first results were also obtained with caesium iodide photocathodes.

  13. IEC-^3He Breeder for D-^3He Satellite Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, L.; Miley, G. H.

    1996-11-01

    D-^3He fusion minimizes neutrons and maximizes charged fusion products, enabling increased energy recovery efficiency by direct conversion. However, scarce ^3He terrestrial resources have deterred R&D on this alternative. Here, we explore ^3He production through Inertial Electrostatic Confinement^1 (IEC) D-breeders, which supply ^3He to FRC D-^3He satellite reactors.^2 Favorable features for the IEC breeder include simplicity, low cost, easy extraction of fusion products, and compatibility with direct conversion. The breeder-satellite system energy balance is analyzed taking the net energy gain of the overall system, Q_N, as the figure of merit. Breeding is applicable for systems where the satellite Q-value, Q_S, > the breeder Q-value, Q_B. For improved performance, i.e., for high Q_N, QS >= QB >> 1 is needed; however, lower QB values (typical of the IEC) are permissible and still offer sufficient Q_N. An economic study determined breeding produces ^3He at a cost comparable to lunar ^3He, already shown to lead to competitive power.^3 The cost of electricity (COE) for the breeder-satellite complex was compared with the ARTEMIS COE,^4 using lunar ^3He fuel: assuming one satellite (1000 MWe)/breeder (170 MWe), the ratio of the breeding system COE to the lunar mining base COE is ~ 1.2. However, economic breeding is driven by large IEC breeder powers, i.e., increased ^3He breeding rates. Thus, the COE ratio approaches unity with two or three satellites/breeder, requiring increased breeder size and power (340 MWe for 2 satellites, 510 MWe for 3 satellites). Such systems potentially provide a ``bridge'' to a future lunar ^3He economy. 1. G.H. Miley et al., Dense Z-pinches, AIP Conf. 299, AIP Press, 675-689 (1994). 2. G.H. Miley, Nucl. Instrum. Methods, A271, 197-202 (1988). 3. L.J. Wittenberg et al., Fusion Technol., 10, 167-178 (1986). 4. H. Momota et al., Fusion Technol., 21, 2307-2323 (1992).

  14. Development for the study of a Cross Sectional Measurement of 3He-3He Solar Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudomi, N.; Itahashi, T.; Kume, K.; Takahisa, K.; Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Toki, H.; Nagai, Y.; Komori, M.; Ohsumi, H.

    2003-04-01

    The design and construction of a low-energy, high current accelerator for the study of fusion reactions are reported. The accelerator can produce an intense beam of 3He1+ and 3He2+ ions of more than 1mA. It enables us to provide extremely fine cross-section measurements of the 3He(3He,2p)α at 40 to 50 keV. A detection efficiency for proposed detector assembly of ΔE-E counter telescope is simulated with GEANT program and it expects a detection efficiency about 10% for the two proton coincidence for 3He+3He→2p+α. Deuter contaminations in target chamber is estimated to be less than ppm by quadrupole mass spectrometer. To further develop the study of nuclear astrophysics, a plasma target as an experimental apparatus for electron screening effects is proposed. Some parts of such apparatus are assembled. A combination ECR plasma target with a high current ion generator is under construction. The facility will be installed in the underground laboratory, Oto Cosmo Observatory. The facility has just started to operate and, as explained here, it already has been used for the double beta decay measurement and dark matter search programs. The present status of the experimental apparatus and its development are described.

  15. Modelling and calculations of the response of tissue equivalent proportional counter to charged particles.

    PubMed

    Nikjoo, H; Uehara, S; Pinsky, L; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2007-01-01

    Space activities in earth orbit or in deep space pose challenges to the estimation of risk factors for both astronauts and instrumentation. In space, risk from exposure to ionising radiation is one of the main factors limiting manned space exploration. Therefore, characterising the radiation environment in terms of the types of radiations and the quantity of radiation that the astronauts are exposed to is of critical importance in planning space missions. In this paper, calculations of the response of TEPC to protons and carbon ions were reported. The calculations have been carried out using Monte Carlo track structure simulation codes for the walled and the wall-less TEPC counters. The model simulates nonhomogenous tracks in the sensitive volume of the counter and accounts for direct and indirect events. Calculated frequency- and dose-averaged lineal energies 0.3 MeV-1 GeV protons are presented and compared with the experimental data. The calculation of quality factors (QF) were made using individual track histories. Additionally, calculations of absolute frequencies of energy depositions in cylindrical targets, 100 nm height by 100 nm diameter, when randomly positioned and oriented in water irradiated with 1 Gy of protons of energy 0.3-100 MeV, is presented. The distributions show the clustering properties of protons of different energies in a 100 nm by 100 nm cylinder.

  16. Searches for a sterile-neutrino admixture in detecting tritium decays in a proportional counter: New possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, D. N.; Berlev, A. I.; Likhovid, N. A.; Lokhov, A. V. Tkachev, I. I.; Yants, V. E.

    2015-03-15

    An experiment aimed at searches for an admixture of a sterile neutrino whosemass is 1 to 8 keV via detecting electrons from tritium decay in a proportional counter is proposed. The admixture in question can be discovered by a specific distortion of the energy spectrum of these electrons. For the above masses, the distortion extends over the whole spectrum; therefore, use can bemade of detectors that have a relatively low energy resolution (about 10 to 15%). A classic proportional counter is a simple and natural choice of detector for the decays of a gaseous tritium. The approach that we propose is novel in two respects. On one hand, the proportional counter used is made as a discrete unit in the form of a fully fused quartz tube. This permits a readout of current signals directly from the anode filament and ensures a high stability in the case of long-term measurements. At the same time, the application of state-of-the-art digital data-acquisition methods will make it possible to perform measurements under conditions of high counting rates—up to 10{sup 6} Hz. As a result, the energy spectrum of electrons from tritium decays that is formed by 10{sup 12} counts could be accumulated within about a month. This data sample would make it possible to set an upper limit in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −5} on a sterile-neutrino admixture at a confidence level of three standard deviations (3σ) for m{sub s} in the range of 1–8 keV, this being one to two orders of magnitude more stringent than present-day limits.

  17. Review of the Microdosimetric Studies for High-Energy Charged Particle Beams Using a Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Shuichi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Sasaki, Shinichi

    Lineal energy (y) distributions were measured for various types of charged particles such as protons and iron, with kinetic energies of up to 500 MeV/u, via the use of a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Radial dependencies of y distributions were also experimentally evaluated to investigate the track structures of protons, carbon, and iron beams. This paper reviews a series of measured data using the aforementioned TEPC as well as assesses the systematic verification of a microdosimetric calculation model of a y distribution incorporated into the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) and associated track structure models.

  18. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-15

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  19. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  20. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Nam, U W; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  1. 3He on preplated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2016-10-01

    By using the diffusion Monte Carlo method, we obtained the full phase diagram of 3He on top of graphite preplated with a solid layer of 4He. All the 4He atoms of the substrate were explicitly considered and allowed to move during the simulation. We found that the ground state is a liquid of density 0.007 ±0.001 Å-2, in good agreement with available experimental data. This is significantly different from the case of 3He on clean graphite, in which both theory and experiment agree on the existence of a gas-liquid transition at low densities. Upon an increase in 3He density, we predict a first-order phase transition between a dense liquid and a registered 7/12 phase, the 4/7 phase being found metastable in our calculations. At larger second-layer densities, a final transition is produced to an incommensurate triangular phase.

  2. Special-geometry proportional counters and techniques for detection of low-levels of X-rays and beta-particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use and sensitivity of the multiwire proportional counter to detect Kr-85 in ambient air are examined. Data also cover monitoring beta and X-ray emitting radio nuclides at low activity levels. Results show the counter to have excellent properties for monitoring Kr-85 down to 0.0004 pCi cu/cm.

  3. A technique for searching for the 2K capture in {sup 124}Xe with a copper proportional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A. Yakimenko, S. P.

    2015-12-15

    An experimental technique for searching for the 2K capture in {sup 124}Xe with a large low-background copper proportional counter is described. Such an experiment is conducted at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The experimental setup is located in the Low-Background Deep-Level Laboratory at a depth of 4900 m.w.e., where the flux of muons of cosmic rays is suppressed by a factor of 10{sup 7} relative to that at the Earth’s surface. The setup incorporates a proportional counter and low-background shielding (18 cm of copper, 15 cm of lead, and 8 cm of borated polyethylene). The results of processing the data obtained in 5 months of live measurement time are presented. A new limit on the half-life of {sup 124}Xe with respect to the 2K capture is set at the level of 2.5 × 10{sup 21} years.

  4. Proportional counter device for detecting electronegative species in an air sample

    DOEpatents

    Allman, S.L.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-03-08

    Apparatus for detecting an electronegative species comprises an analysis chamber, an inlet communicating with the analysis chamber for admitting a sample containing the electronegative species and an ionizable component, a radioactive source within the analysis chamber for emitting radioactive energy for ionizing a component of the sample, a proportional electron detector within the analysis chamber for detecting electrons emitted from the ionized component, and a circuit for measuring the electrons and determining the presence of the electronegative species by detecting a reduction in the number of available electrons due to capture of electrons by the electronegative species. 2 figures.

  5. Proportional counter device for detecting electronegative species in an air sample

    DOEpatents

    Allman, Steve L.; Chen, Fang C.; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting an electronegative species comprises an analysis chamber, an inlet communicating with the analysis chamber for admitting a sample containing the electronegative species and an ionizable component, a radioactive source within the analysis chamber for emitting radioactive energy for ionizing a component of the sample, a proportional electron detector within the analysis chamber for detecting electrons emitted from the ionized component, and a circuit for measuring the electrons and determining the presence of the electronegative species by detecting a reduction in the number of available electrons due to capture of electrons by the electronegative species.

  6. 4He/ 3He thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, David L.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    Using classical diffusion theory, we present a mathematical technique for the determination of 4He concentration profiles in minerals. This approach should prove useful for constraining the low-temperature cooling histories of individual samples and for correcting (U-Th)/He ages for partial diffusive loss. The calculation assumes that the mineral of interest contains an artificially produced and uniform distribution of 3He obtained by proton irradiation [Shuster et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217 (2004) 19-32]. In minerals devoid of natural helium, this isotope allows measurement of He diffusion coefficients; in minerals with measurable radiogenic He, it permits determination of 4He profiles arising during ingrowth and diffusion in nature. The 4He profile can be extracted from stepwise degassing experiments in which the 4He/ 3He ratio is measured. The evolution of the 4He/ 3He ratio as a function of cumulative 3He released can be compared with forward models to constrain the shape of the profile. Alternatively, we present a linear inversion that can be used to directly solve for the unknown 4He distribution. The inversion incorporates a standard regularization technique to filter the influence of random measurement errors on the solution. Using either approach we show that stepwise degassing data can yield robust and high-resolution information on the 4He profile. Profiles of radiogenic He are a sensitive function of the time-Temperate ( t- T) path that a cooling sample experienced. Thus, by step heating a proton-irradiated sample it is possible to restrict the sample's acceptable t- T paths. The sensitivity of this approach was explored by forward-modeling 4He profiles resulting from a range of realistic t- T paths, using apatite as an example. Results indicate that 4He profiles provide rich information on t- T paths, especially when the profiles are coupled with (U-Th)/He cooling ages on the same sample. Samples that experienced only moderate diffusive loss

  7. Threshold electrodisintegration of 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, R. S.; Hotta, A.; Churchwell, S.; Jiang, X.; Peterson, G. A.; Shaw, J.; Asavapibhop, B.; Berisso, M. C.; Bosted, P. E.; Burchesky, K.; Miskimen, R. A.; Rock, S. E.; Nakagawa, I.; Tamae, T.; Suda, T.; Golak, J.; Skibiński, R.; Witała, H.; Casagrande, F.; Turchinetz, W.; Cichocki, A.; Wang, K.; Glöckle, W.; Kamada, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Nogga, A.

    2003-06-01

    Cross sections were measured for the near-threshold electrodisintegration of 3He at momentum transfer values of q=2.4, 4.4, and 4.7 fm-1. From these and prior measurements the transverse and longitudinal response functions RT and RL were deduced. Comparisons are made against previously published and new nonrelativistic A=3 calculations using the best available nucleon-nucleon NN potentials. In general, for q<2 fm-1 these calculations accurately predict the threshold electrodisintegration of 3He. Agreement at increasing q demands consideration of two-body terms, but discrepancies still appear at the highest momentum transfers probed, perhaps due to the neglect of relativistic dynamics, or to the underestimation of high-momentum wave-function components.

  8. Basic design of a multi wire proportional counter using Garfield++ for ILSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremani Gol, M.; Ashrafi, S.; Rahighi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) is a new 3 GeV third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Middle East, which at the time being is in its design stage. An important aspect for the scientific success of this new source will be the availability of well adapted detectors. Position-sensitive X-ray detectors have played an important role in synchrotron radiation X-ray experiments for many years and are still in use. An operational one-dimensional multiwire position sensitive detector with delay line readout produced by ILSF showed a position resolution of 230 μm. In this paper, we introduce a 2-D position sensitive gas detector based on a multiwire proportional chamber which will be used in small/wide angle scattering and diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation at the ILSF. The parameters of its components, including the gas filling, gas pressure, temperature, the geometry of anode and cathodes planes as well as the expected performance of the designed system will be described in the following. For the design and the simulation of MWPC the Elmer and Garfield++ codes have been employed. We have built and tested a MWPC as a prototype at ILSF. The results obtained so far show a good position sensing. After primary test the detector has been optimized and is now ready for test at Elettra.

  9. On the optimisation of the use of 3He in radiation portal monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanin, Alice; Peerani, Paolo; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2013-02-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) are used to detect illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive material concealed in vehicles, cargo containers or people at strategic check points, such as borders, seaports and airports. Most of them include neutron detectors for the interception of potential plutonium smuggling. The most common technology used for neutron detection in RPMs is based on 3He proportional counters. The recent severe shortage of this rare and expensive gas has created a problem of capacity for manufacturers to provide enough detectors to satisfy the market demand. In this paper we analyse the design of typical commercial RPMs and try to optimise the detector parameters in order either to maximise the efficiency using the same amount of 3He or minimise the amount of gas needed to reach the same detection performance: by reducing the volume or gas pressure in an optimised design.

  10. Fast-Neutron Spectrometry Using a 3He Ionization Chamber and Digital Pulse Shape Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury

    2010-05-01

    Digital pulse shape analysis (dPSA) has been used with a Cuttler-Shalev type 3He proportional counter to measure the fast neutron spectra of bare 252Cf and 241AmBe neutron sources. Measurements have also been made to determine the attenuated fast neutron spectra of 252Cf shielded by several materials including water, graphite, liquid nitrogen, magnesium, and tungsten. Rise-time dPSA has been employed using the common rise-time approach for analyzing n +3He ? 1H + 3H ionization events and a new approach has been developed to improve the fidelity of these measurements. Simulations have been performed for the different experimental arrangements and are compared, demonstrating general agreement between the dPSA processed fast neutron spectra and predictions.

  11. Use of propane as a quench gas in argon-filled proportional counters and comparison with other quench gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of propane and six other quench gases was carried out in argon-filled proportional counters. The objective of the study was to find the best gas mixture for optimizing the gas gain and the energy resolution as well as to understand the role of the ionization potential of quench gases in determining these parameters. It was found that the best gas gains and energy resolutions are obtained with propane, ethane, and isobutane in that order. The ionization potentials of these three lie below the argon metastable potentials and have the lowest value of resonance defect compared to the other quench gases. The better results obtained with these mixtures can be explained by an increased ionization yield resulting from the Penning effect. Propylene and trans-2-butene give inferior performance compared to the above three gases. Methane and carbon dioxide, the most commonly used quench gases in the argon-filled detectors, provide the worst results.

  12. Calibration of the Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on board AstroSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, H. M.; Yadav, J. S.; Agrawal, P. C.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Paul, Biswajit; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, Parag; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, Pankaj; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev; Navalgund, K. H.; Pandiyan, R.; Sharma, K. S.; Subbarao, K.

    2017-07-01

    We present the calibration and background model for the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) detectors on board AstroSat. The LAXPC instrument has three nominally identical detectors to achieve a large collecting area. These detectors are independent of each other, and in the event analysis mode they record the arrival time and energy of each photon that is detected. The detectors have a time resolution of 10 μs and a dead-time of about 42 μs. This makes LAXPC ideal for timing studies. The energy resolution and peak channel-to-energy mapping were obtained from calibration on the ground using radioactive sources coupled with GEANT4 simulations of the detectors. The response matrix was further refined from observations of the Crab after launch. At around 20 keV the energy resolution of the detectors is 10%-15%, while the combined effective area of the three detectors is about 6000 cm2.

  13. A low power X-ray diffractometer for soil analysis in remote locations employing a multiwire proportional counter detector array.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Parnell, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A low power X-ray powder diffraction system suitable for remote mineralogical analysis of lunar, planetary, or asteroid soils has been designed. A one Curie Fe-55 source provides a monochromatic X-ray beam of 5.9 keV. Seeman-Bohlin focusing geometry is employed in the camera, allowing peak detection to proceed simultaneously at all angles and obviating the need for moving parts. The detector system is an array of 500-600 proportional counters with a wire-spacing of 1 mm. An electronics unit comprising preamplifier, postamplifier, window discriminators, and storage flip-flops requiring only 3.5 milliwatts has been designed and tested. Total instrument power is less than 5 W.

  14. Use of propane as a quench gas in argon-filled proportional counters and comparison with other quench gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of propane and six other quench gases was carried out in argon-filled proportional counters. The objective of the study was to find the best gas mixture for optimizing the gas gain and the energy resolution as well as to understand the role of the ionization potential of quench gases in determining these parameters. It was found that the best gas gains and energy resolutions are obtained with propane, ethane, and isobutane in that order. The ionization potentials of these three lie below the argon metastable potentials and have the lowest value of resonance defect compared to the other quench gases. The better results obtained with these mixtures can be explained by an increased ionization yield resulting from the Penning effect. Propylene and trans-2-butene give inferior performance compared to the above three gases. Methane and carbon dioxide, the most commonly used quench gases in the argon-filled detectors, provide the worst results.

  15. A low power X-ray diffractometer for soil analysis in remote locations employing a multiwire proportional counter detector array.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Parnell, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A low power X-ray powder diffraction system suitable for remote mineralogical analysis of lunar, planetary, or asteroid soils has been designed. A one Curie Fe-55 source provides a monochromatic X-ray beam of 5.9 keV. Seeman-Bohlin focusing geometry is employed in the camera, allowing peak detection to proceed simultaneously at all angles and obviating the need for moving parts. The detector system is an array of 500-600 proportional counters with a wire-spacing of 1 mm. An electronics unit comprising preamplifier, postamplifier, window discriminators, and storage flip-flops requiring only 3.5 milliwatts has been designed and tested. Total instrument power is less than 5 W.

  16. Wall effects observed in tissue-equivalent proportional counters from 1.05 GeV/nucleon iron-56 particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T. B.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used to measure energy deposition in simulated volumes of tissue ranging in diameter from 0.1 to 10 microm. There has been some concern that the wall used to define the volume of interest could influence energy deposition within the sensitive volume because it has a density significantly greater than that of the cavity gas. These effects become important for high-velocity heavy ions. Measurements of energy deposition were made for 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles in a TEPC simulating a 1-microm-diameter sphere of tissue. The TEPC was nested within a particle spectrometer that provided identification and flight path of individual particles. Energy deposition was studied as a function of pathlength through the TEPC. Approximately 30% of the energy transfer along trajectories through the center of the detector escapes the sensitive volume. The response of the TEPC, for trajectories through the detector, is always larger than calculations for energy loss in a homogeneous medium. This enhancement is greatest for trajectories near the cavity/wall interface. An integration of the response indicates that charged-particle equilibrium is essentially achieved for a wall thickness of 2.54 mm. However, estimates of the linear energy transfer for the incident particles are influenced by these wall effects.

  17. A High-Pressure Gas-Scintillation-Proportional Counter for the Focus of a Hard-X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. A.; Ramsey, B. D.; Tse, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a high-pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) for the focus of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope. The device has a total active diameter of 50 mm, of which the central 20 mm only is used, and is filled with xenon + 4% helium at a total pressure of 10 6 Pa giving a quantum efficiency of greater than 85% up to 60 keV. The detector entrance is sealed with a beryllium window, 3-mm thick, which provides useful transmission down to 6 keV, way below the atmospheric cut-off at balloon float altitudes. Scintillation light exits the detector via a UV transmitting window in its base and is registered by a Hamamatsu position-sensitive crossed-grid-readout photomultiplier tube. Initial testing is underway, quantifying light yield and energy resolution. Following that, the spatial resolution and absolute efficiency will be calibrated. Simulations show that a spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm FWHM should be achievable up to 60 keV, and this is well matched to the angular resolution and plate scale of the mirror system. The energy resolution will be around 5% at 22 keV. Full details of the instrument design and its performance will be presented. A first flight is scheduled for the Fall of 99, on a stratospheric balloon to be launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico.

  18. An analytical comparison of gas gain in spherical, cylindrical and hemispherical low-pressure proportional counters intended for use in experimental microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, David; Waker, Anthony J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally experimental microdosimetry has employed low pressure single cavity spherical Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs). Multi-Element Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (METEPCs) with numerous cylindrical cavities have been constructed in order to increase sensitivity per unit volume; however existing METEPC designs are prohibitively complex and sensitive to motion and audible noise. This work proposes a novel hemispherical element with a wire-less anode ball as a solution to these issues. The gas gain characteristics of this hemispherical METEPC element were analyzed first for a single hemispherical TEPC to evaluate performance relative to current cylindrical and spherical counter designs that have been demonstrated experimentally to perform very well. This gain analysis evaluated relative avalanche size and the uniformity in maximum gain for electrons originating throughout the gas cavities of each of the three counters. Radial gas gain distributions for each counter were determined using both theoretical potential distributions as well as analytical equipotential distributions generated with ANSYS Maxwell (V. 14.0) to solve the Townsend equation. It was found that the hemispherical counter exhibits completely uniform gas gain for electrons approaching the anode from all directions and its avalanche region occupies only 3.5×10-3% of the entire gas cavity volume, whereas in the cylindrical and spherical counters the avalanche occupies 0.6% and 0.12% of the total respective gas cavity volumes. These analytical gas gain results are promising, suggesting that the hemisphere should exhibit uniform signal amplification throughout the gas cavity and if the recommended follow-up experimental work demonstrates the hemispherical counter works as anticipated it will be ready to be incorporated into an METEPC design.

  19. The response of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter to different heavy ions having similar velocities

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Borak, Thomas B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Gersey, Brad B.; Zeitlin, Cary; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Miller, Jack; Murakami, Takeshi; Iwata, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been used as a dosimeter in mixed radiation fields. Since it does not measure LET directly, the response function must be characterized in order to estimate quality factor and thus equivalent dose for the incident radiation. The objectives of this study were to measure the response of a spherical TEPC for different high-energy heavy ions (HZE) having similar velocity and to determine how quality factors can be determined. Data were obtained at the HIMAC heavy ion accelerator for 4He and 12C at 220 ± 5 MeV/nucleon (β = 0.59) and 12C, 16O, 28Si and 56Fe at 376 ± 15 MeV/nucleon (β = 0.70). A particle spectrometer recorded the charge and position of each incident beam particle. Events with low energy deposition were observed for particles that passed through the wall of the TEPC but not through the sensitive volume. The frequency averaged lineal energy, ȳf, was always less than the LET of the incident particles. The dose averaged lineal energy, ȳD, was approximately equal to LET for particles with LET greater than 10 keV/μm, whereas ȳD was larger than LET for the lighter particles with lower LET. Part of this effect is due to detector resolution and energy straggling that increases the variance of the response function. Although the TEPC is not a LET spectrometer, it can provide real time measurements of dose and provide estimates of quality factors for HZE particles using averaged values of lineal energy. PMID:19079798

  20. Comparison of plastics used in tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) and development of a balloon borne TEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collums, Tyler L.

    This study investigates alternatives to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic for use in the construction of tissue equivalent gas-filled detectors for the measurement of dosimetric quantities. This study looks at four different alternative plastics: acrylic, Nylon, polyethylene, and polystyrene. These alternative materials are more readily available and easier to machine than A-150 tissue equivalent plastic. In this study they are compared to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic to determine how they compare in the measurement of lineal energy spectra from energetic protons and heavy ions as found in the space radiation environment, as well as at relevant clinical energies used in proton and heavy ion therapy. In experiments carried out at the ProCure proton therapy center in Oklahoma City, five proportional counters possessing ionization cavities constructed of five different materials (A-150 tissue equivalent plastic, acrylic, Nylon, polyethylene, and polystyrene) were used to measure the lineal energy spectra of energetic proton beams of 87 MeV, 162 MeV, and 222 MeV. Exposures to energetic heavy ions were carried out at HIMAC in Japan using beams of 143 MeV/amu He, 265 MeV/amu C, 440 MeV/amu Si, 430 MeV/amu Ar, and 421 MeV/amu Fe. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were also done for each detector for each proton beam and each heavy ion beam. Comparison of the measured data obtained at ProCure and HIMAC, as well as simulation results using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, indicate that the responses of the four alternative plastics tested are very similar to the response of A-150 tissue equivalent plastic. FLUKA simulations done for a detector made of ICRU muscle are also shown to have a response similar to that of all five plastics. A flight version of the TEPCs has also been developed for a high altitude flight on a balloon or other vehicle.

  1. Measurement and simulation of lineal energy distribution at the CERN high energy facility with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Rollet, S; Autischer, M; Beck, P; Latocha, M

    2007-01-01

    The response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in a mixed radiation field with a neutron energy distribution similar to the radiation field at commercial flight altitudes has been studied. The measurements have been done at the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility where a well-characterised radiation field is available for intercomparison. The TEPC instrument used by the ARC Seibersdorf Research is filled with pure propane gas at low pressure and can be used to determine the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in a mass of gas equivalent to a 2 microm diameter volume of unit density tissue, of similar size to the nuclei of biological cells. The linearity of the detector response was checked both in term of dose and dose rate. The effect of dead-time has been corrected. The influence of the detector exposure location and orientation in the radiation field on the dose distribution was also studied as a function of the total dose. The microdosimetric distribution of the absorbed dose as a function of the lineal energy has been obtained and compared with the same distribution simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code. The dose equivalent was calculated by folding this distribution with the quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer. The comparison between the measured and simulated distributions show that they are in good agreement. As a result of this study the detector is well characterised, thanks also to the numerical simulations the instrument response is well understood, and it's currently being used onboard the aircrafts to evaluate the dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation.

  2. Development of 10B-Based 3He Replacement Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Michael J.; Gozani, Tsahi; Hilliard, Donald B.

    2011-12-01

    Radiation portal monitors (RPM) are currently deployed at United States border crossings to passively inspect vehicles and persons for any emission of neutrons and/or gamma rays, which may indicate the presence of unshielded nuclear materials. The RPM module contains an organic scintillator with 3He proportional counters to detect gamma rays and thermalized neutrons, respectively. The supply of 3He is rapidly dwindling, requiring alternative detectors to provide the same function and performance. Our alternative approach is one consisting of a thinly-coated 10B flat-panel ionization chamber neutron detector that can be deployed as a direct drop-in replacement for current RPM 3He detectors. The uniqueness of our approach in providing a large-area detector is in the simplicity of construction, scalability of the unit cell detector, ease of adaptability to a variety of applications and low cost. Currently, Rapiscan Laboratories and Helicon Thin Film Systems have designed and developed an operational 100 cm2 multi-layer prototype 10BB-based ionization chamber.

  3. Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard

    The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities determine various endpoints for bio-logical, electronic and materials exposures. A critical factor in the performance of rigorous scientific studies of this type is accurate dosimetric measurements of the exposures. A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a microdosimeter that may be used to measure absorbed dose, average quality factor (Q) and dose equivalent of the particle beam utilized in these experiments. In this work, results from a variety of space radiation shielding studies where a TEPC was used to perform dosimetry in the particle beam will be presented. These results compare the absorbed dose and dose equivalent measured downstream of equal density thicknesses of stan-dard and multifunctional shielding materials. The standard materials chosen for these shielding studies included High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and aluminum alloy, while the multifunc-tional materials included carbon composite infused with single walled carbon nanotubes. High energy particles including proton, silicon and iron nuclei were chosen as the incident radia-tion for these studies. Further, TEPC results from measurements taken during flights aboard ER-2 and KC-135 aircraft will also be discussed. Results from these flight studies include TEPC measurements for shielded and unshielded conditions as well as the effect of vibration and electromagnetic exposures on the TEPC operation. The data selected for presentation will highlight the utility of the TEPC in space radiation studies, and in shielding studies in particular. The lineal energy response function of the

  4. First results of a simultaneous measurement of tritium and 14C in an ultra-low-background proportional counter for environmental sources of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily K.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Moran, James J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Tatishvili, Gocha; Williams, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Simultaneous measurement of tritium and 14C would provide an added tool for tracing organic compounds through environmental systems and is possible via beta energy spectroscopy of sample-derived methane in internal-source gas proportional counters. Since the mid-1960’s atmospheric tritium and 14C have fallen dramatically as the isotopic injections from above-ground nuclear testing have been diluted into the ocean and biosphere. In this work, the feasibility of simultaneous tritium and 14C measurements via proportional counters is revisited in light of significant changes in both the atmospheric and biosphere isotopics and the development of new ultra-low-background gas proportional counting capabilities for small samples (roughly 50 cc methane). A Geant4 Monte Carlo model of a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) proportional counter response to tritium and 14C is used to analyze small samples of two different methane sources to illustrate the range of applicability of contemporary simultaneous measurements and their limitations. Because the two methane sources examined were not sample size limited, we could compare the small-sample measurements performed at PNNL with analysis of larger samples performed at a commercial laboratory. The dual-isotope simultaneous measurement is well matched for methane samples that are atmospheric or have an elevated source of tritium (i.e. landfill gas). For samples with low/modern tritium isotopics (rainwater), commercial separation and counting is a better fit.

  5. First results of a simultaneous measurement of tritium and (14)C in an ultra-low-background proportional counter for environmental sources of methane.

    PubMed

    Mace, E K; Aalseth, C E; Day, A R; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Moran, J J; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A; Tatishvili, G; Williams, R M

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous measurement of tritium and (14)C would provide an added tool for tracing organic compounds through environmental systems and is possible via beta energy spectroscopy of sample-derived methane in internal-source gas proportional counters. Since the mid-1960's atmospheric tritium and (14)C have fallen dramatically as the isotopic injections from aboveground nuclear testing have been diluted into the ocean and biosphere. In this work, the feasibility of simultaneous tritium and (14)C measurements via proportional counters is revisited in light of significant changes in both the atmospheric and biosphere isotopics and the development of new ultra-low-background gas proportional counting capabilities for small samples (roughly 50 cc methane). A Geant4 Monte Carlo model of a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) proportional counter response to tritium and (14)C is used to analyze small samples of two different methane sources to illustrate the range of applicability of contemporary simultaneous measurements and their limitations. Because the two methane sources examined were not sample size limited, we could compare the small-sample measurements performed at PNNL with analysis of larger samples performed at a commercial laboratory. These first results show that the dual-isotope simultaneous measurement is well matched for methane samples that are atmospheric or have an elevated source of tritium (i.e. landfill gas). However, for samples with low/modern tritium isotopics (rainwater), commercial separation and counting is a better fit.

  6. Study of microdosimetric energy deposition patterns in tissue-equivalent medium due to low-energy neutron fields using a graphite-walled proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Waker, A J; Aslam

    2011-06-01

    To improve radiation protection dosimetry for low-energy neutron fields encountered in nuclear power reactor environments, there is increasing interest in modeling neutron energy deposition in metrological instruments such as tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs). Along with these computational developments, there is also a need for experimental data with which to benchmark and test the results obtained from the modeling methods developed. The experimental work described in this paper is a study of the energy deposition in tissue-equivalent (TE) medium using an in-house built graphite-walled proportional counter (GPC) filled with TE gas. The GPC is a simple model of a standard TEPC because the response of the counter at these energies is almost entirely due to the neutron interactions in the sensitive volume of the counter. Energy deposition in tissue spheres of diameter 1, 2, 4 and 8 µm was measured in low-energy neutron fields below 500 keV. We have observed a continuously increasing trend in microdosimetric averages with an increase in neutron energy. The values of these averages decrease as we increase the simulated diameter at a given neutron energy. A similar trend for these microdosimetric averages has been observed for standard TEPCs and the Rossi-type, TE, spherical wall-less counter filled with propane-based TE gas in the same energy range. This implies that at the microdosimetric level, in the neutron energy range we employed in this study, the pattern of average energy deposited by starter and insider proton recoil events in the gas is similar to those generated cumulatively by crosser and stopper events originating from the counter wall plus starter and insider recoil events originating in the sensitive volume of a TEPC.

  7. Decoupling of Confined Normal 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, S. G.; Bennett, R. G.; Ilic, B.; Verbridge, S. S.; Levitin, L. V.; Fefferman, A. D.; Casey, A.; Saunders, J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Anodic bonding was used to fabricate a 10 mm diameter × 640 nm tall annular geometry suitable for torsion pendulum studies of confined 3He. For pure 3He at saturated vapor pressure the inertia of the confined fluid was seen to be only partially coupled to the pendulum at 160 mK. Below 100 mK the liquid’s inertial contribution was negligible, indicating a complete decoupling of the 3He from the pendulum.

  8. Far-ultraviolet signatures of the {sup 3}He(n,tp) reaction in noble gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick P.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-12-06

    Previous work showed that the {sup 3}He(n,tp) reaction in a cell of {sup 3}He at atmospheric pressure generated tens of far-ultraviolet photons per reacted neutron. Here we report amplification of that signal by factors of 1000 and more when noble gases are added to the cell. Calibrated filter-detector measurements show that this large signal is due to noble gas excimer emissions and that the nuclear reaction energy is converted to far-ultraviolet radiation with efficiencies of up to 30%. The results have been placed on an absolute scale through calibrations at the NIST SURF III synchrotron. They suggest possibilities for high-efficiency neutron detectors as an alternative to existing proportional counters.

  9. Thin-window high-efficiency position sensitive proportional counter for the vacuum flat crystal spectrometers on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Goddard, R.; Wargelin, B.; Utter, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    We have mounted 1 {mu}m thick aluminized polyimide windows onto the position sensitive proportional counters employed by the wide-band flat crystal spectrometers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap experiment. The aluminized polyimide, supported by thin wires across the short axis of the window, is used to isolate the detection chamber of the proportional counters, which operate at a pressure of 760 Torr, from the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer. The windows are modified versions of those developed for the proportional counters which were used during ground calibration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The transmission properties of these windows are, therefore, well known. The increased transmission efficiency of the polyimide windows relative to the 4 {mu}m thick polypropylene window material previously employed by our proportional counters has extended the useful range of the spectrometer from roughly 20 to 30 Aa at energies below the carbon edge, as well as increasing detection efficiency at wavelengths beyond the carbon edge. Using an octadecyl hydrogen maleate crystal with 2d=63.5Aa, we demonstrate the increased wavelength coverage by measuring the resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines in helium-like NVII in two different density regimes. The thin polyimide windows have also increased the efficiency of the spectrometers entire wavelength range. To demonstrate the increased efficiency we compare the FeXVII spectrum in the 15--17 Aa band measured with the 1 {mu}m aluminized polyimide windows to the 4 {mu}m aluminized polypropylene windows. The comparison shows an average increase in efficiency of {approx}40%. The polyimide windows have a significantly lower leak rate than the polypropylene windows making it possible to achieve approximately an order of magnitude lower pressure in the spectrometer vacuum chamber which reduces the gas load on the trap region.

  10. DNP for polarizing liquid {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Uemtasu, H.; Iwata, T.; Kato, S.; Michigami, T.; Ohizumi, S.; Shishido, T.; Tanaka, A.; Toyama, K.; Tajima, Y.; Yoshida, H. Y.; Kuriyama, N.

    2008-02-06

    Using DNP with zeolite powders and TEMPO, we have developed a method to enhance polarization of liquid {sup 3}He. At magnetic field of 2.5 T and a temperature of around 1.5 K, we have obatined polarization enhancement of liquid {sup 3}He, 2.34 and -1.59 for positive and negative enhancements, respectively.

  11. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He

    PubMed Central

    Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki

    1999-01-01

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895

  12. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E

    1999-07-06

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.

  13. 3He melting-curve thermometry at millikelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greywall, Dennis S.

    1985-03-01

    A pressure-versus-temperature calibration of the 3He melting curve is given for 13He [i.e., Tc(P)] as a basis for intercomparison, the melting-curve scale is found to be proportional to the magnetic temperature scales of Paulson et al. and Haavasoja et al. Included is a description of the PrNi5 nuclear demagnetization refrigerator which was used to cool the 3He samples to less than 0.3 mK.

  14. Alternatives to Helium-3 for Neutron Multiplicity Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2012-11-18

    Multiplicity counters are an example of a neutron detection system affected by the shortage of 3He. Efforts are underway to identify potential 3He neutron detector replacements for use in multiplicity counters. Boron-10 and 6Li based systems are two of the options being explored as near-term 3He alternatives for neutron multiplicity counters. Simulations of BF3, 10B-lined proportional counters and 6Li/ZnS(Ag) sheets in various configurations have been performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX and compared to simulations of existing 3He counters. The system performances are being compared using figure of merits that are the square or cube of the total system efficiency divided by the die-away time. Design considerations include developing a system with enough neutron detection material to achieve the highest possible efficiency, while simultaneously minimizing system size. Adequate moderation is required to thermalize the incident neutrons for increased counting efficiency but as the system size increases so will the die-away time (average lifetime of neutrons in the counter). The optimal moderator configuration is one for which the increase in neutron detection efficiency is not defeated by an increase in die-away time. Thus, the entire system performance must be evaluated with every configuration change. The simulation results will be validated against a bench-top demonstrator unit design based on the system identified through simulations as having the highest performance potential. Presented here are the simulation results with various configurations of BF3 filled proportional counters, 10B lined proportional counters and 6Li/ZnS(Ag) sheets, and preliminary bench-top measurements.

  15. Measurement of lineal-energy distributions for neutrons of 8 keV to 65 MeV by using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, T; Kim, E; Kurosaw, T; Taniguchi, S; Nakamura, T; Nakane, Y; Sakamoto, Y; Tanaka, S

    2002-01-01

    The lineal-energy spectra for monoenergetic and quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of 8 keV to 65 MeV were obtained using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The frequency-mean lineal energy, the dose-average lineal energy and mean quality factor were estimated from the measured data. The neutron absorbed doses obtained with this TEPC were compared with the kerma coefticient for A-150 plastic defined by ICRP 26 and the mean quality factors were compared with the data of ICRP 74. respectively. These comparisons indicated good agreement between them.

  16. Cosmogenic 3He in detrital gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Finlay; Yakubovich, Olga; Caracedo, Ana; Nesterenok, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Since the measurement of cosmogenic He in an alluvial diamond by McConville and Reynolds (1996) the application of cosmogenic noble gases to individual detrital grains to quantify surface processes has not been vigorously pursued. The likely low rate of diffusion of cosmogenic He in native metals, and their resistance to weathering and disintegration during erosion and transport, makes them a potential record of long-term Earth surface processes. In an effort to assess the extent that detrital refractory metals record the exposure history during transport and storage we have undertaken a reconnaissance study of the He isotope composition in 18 grains (2-200 mg) of native gold, copper, silver, and PtPd, Pt3Fe and OsIr alloys from alluvial placer deposits from around the world. 4He is dominantly the result of U and Th decay within the grains, or decay of 190Pt in the Pt-rich alloys. 3He is measurable in 13 grains, concentrations range up to 2.7E+6 atoms/g. 3He/4He are always in excess of the crustal radiogenic ratio, up to 306 Ra. Although nucleogenic 3He produced by (n,α) reactions on 6Li, and 3He from trapped hydrothermal fluids, are present, the majority of the 3He is cosmogenic in origin. Using newly calculated cosmogenic 3He production rates in heavy metals, and a determination of the effect of implantation based on the stopping distances of spallogenic 3He and 3H, the grains have 3Hecos concentrations that are equivalent to 0.35 to 1.5 Ma exposure at Earth's surface. In a study of detrital gold grains from several sites in Scotland we have found that 10 % have 3He concentrations that are significantly in excess of that generated since the Last Glacial Maximum. These studies demonstrate that, with refinement, cosmogenic 3He in refractory detrital minerals can be used to quantify sediment transport and storage on the 1-10 Ma timescale. P. McConville & J.H. Reynolds (1989). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 2365-75.

  17. Zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2015-10-01

    Multiple thermochronometric methods are often required to constrain time-continuous rock exhumation for studying tectonic processes or development of km-scale topography at Earth's surface. Here, we explore 4He/3He thermochronometry of zircon as a method for constraining continuous time-temperature (t-T) paths of individual samples through a temperature range that is complementary to methods such as 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of K-feldspar and 4He/3He thermochronometry of apatite. For different cooling rates and diffusion domain size, the temperature sensitivity of zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry ranges from slightly less than 100 °C to slightly greater than 250 °C; a typical sample provides continuous thermal constraints over ∼100 °C within that range. Outside these temperatures, 4He in zircon will either be quantitatively retained or completely lost by volume diffusion. As proof-of-concept, we present stepwise release 4He/3He spectra and associated U and Th concentration maps measured by laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of individual crystal aliquots of Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) zircon and of a more complex setting in the Sierra Nevada batholith that experienced reheating from a proximal basaltic intrusion, the Little Devil's Postpile (LDP). The FCT zircon 4He/3He release spectra are consistent with a 4He spatial distribution dominated by alpha-ejection from crystal surfaces. The spatial distributions of U and Th measured in the same crystals do not substantially influence 4He/3He release spectra that are predicted for the known thermal history, even when incorporating spatially variable diffusivity due to accumulation of radiation damage. Conversely, the LDP 4He/3He release spectra are strongly influenced by the observed parent nuclide zonation. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of 4He production and diffusion, which incorporates crystal geometry, U and Th zonation, and spatially variable He diffusion kinetics, substantially improves the fit between

  18. Photoproduction of eta-mesic 3He.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, M; Ahrens, J; Annand, J R M; Beck, R; Caselotti, G; Cherepnya, S; Föhl, K; Fog, L S; Hornidge, D; Janssen, S; Kashevarov, V; Kondratiev, R; Kotulla, M; Krusche, B; McGeorge, J C; MacGregor, I J D; Mengel, K; Messchendorp, J G; Metag, V; Novotny, R; Rost, M; Sack, S; Sanderson, R; Schadmand, S; Thomas, A; Watts, D P

    2004-06-25

    The photoproduction of eta-mesic 3He has been investigated using the TAPS calorimeter at the Mainz Microtron accelerator facility MAMI. The total inclusive cross section for the reaction gamma3He-->etaX has been measured for photon energies from threshold to 820 MeV. The total and angular differential coherent eta cross sections have been extracted up to energies of 745 MeV. A resonancelike structure just above the eta production threshold with an isotropic angular distribution suggests the existence of a resonant quasibound state. This is supported by studies of a competing decay channel of such a quasibound eta-mesic nucleus into pi(0)pX. A binding energy of (-4.4+/-4.2) MeV and a width of (25.6+/-6.1) MeV is deduced for the quasibound eta-mesic state in 3He.

  19. Nuclear electric dipole moment of 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Stetcu, Ionel; Friar, J L; Hayes, A C; Liu, C P; Navratil, P

    2008-01-01

    In the no-core shell model (NCSM) framework, we calculate the {sup 3}He electric dipole moment (EDM) generated by parity- and time-reversal violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. While the results are somehow sensitive to the interaction model chosen for the strong two- and three-body interactions, we demonstrate the pion-exchange dominance to the EDM of {sup 3}He, if the coupling constants for {pi}, {rho} and {omega}-exchanges are of comparable magnitude, as expected. Finally, our results suggest that a measurement of {sup 3}He EDM would be complementary to the currently planned neutron and deuteron experiments, and would constitute a powerful constraint to the models of the pion P- and T-violating interactions.

  20. Coherent Photoproduction of pi^+ from 3/^He

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhsha Nasseripour, Barry Berman

    2011-03-01

    We have measured the differential cross section for the $\\gamma$$^3$He$\\rightarrow \\pi^+ t$ reaction. This reaction was studied using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. Real photons produced with the Hall-B bremsstrahlung tagging system in the energy range from 0.50 to 1.55 GeV were incident on a cryogenic liquid $^3$He target. The differential cross sections for the $\\gamma$$^3$He$\\rightarrow \\pi^+ t$ reaction were measured as a function of photon-beam energy and pion-scattering angle. Theoretical predictions to date cannot explain the large cross sections except at backward angles, showing that additional components must be added to the model.

  1. Superfluid 3He in ``nematically ordered'' aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Liquid 3He immersed in aerogel allows investigation of the influence of impurities on unconventional superfluidity. In most of such experiments silica aerogels are used. These aerogels consist of thin strands which form a ``wisp.'' Although it is established that superfluid phases of 3He in silica aerogels (A-like and B-like) have the same order parameters as A and B phases of bulk 3He, many new phenomena were observed. In particular, it was found that global anisotropy of aerogel (e.g. caused by squeezing or stretching) can orient the order parameter. Depending on prehistory and on the type of the anisotropy the A-like phase may be homogeneous or in a state with random orbital part of the order parameter. Theory predicts that a large stretching anisotropy may even influence the order parameter structure: polar phase (or A phase with polar distortion), which are not realized in bulk 3He, may become more favorable than pure A phase. Large stretching anisotropy is hardly achievable in silica aerogel. Therefore in experiments described in the talk we used a new type of aerogel, consisting of Al2O3 . H2O strands which are parallel to each other, i.e. this aerogel may be considered as infinitely stretched. We found that the superfluid phase diagram of 3He in such ``nematically ordered'' aerogel is different from the case of 3He in silica aerogel and that both observed A and B phases have large polar distortion. This distortion is larger at low pressures and grows on warming. There are indications that a pure polar phase appears near the superfluid transition temperature. Recent results will be also presented.

  2. The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yury

    2013-10-09

    The symmetry-breaking phase transitions of the universe and of superfluid (3)He may lead to the formation of different states with different order parameters. In both cases the energy potential below the transition temperature has a complicated multidimensional profile with many local minima and saddle points, which correspond to different states. Consequently, not only topological defects, but also islands of different metastable states can be created. Using (3)He we can analyse the properties and experimental consequences of such transitions and, in particular, the first-order phase transition between the two low symmetry states.

  3. The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkov, Yury

    2013-10-01

    The symmetry-breaking phase transitions of the universe and of superfluid 3He may lead to the formation of different states with different order parameters. In both cases the energy potential below the transition temperature has a complicated multidimensional profile with many local minima and saddle points, which correspond to different states. Consequently, not only topological defects, but also islands of different metastable states can be created. Using 3He we can analyse the properties and experimental consequences of such transitions and, in particular, the first-order phase transition between the two low symmetry states.

  4. Gaseous [sup 3]He-[sup 3]He magnetic dipolar spin relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, N.R.; Barton, A.S.; Cates, G.D.; Happer, W.; Middleton, H. )

    1993-12-01

    We derive the nuclear-spin relaxation rate of gaseous [sup 3]He due to the magnetic-dipole interaction between the [sup 3]He nuclear spins. This dipolar relaxation rate is numerically evaluated for temperatures from 0.1 K to 550 K. At room temperature, the relaxation time for a [sup 3]He density of 10 amagats is 74.4 h. We have made a series of high-density (4--12 amagat) [sup 3]He samples for which nulcear relaxation is limited by the magnetic-dipole interaction. Both our theoretical and experimental results are particularly important for the growing use of [sup 3]He, polarized through spin exchange with optically pumped Rb vapor.

  5. Neutron Polarizers Based on Polarized 3He

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Snow

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this work, which is a collaborative effort between Indiana University, NIST, and Hamilton College, is to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by the development and application of polarized 3He-based neutron spin filters. After the IPNS experiment which measured Zeeman sp[litting in surface scattered neutrons using a polarized 3He cell as a polarization analyzer transporterd by car from Bloomington to Chicago, the Indiana work focused on technical developments to improve the 3He polarization of the Indiana compression system. The compression system was rebuilt with a new valve system which allows gas trapped in the dead volume of the compressors at the end of the piston stroke to be exhausted and conducted back to the optical pumping cell where it can be repolarized. We also incorporated a new intermediate storage volume made at NIST from 1720 glass which will reduce polarization losses between the compressors. Furthermore, we improved the stability of the 1083 nm laser by cooling the LMA rod. We achieved 60% 3he polarization in the optical pumping cell and 87% preservation of the polarization during compression. In parallel we built a magnetically-shielded transport solenoid for use on neutron scattering instruments such as POSY which achieves a fractional field uniformity of better than 10-3 per cm. The field was mapped using an automated 3D field mapping system for in-situ measurement of magnetic field gradients Diluted magnetic semiconductors offer many exciting opportunities for investigation of spintronic effects in solids and are certain to be one of the most active areas of condensed matter physics over then next several years. These materials can act as efficient spin injectors for devices that make use of spin-dependent transport phenomena. We just (late July 2002) finished a neutron reflectivity experiment at NIST on a GaMnAs trilayer film. This material is a ferromagnetic semiconductor which is of interest

  6. First result of the experimental search for the 9.4 keV solar axion reactions with 83Kr in the copper proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Derbin, A. V.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Y. D.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Ali, Luqman; Muratova, V. N.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Semenov, D. A.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.; Unzhakov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    The experimental search for solar hadronic axions is started at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Researches of Russian Academy of Science (BNO INR RAS). It is assumed that axions are created in the Sun during M1 transition between the first thermally excited level at 9.4 keV and the ground state in 83Kr. The experiment is based on axion detection via resonant absorption process by the same nucleus in the detector. The big copper proportional counter filled with krypton is used to detect signals from axions. The experimental setup is situated in the deep underground low background laboratory. No evidence of axion detection were found after the 26.5 days data collection. Resulting new upper limit on axion mass is m A ≤ 130 eV at 95% C.L.

  7. Joint observations of 4U1223-62 by the SAS-3 satellite and Columbia University proportional counter experiment on NASA rocket 26.054 UH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, R.; Wolff, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The pulsating X-ray binary 4U1223-62 and Vela X-1 were observed by Aerobee rocket-borne proportional counters. Valid X-ray events were telemetered and analyzed for possible flaring, quasiperiodic, and periodic pulsations, and for other nonstatistical behavior in the source. Both fast Fourier transform and autocorrelation programs were used. For several hours four days before and after the rocket flight, the SAS-3 satellite scanned the galactic plane in order to identify X-ray sources in the vicinity of 4U1223-62 and their intensities, and to provide positional accuracy of 0.25 for sources with intensity greater than 10% of the target. Observations of the source near the main peak of its pulsating period as defined by SAS-3 are discussed. There is no evidence of a spectral feature although twice as many photons were received as than from Vela X-1.

  8. Comparisons of LET distributions measured in low-earth orbit using tissue-equivalent proportional counters and the position-sensitive silicon-detector telescope (RRMD-III).

    PubMed

    Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Borak, T B

    2001-09-01

    Determinations of the LET distribution, phi(L), of charged particles within a spacecraft in low-Earth orbit have been made. One method used a cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), with the assumption that for each measured event, lineal energy, y, is equal to LET and thus phi(L) = phi(y). The other was based on the direct measurement of LETs for individual particles using a charged-particle telescope consisting of position-sensitive silicon detectors called RRMD-III. There were differences of up to a factor of 10 between estimates of phi(L) using the two methods on the same mission. This caused estimates of quality factor to vary by a factor of two between the two methods.

  9. Einstein Observatory SSS and MPC observations of the complex X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies. [Solid State Spectrometer and Monitor Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.; Madejski, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of 25 Seyfert galaxies measured with the Solid State Spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory have been investigated. This new investigation utilizes simultaneous data from the Monitor Proportional Counter, and automatic correction for systematic effects in the Solid State Spectrometer which were previously handled subjectively. It is found that the best-fit single-power-law indices generally agree with those previously reported, but that soft excesses of some form are inferred for about 48 percent of the sources. One possible explanation of the soft excess emission is a blend of soft X-ray lines, centered around 0.8 keV. The implications of these results for accretion disk models are discussed.

  10. (3) He Spin Filter for Neutrons.

    PubMed

    Batz, M; Baeßler, S; Heil, W; Otten, E W; Rudersdorf, D; Schmiedeskamp, J; Sobolev, Y; Wolf, M

    2005-01-01

    The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarized (3)He opens up the possibility of polarizing neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. This paper gives a report on the neutron spin filter (NSF) development program at Mainz. The polarization technique is based on direct optical pumping of metastable (3)He atoms combined with a polarization preserving mechanical compression of the gas up to a pressure of several bar, necessary to run a NSF. The concept of a remote type of operation using detachable NSF cells is presented which requires long nuclear spin relaxation times of order 100 hours. A short survey of their use under experimental conditions, e.g. large solid-angle polarization analysis, is given. In neutron particle physics NSFs are used in precision measurements to test fundamental symmetry concepts.

  11. 3He: cosmological and atomic physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yuriy M

    2008-08-28

    Because the superfluid 3He order parameter exhibits many similarities with that of our Universe, the superfluid condensate may be considered as a quantum vacuum that carries various types of quasiparticles and topological defects. The condensate thus provides a test system for the experimental investigation of many general physics problems in cosmology, atomic or nuclear physics that are otherwise difficult or even impossible to investigate experimentally.

  12. 10B+ZnS(Ag) as an alternative to 3He-based detectors for Radiation Portal Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Garcia, Karen Arlet; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Gallego, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Lorente, Alfredo; Ibañez-Fernandez, Sviatoslav

    2017-09-01

    Typical radiation portal monitor systems, RPM, deployed to detect illicit trafficking of radioactive materials include a set of gamma-ray detectors and neutron detectors. Usually the employed neutron detectors are pressurized 3He-based neutron detectors tubes. Due the shortage of 3He reported since 2009, the amount of 3He available for use in gas proportional counter neutron detectors has become limited, while the demand has significantly increased, especially for homeland security applications. For this reason, many different alternatives are being investigated for its use in RPM systems. The aim of this work is to study a scintillation detector ZnS(Ag) mixed with highly enriched 10B, 10B+ZnS(Ag). Using Monte Carlo methods, MCNPX code, the response of two neutron detectors based on 10B+ZnS(Ag), manufactured by BridgePort Instruments LLC with different geometries, were estimated by calculating the number of 10B(n,α)7 Li reactions for 29 monoenergetic neutron sources. Measurements and models were made, and both detectors were compared. The importance of the distance with respect to the ground was studied. The response with a 252Cf moderated neutron source (0.5 cm lead and 2.5 cm polyethylene) was calculated in order to compare with other studied alternatives in the USA by Pacific National Northwest Laboratory, PNNL. With these results we conclude that neutron detectors using 10B+ZnS(Ag) are an interesting alternative for replacing 3He detectors. From the analysis with MCNPX we propose an improvement in the detector design.

  13. Coupling between Solid 3He on Aerogel and Superfluid 3He in the Low Temperature Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. I.; Fisher, S. N.; Guenault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Whitehead, R. C. V.; Skyba, P.

    2006-09-07

    We have cooled liquid 3He contained in a 98% open aerogel sample surrounded by bulk superfluid 3He-B at zero pressure to below 120 {mu}K. The aerogel sample is placed in a quasiparticle blackbody radiator cooled by a Lancaster-style nuclear cooling stage to {approx}200 {mu}K. We monitor the temperature of the 3He inside the blackbody radiator using a vibrating wire resonator. We find that reducing the magnetic field on the aerogel sample causes substantial cooling of all the superfluid inside the blackbody radiator. We believe this is due to the demagnetization of the solid 3He layers on the aerogel strands. This system has potential for achieving extremely low temperatures in the confined fluid.

  14. Intense polarized /sup 3/He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Bertrand, R.; Grioux, J.; Labrie, R.; Lapainte, R.; Meunier, J.F.; Pigeon, G.; Pouliot, L.; Rioux, C.; Roy, R.

    1985-10-01

    This source is based on the atomic polarization of the 2/sup 3/S/sub 1/ metastable state of the neutral atom. A version suitable for operation on the high voltage terminal of a CN Van de Graaff has been constructed, bench tested and installed in the terminal of a 7.5 MV machine. The polarization of the atomic beam is higher than 90%. It is now fully operational and a current of /sup 3/He/sup +/ of 300 nA has been measured after acceleration.

  15. 3He Diffusion MRI of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Conradi, Mark S.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Woods, Jason C.; Gierada, David S.; Jacob, Richard E.; Chang, Yulin V.; Choong, Cliff K.; Sukstanskii, Alex L.; Tanoli, Tariq; Lefrak, Stephen S.; Cooper, Joel D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives MR imaging of the restricted diffusion of laser-polarized 3He gas provides unique insights into the changes in lung microstructure in emphysema. Results We discuss measurements of ventilation (spin density), mean diffusivity, and the anisotropy of diffusion, which yields the mean acinar airway radius. In addition, the use of spatially modulated longitudinal magnetization allows diffusion to be measured over longer distances and times, with sensitivity to collateral ventilation paths. Early results are also presented for spin density and diffusivity maps made with a perfluorinated inert gas, C3F8. Methods Techniques for purging and imaging excised lungs are discussed. PMID:16253852

  16. Neutron scattering from solid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanen, R.; Sherline, T. E.; Toader, A. M.; Boyko, V.; Mat'as, S.; Meschke, M.; Schöttl, S.; Adams, E. D.; Cowan, B.; Godfrin, H.; Goff, J. P.; Roger, M.; Saunders, J.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Takano, Y.

    2003-05-01

    Multiple spin exchange leads, according to present understanding, to a variety of magnetically ordered states in solid 3He, depending on pressure and applied magnetic field. We report the status of experiments to directly determine these structures by neutron scattering. The large neutron absorption cross section, and associated sample heating, impose severe experimental demands on the design of the sample cell. We report on our proposed solution, including details of the sintered heat exchanger necessary to cool the sample, as well as the PrNi 5 nuclear demagnetization stage. The use of NMR in parallel experiments to characterise growth of the solid sample within the sinter is also discussed.

  17. 3He-melting-curve thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greywall, Dennis S.; Busch, Paul A.

    1982-03-01

    Precise measurements of the P-T relation along the melting curve of3He have been made for 8≲ T≲330 mK. The results are in excellent agreement with other precise data for temperatures near the extremes of this range. A best-fit relation is provided which describes the melting curve to within ±1 mbar between the superfluid A transition and the pressure minimum. Detailed descriptions of the melting curve and magnetic thermometers used for the calibration are also given.

  18. Radiation Counters

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-01-31

    Geiger-Mueller and proportional counters operating at low potentials (about 125-300 v) obtained by utilizing certain ratios of diameters of the electrodes and particular mixtures of noble gases as the ionizing medium are covered in this application.

  19. Results of time-resolved radiation exposure measurements made during U.S. shuttle missions with a tissue equivalent proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, A. C.; Hardy, K.

    1994-10-01

    Time resolved exposure measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent shuttle missions with the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. The missions had orbital inclinations ranging from 28 degrees to 57 degrees, and altitudes from 200-600km. Dose equivalent rates ranged from 40-5300 micro Sv/dy. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicle. Measurements indicate that medium- and high- Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isa-dose rate contours have been developed from measurements made during the ST-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) dose for the STS-28 mission were significantly lower than the measured values.

  20. Results of time-resolved radiation exposure measurements made during U.S. shuttle missions with a tissue equivalent proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, A. C.; Hardy, K.

    1994-01-01

    Time resolved exposure measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent shuttle missions with the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. The missions had orbital inclinations ranging from 28 degrees to 57 degrees, and altitudes from 200-600km. Dose equivalent rates ranged from 40-5300 micro Sv/dy. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicle. Measurements indicate that medium- and high- Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isa-dose rate contours have been developed from measurements made during the ST-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) dose for the STS-28 mission were significantly lower than the measured values.

  1. Results of time-resolved radiation exposure measurements made during U.S. Shuttle missions with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Golightly, M J; Hardy, A C; Hardy, K

    1994-10-01

    Time-resolved radiation exposure measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. The missions had orbital inclinations ranging from 28.5 degrees to 57 degrees, and altitudes from 200-600 km. Dose equivalent rates ranged from 40-5300 micro Sv/dy. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicle. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Iso-dose rate contours have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) dose for the STS-28 mission were significantly lower than the measured values.

  2. Measurement of the stochastic radial dose distribution for a 30-MeV proton beam using a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, S.; Sato, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of the lineal energy, y, of a 30-MeV proton beam was measured as a function of the radial distance from the beam path, and the dosed mean of y,y¯D, was obtained to investigate the radial dependence of y¯D. A wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter, in a cylindrical volume with simulated diameters of 0.36, 0.72 and 1.44 µm was used for the measurement of y distributions, yf(y). The measured values of yf(y) summed in the radial direction agreed fairly well with the corresponding data taken from the microdosimetric calculations using the PHITS code. The y¯D value of the 30-MeV proton beam presented its smallest value at r = 0.0 and gradually increased with radial distance, and the y¯D values of heavy ions such as iron showed rapid decrease with radial distance. This experimental result demonstrated that the stochastic deposited energy distribution of high-energy protons in the microscopic region is rather constant in the core as well as in the penumbra region of the track structure. PMID:25956785

  3. The response of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter to iron particles from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersey, B. B.; Borak, T. B.; Guetersloh, S. B.; Zeitlin, C.; Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Murakami, T.; Iwata, Y.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The radiation environment on board the space shuttle and the International Space Station includes high-Z and high-energy (HZE) particles that are part of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) spectrum. Iron-56 particles are considered to be one of the most biologically important parts of the GCR spectrum. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are used as active dosimeters on manned space flights. These TEPCs are further used to determine the average quality factor for each space mission. A TEPC simulating a 1-microm-diameter sphere of tissue was exposed as part of a particle spectrometer to (56)Fe particles at energies from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon. The response of TEPCs in terms of mean lineal energy, y(F), and dose mean lineal energy, y(D), as well as the energy deposited at different impact parameters through the detector was determined for six different incident energies of (56)Fe particles in this energy range. Calculations determined that charged-particle equilibrium was achieved for each of the six experiments. Energy depositions at different impact parameters were calculated using a radial dose distribution model, and the results were compared to experimental data.

  4. The response of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter to iron particles from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersey, B. B.; Borak, T. B.; Guetersloh, S. B.; Zeitlin, C.; Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Murakami, T.; Iwata, Y.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The radiation environment on board the space shuttle and the International Space Station includes high-Z and high-energy (HZE) particles that are part of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) spectrum. Iron-56 particles are considered to be one of the most biologically important parts of the GCR spectrum. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are used as active dosimeters on manned space flights. These TEPCs are further used to determine the average quality factor for each space mission. A TEPC simulating a 1-microm-diameter sphere of tissue was exposed as part of a particle spectrometer to (56)Fe particles at energies from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon. The response of TEPCs in terms of mean lineal energy, y(F), and dose mean lineal energy, y(D), as well as the energy deposited at different impact parameters through the detector was determined for six different incident energies of (56)Fe particles in this energy range. Calculations determined that charged-particle equilibrium was achieved for each of the six experiments. Energy depositions at different impact parameters were calculated using a radial dose distribution model, and the results were compared to experimental data.

  5. Results of time-resolved radiation exposure measurements made during U.S. shuttle missions with a tissue equivalent proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, A. C.; Hardy, K.

    1994-01-01

    Time resolved exposure measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent shuttle missions with the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. The missions had orbital inclinations ranging from 28 degrees to 57 degrees, and altitudes from 200-600km. Dose equivalent rates ranged from 40-5300 micro Sv/dy. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicle. Measurements indicate that medium- and high- Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isa-dose rate contours have been developed from measurements made during the ST-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) dose for the STS-28 mission were significantly lower than the measured values.

  6. The response of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter to 56-Fe particles from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Gersey, Bradford B.; Borak, Thomas B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.; Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Murakami, T.; Iwata, Y.

    2001-09-04

    The radiation environment aboard the space shuttle and the International Space Station includes high-Z and high-energy (HZE) particles that are part of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) spectrum. Iron-56 is considered to be one of the most biologically important parts of the GCR spectrum. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are used as active dosimeters on manned space flights. These TEPC's are further used to determine average quality factor for each space mission. A TEPC simulating a 1 micron diameter sphere of tissue was exposed as part of a particle spectrometer to iron-56 at energies from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon. The response of TEPC in terms of frequency-averaged lineal energy, dose-averaged lineal energy, as well as energy deposited at different impact parameters through detector was determined for six different incident energies of iron-56 in this energy range. Calculations determined that charged particle equilibrium was achieved for each of the six experiments. Energy depositions at different impact parameters were calculated using a radial dose distribution model and the results compared to experimental data.

  7. {sup 3}He melting pressure thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, W.; Xia, J.S.; Adams, E.D.

    1995-10-01

    High-precision measurements of the {sup 3}He melting pressure versus temperature have been made from 500 {mu}K to 25 mK using a {sup 60}Co nuclear orientation primary thermometer and a Pt NMR susceptibility secondary thermometer. Temperatures for the fixed points on the melting curve are: the superfluid A transition T{sub A}=2.505 mK, the A-B transition T{sub AB}=1.948 mK, and the solid ordering temperature T{sub N}=0.934 mK. These fixed points and a functional form for P(T) constitute a convenient temperature scale, based on a primary thermometer, usable to well below 1 mK.

  8. Cross section of 3He( 3He,2p) 4He measured near the Gamow peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, T.; Kudomi, N.; Yoshida, S.; Kume, K.; Komori, M.; Ohsumi, H.

    2003-06-01

    We measured the cross section of 3He( 3He,2p) 4He in the energy region of 30-50 keV center of mass energy by using the OCEAN facility. The resulting astrophysical S-factors are in agreement with the existing data and their total errors are as good as those of the previous experiment. For further study we tried the measurements at lower energies than E cm = 30 keV. It will require running times of one month with more improvements such as background reduction and steady operation of the detection system.

  9. A study of neutron radiation quality with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter for a low-energy accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Waker, A J

    2011-02-01

    The accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility at McMaster University has been used successfully for the measurement of several minor and trace elements in human hand bones due to their importance to health. Most of these in vivo measurements have been conducted at a proton beam energy (E(p)) of 2.00 MeV to optimise the activation of the selected element of interest with an effective dose of the same order as that received in chest X rays. However, measurement of other elements at the same facility requires beam energies other than 2.00 MeV. The range of energy of neutrons produced at these proton beam energies comes under the region where tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are known to experience difficulty in assessing the quality factor and dose equivalent. In this study, the response of TEPCs was investigated to determine the quality factor of neutron fields generated via the (7)Li(p, n)(7)Be reaction as a function of E(p) in the range 1.884-2.56 MeV at the position of hand irradiation in the facility. An interesting trend has been observed in the quality factor based on ICRP 60, Q(ICRP60), such that the maximum value was observed at E(p)=1.884 MeV (E(n)=33±16 keV) and then continued to decline with increasing E(p) until achieving a minimum value at E(p)=2.0 MeV despite a continuous increase in the mean neutron energy with E(p). This observation is contrary to what has been observed with direct fast neutrons where the quality factor was found to increase continuously with an increase in E(p) (i.e. increasing E(n)). The series of measurements conducted with thermal and fast neutron fields demonstrate that the (14)N(n, p)(14)C produced 580 keV protons in the detector play an important role in the response of the counter under 2.0 MeV proton energy (E(n) ≤ 250 keV). In contrast to the lower response of TEPCs to low-energy neutrons, the quality factor is overestimated in the range 1-2 depending on beam energy <2.0 MeV. This study provides

  10. Elastic Compton Scattering from 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaryan, Arman; Griesshammer, Harald W.; Phillips, Daniel R.; Strandberg, Bruno; McGovern, Judith A.; Shukla, Deepshikha

    2017-01-01

    We study elastic Compton scattering on 3He using chiral effective field theory (χEFT) at photon energies from 60 MeV to approximately 120 MeV. Experiments to measure this process have been proposed for both MAMI at Mainz and the HI γS facility at TUNL. I will present the revised results of a full calculation at third order in the expansion (O (Q3)). The amplitude involves a sum of both one- and two-nucleon Compton-scattering mechanisms. We have recently computed the fourth-order two-nucleon diagrams. The numerical impact they have on the cross-section results will be discussed. I will also present results in which amplitudes used so far are augmented by the leading effects from Δ (1232) degrees of freedom, a step which has already been performed for the proton and deuteron processes. Both cross sections and doubly-polarized asymmetries will be presented, and the sensitivity of these observables to the values of neutron scalar and spin polarizabilities will be assessed. This material is based upon work supported in part by DOE and George Washington University.

  11. Study of the effect of high dose rate on tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetric measurements in mixed photon and neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam; Qashua, N.; Waker, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the measurement of lineal energy spectra carried out with a 5.1 cm (2 in.) diameter spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) simulating 2 μm tissue equivalent (TE) site diameter in low energy mixed photon-neutron fields with varying dose rates generated by employing the McMaster University 1.25 MV double stage Tandetron accelerator. The 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction was employed to generate a variety of mixed fields of photons and low energy neutrons using proton beam energy ranging 1.89-2.56 MeV. The dose rate at a given beam energy was varied by changing the beam current. Dose rates that resulted in dead times as high as 75% were employed to study the effect of dose rate on quality, microdosimetric averages ( y¯F and y¯D), absorbed dose and dose equivalent. We have observed that high dose rates due to both photons and neutrons in a mixed field of radiation result in pile up of pulses and distort the lineal energy spectrum measured under these conditions. The pile up effect and hence the distortion in the lineal energy spectrum becomes prominent with dose rates, which result in dead times larger than 25% for the high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation component. Intense neutron fields, which may amount to 75% dead time, could result in a 50% or even larger increase in the values of the microsdosimetric averages and the neutron quality factor. This study demonstrates moderate dose rates that do not result in dead times of more than 20-25% due to either of the component radiation or due to both components of mixed field radiation generate results that are acceptable for radiation monitoring.

  12. Cross Section of 3HE(3HE,2P)4HE Measured Over the Energy Range of 45 TO 26 KEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, T.; Kudomi, N.; Yoshida, S.; Komori, M.; Takahisa, K.; Ejiri, H.; Toki, H.; Nagai, Y.; Ohsumi, H.

    We have measured the nuclear fusion cross section for 3HE(3HE,2P)4HE near the solar Gamow peak with a compact accelerator facility OCEAN and with an assembly of counter telescopes with a detection efficiency of 10%. The data obtained at Ecm= 45.3, 43.3, 41.3, 39.3, 37.3, 35.2, 33.1, 31.2 keV improved the existing astro-physical S-factors in statistical and systematic errors. A Monte Carlo simulation program exploiting GEANT3, SRJM and GENBOD computer codes has been developed to estimate the detection efficiency for two proton coincidence with a ΔE-E counter telescopes. The precision of developed program has been investigated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental values for cross section of the D(3He, p)α reaction carried out by replacing the target with deuterium gas. It turned out that the present study involves around 3% systematic errors for an estimation of the detection efficiency. The overall systematic errors for these data from 45.3 to 31.2 keV is 3.8%, that is as good as those of the previous experiments.

  13. sup 3 He- sup 3 He dating: A case for mixing of young and old groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kamensky, I.L.; Tolstikhin, I.N. ); Tokarev, I.V. )

    1991-10-01

    {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and {sup 20}Ne/{sup 4}He ratios were measured in shallow underground waters (opened by water-supplying wells) of the Large Vud-Javr intramountain artesian basin in the Khibiny alkaline massif, the Kola Peninsula. The ratios vary from 1.321 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.065 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} and from 1.412 to 2.941, respectively, and a well-defined correlation is observed between them. Both these ratios in aquifers are known to be time-dependent, the former increases with time due to accumulation of {sup 3}He, produced in waters by {sup 3}H {beta}-decay; the latter decreases due to migration of helium from water-bearing rocks into the waters. The correlation is interpreted as a result of the mixing of two different types of waters. The approximation line enables the authors to estimate the isotopic ratios for the endmembers participating in the mixing and the mean residence time ({tau}) of tritigenic helium-3 in the water: (1) {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 3.655 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 4}He = 4.03, and taking into consideration {sup 3}H concentrations in the well waters, {sup 3}H = 31.1 TU (practically the same for all samples), {tau} = 15.8 {plus minus} 1.5 years for the young water; (2) {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 0.20 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 4}He = 0.18 and T = 0.11 Ma for the old one, the contribution of the old water being less than 10%. In one well a considerable contribution of modern-day meteoric water, about 16%, is observed.

  14. Neutron pileup algorithms for multiplicity counters

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sean M.; Stave, Sean; Lintereur, Azaree; Siciliano, Edward; Kouzes, Richard; Bliss, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Abstract The shortage of helium-3 (3He) has created a need to identify alternative neutron detection options for a variety of nuclear nonproliferation applications. One application that may be affected by 3He replacement technology is that of mass accountancy for safeguards, which utilizes coincidence and multiplicity counters to verify special nuclear material declarations. The use of neutron scintillation materials, such as LiF-ZnS sheets, as an alternative to 3He proportional tubes in multiplicity counters requires novel techniques for Pulse Shape Discrimination to distinguish between neutrons and gamma rays. These techniques must work under high count rates, as the maximum momentary rate for incoming neutrons from multiplicity events can be quite large. We have created a fast and accurate neutron discrimination algorithm based on time window filtering and signature comparison that can operate quickly on data with high degrees of gamma ray and neutron pileup. This algorithm is evaluated for its capability to separate signals as the pileup rate increases, and the possibility for implementation on fast hardware (e.g., FPGA hardware) for real-time operation is explored.

  15. Neutron multiplicity ,easurements With 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Meade, John A.; ...

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as “ship effect”) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. In this study, a prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called “straws” that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions ofmore » neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect

  16. Studies of 3He+3He, T+3He, and p +D nuclear reactions relevant to stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis using ICF plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Li, Chikang; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Rosenberg, Michael; Rinderknecht, Hans; Petrasso, Richard; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yong Ho; Hale, Gerry; McNabb, Dennis; Sayre, Dan; Pino, Jesse; Brune, Carl; Bacher, Andy; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Stoeckl, Christian; Janezic, Roger; Sangster, Craig

    2014-10-01

    The 3He+3He, T+3He, and p +D reactions directly relevant to Stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been studied at the OMEGA laser facility using high-temperature low-density `exploding pusher' implosions. The advantage of using these plasmas is that they better mimic astrophysical systems than cold-target accelerator experiments. Measured proton spectra from the 3He3He reaction are used to constrain nuclear R-matrix modeling. The resulting T+3He γ-ray data rule out an anomalously-high 6Li production during BBN as an explanation to the high observed values in primordial material. The proton spectrum from the T+3He reaction is also being used to constrain the R-matrix model. Recent experiments have probed the p +D reaction for the first time in a plasma; this reaction is relevant to energy production in protostars, brown dwarfs and at higher CM energies to BBN. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  17. Evaluation of B10Plus+* proportional detectors for neutron coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H.; Yoon, Seokryung

    2015-07-01

    GE-Reuter-Stokes (GERS) has developed a new line of neutron proportional counters, the B10Plus+* proportional counter. The detector design is intended to serve as a cost-effective alternative to traditional {sup 3}He proportional counters in a variety of applications. The detector is a hybrid design 10B-lined tube optimized with the addition of a small quantity of 3He gas to improve the detector performance and efficiency. As a demonstration of the B10Plus+* detector, GERS has constructed a Uranium Neutron Collar (UNCL) system consisting of B-10Plus+* proportional counters. GERS has designed and built a demonstration UNCL system intended to match the performance of a Type-I UNCL design in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) geometry operating in thermal mode. GERS offered their system on loan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Division of Technical and Scientific Services for an assessment of the detector technology and the demonstration system. We have characterized the demonstration UNCL system and compared its performance with a traditional Type-I UNCL design in regular use by the IAEA. This paper summarizes our findings and observations during the characterization and testing activity. (authors)

  18. Performance Limits of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers Using 3HE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, P.

    2008-03-01

    The enthalpy, entropy, and exergy flows resulting from the real gas effects of 3He in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers are described. The discussion follows a previous description of the real gas effects of 4He in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers and makes use of a recently developed model of the thermophysical properties of 3He. This model is used to describe how the thermodynamic flows are affected by real gas phenomena of 3He and compares these effects to similar effects for 4He. The analysis was done over the pressure range 0.3-2 MPa and temperatures down to 1 K. At 2 MPa there is almost no difference in the cooling power between 3He and 4He. At lower pressures, using 3He is advantageous. There is a 1-2 K reduction in the 3He cooling power vs. temperature curves compared to those for 4He in the 0.3-1 MPa range.

  19. Recycling of 3He from lung magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Z; Grossmann, T; Gueldner, M; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Otten, E W; Rudersdorf, D; Surkau, R; Wolf, U

    2012-06-01

    We have developed the means to recycle (3) He exhaled by patients after imaging the lungs using magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized (3) He. The exhaled gas is collected in a helium leak proof bag and further compressed into a steel bottle. The collected gas contains about 1-2% of (3) He, depending on the amount administered and the number of breaths collected to wash out the (3) He gas from the lungs. (3) He is separated from the exhaled air using zeolite molecular sieve adsorbent at 77 K followed by a cold head at 8 K. Residual gaseous impurities are finally absorbed by a commercial nonevaporative getter. The recycled (3) He gas features high purity, which is required for repolarization by metastability exchange optical pumping. At present, we achieve a collection efficiency of 80-84% for exhaled gas from healthy volunteers and cryogenic separation efficiency of 95%.

  20. /sup 3/He functions in tokamak-pumped laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-10-01

    /sup 3/He placed in an annular cell around a tokamak fusion generator can convert moderated fusion neutrons to energetic ions by the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction, and thereby excite gaseous lasants mixed with the /sup 3/He while simultaneously breeding tritium. The total /sup 3/He inventory is about 4 kg for large tokamak devices. Special configurations of toroidal-field magnets, neutron moderators and beryllium reflectors are required to permit nearly uniform neutron current into the laser cell with minimal attenuation. The annular laser radiation can be combined into a single output beam at the top of the tokamak.

  1. Cross section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured over the range of 45 to 26 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, T.; Kudomi, N.; Yoshida, S.; Komori, M.; Takahisa, K.; Ejiri, H.; Toki, H.; Nagai, Y.; Ohsumi, H.

    2002-04-01

    We have measured the nuclear fusion cross section for 3He(3He,2p)4He near the solar Gamow peak with a compact accelerator facility OCEAN and with an assembly of counter telescopes with a detection efficiency of 10%. The data obtained at Ecm=45.3 to 31.2 keV improved the existing astrophysical S-factors in statistical and systematic errors. A Monte Carlo simulation program exploiting GEANTS, SRIM and GENBOD computer codes has been developed to estimate the detection efficiency for two proton coincidence with a ΔE-E telescopes. The precision of developed program has been investigated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental values for cross section of the D(3He,p)α reaction carried out by replacing the target with D gas. It turned out that the present study involves around 3% systematic errors for an estimation of the detection efficiency. The overall systematic errors for these data from 45.3 to 31.2 keV is 3.8%, that is as good as those of the previous experiments. The latest data obtained at 29.1 and 26.9 keV with large statistical and systematic errors show considerable larger S-factors than previous. An enhancement of astrophysical S-factor might be expected by the existence of a certain resonance as well as by an atomic effect on the screening potential near the solar Gamow energy. .

  2. Early Days of Superfluid ^3He: An Experimenter's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David

    2010-03-01

    The formulation of the BCS theory led theorists to investigate possible non-S-wave pairing in liquid ^3He. Unfortunately as time went on, estimates for the pairing temperature became unattainably low. Nevertheless, the push to lower temperatures by experimentalists continued and was facilitated by the invention of the dilution refrigerator. Nuclear adiabatic demagnetization could then be used to cool liquid ^3He to ˜1 mK as demonstrated by Goodkind. An alternate approach, suggested by Pomeranchuk, involved adiabatic compression of liquid ^3He into the solid phase. Efforts to develop this technique at the Kapitza Institute, La Jolla and Cornell achieved success in demonstrating cooling of mixtures of liquid and solid ^3He to ˜ 1 mK following dilution refrigerator pre-cooling. Although there was great pessimism regarding the possible observation of pairing in liquid ^3He, the unsettled problem of magnetic ordering in solid ^3He beckoned. Ultimately two phase transition along the melting curve were observed by Osheroff et al at Cornell. Although first associated with solid ^3He, extensive NMR studies showed them to be two new phases of liquid ^3He. A brief history of experiments at various laboratories following the discovery is given, along with early interpretations given by Anderson and Morel and Balian and Werthamer. The key role of Leggett's spin dynamics is also discussed.

  3. Dynamics of magnetic solitons in /sup 3/He-B

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkov, S.S.

    1981-01-05

    The production and propagation of n-texture solitons in the B phase of /sup 3/He in a magnetic field is analyzed. It is conceivable that n solitons were observed in /sup 3/He-B by Webb, Sager, and Wheatley/sup 3/ in their experiments after the magnetic field was turned off.

  4. The Map of 3He Abundance for the Moon Nearside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydash, V. G.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Starukhina, L. V.

    1999-09-01

    In [1] strong correlation between 3He content in the lunar soils and the product of the soil maturity Is/FeO upon the content of TiO2 has been presented. Using this correlation we mapped the abundance of 3He for the nearside of the Moon. For this purpose the maps [2] of the maturity degree Is/FeO and abundance of titanium in the regolith of visible hemisphere were taken. The greatest 3He abundance is predicted for the west part of mare Serenitatis (16-20 ppb) associated with ilmenite basalts areas. The lowest 3He (1-5 ppb) is characteristic of the north and south highlands. As 3He is implanted by solar wind, the variation of its average normal flux with latitude and longitude of a lunar site could affect the 3He abundance. If so, 3He content near the poles should be less than that in equatorial zones. However, 3He content is controlled by degassing rates, which is proved by great difference between the abundance ratios of the gases in solar wind and in lunar soils [3]. Moreover, lower temperature in polar regions prevent degassing so effectively that even higher 3He content can be predicted there. As a first approximation we did not take the latitude and longitude dependence of 3He abundance into account. Refs.: [1] Taylor L.A. Engr., constr., & Oper. In Space IV, Proc. of Space'94, 678. [2] Shkuratov Yu.G. et al. 1999. Icarus, 137, 222-234. [3] Haskin L., Warren P. Lunar chemistry. Lunar sourcebook. /Eds. Heiken G. H. et al.. N. Y., 1991. 357-474.

  5. Gadolinium Thin Foils in a Plasma Panel Sensor as an Alternative to 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Varner Jr, Robert L; Beene, James R; Friedman, Dr. Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Gadolinium has long been investigated as a detector for neutrons. It has a thermal neutron capture cross-section that is unparalleled among stable elements, because of the isotopes $^{155,157}$Gd. As a replacement for $^3$He, gadolinium has a significant defect, it produces many gamma-rays with an energy sum of 8 MeV. It also produces conversion electrons, mostly 29 keV in energy. The key to replacing $^3$He with gadolinium is using a gamma-blind electron detector to detect the conversion electrons. We suggest that coupling a layer of gadolinium to a Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS) can provide highly efficient, nearly gamma-blind detection of the conversion. The PPS is a proposed detector under development as a dense array of avalanche counters based on plasma display technology. We will present simulations of the response of prototypes of this detector and considerations of the use of gadolinium in the PPS.

  6. The First Measurement of Neutron Transversity on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Qiang

    2009-12-01

    We recently measured the neutron target single spin asymmetry in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic 3He (e,e',pi+/-)X reactions with a transversely polarized 3He target. The experiment was performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab from October 2008 to February 2009. Pions were detected in the high-resolution spectrometer in coincidence with scattered electrons detected by the BigBite spectrometer. The kinematic coverage focuses on the valence quark region, x = 0.1 - 0.4, at Q2 = 1-3 (GeV/c)2. With good particle identifications using a RICH detector and an aerogel Cherenkov counter, data on kaons were obtained at the same time. The data from this experiment, when combined with the world data, will provide constraints on the Transversity and Sivers distributions on both u-quark and d-quark in the valence quark region.

  7. Solar Source Regions of Energetic 3He Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.; Nitta, N. V.; Cohen, C. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    One of the surprising observations from the ACE mission has been the detection of energetic 3He emission occurring over multi-day periods. Previously observations of solar energetic 3He had detected short-lived "impulsive" energetic particle events which were associated with type III bursts and energetic electrons. The ACE observations were able to detect 3He at very low levels (<1% of 4He compared to ~10% in most earlier work) and this showed that the impulsive events often occurred during seemingly continuous multi-day periods of 3He emission. During solar active periods, 3He was present at 1 AU the majority of the time, giving evidence for either semi-continuous processes or else unresolved multiple small injections. The obvious injections during such periods were strongly associated with jet activity By adding STEREO and SDO observations we are seeking to extend the observational picture for these events. First, by following single 3He emitting regions from STEREO-B to ACE to STEREO-A we seek to examine for how long the 3He emission can continue, since any single spacecraft can be magnetically connected to a single region for only a few days and ACE often sees emission periods of that length. Second, by using SDO-AIA we seek to probe further the properties of the emitting regions to see if the previously reported association with jets is seen in events which we can now observe with greater resolution, sensitivity, and cadence than previously possible.

  8. ^3He neutron spin filters for polarized neutron scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wangchun; Borchers, Julie; Chen, Ying; O'Donovan, Kevin; Erwin, Ross; Lynn, Jeffrey; Majkrzak, Charles; McKenney, Sarah; Gentile, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Polarized neutron scattering (PNS) is a powerful tool that probes the magnetic structures in a wide variety of magnetic materials. Polarized ^3He gas, produced by optical pumping, can be used to polarize or analyze neutron beams because of the strong spin dependence of the neutron absorption cross section for ^3He. Polarized ^3He neutron spin filters (NSF) have been of great interest in PNS community due to recent significant improvement of their performance. Here I will discuss successful applications using ^3He NSFs in polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) and triple-axis spectrometry (TAS). In PNR, a ^3He NSF in conjunction with a position-sensitive detector allows for efficient polarization analysis of off-specular scattering over a broad range of reciprocal space. In TAS, a ^3He NSF in combination with a double focusing pyrolytic graphite monochromator provides greater versatility and higher intensity compared to a Heusler polarizer. Finally I will present the results from patterned magnetically-coupled thin films in PNR and our first ``proof-of-principle'' experiment in TAS, both of which were performed using ^3He NSF(s) at the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  9. Precise measurement of the cross section of 3He ( 3He ,2p) 4He by using 3He doubly charged beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Komori, Masataka; Takahisa, Keiji; Yoshida, Sei; Kume, Kyo; Ohsumi, Hideaki; Itahashi, Takahisa

    2004-01-01

    The fusion cross section of 3He ( 3He ,2p) 4He at a center of mass energy of 30 50 keV has been measured by using a helium-3 doubly ionized beam at a low-energy high current accelerator facility OCEAN. Free from molecular interference in the beam, the measurement determines the astrophysical S factor with better statistical and systematic errors than previous data. By using singly and doubly charged helium-3 ions, the facility envisages to provide the data from high-energy to Gamow energy regions.

  10. Recent Advances of Polarized 3He Target at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Polarized {sup 3}He target has been widely used in nuclear and particle experiments to study the neutron structure in the spin degree of freedom, as most of the {sup 3}He spin is carried by the unpaired neutron. Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) process is used in Jefferson Lab Hall A to polarize its {sup 3}He target. Through developments in recent years, both the performance and corresponding polarimetry of such a target were greatly improved. Several experiments recently carried out in Hall A benefited remarkably from this target for the record highest figure of merit.

  11. Experiments on polarization-dependent transport in 3He systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsy, N.

    1994-03-01

    Spin and momentum transport experiments are described for very dilute 3He- 4He mixtures and pure 3He brute-force polarized by a static field. Spin diffusion and rotation were observed in very dilute mixtures using a spin-wave resonance technique, and the viscosity increase due to polarization was observed using a vibrating wire. The mixture results are all well fit by the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Mullin and Jeon. Spin echoes were used to study transverse spin diffusion in pure 3He, providing the first clear evidence for polarization-induced relaxation-time anisotropy in a degenerate Fermi liquid.

  12. Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on AstroSat and Some Preliminary Results from its Performance in the Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Yadav, J. S.; Antia, H. M.; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, P.; Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, V. R.; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, P.; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Roy, Jayashree; Paul, B.; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev; Ravichandran, M. H.; Anilkumar, K.; Joseph, C. C.; Navalgund, K. H.; Pandiyan, R.; Sarma, K. S.; Subbarao, K.

    2017-06-01

    Large area X-ray propositional counter (LAXPC) instrument on AstroSat is aimed at providing high time resolution X-ray observations in 3-80 keV energy band with moderate energy resolution. To achieve large collecting area, a cluster of three co-aligned identical LAXPC detectors, is used to realize an effective area in access of {˜ }6000 cm2 at 15 keV. The large detection volume of the LAXPC detectors, filled with xenon gas at {˜ }2 atmosphere pressure, results in detection efficiency greater than 50%, above 30 keV. In this article, we present salient features of the LAXPC detectors, their testing and characterization in the laboratory prior to launch and calibration in the orbit. Some preliminary results on timing and spectral characteristics of a few X-ray binaries and other type of sources, are briefly discussed to demonstrate that the LAXPC instrument is performing as planned in the orbit.

  13. Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, H; Tsutsumi, Y; Kono, K

    2013-07-05

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept in many branches of physics. In helium-3 ((3)He), the breaking of symmetry leads to the orbital chirality in the superfluid phase known as (3)He-A. Chirality is a fundamental property of (3)He-A, but its direct detection has been challenging. We report direct detection of chirality by transport measurements of electrons trapped below a free surface of (3)He-A. In particular, we observed the so-called intrinsic Magnus force experienced by a moving electron; the direction of the force directly reflected the chirality. We further showed that, at the superfluid transition, the system selected either right- or left-handed chirality. The observation of such selection directly demonstrates chiral symmetry breaking.

  14. Apparatus for deformation tests of solids in liquid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Katakura, S.; Edagawa, K.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2000-07-01

    An apparatus for deformation of solids in liquid 3He is constructed. Either tensile deformation or compression of a specimen can be performed by exchanging the assemblies in the 3He pot which has a capacity of about 30 cm3. The pulling rod for transmitting load from the tensile testing machine to the specimen runs inside the outlet tube of 3He, being isolated from 4He bath and almost free from mechanical friction. To measure the change in flow stress with the supernormal transition of superconducting metals, a superconducting magnet is mounted outside of the vacuum chamber which separates the 3He pot and the 4He bath. Under an applied load for plastic deformation the system is stably operative down to 0.6 K, while the lowest temperature achieved is 0.5 K. Some results on Ta and NaCl are presented.

  15. ^3He + ^3He measurement at E_cm = 45keV ~25keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Takahisa; Komori, M.; Kudomi, N.; Yoshida, S.; Takahisa, K.

    2001-10-01

    A high brightness ion source and a precise low energy beam accelerator are indispensable tools in the study of fusion reactions in nuclear astrophysics. Of the reactions that follows the basic fusion in the sun, we have focused on the measurement of the ^3He+^3He reaction at the effective energy E_cm=17-27 keV. Currently the LUNA group has presented data down to 20.7 keV. The present paper describes the construction of a compact ion accelerator facility and results in the energy region of 25keV to 45keV. The experimental apparatus, OCEAN consists of (1) a powerful ion source that provides an intense current of ^3He^1+ or ^3He^2+ more than 1 mA at 30-50 keV (2) a low-energy beam transport with good transmission (30% for ^3He^1+ and 3% for ^3He^2+), (3) a windowless gas target and a circulation/purification system (4) a reliable calorimeter(accuracy 2%). (5) detectors, and (6) a data acquisition system. In the analysis, effective region for true reaction on E-ΔE plot was estimated as the followings. 1)The ^3He+^3He reaction was generated by simulation. 2)The Background contribution from ^3He+D reaction was generated by simulation, and those of cosmic rays, electrical noise and so on, were obtained by the background run. 3)ΔE and E distribution was divided into 16000 partitions, and signal to noise ratio were evaluated. From this procedure, S-factors were obtained as about 5 ~6 MeV \\cdotb.

  16. Development of a Polarized 3He Ion Source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, Richard G.

    2013-01-15

    The goal of the project was to design and construct a source of polarized 3He atoms for injection into EBIS. This is the initial step in producing polarized 3He beams in RHIC in collaboration with physicists from Columbia University and Brookhaven National Laboratory. These beams can be used to probe the spin structure of the neutron in the existing RHIC complex as well as to measure precisely the Bjorken Sum Rule at a future eRHIC electron-ion collider.

  17. Phase Shifts of p-3He Scattering at Low Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Y.; Limkaisang, V.; Nagata, J.; Yoshino, H.; Matsuda, M.

    2000-01-01

    A method employing single-energy phase-shift analysis of p-3He scattering is developed by using the S matrix in the Matsuda-Watari representation. This method can be applied for analyses in the low-energy region and also in the inelastic region. Phase-shift solutions of p-3He scattering are given at TL = 4.0, 5.5, 6.8, 8.5, 9.5 and 19.48 MeV.

  18. The SLAC E-154 {sup 3}He polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Romalis, M. V.; Bogorad, P. L.; Cates, G. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Chupp, T. E.; Coulter, K. P.; Smith, T. B.; Welsh, R.; Hughes, E. W.; Johnson, J. R.; Thompson, A. K.

    1998-01-20

    We describe the NMR and Rb Zeeman frequency shift polarimeters used for determining the {sup 3}He polarization in a recent precision measurement of the neutron spin structure function g{sub 1} at SLAC (E-154). We performed a detailed study of the systematic errors associated with the calibration of the NMR polarimeter. A new technique was used for determining the {sup 3}He polarization from the frequency shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance.

  19. Pickup coil optimization for polarized 3He system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, X. Q.; Zheng, H.; Sun, G. A.; Gong, J.; Ren, Y.; Liu, L. J.; Gao, P. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Yan, H.

    2017-07-01

    Not only can polarized 3He gas work as neutron spin filters (NSF) but also search for spin-dependent new interactions beyond the standard model. For both cases, the relative polarization of the spin polarized noble gas needs to be measured precisely. Various NMR techniques are applied practically to monitor the 3He cell's polarization. In this work, we tried to optimize the pickup coil for the spin exchange optical pump (SEOP) based 3He system. By optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we found that the coil should be wound by thin wire for a higher number of turns. The optimized sizes of the pickup coils depend on the detailed configurations. For a spherical 3He cell with radius a, we found the optimized coil radius is √{5}(a+d), where d is the coil to cell surface distance. For a cylindrical 3He cell with height h, for the configurations where the coils were placed either along or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the target cell, we derived the optimized sizes for the specific configurations. We believe these results are practically useful for designing pickup coils of polarized 3He systems.

  20. Hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI and histology in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jason C; Choong, Cliff K; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Bentley, John; Wong, Jonathan; Pierce, John A; Cooper, Joel D; Macklem, Peter T; Conradi, Mark S; Hogg, James C

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion MRI of hyperpolarized (3)He shows that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of (3)He gas is highly restricted in the normal lung and becomes nearly unrestricted in severe emphysema. The nature of this restricted diffusion provides information about lung structure; however, no direct comparison with histology in human lungs has been reported. The purpose of this study is to provide information about (3)He gas diffusivity in explanted human lungs, and describe the relationship between (3)He diffusivity and the surface area to lung volume ratio (SA/V) and mean linear intercept (L(m)) measurements--the gold standard for diagnosis of emphysema. Explanted lungs from patients who were undergoing lung transplantation for advanced COPD, and donor lungs that were not used for transplantation were imaged via (3)He diffusion MRI. Histological measurements were made on the same specimens after they were frozen in the position of study. There is an inverse correlation between diffusivity and SA/V (and a positive correlation between diffusivity and L(m)). An important result is that restricted (3)He diffusivity separated normal from emphysematous lung tissue more clearly than the morphometric analyses. This effect may be due to the smaller histologic sampling size compared to the MRI voxel sizes.

  1. Development of a 3He-hydraulic actuator for spin pump in superfluid 3He-A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Wada, M.; Tanaka, H.; Motoyama, G.; Sumiyama, A.; Aoki, Y.; Okuda, Y.; Murakawa, S.; Karaki, Y.; Kubota, M.; Kojima, H.

    2012-12-01

    The superfluid 3He A1 phase contains a spin-polarized condensate. This property allows novel superfluid spin current experiments. In the mechano-spin effect of the A1 phase a mechanically applied pressure gradient and a superleak-spin filter enable to directly boost spin polarization of 3He in a small chamber. Using a flexible membrane as an electrostatically actuated pump, we carried out such experiments and observed 50% enhancement of spin density. Here we report on a new 3He-hydraulic actuator for achieving greater enhancement of spin density. The actuator consists of two liquid 3He chambers located at a 4.2 K plate and in the interior of the cell. The pressure in the 4.2 K chamber is heater-controlled and it transmits a force onto a membrane in the cell. The motion of the membrane induces spin-polarized current into an accumulation chamber.

  2. Solar source regions of 3HE-rich particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Lin, R. P.; Reames, D. V.; Stone, R. G.; Liggett, M.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogen alpha X-ray, and metric and kilometric radio data to examine the solar sources of energetic 3He-rich particle events observed near earth in association with impulsive 2 to 100 keV electron events were applied. Each 3He/electron event is associated with a kilometric type 3 burst belonging to a family of such bursts characterized by similar interplanetary propagation paths from the same solar active region. The 3He/electron events correlate very well with the interplanetary low frequency radio brightnesses of these events, but progressively worse with signatures from regions closer to the Sun. When H alpha brightnings can be associated with 3He/electron events, they have onsets coinciding to within 1 min of that of the associated metric type 3 burst but are often too small to be reported. The data are consistent with the earlier idea that many type 3 bursts, the 3He/electron events, are due to particle acceleration in the corona, well above the associated H alpha and X-ray flares.

  3. Search for muon catalyzed d 3He-fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, E. M.; Balin, D. V.; Case, T.; Crowe, K. M.; Del Rosso, A.; Ganzha, V. A.; Hartmann, F. J.; Kozlov, S. M.; Lauss, B.; Maev, O. E.; Mühlbauer, M.; Mulhauser, F.; Petitjean, C.; Petrov, G. E.; Sadetsky, S. M.; Schapkin, G. N.; Schott, W.; Semenchuk, G. G.; Smirenin, Yu. V.; Soroka, M. A.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Voropaev, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.

    1999-06-01

    We report on the results of an experiment aimed at observing muon-catalyzed d 3He-fusion with a setup previously used for studies of the muon-catalyzed dd-fusion. The basic element of the setup is a high pressure ionization chamber operating as an active target. In this experiment the chamber was filled with an HD + 3He (5.6%) gas mixture at 13.2 bar pressure and 50 K temperature. These conditions were chosen as optimal for formation of the 3Heμd-molecules with a low level of background from the d-μ-d fusion. The chamber was exposed to the negative muon beam at PSI. During a 3-week data-taking period, 9.7 × 108 muon stops have been selected. The analysis of the data was able to determine a new upper limit for the d 3He-fusion rate in the 3Heμd-molecule (λf≤ 6× 104 s-1), which is more than three orders of magnitude lower than the previously existed limit.

  4. Experimental Search for μd 3He Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, P. E.; Boreiko, V. M.; Bystritsky, V. M.; Filipowicz, M.; Huot, O.; Mulhauser, F.; Pavlov, V. N.; Penkov, F. M.; Petitjean, C.; Popov, N. P.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Schaller, L. A.; Schneuwly, H.; Stolupin, V. A.; Woźniak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The vast majority of muon catalyzed fusion research has been concerned with muonic molecules of hydrogen isotopes only, since the dynamics of higher-Z muonic atoms in general preclude the formation of molecular systems. In the specific case of hydrogen helium mixtures, bound muonic molecular states can exist, and thus it is possible to search for the reaction μd 3He xrightarrow{{tilde λ f}} μ+α(3.66 MeV)+p(14.64 MeV). Until recently, the theoretical predictions for the nuclear fusion rate in the μd 3He molecule, {tilde λ } f , ranged over one order of magnitude, from 105 to 106 per second. An experimental upper limit has been measured for {tilde λ } f in HD + 3He giving a value (<6×104 s-1 [1]). We report on the analysis of an experiment in D2 + 3He which has shown a signal coming either from the muon catalyzed reaction, or from the fusion in flight of 3He's formed from dμd fusion.

  5. Optical Pumping / Spin Exchange ^3He Neutron Spin Filter Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Shenq-Rong; Coulter, Kevin P.; Chupp, Timothy E.; Welsh, Robert C.

    1998-04-01

    We have instrumented a thermal neutron beam line at the 2MW Ford reactor at the University of Michigan to develop a ^3He neutron spin filter test stand. Due to a large, spin depedent neutron cross section at low energies, polarized ^3He can be used as a neutron spin filter. Our ^3He spin filter is a 10 amagat-cm ^3He cell polarized via optical pumping/spin exchange with Rb. The filter is made of Corning 7056 glass filled with Rb , several atmosphere of ^3He and a few hundred torr nitrogen as buffer gas. We apply two 15W diode array lasers to optically pump Rb. In this presentation we will discuss some progress of this development, including a rotating oven design and a stepping motor driven neutron chopper. Preliminary results of the 10 amagat-cm filter will be presented and compared with theoretical calculations. A study of systematic errors from the data acquisition system and the neutron chopper will also be discussed.

  6. Polarized (3) He Spin Filters for Slow Neutron Physics.

    PubMed

    Gentile, T R; Chen, W C; Jones, G L; Babcock, E; Walker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Polarized (3)He spin filters are needed for a variety of experiments with slow neutrons. Their demonstrated utility for highly accurate determination of neutron polarization are critical to the next generation of betadecay correlation coefficient measurements. In addition, they are broadband devices that can polarize large area and high divergence neutron beams with little gamma-ray background, and allow for an additional spin-flip for systematic tests. These attributes are relevant to all neutron sources, but are particularly well-matched to time of flight analysis at spallation sources. There are several issues in the practical use of (3)He spin filters for slow neutron physics. Besides the essential goal of maximizing the (3)He polarization, we also seek to decrease the constraints on cell lifetimes and magnetic field homogeneity. In addition, cells with highly uniform gas thickness are required to produce the spatially uniform neutron polarization needed for beta-decay correlation coefficient experiments. We are currently employing spin-exchange (SE) and metastability-exchange (ME) optical pumping to polarize (3)He, but will focus on SE. We will discuss the recent demonstration of 75 % (3)He polarization, temperature-dependent relaxation mechanism of unknown origin, cell development, spectrally narrowed lasers, and hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping.

  7. Polarized 3He Spin Filters for Slow Neutron Physics

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, T. R.; Chen, W. C.; Jones, G. L.; Babcock, E.; Walker, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    Polarized 3He spin filters are needed for a variety of experiments with slow neutrons. Their demonstrated utility for highly accurate determination of neutron polarization are critical to the next generation of betadecay correlation coefficient measurements. In addition, they are broadband devices that can polarize large area and high divergence neutron beams with little gamma-ray background, and allow for an additional spin-flip for systematic tests. These attributes are relevant to all neutron sources, but are particularly well-matched to time of flight analysis at spallation sources. There are several issues in the practical use of 3He spin filters for slow neutron physics. Besides the essential goal of maximizing the 3He polarization, we also seek to decrease the constraints on cell lifetimes and magnetic field homogeneity. In addition, cells with highly uniform gas thickness are required to produce the spatially uniform neutron polarization needed for beta-decay correlation coefficient experiments. We are currently employing spin-exchange (SE) and metastability-exchange (ME) optical pumping to polarize 3He, but will focus on SE. We will discuss the recent demonstration of 75 % 3He polarization, temperature-dependent relaxation mechanism of unknown origin, cell development, spectrally narrowed lasers, and hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping. PMID:27308140

  8. Surface Majorana fermions and bulk collective modes in superfluid 3He-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, YeJe; Chung, Suk Bum; Maciejko, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    The theoretical study of topological superfluids and superconductors has so far been carried out largely as a translation of the theory of noninteracting topological insulators into the superfluid language, whereby one replaces electrons by Bogoliubov quasiparticles and single-particle band Hamiltonians by Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians. Band insulators and superfluids are, however, fundamentally different: While the former exist in the absence of interparticle interactions, the latter are broken symmetry states that owe their very existence to such interactions. In particular, unlike the static energy gap of a band insulator, the gap in a superfluid is due to a dynamical order parameter that is subject to both thermal and quantum fluctuations. In this work, we explore the consequences of bulk quantum fluctuations of the order parameter in the B phase of superfluid 3He on the topologically protected Majorana surface states. Neglecting the high-energy amplitude modes, we find that one of the three spin-orbit Goldstone modes in 3He-B couples to the surface Majorana fermions. This coupling in turn induces an effective short-range two-body interaction between the Majorana fermions, with coupling constant inversely proportional to the strength of the nuclear dipole-dipole interaction in bulk 3He. A mean-field theory suggests that the surface Majorana fermions in 3He-B may be in the vicinity of a metastable gapped time-reversal-symmetry-breaking phase.

  9. Ultrasensitive 3He magnetometer for measurements of high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Anna; Blümler, Peter; Heil, Werner; Hehn, Manfred; Karpuk, Sergej; Maul, Andreas; Otten, Ernst; Schreiber, Laura M.; Terekhov, Maxim

    2014-11-01

    We describe a 3He magnetometer capable to measure high magnetic fields ( B> 0.1 T) with a relative accuracy of better than 10-12. Our approach is based on the measurement of the free induction decay of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized 3He following a resonant radio frequency pulse excitation. The measurement sensitivity can be attributed to the long coherent spin precession time T2 ∗ being of order minutes which is achieved for spherical sample cells in the regime of "motional narrowing" where the disturbing influence of field inhomogeneities is strongly suppressed. The 3He gas is spin polarized in situ using a new, non-standard variant of the metastability exchange optical pumping. We show that miniaturization helps to increase T2 ∗ further and that the measurement sensitivity is not significantly affected by temporal field fluctuations of order 10-4.

  10. Neutron (3He) Spin Structure Functions at Low Q^2

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent Sulkosky

    2009-07-01

    Experiment E97-110 was performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility to provide a precise measurement of the $^{3}$He spin structure functions at low $Q^{2}$ from 0.02 to 0.3~[GeV$/c$]$^{2}$. A longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered from a longitudinally or transversely polarized $^{3}$He target. From these data, we have extracted moments of the neutron and $^{3}$He spin structure functions at very low momentum transfers. These data allow us to make a benchmark check of Chiral Perturbation Theory calculations in a region where they are expected to be valid. In these proceedings, the experimental details are discussed and preliminary results on the first moments of the $g_1\\left(x,Q^{2}\\right)$ and $g_2\\left(x,Q^{2}\\right)$ structure functions are presented.

  11. Nonlinear acoustic effects in superfluid 3He-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Ross H.; Sauls, J. A.

    1992-05-01

    We consider the nonlinear interaction of zero sound with the collective modes of the order-parameter in superfluid 3He-B. The approximate particle-hole symmetry of the 3He-Fermi liquid determines selection rules for the linear and nonlinear coupling of zero sound to the collective modes. Starting from the quasiclassical theory of superfluid 3He, we have shown that the coupling strenghts have a simple representation in terms of Feynman diagrams. We predict measurable two-photon absorption and nonlinear-Raman scattering by the J = 2 + (real squashing) modes at low pressures. Recent observations of two-phonon absorption by a group in Helsinki are compared to the theoretical predictions. Two-phonon absorption can be used to determine the dispersion of the J = 2 + modes.

  12. Nonlinear acoustics in superfluid 3He-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Ross H.; Sauls, J. A.

    1989-10-01

    The nonlinear interaction of zero sound with the order parameter collective modes in superfluid 3He-B is considered within perturbation theory in the amplitude of the sound field. Selection rules for nonlinear excitation of the order parameter modes are determined by the approximate particle-hole symmetry of the 3He Fermi liquid. A diagrammatic algorithm, based on the quasiclassical theory of superfluid 3He, is used to calculate nonlinear coupling constants. These nonlinearities are sufficiently large that it should be possible to observe two phonon absorption and stimulated Raman scattering of zero sound by the real squashing (J=2+) mode. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using these nonlinearities to produce zero sound with `squeezed' noise.

  13. Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron (3He) Spin Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Solvignon, Patricia; Liyanage, Nilanga; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, Konrad; Averett, Todd; Boeglin, Werner; Camsonne, Alexandre; Cates, Gordon; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chudakov, Eugene; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Feuerbach, Robert; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Glashausser, Charles; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kelly, J.; Keppel, Cynthia; Kim, Wooyoung; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Ma, Bin; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCormick, Kathy; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Munoz-Camacho, Carlos; Paschke, Kent; Reitz, Bodo; Saha, Arunava; Sheyor, Ran; Singh, Jaideep; Slifer, Karl; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Wang, Kebin; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Woo, Seungtae; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-10-01

    We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_1 of the neutron and $^3$He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c)^2. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_1 down to at least Q^2 = 1.8 (GeV/c)^2 in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A_1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q^2-dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c)^2.

  14. Feasibility of neutron diffraction on solid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemensmeyer, K.; Schuberth, E. A.; Adams, E. D.; Takano, Y.; Guckelsberger, K.

    2000-07-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of neutron diffraction from solid 3He. The experiment will be performed at the HMI, first aiming for the properties of the antiferromagnetic ordering in the BCC phase and the ferromagnetic order in the HCP phase. Signal and beam heating considerations are essential to account for the enormous neutron absorption cross section of 3He. The study shows that neutron diffraction and transmission experiments are possible, relying on the experience gained from the neutron diffraction experiments on Cu and Ag at nanokelvin temperatures. A pressure cell has been developed which complies with the conflicting demands arising from the neutron and ultralow temperature aspects of the experiment. This work is a first step in an extensive effort to characterize 3He by neutron diffraction.

  15. Strong-Coupling and the Stripe Phase of ^3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of superfluid 3He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one-dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid 3He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces the bulk 3He superfluid phase diagram. We find that the stability of the Stripe phase is diminished relative to the A phase, but the Stripe phase is stable in a large range of temperatures, pressures, confinement, and surface conditions.

  16. Quark-hadron duality in neutron (3He) spin structure.

    PubMed

    Solvignon, P; Liyanage, N; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, K; Averett, T; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Cates, G D; Chang, C C; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Feuerbach, R; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Glashausser, C; Gorbenko, V; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Ibrahim, H; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Kelleher, A; Kelly, J; Keppel, C; Kim, W; Korsch, W; Kramer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Ma, B; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Munoz Camacho, C; Paschke, K; Reitz, B; Saha, A; Sheyor, R; Singh, J; Slifer, K; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wijesooriya, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Woo, S; Yang, J-C; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2008-10-31

    We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_{1} of the neutron and 3He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c);{2}. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_{1} down to at least Q;{2}=1.8 (GeV/c);{2} in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q2 dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c);{2}.

  17. Study of the /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 6/Li* reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, B.S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Differential cross sections for formation of the 5.37 MeV (J'' = 2/sup +/, T = 1) level in /sup 6/Li have been measured via the reaction /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 6/Li at incident /sup 3/He energies in the range 0.7 to 2.5 MeV and for angles in the range 20/sup 0/ less than or equal to theta (Lab) less than or equal to 160/sup 0/. Data for the g.s., 2.18 and 3.56 MeV excited states of /sup 6/Li were also obtained. The results for the g.s. and the first two excited states are in good agreement with previous measurements and show no clear resonance structure. The excitation function for the 5.37 MeV state, however, exhibits resonance structure at incident /sup 3/He energies of 1.45 and 2.15 MeV corresponding to formation of states in the compound nucleus, /sup 10/B, at 18.8 and 19.3 MeV excitation respectively. The experimental data were compared with the results of DWBA calculations using the computer code DWUCK4. Coincident events between the first emitted alpha particle and the decay alpha's or proton's were detected using a counter telescope in the reaction plane at several appropriately chosen angle pairs at an incident /sup 3/He energy of 2.15 MeV. Branching ratios for the allowed decay modes /sup 5/He + p and ..cap alpha.. + p + n, as well as the isospin forbidden decay into ..cap alpha.. + d, were deduced from the data.

  18. 3He spin exchange cells for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, R. E.; Morgan, S. W.; Saam, B.

    2002-08-01

    We present a protocol for the consistent fabrication of glass cells to provide hyperpolarized (HP) 3He for pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging. The method for producing HP 3He is spin-exchange optical pumping. The valved cells must hold of order 1 atm[middle dot]L of gas at up to 15 atm pressure. Because characteristic spin-exchange times are several hours, the longitudinal nuclear relaxation time T1 for 3He must be several tens of hours and robust with respect to repeated refilling and repolarization. Collisions with the cell wall are a significant and often dominant cause of relaxation. Consistent control of wall relaxation through cell fabrication procedures has historically proven difficult. With the help of the discovery of an important mechanism for wall relaxation that involves magnetic surface sites in the glass, and with the further confirmation of the importance of Rb metal to long wall-relaxation times, we have developed a successful protocol for fabrication of 3He spin exchange cells from inexpensive and easily worked borosilicate (Pyrex) glass. The cells are prepared under vacuum using a high-vacuum oil-free turbomolecular pumping station, and they are sealed off under vacuum after [greater-than-or-equal, slanted]100 mg of distilled Rb metal is driven in. Filling of cells with the requisite 3He-N2 mixture is done on an entirely separate gas-handling system. Our cells can be refilled and the gas repolarized indefinitely with no significant change in their wall properties. Relaxation data are presented for about 30 cells; the majority of these reach a "40/40" benchmark: T1>40 h, and 3He polarizations reach or exceed 40%. Typical polarization times range from 12 to 20 h; 20% polarization can be achieved in 3-5 h.

  19. T2-Shortening of 3He Gas by Magnetic Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Minard, Kevin R; Timchalk, Chuck; Corley, Rick A

    2005-03-01

    In the interconnected pores of a material like the lung the transverse relaxation time (T2) for 3He gas is shortened by the deposition of magnetic microspheres and rapid molecular diffusion through induced field distortions. Here, this unique relaxation process is described theoretically and predicted T2-shortening is validated using pressurized 3He gas in a foam model of lung tissue. Results demonstrate that – 1) significant T2-shortening is induced by microsphere deposition, 2) shortened T2’s are accurately predicted, and 3) measured relaxation times are exploitable for quantifying the local volume fraction of magnetic microspheres deposited in gas-filled spaces.

  20. Neutron-scattering experiment on solid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat'aš, S.; Bat'ko, I.; Boyko, V.; Schöttl, S.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Raasch, S.; Radulov, I.; Adams, E. D.; Scherline, T. E.

    The central aim of our work is the characterisation of magnetic and crystallographic properties of solid 3He on a microscopic scale. This can only be achieved using neutron-diffraction techniques. The potential of neutron methods in magnetism and their application to nuclear magnetism is well known. They were very successful in the recent investigation of spontaneous nuclear order in copper and silver. The high neutron absorption cross section makes the application of neutron diffraction in solid 3He very difficult - but a careful feasibility study of diffraction experiments shows that new results of fundamental importance in the field of magnetism may be gained.

  1. Anisotropic Phases of Superfluid 3He in Compressed Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. I. A.; Zimmerman, A. M.; Pollanen, J.; Collett, C. A.; Halperin, W. P.

    2015-03-01

    It has been shown that the relative stabilities of various superfluid states of 3He can be influenced by anisotropy in a silica aerogel framework. We prepared a suite of aerogel samples compressed up to 30% for which we performed pulsed NMR on 3He imbibed within the aerogel. We identified A and B phases and determined their magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams as a function of strain. From these results, we infer that the B phase is distorted by negative strain forming an anisotropic superfluid state more stable than the A phase.

  2. Removing gaseous contaminants in {sup 3}He by cryogenic stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Benapfl, M.; Biltoft, P.; Coombs, A.

    1995-08-17

    The Tritium Operations Group at LLNL, Tritium Facility has recently developed a {sup 3}He recovery system to remove argon, xenon, neon, hydrogen, and all other contaminants from the {sup 3}He stream in an Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) experimental apparatus. In this paper the authors will describe in detail the background information, technical requirements, the design approach, and the results of their experimental tests. The authors believe this gas purification system may have other applications as it provides at a reasonable cost an efficient method for purification of gaseous helium.

  3. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  4. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  5. Minimal mass size of a stable {sup 3}He cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiola, R.; Navarro, J.

    2005-03-01

    The minimal number of {sup 3}He atoms required to form a bound cluster has been estimated by means of a diffusion Monte Carlo procedure within the fixed-node approximation. Several importance sampling wave functions have been employed in order to consider different shell-model configurations. The resulting upper bound for the minimal number is 32 atoms.

  6. Internal Magnus effects in superfluid sup 3 He- A

    SciTech Connect

    Salmelin, R.H.; Salomaa, M.M. ); Mineev, V.P.

    1989-08-21

    Orbital angular momentum of the coherently aligned Cooper pairs in superfluid {sup 3}He-{ital A} is encountered by an object immersed in the condensate. We evaluate the associated quasiparticle-scattering asymmetry experienced by a negative ion; this leads to a measureable, purely quantum-mechanical reactive force deflecting the ion's trajectory. Possible hydrodynamic Magnus effects are also discussed.

  7. The Momentum Distribution of Liquid 3He, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Paul; Bryan, Matthew; Prisk, Timothy

    Liquid 3He is a system of fundamental importance to condensed matter physics because it is a prototypical example of a strongly interacting fermion system whose interactions are well known. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations predict that the atomic momentum distribution of liquid 3He contains a Fermi surface discontinuity and an average atomic kinetic energy in the range 12-13 K at saturated vapor pressure. A number of high-resolution neutron Compton scattering studies of liquid 33He have been described in the literature, with experimenters observing no Fermi surface discontinuity and obtaining kinetic energies in the range of 8-10 K. In this presentation, we reconsider measurements of the momentum distribution of liquid 3He taken at 500 mK under 0, 10, 15 bar of pressure [R.M. Dimeo et al Physica B 241-243, 952 (1998)]. We demonstrate that there is complete agreement between the experimental data and quantum Monte Carlo calculations when instrumental resolution and final state effect corrections are taken into account. We also consider the prospects for a direct observation of the Fermi surface discontinuity in liquid 3He using neutron Compton scattering. This research was supported by NSF Award DGE-1069091.

  8. Progress in Polarized 3He Ion Source at RCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Yasui, S.; Yosoi, M.; Takahisa, K.; Shimakura, N.; Plis, Yu. A.; Donets, E. D.

    2007-06-13

    A long history on the polarized 3He ion source developed at RCNP is presented. We started with an 'OPPIS' (Optical Pumping Polarized Ion Source) and later found the fundamental difficulties in the OPPIS. To overcome them an 'EPPIS' (Electron Pumping Polarized Ion Source) was proposed and its validity was experimentally proven. However, a serious technical disadvantage was also found in the EPPIS. To avoid this disadvantage we proposed a new concept, 'SEPIS' (Spin Exchange Polarized Ion Source), which uses an enhanced spin-exchange cross section theoretically expected at low 3He+ incident energies in the 3He+ + Rb system. Next, we describe the present status of the SEPIS development: construction of a bench test device allowing the measurements of not only the spin-exchange cross sections {sigma}se but also the electron capture cross sections {sigma}ec for the 3He+ + Rb system. The latest experimental data on {sigma}ec are presented and compared with other previous experimental data and the theoretical calculations.Finally, a design study of the SEPIS for practical use in nuclear (cyclotron) and particle physics (synchrotron) is shortly mentioned.

  9. Stability and Spectra of Small 3He-4He Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J.; Fantoni, S.; Guardiola, R.; Zuker, A.

    Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations have been systematically performed to analyze the stability of small mixed 3He-4He clusters, as well as their excitation spectra. The picture that emerges is that of systems with strong shell effects whose binding and excitation energies are essentially determined by the monopole properties of an effective Hamiltonian.

  10. Comparisons of LET Distributions for Protons with Energies between50 and 200 MeV Determined Using a Spherical Tissue-EquivalentProportional Counter (TEPC) and a Position-Sensitive Silicon Spectrometer(RRMD-III)

    SciTech Connect

    Borak, Thomas B.; Doke, Tadayoshi; Fuse, T.; Guetersloh, StephenB.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hara, K.; Moyers, Michael; Suzuki, S.; Taddei, Phillip; Terasawa, K.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2004-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to measure the response of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a silicon-based LET spectrometer (RRMD-III) to protons with energies ranging from 50 200 MeV. This represents a large portion of the energy distribution for trapped protons encountered by astronauts in low-Earth orbit. The beam energies were obtained using plastic polycarbonate degraders with a monoenergetic beam that was extracted from a proton synchrotron. The LET spectrometer provided excellent agreement with the expected LET distribution emerging from the energy degraders. The TEPC cannot measure the LET distribution directly. However, the frequency mean value of lineal energy, y bar f, provided a good approximation to LET. This is in contrast to previous results for high-energy heavy ions wherey barf underestimated LET, whereas the dose-averaged lineal energy, y barD, provided a good approximation to LET.

  11. Symmetry protected topological superfluid (3)He-B.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Sato, Masatoshi; Machida, Kazushige

    2015-03-25

    Owing to the richness of symmetry and well-established knowledge of bulk superfluidity, the superfluid (3)He has offered a prototypical system to study intertwining of topology and symmetry. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the topological superfluidity of (3)He in a multifaceted manner, including symmetry considerations, the Jackiw-Rebbi's index theorem, and the quasiclassical theory. Special focus is placed on the symmetry protected topological superfuidity of the (3)He-B confined in a slab geometry. The (3)He-B under a magnetic field is separated to two different sub-phases: the symmetry protected topological phase and non-topological phase. The former phase is characterized by the existence of symmetry protected Majorana fermions. The topological phase transition between them is triggered by the spontaneous breaking of a hidden discrete symmetry. The critical field is quantitatively determined from the microscopic calculation that takes account of magnetic dipole interaction of the (3)He nucleus. It is also demonstrated that odd-frequency even-parity Cooper pair amplitudes are emergent in low-lying quasiparticles. The key ingredients, symmetry protected Majorana fermions and odd-frequency pairing, bring an important consequence that the coupling of the surface states to an applied field is prohibited by the hidden discrete symmetry, while the topological phase transition with the spontaneous symmetry breaking is accompanied by anomalous enhancement and anisotropic quantum criticality of surface spin susceptibility. We also illustrate common topological features between topological crystalline superconductors and symmetry protected topological superfluids, taking UPt3 and Rashba superconductors as examples.

  12. A measurement of the parity conserving asymmetry in the neutron capture on 3He at SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Latiful; n3He Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The n3He experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source is motivated to measure the parity violating asymmetry of the recoil proton momentum kp with respect to the neutron spin σn in the reaction n+ 3He --> p +T+765 KeV. This is sensitive to isospin ΔI = 0 and 1 components of the Hadronic Weak Interaction (HWI), and is expected to be extremely small (10-7). There is an additional parity even nuclear asymmetry proportional to k->p .σ->n ×k->n predicted by R-matrix analysis to be 1 ×10-6 at 5 meV. We measured this asymmetry for the first time for verification of nuclear theory in this new observable and for confirmation of the sensitivity of our experiment to the parity violating asymmetry. I will present the measurement of the PC asymmetry and discuss on data analysis.

  13. [sup 3]He neutron detector performance in mixed neutron gamma environments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N. H.; Beddingfield, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    A test program of the performance of 3He neutron proportional detectors with varying gas pressures, and their response to lligh level gamma-ray exposure in a mixed neutrodgamma environment, ha$ been performed Our intent was to identie the optimal gas pressure to reduce the gamma-ray sensitivity of these detectors. These detectors were manufxtured using materials to minimize their gamma response. Earlier work focused on 3He fill pressures of four atmospheres and above, whereas the present work focuses on a wider range of pressures. Tests have shown that reducing the .filling pressure will M e r increase the gamma-ray dose range in which the detectors can be operated.

  14. Overview of the n3He Experiment and Target Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrea, Mark; n3He Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The n3He Experiment aims to measure the parity-violating asymmetry in the direction of proton emission relative to the initial neutron polarization direction in the reaction n-> +3 He -> T + p + 765 keV to a high precision. The size of the asymmetry is estimated to be in the range - 9 . 5 - 2 . 5 ×10-8 , and our goal statistical accuracy is 2 ×10-8 . The experiment ran at the Spallation Neutron Source with data taking completing at the end of 2015. The experiment used a Helium-3 ionization chamber as the combined target and detector. Data analysis is underway and is currently in an advanced stage

  15. A D-3He IEC power unit for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    There is an urgent need for small power units for on-board and landing site power for space travel. The conceptual design of a 1-MWe Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion unit burning D-3He fuel is considered here for such applications. The IEC is attractive for space power-its non-Maxwellian beam-beam character is well-suited for D-3He operation, small size units with a high specific power density are conceivable. Small scale IEC experiments have produced encouraging results and are used here as the basis for extrapolation to the space power unit. However, critical scale-up experiments are essential to verify the feasibility of the concept.

  16. Evidence for Split NMR Lines in Ferromagnetic 3He Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jinshan; Du, Yuliang; Gould, C. M.; Bozler, H. M.

    2006-09-01

    In earlier experiments on ferromagnetic 3He films, we observed a complex lineshape due in part to the dipolar field generated by polarization of the 3He nuclei. Much of the complex lineshape can be explained by the known distribution of the Grafoil platelets. However, there remained some evidence for a split NMR line at some temperatures. In our new experiments on ZYX grade exfoliated graphite where the size of individual platelets is much larger and the angular distribution is three times smaller, this splitting has become more evident over a wider range of temperatures. Now it is clear that the complex lineshape includes two peaks along with remaining orientation effects. We also find that roughly 2% of our signal comes from randomly oriented platelets. We present the details of our model for analyzing these lineshapes and the experimental results for the line splitting at several coverages in the ferromagnetic range. We discuss the possible sources of this line splitting.

  17. Data acquisition system for the n3He experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Latiful

    2014-03-01

    The n3He experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source will measure the parity violating spin asymmetry of the recoil proton in the reaction n+3He -->p +T +765 KeV. This is sensitive to ΔI = 0 and 1 components of the Hadronic Weak Interaction (HWI), and is expected to be extremely small (of the order 10-7) . Protons from the reaction are recorded in current mode in order to achieve a statistical sensitivity of 10-8 in a reasonable amount of time. In addition instrumental asymmetries must be suppressed by an additional order of magnitude. The asymmetry is measured as a function of time-of-flight of the neutron to study the energy dependence of any systematic effects. We will present details and preliminary tests of the 144 channel data acquisition system designed to meet these requirements.

  18. Acceleration of 3HE and heavy ions at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, C. W.; Koug, R. M.

    2001-08-01

    We have surveyed the 0.5-2.0 MeV nucleon-1 ion composition of 56 interplanetary shocks (IP) observed with the Ultra-Low-Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) from 1997 October 1 through 2000 November 30. Our results show the first ever measurement (25 cases) of 3 He ions being accelerated at IP shocks. The 3 He/4 He ratio at the 25 shocks exhibited a wide range of values between 0.00140.24; the ratios were enhanced between factors of ~3-600 over the solar wind value. During the survey period, the occurrence probability of 3 He-rich shocks increased with rising solar activity as measured in terms of the daily occurrence rates of sunspots and X-ray flares. The 3 He enhancements at IP shocks cannot be attributed to rigidity dependent acceleration of solar wind ions and are better explained if the shocks accelerate ions from multiple sources, one being remnant impulsive solar flare material enriched in 3 He ions. Our results also indicate that the contribution of impulsive flares to the seed population for IP shocks varies from event to event, and that the interplanetary medium is being replenished with impulsive material more frequently during periods of increased solar activity. 1. Introduction Enhancements in the intensities of energetic ions associated with transient interplanetary (IP) shocks have been observed routinely at 1 AU since the 1960's (e.g., Reames 1999). It is presently believed that the majority of such IP shocks are driven by fast coronal mass ejections or CMEs as they propagate through interplanetary space (e.g., Gosling 1993), and that the associated ion intensity enhancements are due to diffusive shock acceleration of solar wind ions (Lee 1983; Jones and Ellison 1991; Reames 1999). However, the putative solar wind origin of the IP-shock accelerated ions is based on composition measurements associated with a very limited number of individual IP shocks (Klecker et al. 1981; Hovestadt et al. 1982; Tan et

  19. Proton polarization from π+ absorption in 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal-Beck, S.; Aclander, J.; Altman, A.; Ashery, D.; Hahn, H.; Moinester, M. A.; Rahav, A.; Feltham, A.; Jones, G.; Pavan, M.; Sevior, M.; Hutcheon, D.; Ottewell, D.; Smith, G. R.; Niskanen, J. A.

    1992-05-01

    We present the first polarization measurements for pion absorption on a nucleus heavier than the deuteron. The polarization of protons resulting from π+ absorption in the 3He was measured at bombarding energies of 120 and 250 MeV. Protons from absorption in a quasideuteron were selected by applying kinematical constraints. A significant discrepancy was observed between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. At 120 MeV the measured polarizations for 3He are consistent with those of the deuteron. At 250 MeV the angular distribution of the polarization is significantly different than for the deuteron, showing sensitivity to the nuclear density, and thus may be sensitive to short range correlations between nucleons.

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Spin-Polarized Liquid {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Sawkey, D.; Puech, L.; Wolf, P.E.

    2006-06-02

    We present the first measurements of the thermal conductivity of spin-polarized normal liquid {sup 3}He. Using the rapid melting technique to produce nuclear polarizations up to 0.7, and a vibrating wire both as a heater and a thermometer, we show that, unlike the viscosity, the conductivity increases much less than predicted for s-wave scattering. We suggest that this might be due to a small probability for head-on collisions between quasiparticles.

  1. NOVEL CONCEPTS FOR ISOTOPIC SEPARATION OF 3HE/4HE

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, L.; Nigg, H.; Watson, H.

    2012-09-04

    The research outlined below established theoretical proof-of-concept using ab initio calculations that {sup 3}He can be separated from {sup 4}He by taking advantage of weak van der Waals interactions with other higher molecular weight rare gases such as xenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only suggested method that exploits the physical differences of the isotopes using a chemical interaction.

  2. Hard Two-body Photodisintegration of ^3He

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Ishay Ari; Ilieva, Yordanka Yordanova; Gilman, Ronald; Higinbotham, Douglas W.; Piasetzky, Eliazer Israel; Strauch, Steffen

    2013-06-01

    We have measured cross sections for the {gamma}+{sup 3}He->p+d reaction at photon energies of 0.4 - 1.4 GeV and a center-of-mass angle of 90 deg. We observe dimensional scaling above 0.7 GeV at this center-of-mass angle. This is the first observation of dimensional scaling in the photodisintegration of a nucleus heavier than the deuteron.

  3. Hard two-body photodisintegration of 3He.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, I; Ilieva, Y; Gilman, R; Higinbotham, D W; Piasetzky, E; Strauch, S; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Allada, K; Amaryan, M J; Anefalos Pereira, S; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Beck, A; Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Boeglin, W; Bono, J; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bubis, N; Burkert, V; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; Cusanno, F; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; de Jager, C W; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Dutta, C; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Garibaldi, F; Geagla, O; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Glister, J; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Harrison, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Katramatou, A T; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Khrosinkova, E; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lewis, S; Lindgren, R; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Martinez, D; Mayer, M; McCullough, E; McKinnon, B; Meekins, D; Meyer, C A; Michaels, R; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Moffit, B; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Nepali, C S; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Petratos, G G; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rodriguez, I; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Saini, M S; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Saylor, N A; Schott, D; Schulte, E; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Shneor, R; Smith, G D; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wang, Y; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, M H; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zachariou, N; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2013-06-14

    We have measured cross sections for the γ(3)He → pd reaction at photon energies of 0.4-1.4 GeV and a center-of-mass angle of 90°. We observe dimensional scaling above 0.7 GeV at this center-of-mass angle. This is the first observation of dimensional scaling in the photodisintegration of a nucleus heavier than the deuteron.

  4. Internal Magnus effects in superfluid 3He-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmelin, R. H.; Salomaa, M. M.; Mineev, V. P.

    The orbital angular momentum of the coherently aligned Cooper pairs in superfluid (3)He-A is transmitted to an object immersed in the condensate. The authors evaluate the quasiparticle-scattering asymmetry experienced by a negative ion; this leads to a measurable, purely quantum-mechanical Magnus force deflecting the ion's trajectory. Close to T(sub c), possible hydrodynamic Magnus effects are smaller by the factor delta sub A/(k sub B)(T sub c).

  5. Perturbed gap functions in superfluid /sup 3/He

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.F.

    1980-12-01

    New forms of the Balian-Werthamer (BW) and of the Anderson-Brinkman--Morel (ABM) gap solutions for superfluid /sup 3/He are found in the presence of perturbations. Using the perturbed form of the BW solution, a discrepancy is found between the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities, which is shown to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements of Sager and Webb. A self-consistent diagrammatic Green's function approach is used.

  6. Resonant quasiparticle-ion scattering in anisotropic superfluid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmelin, R. H.; Salomaa, M. M.

    1990-03-01

    Low-energy excitations in quantum fluids are most directly encountered by ions. In the superfluid phases of 3He the relevant elementary excitations are Bogoliubov quasiparticles, which undergo repeated scattering off an ion in the presence of a divergent density of states. We present a quantum-mechanical calculation of the resonant 3He quasiparticle-scattering-limited mobility for negative ions in the anisotropic bulk 3A (A phase) and 3P (polar phase) that is exact when the quasiparticles scatter elastically. We develop a numerical scheme to solve the singular equations for quasiparticle-ion scattering in the A and P phases. Both of these superfluid phases feature a uniaxially symmetric order parameter but distinct topology for the magnitude of the energy gap on the Fermi sphere, i.e., points versus lines of nodes. In particular, the perpetual orbital circulation of Cooper pairs in 3A results in a novel, purely quantum-mechanical intrinsic Magnus effect, which is absent in the polar phase, where Cooper pairs possess no spontaneous orbital angular momentum. This is of interest also for transport properties of heavy-fermion superconductors. We discuss the 3He quasiparticle-ion cross sections, which allow one to account for the mobility data with essentially no free parameters. The calculated mobility thus facilitates an introduction of ``ion spectroscopy'' to extract useful information on fundamental properties of the superfluid state, such as the temperature dependence of the energy gap in 3A.

  7. Incorporating metal into polarized 3He target cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katugampola, Sumudu K.; Matyas, Daniel J.; Wang, Yunxiao; Tobias, William A.; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Cates, Gordon D.

    2017-01-01

    An upcoming measurement at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) of the electric form factor of the neutron will utilize a polarized 3He target at high luminosity. While polarized 3He targets at JLab have previously been made entirely of glass, we describe progress toward incorporating metal windows for the electron beam. Under the conditions of our targets, very few studies have been done on the spin-relaxation of nuclear-polarized 3He on metal surfaces. We have found good performance by using Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper substrates electroplated with gold. The glass-to-metal transitions within our test cells were based on Housekeeper seals. We have further established that Uranium glass (Canary glass) has excellent spin-relaxation properties, and can serve as a transition glass from Pyrex to Aluminosilicate glass (GE180). Another finding was that spin-relaxation properties were sensitive to the manner in which cells were annealed, an important issue because of constraints when annealing cells containing both metal and glass.

  8. Probing the Faraday Effect of Polarized ^3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Gretchen; Abney, Josh; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The Faraday Effect refers to the phenomenon in which the polarization of light transmitted through a magnetized medium is rotated. The relation φ=VlB describes the magnitude of the rotation, where V is the material dependent Verdet constant and l is the length of the medium in an applied magnetic field B. Polarized ^3He, generated in a glass cell constructed of GE-180, gives rise to a Faraday rotation via nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR), a measure of which establishes a new technique in ^3He polarization monitoring. Our set-up incorporates a triple-modulation technique with present sensitivities at the μrad level. This is accomplished through the combination of a photo-elastic modulator, an optical chopper, and a sinusoidally driven magnetic field. Several calibration samples were used to test the triple-modulation method. Good agreement between our results and the commonly accepted values for the Verdet constant was achieved. Technical challenges and progress towards the determination of V^3He will be presented.

  9. Chiral Phases of Superfluid 3He in an Anisotropic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauls, James

    2013-03-01

    I report theoretical results for the phases of superfluid 3He infused into homogeneous uniaxial aerogel. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory for a class of equal-spin-pairing (ESP) states in a medium with uniaxial anisotropy is developed and used to analyze recent experiments on uniaxially strained aerogels. For 3He in an axially ``stretched'' aerogel GL theory predicts a transition from normal liquid into a chiral ABM phase in which the chirality axis is aligned along the strain axis. This state is protected from random fluctuations in the anisotropy direction, has a positive NMR shift, a sharp NMR resonance line and is in quantitative agreement with NMR in the high-temperature ESP-1 phase of superfluid 3He in axially stretched aerogel. A second transition into a bi-axial phase is predicted to onset at a slightly lower temperature. This phase is an ESP state, breaks time-reversal symmetry, and is defined by an order parameter that spontaneously breaks axial rotation symmetry. The bi-axial phase has a continuous degeneracy associated with broken axial symmetry. Theoretical predictions for the NMR frequency shifts provide an identification of the ESP-2 phase as the bi-axial state, partially disordered by random anisotropy (Larkin-Imry-Ma effect). Supported by National Science Foundation Grant DMR-1106315.

  10. High Efficiency Spin Flipper for the n3He Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Christopher; n3He Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The n3He experiment, constructed on the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FnPB) at the Spallation Neutron Source, is designed to measure the parity violating (PV) proton asymmetry Ap in the capture reaction n +3 He -->3 H + p + 765 keV The asymmetry has an estimated value Ap ~ - 1 ×10-7 and is directly related to the weak isospin conserved couplings hρ0 and ωρ0 which are of fundamental interest in the verification of the meson exchange model of low energy NN intereactions. Data production for the n3He experiment began in February 2015 and is scheduled to continue thru December 2015 - reaching a statistical sensitivity δAp ~10-8 or better. I will discuss the spin flipper which is designed using the theory of double cosine-theta coils, and capable of flipping neutron spins with an efficiency approaching its maximum value ɛsf = 1 . I will also discuss the theory of Spin Magnetic Resonance (SMR) and how it is employed by the spin flipper to flip 60 Hz pulses of cold neutrons over a range of wavelengths.

  11. Bogoliubov-normal interaction and calculation of thermal conductivity of superfluid A1-3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzali, R.; Ebrahimian, N.

    2006-09-01

    The diffusive thermal conductivity tensor of the A 1-phase of superfluid 3He at low temperatures and melting pressure are calculated by s-p approximation, by using the Boltzmann equation approach. We obtain that the elements of the diffusive thermal conductivities, Kxx, Kyy, and Kzz, are proportional to T -1. Then we compare the results of this paper and our results of thermal conductivity based on Pfitzner procedure. Temperature dependence of both results is equal but numerical coefficients of them are little different. Also we show that Boguliubov-normal interaction is important in comparison to other interactions.

  12. Nuclear Ordered Phases of Solid 3He in Silver Sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, Erwin A.; Kath, Matthias; Bago, Simone

    2006-09-01

    To determine the exact spin structure of the nuclear magnetic ordered phases of solid 3He, the U2D2 low field and the high field phases above 0.4 T, a European Research and Training Network for neutron scattering from the ordered solid was established which consisted of a collaboration with the Hahn Meitner Institute, Berlin, and other European and US groups. For this experiment it is crucial to grow a single crystal within the sinter needed for cooling the solid to temperatures of the order of 500 μK and to keep it cold long enough to measure a magnetic neutron diffraction. The sinter is also necessary to absorb the major part (> 90%) of the heat generated by the neutron capture and decay reaction of the 3He nucleus. In this work we studied the growth of crystals in Ag sinters of different pore sizes and with different growth speeds to find an optimal way to obtain single crystalline samples, or at least samples with only a few grains. We used SQUID magnetometry and NMR to measure the magnetization in the ordered phases. They were indicated by the known drop of the intensity, both in the NMR signal and in the dc magnetization, for the U2D2 phase, and by an increase of about 30% for the high field phase. The best results for cooling were obtained with sinters made from 700 Å "Japanese powder" with a packing fraction of 50% which were annealed at 130 °C after sintering and then had a calculated particle size of about 4200 Å. In the dc magnetization we found a paramagnetic surface contribution from a few monolayers of 3He down to 500 μK in addition to the bulk magnetization.

  13. Translational applications of hyperpolarized 3He and 129Xe.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Laura L; Woods, Jason C

    2014-12-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging of the lung is technologically challenging, yet over the past two decades hyperpolarized noble gas ((3)He and (129)Xe) imaging has demonstrated the ability to measure multiple pulmonary functional biomarkers. There is a growing need for non-ionizing, non-invasive imaging techniques due to increased concern about cancer risk from ionizing radiation, but the translation of hyperpolarized gas imaging to the pulmonary clinic has been stunted by limited access to the technology. New developments may open doors to greater access and more translation to clinical studies. Here we briefly review a few translational applications of hyperpolarized gas MRI in the contexts of ventilation, diffusion, and dissolved-phase imaging, as well as comparing and contrasting (3)He and (129)Xe gases for these applications. Simple static ventilation MRI reveals regions of the lung not participating in normal ventilation, and these defects have been observed in many pulmonary diseases. Biomarkers related to airspace size and connectivity can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of hyperpolarized gas, and have been shown to be more sensitive to small changes in lung morphology than standard clinical pulmonary functional tests and have been validated by quantitative histology. Parameters related to gas uptake and exchange and lung tissue density can be determined using (129)Xe dissolved-phase MRI. In most cases functional biomarkers can be determined via MRI of either gas, but for some applications one gas may be preferred, such as (3)He for long-range diffusion measurements and (129)Xe for dissolved-phase imaging. Greater access to hyperpolarized gas imaging coupled with newly developing therapeutics makes pulmonary medicine poised for a potential revolution, further adding to the prospects of personalized medicine already evidenced by advancements in molecular biology. Hyperpolarized gas researchers have the opportunity to

  14. Fermion Monte Carlo Calculations on Liquid-3He

    SciTech Connect

    Kalos, M H; Colletti, L; Pederiva, F

    2004-03-16

    Methods and results for calculations of the ground state energy of the bulk system of {sup 3}He atoms are discussed. Results are encouraging: they believe that they demonstrate that their methods offer a solution of the ''fermion sign problem'' and the possibility of direct computation of many-fermion systems with no uncontrolled approximations. Nevertheless, the method is still rather inefficient compared with variational or fixed-node approximate methods. There appears to be a significant populations size effect. The situation is improved by the inclusion of ''Second Stage Importance Sampling'' and of ''Acceptance/Rejection'' adapted to their needs.

  15. Hard Photodisintegration of Proton Pairs in {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Piasetzky, Eli; Pomerantz, Ishay; Higinbotham, D.; Strauch, S.; Gilman, R.

    2008-10-13

    Hard deuteron photodisintegration has been investigated for 20 years, as its cross section follows the constituent counting rule and it provides insight into the interplay between hadronic and quark-gluon degrees of freedom in high-momentum transfer exclusive reactions. We have now measured for the first time hard pp-pair disintegration in the reaction {gamma}{sup 3}He{yields}pp+n, using kinematics corresponding to a spectator neutron. Cross sections were measured for 90 deg. c.m. at 8 beam energies, from 0.8 to 4.7 GeV. Preliminary results will be presented and compared to the hard deuteron photodisintegration data.

  16. High-pressure /sup 3/He gas scintillation neutron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M.S.; Slaughter, D.R.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-10-01

    A high-pressure, /sup 3/He-Xe gas scintillation spectrometer has been developed for neutron spectroscopy on D-D fusion plasmas. The spectrometer exhibits an energy resolution of (121 +- 20 keV) keV (FWHM) at 2.5 MeV and an efficiency of (1.9 +- 0.4) x 10/sup -3/ (n/cm/sup 2/)/sup -1/. The contribution to the resolution (FWHM) from counting statistics is only (22 +- 3 keV) and the remainder is due predominantly to the variation of light collection efficiency with location of neutron events within the active volume of the detector.

  17. High-momentum response of liquid 3He.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, F; Polls, A; Boronat, J; Casulleras, J

    2004-02-27

    A final-state-effects formalism suitable to analyze the high-momentum response of Fermi liquids is presented and used to study the dynamic structure function of liquid 3He. The theory, developed as a natural extension of the Gersch-Rodriguez formalism, incorporates the Fermi statistics explicitly through a new additive term which depends on the semidiagonal two-body density matrix. The use of a realistic momentum distribution, calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method, and the inclusion of this additive correction allows for good agreement with available deep-inelastic neutron scattering data.

  18. Effective theory of superfluid 3He-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schakel, Adriaan M. J.; Batenburg, Peter

    1989-10-01

    From the symmetry content of the system an effective theory of superfluid 3He-A is derived. Two physically non-trivial implications of the theory are a relation between the chemical potential and the vorticity, and the observation that the superfluid cannot be accelerated if the vorticity is uniform. The theory also yields resolutions to two longstanding paradoxes, namely the mass current paradox and the angular momentum paradox. The resolution of the former turns out to provide a physical illustration of the Callan-Harvey effect, whereas the latter is resolved by utilizing Berry's geometrical phase.

  19. 3He Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Slifer, Karl; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Auerbach, Leonard; Averett, Todd; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Black, Tim; Brash, Edward; Brown, D.; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cates, Gordon; Chai, Zhengwei; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Ciofi, Claudio; Cisbani, Evaristo; De Jager, Cornelis; Deur, Alexandre; DiSalvo, R.; Dieterich, Sonja; Djawotho, Pibero; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Glockle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, Emma; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hersman, F.; Holmes, Richard; Huber, Garth; Hughes, Emlyn; Humensky, Thomas; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jensen, S.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, Mark; Jutier, Christophe; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, Armen; Kominis, Ioannis; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Lakuriqi, Enkeleida; Laveissiere, Geraud; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Malov, Sergey; Marroncle, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mitchell, Joseph; Nogga, Andreas; Pace, Emanuele; Papandreou, Zisis; Pavlin, Tina; Petratos, Gerassimos; Pripstein, David; Prout, David; Ransome, Ronald; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rvachev, Marat; Sabatie, Franck; Saha, Arunava; Salme, Giovanni; SCOPETTA, S.; Skibinski, R.; Souder, Paul; Saito, Teijiro; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Takahashi, Kazunori; Todor, Luminita; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Urciuoli, Guido; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Voskanyan, Hakob; Witala, Henryk; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xiong, Feng; Xu, Wang; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zhang, Bin; Zolnierczuk, Piotr

    2008-07-01

    We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the \\vec{^3He}(\\vec{e},e')X} reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at four-momentum transfer 0.1 < Q^2< 0.9 GeV^2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt--Cottingham and extended GDH sum rules for the first time. Impulse approximation and exact three-body Faddeev calculations are also compared to the data in the quasielastic region.

  20. Hard Photo-disintegration of proton pairs in 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Piasetzky, Eliazer; Pomerantz, Ishay; Higinbotham, Douglas; Strauch, Steffen; Gilman, Ronald

    2008-11-01

    Hard deuteron photodisintegration has been investigated for 20 years, as its cross section follows the constituent counting rule and it provides insight into the interplay between hadronic and quark-gluon degrees of freedom in high-momentum transfer exclusive reactions. We have now measured for the first time hard pp-pair disintegration in the reaction gamma 3He-->pp+n, using kinematics corresponding to a spectator neutron. Cross sections were measured for 90 deg. c.m. at 8 beam energies, from 0.8 to 4.7 GeV. Preliminary results will be presented and compared to the hard deuteron photodisintegration data.

  1. 3He spin-dependent cross sections and sum rules.

    PubMed

    Slifer, K; Amarian, M; Auerbach, L; Averett, T; Berthot, J; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, B; Black, T; Brash, E; Brown, D; Burtin, E; Calarco, J; Cates, G; Chai, Z; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi Degli Atti, C; Cisbani, E; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; DiSalvo, R; Dieterich, S; Djawotho, P; Finn, M; Fissum, K; Fonvieille, H; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Goldberg, E; Gomez, J; Gorbenko, V; Hansen, J-O; Hersman, B; Holmes, R; Huber, G M; Hughes, E; Humensky, B; Incerti, S; Iodice, M; Jensen, S; Jiang, X; Jones, C; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jutier, C; Kamada, H; Ketikyan, A; Kominis, I; Korsch, W; Kramer, K; Kumar, K; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Lakuriqi, E; Laveissiere, G; Lerose, J J; Liang, M; Liyanage, N; Lolos, G; Malov, S; Marroncle, J; McCormick, K; McKeown, R D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Mitchell, J; Nogga, A; Pace, E; Papandreou, Z; Pavlin, T; Petratos, G G; Pripstein, D; Prout, D; Ransome, R; Roblin, Y; Rowntree, D; Rvachev, M; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Salmè, G; Scopetta, S; Skibiński, R; Souder, P; Saito, T; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Takahashi, K; Teijiro, S; Todor, L; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Urciuoli, G; Van der Meer, R; Vernin, P; Voskanian, H; Witała, H; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiong, F; Xu, W; Yang, J-C; Zhang, B; Zolnierczuk, P

    2008-07-11

    We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the 3He over -->(e over -->,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1< or =Q2< or =0.9 GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region.

  2. Textural domain walls in superfluid 3He-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Takeshi

    Owing to the richness of symmetry, the superfluid 3He serves as a rich repository of topological quantum phenomena. This includes the emergence of surface Majorana fermions and their quantum mass acquisition at the topological critical point. Furthermore, the marriage of the prototype topological superfluid with nanofabrication techniques brings about a rich variety of spontaneous symmetry breaking, such as the formation of the stripe order and nontrivial domain walls. In this work, we examine the possible formation of textural domain walls in the superfluid 3He-B confined to a thin slab with a sub-micron thickness. When an applied magnetic field is much higher than the dipolar field, two nearly degenerate ground states appear, which are characterized by the Ising order associated with the spontaneous breaking of a magnetic order-two symmetry, lcirc;z = + 1 and - 1 . We here discuss the structure of the textural domain wall formed by the spatial modulation of the Ising order, such as low-lying quasiparticle excitations and spontaneous spin current. We also report bosonic modes bound to the textural domain wall.

  3. Duoplasmatron source modifications for {sup 3}He{sup +} Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.W.; Popovic, M.

    1997-11-01

    A duoplasmatron ion source is used to produce 25 mA of {sup 3}He+ with a pulse width of {approximately}80 ms at 360 Hz for acceleration to 10.5 MeV. At this energy, {sup 3}He striking water or carbon targets can produce short lived isotopes of {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, {sup 15}O and {sup 18}F for medical positron emission tomography (PET). A duoplasmatron ion source was chosen originally since it is capable of a sufficient singly-charged helium beam with an acceptable gas consumption. Stable long-term operation of the source required a change in the filament material to molybdenum, and a careful understanding of the oxide filament conditioning, operation and geometry. Other improvements, particularly in the electronics, were helpful to increasing the reliability. The source has operated for many months at {approximately}2.5% duty factor without significant problems and with good stability. We report here the effort that was done to make this source understandable and reliable.

  4. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Luke S.; Arrington, John R.; Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  5. Hard Photodisintegration of a Proton Pair in 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.

    2003-09-30

    Hard photodisintegration of the deuteron has been extensively studied in order to understand the dynamics of the transition from hadronic to quark-gluon descriptions of the strong interaction. In this work, we discuss the extension of this program to hard photodisintegration of a pp pair in the {sup 3}He nucleus. Experimental confirmation of new features predicted here for the suggested reaction would advance our understanding of hard nuclear reactions. A main prediction, in contrast with low-energy observations, is that the pp breakup cross section is not much smaller than the one for pn break up.In some models, the energy-dependent oscillations observed for pp scattering are predicted to appear in the {gamma}{sup 3}He to pp + n reaction. Such an observation would open up a completely new field in studies of color coherence phenomena in hard nuclear reactions. We also demonstrate that, in addition to the energy dependence, the measurement of the light-cone momentum distribution of the recoil neutron provides an independent test of the underlying dynamics of hard disintegration.

  6. 3He film flow on a round rim beaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, S. C.; Harrison, J. P.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A.

    1994-06-01

    The superfluid properties of thin (100 150 nm) of3He were investigated by measuring the rate at which a beaker of liquid3He emptied itself through the adsorbed film, with the film thickness δ decreasing as the level dropped. A beaker rim with a semicircular cross-section was used to provide a well defined geometry and to avoid the effects of small scratches that may have affected earlier experiments. The film thicknesses were determined by Atkins' oscillaton measurements of4He films on the same surface. The superfluid transition temperature in the film T {/c F } was suppressed below the bulk value T {/c B }, and was close to being described by 2δ/ξ( T {/c F }) = π, as expected for A-phase. The critical current density was more than an order of magnitude smaller than expected for pair-breaking. When a4He monolayer was adsorbed on the substrate, there was no suppresson of T {/c F }.

  7. Effective theory of 3H and 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Sebastian; Grießhammer, Harald W.; Hammer, H.-W.; van Kolck, U.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new perturbative expansion for pionless effective field theory with Coulomb interactions in which at leading order (LO) the spin-singlet nucleon-nucleon channels are taken in the unitarity limit. Presenting results up to next-to-leading order for the Phillips line and the neutron-deuteron doublet-channel phase shift, we find that a perturbative expansion in the inverse {}1{S}0 scattering lengths converges rapidly. Using a new systematic treatment of the proton-proton sector that isolates the divergence due to one-photon exchange, we renormalize the corresponding contribution to the {}3{{H}} -{}3{He} binding energy splitting and demonstrate that the Coulomb force in pionless EFT is a completely perturbative effect in the trinucleon bound-state regime. In our new expansion, the LO is exactly isospin-symmetric. At next-to-leading order, we include isospin breaking via the Coulomb force and two-body scattering lengths, and find for the energy splitting {({E}B{(}3{He})-{E}B{(}3{{H}}))}{NLO}\\quad =(-0.86+/- 0.17)\\quad {MeV}.

  8. Effect of Aerogel Anisotropy in Superfluid 3He-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. M.; Li, J. I. A.; Pollanen, J.; Collett, C. A.; Gannon, W. J.; Halperin, W. P.

    2014-03-01

    Two theories have been advanced to describe the effects of anisotropic impurity introduced by stretched silica aerogel on the orientation of the orbital angular momentum l& circ; in superfluid 3He-A. These theories disagree on whether the anisotropy will orient l& circ; perpendicular[2] or parallel[3] to the strain axis. In order to examine this question we have produced and characterized a homogeneous aerogel sample with uniaxial anisotropy introduced during growth, corresponding to stretching of the aerogel. These samples have been shown to stabilize two new chiral states;[4] the higher temperature state being the subject of the present study. Using pulsed NMR we have performed experiments on 3He-A imbibed in this sample in two orientations: strain parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. From the NMR frequency shifts as a function of tip angle and temperature, we find that the angular momentum l& circ; is oriented along the strain axis, providing evidence for the theory advanced by Sauls. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, DMR-1103625.

  9. Pion absorption on 3He at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Altman, A.; Ashery, D.; Gefen, G.; Gill, D. R.; Johnson, R. R.; Levy-Nathansohn, R.; Moinester, M. A.; Sevior, M.; Trelle, R. P.

    1996-03-01

    The reactions 3He(π+,pp)p and 3He(π-,pn)n were studied at 37.0 MeV by coincidence detection of two nucleons. The differential cross sections were separated to two-nucleon (σ2N), three-nucleon (σ3N), and final-state interaction (σFSI) components. For π+, the σ2N angular distribution is symmetric about 90°, and the total cross section is 1.5 times the cross section measured for d(π+,pp). For π-, the angular distribution is asymmetric (backward peaked). The asymmetry increases with decreasing energy, indicating increasing pion s-wave contribution at lower energies. The fraction of the cross section induced by s-wave pions as calculated by a partial wave amplitude analysis is 13%. The measured total cross sections are σ2N(π-)=0.85+/-0.08 mb and σ2N(π+)=7.9+/-0.5 mb; σ3N(π-)=1.6+/-0.7 mb and σ3N(π+)=1.3+/-0.3 mb. A new evaluation of σ3N at Tπ=62.5 and 82.8 MeV is given, using data from an earlier experiment. The cross sections leading to the two-nucleon final-state interaction at Tπ=37.0 MeV are also estimated.

  10. 3He melting curve below 15 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroshi; Ishimoto, Hidehiko; Tazaki, Tetsurou; Ogawa, Shinji

    1987-12-01

    We have performed new measurements of the P-T relation along the 3He melting curve for temperatures between 0.4 and 15 mK in zero magnetic field. The temperature was determined by a Pt-wire nuclear-magnetic-resonance thermometer calibrated against the National Bureau of Standards scale (1983) above 15 mK. Three distinct points on the melting curve (the two superfluid transitions and the nuclear-spin ordering in the solid phase) were observed at temperatures lower than currently accepted values by about 10%. Our results are in good agreement with the P-T relation recently proposed by Greywall using a La-cerium magnesium nitrate thermometer, but differ seriously from the thermodynamic measurements by Halperin et al. From the measured melting curve, we could determine the ground-state energy of a nuclear spin in solid 3He to be -1.24 mK at the melting density. This value can be quantitatively explained by the current four-spin exchange theory.

  11. Interaction of Hydrogen Atoms with Helium Films: Sticking Probabilities for H on 3He and 4He, and the Binding Energy of H on 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochemsen, R.; Morrow, M.; Berlinsky, A. J.; Hardy, W. N.

    1981-09-01

    Magnetic resonance at 1420 MHz in zero magnetic field and for 0.063He, the rate constant for recombination and the frequency shift for H on 3He, and the sticking probability for H on 3He and 4He. The binding energy for H on liquid 3He is found to be 0.42+/-0.05 K, and the sticking probabilities are 0.035 for H on 4He and 0.016 for H on 3He.

  12. Increasing the pump-up rate to polarize 3He gas using spin-exchange optical pumping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wai Tung; Tong, Xin; Rich, Dennis; Liu, Yun; Fleenor, Michael; Ismaili, Akbar; Pierce, Joshua; Hagen, Mark; Dadras, Jonny; Robertson, J. Lee

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, polarized 3He gas has increasingly been used as neutron polarizers and polarization analyzers. Two of the leading methods to polarize the 3He gas are the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) method and the meta-stable exchange optical pumping (MEOP) method. At present, the SEOP setup is comparatively compact due to the fact that it does not require the sophisticated compressor system used in the MEOP method. The temperature and the laser power available determine the speed, at which the SEOP method polarizes the 3He gas. For the quantity of gas typically used in neutron scattering work, this speed is independent of the quantity of the gas required, whereas the polarizing time using the MEOP method is proportional to the quantity of gas required. Currently, using the SEOP method to polarize several bar-liters of 3He to 70% polarization would require 20-40 h. This is an order of magnitude longer than the MEOP method for the same quantity of gas and polarization. It would therefore be advantageous to speed up the SEOP process. In this article, we analyze the requirements for temperature, laser power, and the type of alkali used in order to shorten the time required to polarize 3He gas using the SEOP method.

  13. D-3He proton yield as a diagnostic for D-T and D2 filled inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, T. E.; Blue, J. W.; Durham, J. S.; Harris, D. B.; Hnesh, A. S.; Reyes, J. J.

    1983-02-01

    The ratio of D-3He to D-D reactions (RD3He/RDD) is proportional to fuel ρR for D2 and D-T filled targets. For D2 filled targets, the ratio varies as (RD3He/RDD)=0.14ρR, for ρR≲0.02 g/cm2. For present day D2 filled target experiments, it is necessary to detect 104 D-3He reactions against a background source of 108 D-D reactions. For D2 filled targets, detection of the 14.7-MeV proton of the D-3He reaction can be accomplished with sheets of the solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 and metal foils. Spatial coincidence can be used as a means of eliminating background due to imperfections in the track detector and background due to protons in the CR-39 which are elastically scattered by D-D neutrons.

  14. 3He specific heat and thermometry at millikelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greywall, Dennis S.

    1986-06-01

    High-precision specific-heat measurements were made on pure liquid 3He in both the normal and superfluid phases for temperatures between 0.6 and 5 mK and for pressures between 0 and 34 bars. The data were obtained using a magnetic susceptibility thermometer which was calibrated against the National Bureau of Standards scale near 15 mK and at lower temperatures principally by the condition that the zero-pressure normal-phase specific heat be linear in temperature. The 3He phase diagram based on this scale is presented. In particular we find that TA=2.49 mK which differs quite substantially from the currently accepted value of about 2.7 mK. Multiplying the Pt NMR temperatures determined by Haavasoja and co-workers by a factor of 0.89 or subtracting 0.13 mK from the magnetic temperatures of Paulson et al. brings both of these scales into excellent agreement with the new scale. The 3He quasiparticle effective mass, m*3(P), extracted from the normal-phase data agrees well with our previously reported results based on higher-temperature specific-heat data. The values of m*3(P) from Haavasoja and co-workers are ~20% smaller. However, if their specific-heat data are reanalyzed using the new temperature scale, the two sets of m*3(P) values are brought into good agreement. We thus claim that the large discrepancies between previous specific-heat measurements are due almost entirely to differences in temperature scales. The new normal-phase specific-heat data at low pressures show no evidence of the anomalous behavior observed by Haavasoja and co-workers. Consequently, the size of the specific-heat jump at Tc could be determined with little ambiguity over the entire pressure range. ΔC/C> is only a few percent larger than the weak-coupling value at P=0 and increases linearly with sample density. At high density the temperature dependence of the specific heat below Tc shows small deviations from theory.

  15. Chiral phases of superfluid 3He in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauls, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication and characterization of anisotropic silica aerogels with exceptional homogeneity provide new insight into the nature of unconventional pairing in disordered anisotropic media. I report theoretical analysis and predictions for the equilibrium phases of superfluid 3He infused into a low-density, homogeneous uniaxial aerogel. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory for a class of equal-spin-pairing (ESP) states in a medium with uniaxial anisotropy is developed and used to analyze recent experiments on uniaxially strained aerogels. For 3He in an axially “stretched” aerogel, GL theory predicts a transition from normal liquid into a chiral Anderson-Morel phase at Tc1 in which the chirality axis l̂ is aligned along the strain axis. This orbitally aligned state is protected from random fluctuations in the anisotropy direction, has a positive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency shift, a sharp NMR resonance line, and is identified with the high-temperature ESP-1 phase of superfluid 3He in axially stretched aerogel. A second transition into a biaxial phase is predicted to onset at a slightly lower temperature Tc2

  16. Perspectives of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI beyond 3He

    PubMed Central

    Lilburn, David M.L.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies with hyperpolarized (hp) noble gases are at an exciting interface between physics, chemistry, materials science and biomedical sciences. This paper intends to provide a brief overview and outlook of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hp noble gases other than hp 3He. A particular focus are the many intriguing experiments with 129Xe, some of which have already matured to useful MRI protocols, while others display high potential for future MRI applications. Quite naturally for MRI applications the major usage so far has been for biomedical research but perspectives for engineering and materials science studies are also provided. In addition, the prospects for surface sensitive contrast with hp 83Kr MRI is discussed. PMID:23290627

  17. {sup 3}He target for Hall C at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.; Zeuli, A.

    1995-08-01

    A major fraction of the physics program for Hall C involves scattering from cryogenic targets of the lightest nuclei, i.e. H, D, and {sup 3,4}He. Argonne is constructing the He target that will consist of a 4cm cylinder, operating at a pressure of 10 atmospheres and a temperature of {approximately}5.2 degrees Kelvin. CEBAF is currently constructing a cryo-target system for liquid H and D cells and the cooled, pressurized helium targets. The He target system includes cell loop, the He supply systems, and the additional equipment needed to ensure minimum loss of {sup 3}He in the event of target rupture. Some of the major components have been completed, while the balance of the system will be ready for installation this fiscal year.

  18. Electrodisintegration of 3He below and above deuteron breakup threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Marcucci, L. E.; Viviani, M.; Schiavilla, R.; Kievsky, A.; Rosati, S.

    2005-02-01

    Recent advances in the study of electrodisintegration of 3He are presented and discussed. The pair-correlated hyperspherical harmonics method is used to calculate the initial and final state wave functions, with a realistic Hamiltonian consisting of the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions. The model for the nuclear current and charge operators retains one- and many-body contributions. Particular attention is made in the construction of the two-body current operators arising from the momentum-dependent part of the two-nucleon interaction. Three-body current operators are also included so that the full current operator is strictly conserved. The present model for the nuclear current operator is tested comparing theoretical predictions and experimental data of pd radiative capture cross section and spin observables.

  19. Perspectives of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI beyond 3He.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, David M L; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies with hyperpolarized (hp) noble gases are at an exciting interface between physics, chemistry, materials science and biomedical sciences. This paper intends to provide a brief overview and outlook of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hp noble gases other than hp (3)He. A particular focus are the many intriguing experiments with (129)Xe, some of which have already matured to useful MRI protocols, while others display high potential for future MRI applications. Quite naturally for MRI applications the major usage so far has been for biomedical research but perspectives for engineering and materials science studies are also provided. In addition, the prospects for surface sensitive contrast with hp (83)Kr MRI is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Realization of administration unit for 3He with gas recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güldner, M.; Becker, S.; Friesenecker, A.; Gast, K. K.; Heil, W.; Karpuk, S.; Otten, E. W.; Rivoire, J.; Salhi, Z.; Scholz, A.; Schreiber, L. M.; Terekhov, M.; Weiss, P.; Wolf, U.; Zentel, J.

    2011-06-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) noble gases (3He,129Xe) are used for MR-imaging of the lung. In the majority of case the HP gas is filled in Tedlarbags and directly inhaled by the patients. Starting from an earlier pilot device, an administration unit was built respectively to the Medical Devices Law to administer patients HP noble gas boli in defined quantities and at a predefined time during inspiration with high reproducibility and reliability without reducing MR-quality. The patient's airflows are monitored and recorded. It is possible to use gas admixtures, measure the polarization on-line and collect the exhaled gas for later recycling. The first images with healthy volunteers were taken with this setup in a clinical study. Current results will be presented.

  1. Neutral beam injection in a D 3He FRC reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Hugo; Farengo, Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    The use of neutral beam injection (NBI) to sustain a fraction of the plasma current in a field reversed configuration (FRC) reactor operating with the D-3He reaction is studied. A Monte Carlo code already used to study NBI in medium size FRCs is employed (Lifschitz A F, Farengo R and Arista N R 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 863, Lifschitz A F, Farengo R and Arista N R 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 1979, Lifschitz A F, Farengo R and Hoffman A L 2004 Nucl. Fusion 44 1015) and the plasma parameters are similar to those proposed in the ARTEMIS (Momota H, Ishida A, Kohzaki Y, Miley G, Ohi S, Ohnishi M, Sato K, Steinhauer L, Tomita Y and Tuszewki M 1992 Fusion Technol. 21 2307) conceptual reactor design. A simple analysis shows that the driven current cannot reach the values quoted in the ARTEMIS project and a procedure to search for plasma parameters that result in higher efficiencies is presented.

  2. Perspectives of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI beyond 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilburn, David M. L.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies with hyperpolarized (hp) noble gases are at an exciting interface between physics, chemistry, materials science and biomedical sciences. This paper intends to provide a brief overview and outlook of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hp noble gases other than hp 3He. A particular focus are the many intriguing experiments with 129Xe, some of which have already matured to useful MRI protocols, while others display high potential for future MRI applications. Quite naturally for MRI applications the major usage so far has been for biomedical research but perspectives for engineering and materials science studies are also provided. In addition, the prospects for surface sensitive contrast with hp 83Kr MRI is discussed.

  3. Direct energy conversion system for D(3)-He fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Y.; Shu, L. Y.; Momota, H.

    1993-11-01

    A novel and highly efficient direct energy conversion system is proposed for utilizing D(3)-He fueled fusion. In order to convert kinetic energy of ions, we applied a pair of direct energy conversion systems each of which has a cusp-type DEC and a traveling wave DEC (TWDEC). In a cusp-type DEC, electrons are separated from the escaping ions at the first line-cusp and the energy of thermal ion components is converted at the second cusp DEC. The fusion protons go through the cusp-type DEC and arrive at the TWDEC, which principle is similar to 'LINAC'. The energy of fusion protons is recovered to electricity with an efficiency of more than 70%. These DEC's bring about the high efficient fusion plant.

  4. 4He Versus 3He Josephson Effect: Vibration Decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Pereverzev, Sergey V.

    2006-09-07

    Several on-going experiments searching for the Josephson effect in 4He close to the {lambda}-transition employ experimental cells with a weak link in the form of an array of submicron holes, with the size of the array and the cell dimensions very close to those used for 3He-B. In the same environment, the 4He experiment is more prone to decoherence by mechanical vibrations. The problem is due to the shift of the maximum of the vibration response of the experiment to low frequencies (0.1 Hz or less) and to the increase of the power spectrum density of the seismic velocities with decreasing frequency in this frequency range. To avoid decoherence, one needs to lower the cut-off frequency of the vibration isolation or to use an array with a larger open area. The latter option is briefly discussed.

  5. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  6. Results of experiments devoted to searches for 2K capture on {sup 78}Kr and for the double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe with the aid of proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Zhantudueva, Dj. A.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuz'minov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Efendiev, K. V.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2013-09-15

    A brief description of two low-background setups deployed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences) and intended for searches for two types of double-beta decay of inert-gas isotopes-2K capture on {sup 78}Kr and the double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe-is given. The two setups in question have similar structures and employ identical large high-pressure copper proportional counters as detectors. Upon a treatment of data from measurements with krypton samples differing in the content of the isotope {sup 78}Kr, the spectrum for an enriched sample revealed an excess of events at a statistical-significance level of about two standard deviations (2{sigma}). If one attributes this excess to 2K(2{nu}) capture on {sup 78}Kr, the respective half-life is T{sub 1/2} = 1.4{sub -0.7}{sup +2.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} yr at a 90% C.L. A treatment of data from measurements with xenon samples differing in content of the isotope {sup 136}Xe led to the appearance of an excess of events in the spectrum for an enriched sample at a statistical-significance level of about 2.2{sigma}. If one assumes that this excess is due to the two-neutrino double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe, then the respective half-life is T{sub 1/2} = 5.8{sub -1.8}{sup +4.7} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} yr.

  7. Optical interferometry in superfluid {sup 3}He-B

    SciTech Connect

    Alles, H.; Ruutu, J.P.; Babkin, A.V.; Hakonen, P.J.; Sonin, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    The authors report interferometric measurements in 0.1...1 mm thick films of superfluid {sup 3}He-B. The menisci of three different rotational states of the superfluid were observed and analyzed theoretically using two-fluid hydrodynamics: These are (i) the equilibrium vortex state in which the superfluid and the normal components corotate (solid body rotation), (ii) the vortex-free state (the Landau state), in which only the normal component rotates, and (iii) the quasistationary vortex state in which only the superfluid fraction rotates (pure superfluid rotation). The Landua state manifested itself by a reduced parabolic meniscus at rotation speeds below the critical angular velocity {Omega}{sub c}{approx_lt} 0.2 rad/s for vortex formation. Transition from the Landua state to the equilibrium vortex state yielded a sudden deepening of the meniscus when {Omega}{sub c} was exceeded. After a rapid halt of the cryostat, the authors observed a novel meniscus which was produced by the superfluid rotation while the normal component was at rest. The enhanced depth of this meniscus is governed by the reactive mutual friction parameter B{prime}. By employing laser light, both for imaging and for thermomechanical excitation, the authors measured the response of a thin superfluid layer to a heat pulse and analyzed it within the theory of two fluid hydrodynamics. The data were employed, using the dispersion relation for thin film oscillations, to deduce the second viscosity coefficient {zeta}{sub 3} close to T{sub c}.

  8. Spin Pumping in Superfluid ^3He in High Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, H.; Suzuki, K.; Aoki, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ishimoto, H.

    2008-03-01

    The spin flow dynamics in superfluid ^3He A1 phase in magnetic field has been studied up to 13 tesla. The apparatus consists of a large reservoir of of A1 phase in which a small enclosed chamber with a built-in differential pressure sensor is immersed. The chamber is connected to the reservoir via a superleak channel. The chamber is fabricated from Macor parts such that the residual heat leak is much reduced from those in our experiments. Our focus is on the measurement of relaxation of the induced pressure subsequent to either magnetically induced spin-polarized superflow or by electrostatic spin pumping. In general, both methods of measurement show that the relaxation time (τ) of the induced pressure tends to vanish smoothly as the transition temperature Tc2 is approached. However, the observed dependence of τ on magnetic field is different. The measured τ by the field gradient method continues to increase up to 8 tesla. On the other hand, τ measured by the spin pumping method tends to saturate to a constant between 5 and 13 tesla. The discrepancy is unexpected and not yet understood.

  9. Andreev reflection in rotating superfluid {sup 3}He-B

    SciTech Connect

    Eltsov, V. B.; Hosio, J. J.; Krusius, M. Mäkinen, J. T.

    2014-12-15

    Andreev reflection of quasiparticle excitations from quantized line vortices is reviewed in the isotropic B phase of superfluid {sup 3}He in the temperature regime of ballistic quasiparticle transport at T ≤ 0.20T{sub c}. The reflection from an array of rectilinear vortices in solid-body rotation is measured with a quasiparticle beam illuminating the array mainly in the orientation along the rotation axis. The result is in agreement with the calculated Andreev reflection. The Andreev signal is also used to analyze the spin-down of the superfluid component after a sudden impulsive stop of rotation from an equilibrium vortex state. In a measuring setup where the rotating cylinder has a rough bottom surface, annihilation of the vortices proceeds via a leading rapid turbulent burst followed by a trailing slow laminar decay, from which the mutual friction dissipation can be determined. In contrast to the currently accepted theory, it is found to have a finite value in the zero-temperature limit: α(T→0) = (5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4}.

  10. Hard photodisintegration of 3He into a p d pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, Dhiraj; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2017-02-01

    The recent measurements of high energy photodisintegration of a 3He nucleus to a p d pair at 90∘ center of mass demonstrated an energy scaling consistent with the quark counting rule with an unprecedentedly large exponent of s-17. To understand the underlying mechanism of this process, we extended the theoretical formalism of the hard rescattering mechanism (HRM) to calculate the γ 3He→p d reaction. In HRM the incoming high energy photon strikes a quark from one of the nucleons in the target which subsequently undergoes hard rescattering with the quarks from the other nucleons, generating a hard two-body system in the final state of the reaction. Within the HRM we derived the parameter-free expression for the differential cross section of the reaction, which is expressed through the 3He→p d transition spectral function, the cross section of hard p d →p d scattering, and the effective charge of the quarks being interchanged during the hard rescattering process. The numerical estimates of all these factors resulted in the magnitude of the cross section, which is surprisingly in good agreement with the data.

  11. Proton-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, B. M.; Brune, C. R.; Karwowski, H. J.; Leonard, D. S.; Ludwig, E. J.; Black, T. C.; Viviani, M.; Kievsky, A.; Rosati, S.

    2006-09-15

    We present new accurate measurements of the differential cross section {sigma}({theta}) and the proton analyzing power A{sub y} for proton-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at various energies. A supersonic gas-jet target has been employed to obtain these low-energy cross-section measurements. The {sigma}({theta}) distributions have been measured at E{sub p}=0.99, 1.59, 2.24, 3.11, and 4.02 MeV. Full angular distributions of A{sub y} have been measured at E{sub p}=1.60, 2.25, 3.13, and 4.05 MeV. This set of high-precision data is compared to four-body variational calculations employing realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions. For the unpolarized cross section, the agreement between the theoretical calculation and data is good when a 3N potential is used. The comparison between the calculated and measured proton analyzing powers reveals discrepancies of approximately 50% at the maximum of each distribution. This is analogous to the existing 'A{sub y} puzzle' known for the past 20 years in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering.

  12. Transfer Excitation Processes Observed in N3+-He and O3+-He Collisions at Elab = 33 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoh

    2016-09-01

    We measured the relative state-selective differential cross sections (DCSs) for one-electron capture reactions using a crossed-beam apparatus. The scattering angle θlab studied in the laboratory frame ranged from -3.0 to 22° and the laboratory collision energy Elab was 33 eV. Only the transfer excitation processes, i.e., the electron capture reactions with the simultaneous excitation of the projectile, were observed. The DCSs were determined for the following reactions: N3+ (1s2 2s2 1S) + He (1s2 1S) → N2+ (1s2 2s2p2 2D) + He+ (1s 2S) + 10.3 eV, O3+ (1s2 2s2 2p 2P) + He (1s2 1S) → O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3P) + He+ (1s 2S) + 12.7 eV, and O3+ (1s2 2s2 2p 2P) + He (1s2 1S) → O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3D) + He+ (1s 2S) + 15.5 eV. In the N3+-He system, the DCSs for the reaction are zero at the center-of-mass angle θcm = 0 and show a peak at a certain angle and a shoulder at a larger angle. In the O3+-He system, the DCSs are again zero at θcm = 0. The capture process to the O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3P) state is mainly observed at smaller scattering angles, and the reaction to the O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3D) state becomes dominant with increasing scattering angle. A classical trajectory analysis within the two-state approximation based on the ab initio potentials for (NHe)3+ revealed that the transfer excitation of a two-electron process takes place through a single crossing of the relevant potentials.

  13. Considerations on the read out of low frequency NMR for 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benningshof, O. W. B.; Nguyen, D. H.; Jochemsen, R.

    2009-02-01

    For studies of the superfmid phases of 3He the technique low of frequency (500 kHz) NMR is widely used. One way to read out the NMR signal is with the continuous wave experiment. In this experiment the NMR signal is proportional with the quality factor of a tank circuit. However direct connection with a coax cable will, because of its resistivity and parasitic capacitance load the tank circuit and by that lower the quality factor In this paper two passive methods, which minimize the loading to read out the NMR signal are described and simulated. The first method reads the NMR signal over the parasitic capacitance of the coax cable, which is put in series with the tank circuit. The second method makes use of a pick up coil, which is weakly coupled to the coil of the tank circuit Both methods can preserve a high quality factor, and are optimized for best SNR

  14. Anomalous Damping of a Microelectromechanical Oscillator in Superfluid 3He -B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P.; Jiang, W. G.; Barquist, C. S.; Lee, Y.; Chan, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical resonance properties of a microelectromechanical oscillator with a gap of 1.25 μ m was studied in superfluid 3He -B at various pressures. The oscillator was driven in the linear damping regime where the damping coefficient is independent of the oscillator velocity. The quality factor of the oscillator remains low (Q ≈80 ) down to 0.1 Tc , 4 orders of magnitude less than the intrinsic quality factor measured in vacuum at 4 K. In addition to the Boltzmann temperature dependent contribution to the damping, a damping proportional to temperature was found to dominate at low temperatures. We propose a multiple scattering mechanism of the surface Andreev bound states to be a possible cause for the anomalous damping.

  15. Comment on "Deep mixing of 3He: reconciling Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis".

    PubMed

    Balser, Dana S; Rood, Robert T; Bania, T M

    2007-08-31

    Eggleton et al. (Reports, 8 December 2006, p. 1580) reported on a deep-mixing mechanism in low-mass stars caused by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that destroys all of the helium isotope 3He produced during the star's lifetime. Observations of 3He in planetary nebulae, however, indicate that some stars produce prodigious amounts of 3He. This is inconsistent with the claim that all low-mass stars should destroy 3He.

  16. Velocity of second sound in /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures: a revision

    SciTech Connect

    Bowley, R.M.

    1988-05-01

    Greywall has recently proposed a new temperature scale for the /sup 3/He melting curve thermometer. A reanalysis of the velocity of second sound in /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures using the data of Greywall and Paalanen with this new temperature scale shows that the interaction between /sup 3/He quasiparticles is now independent of concentration.

  17. Temporal Variability in the Accretion Rate of Interplanetary Dust Using (3)He as a Tracer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    The research supported by this grant falls under three topics: 1) Weekly Interplanetary Dust Sampling via (3)He; 2) Extraterrestrial (3)He at Major Impact Boundaries; 3) Completing a Moderately-High Resolution Record of Extraterrestrial (3)He Flux: A Major Asteroidal Break up Event at 8.2 Ma.

  18. Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters and Power Supplies for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Thomas M.

    1994-07-01

    Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters (FET) and Power Supplies (FPS) should occur at a lunar base because of the following: availability of helium-3, a vacuum better than on Earth, low K in shade reachable by radiant cooling, supply of ``high temp'' superconducting ceramic-metals, and a low G environment. The early FET will be much smaller than an Apollo engine, with specific impulse of 10,000-100,000-s. Solar power and low G will aid early development. To counter the effect of low G on humans, centrifuges will be employed for sleeping and resting. Work will be done by telerobotic view control. The FPS will be of comparable size, and will generate power mainly by having replaceable rectennas, resonant to the fusion synchrotron radiation. FPSs are used for house keeping power and initiating superconduction. Spaceships will carry up to ten FETs and two FPSs. In addition to fusion fuel, the FET will inject H or Li low mass propellant into the fusion chamber. Developing an FET would be difficult on Earth. FET spaceships will park between missions in L1, and an FET Bus will fetch humans/supplies from Moon and Earth. Someday FETs, with rocket assist, will lift spaceships from Earth, and make space travel to planets far cheaper, faster, and safer, than at present. Too long a delay due to the space station, or the huge cost of getting into space by current means, will damage the morale of the space program.

  19. Are high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meibom, A.; Anderson, D.L.; Sleep, Norman H.; Frei, R.; Chamberlain, C.P.; Hren, M.T.; Wooden, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a primordial, undegassed lower mantle reservoir characterized by high concentration of 3He and high 3He/4He ratios is a cornerstone assumption in modern geochemistry. It has become standard practice to interpret high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts as a signature of deep-rooted plumes. The unfiltered He isotope data set for oceanic spreading centers displays a wide, nearly Gaussian, distribution qualitatively similar to the Os isotope (187Os/188 Os) distribution of mantle-derived Os-rich alloys. We propose that both distributions are produced by shallow mantle processes involving mixing between different proportions of recycled, variably aged radiogenic and unradiogenic domains under varying degrees of partial melting. In the case of the Re-Os isotopic system, radiogenic mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-rich and unradiogenic (depleted mantle residue) endmembers are constantly produced during partial melting events. In the case of the (U+Th)-He isotope system, effective capture of He-rich bubbles during growth of phenocryst olivine in crystallizing magma chambers provides one mechanism for 'freezing in' unradiogenic (i.e. high 3He/4He) He isotope ratios, while the higher than chondritic (U+Th)/He elemental ratio in the evolving and partially degassed MORB melt provides the radiogenic (i.e. low 3He/4He) endmember. If this scenario is correct, the use of He isotopic signatures as a fingerprint of plume components in oceanic basalts is not justified. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Efficient (3)He/(4)He separation in a nanoporous graphenylene membrane.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mingwen

    2017-08-16

    Helium-3 is a precious noble gas, which is essential in many advanced technologies such as cryogenics, isotope labeling and nuclear weapons. The current imbalance of (3)He demand and supply shortage leads to the search for an efficient membrane with high performance for (3)He separation. In this study, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that highly efficient (3)He harvesting can be achieved in a nanoporous graphenylene membrane with industrially-acceptable selectivity and permeance. The quantum tunneling effect leads to (3)He harvesting with high efficiency via kinetic sieving. Both the quantum tunneling effect and zero-point energy (ZPE) determine the (3)He/(4)He separation via thermally-driven equilibrium sieving, where the ZPE effect dominates efficient (3)He/(4)He separation between two reservoirs. The quantum effects revealed in this work suggest that the nanoporous graphenylene membrane is promising for efficient (3)He harvesting that can be exploited for industrial applications.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cross sections produced by 3He reactions (Murphy+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, B.; Share, G. H.

    2017-05-01

    The 3He abundance in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) is enhanced up to several orders of magnitude compared to its photospheric value of [3He]/[4He] = 1-3 x 10-4. Interplanetary magnetic field and timing observations suggest that these events are related to solar flares. Observations of 3He in flare-accelerated ions would clarify the relationship between these two phenomena. Energetic 3He interactions in the solar atmosphere produce gamma-ray nuclear-deexcitation lines, both lines that are also produced by protons and α particles and lines that are essentially unique to 3He. Gamma-ray spectroscopy can, therefore, reveal enhanced levels of accelerated 3He. In this paper, we identify all significant deexcitation lines produced by 3He interactions in the solar atmosphere. We evaluate their production cross sections and incorporate them into our nuclear deexcitation-line code. We find that enhanced 3He can affect the entire gamma-ray spectrum. We identify gamma-ray line features for which the yield ratios depend dramatically on the 3He abundance. We determine the accelerated 3He/α ratio by comparing these ratios with flux ratios measured previously from the gamma-ray spectrum obtained by summing the 19 strongest flares observed with the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer. All six flux ratios investigated show enhanced 3He, confirming earlier suggestions. The 3He/α weighted mean of these new measurements ranges from 0.05 to 0.3 (depending on the assumed accelerated α/proton ratio) and has a <1 x 10-3 probability of being consistent with the photospheric value. With the improved code, we can now exploit the full potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy to establish the relationship between flare-accelerated ions and 3He-rich SEPs. (3 data files).

  2. Diffusive thermal conductivity of the A1-phase of superfluid 3He at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzali, R.; Ebrahimian, N.

    2005-07-01

    The diffusive thermal conductivity tensor of the A1-phase of superfluid 3He at low temperatures and melting pressure are calculated beyond the s-p approximation, by using the Boltzmann equation approach. The interaction between normal-normal, normal-Bogoliubov and Bogoliubov-Bogoliubov quasiparticles in the collision integrals are considered for important scattering processes such as binary process. At low temperatures, we show that the scattering between Bogoliubov and normal quasiparticles in binary processes plays an important role in the A1-phase, and Bogoliubov-Bogoliubov interaction is ignorable. We show that the two normal and superfluid components take part in elements of the diffusive thermal conductivity tensor differently. We obtain the result that the elements of the diffusive thermal conductivities, Kxx, Kyy and Kzz, are proportional to T-1, and also that the superfluid components of the diffusive thermal conductivity tensor, K_{xx \\uparrow } and K_{zz \\uparrow } , are proportional to T3 and T, respectively.

  3. A possible in situ 3H and 3He source in Earth's interior: an alternative explanation of origin of 3He in deep Earth.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Songsheng; Liu, Jing; He, Ming

    2010-07-01

    Origin of (3)He in the Earth is a mystery. Lacking a production mechanism, scientists assume (3)He was trapped in the Earth, when the Earth was formed. In contrast to this assumption, we have found (3)He and (3)H concentrations in excess of the atmospheric values in the deep waters of the volcanic Lakes Pavin (France), Laacher (Germany) and Nemrut (Turkey). This paper reports the result of finding (3)H in these three volcanic lakes that appear to originate from the mantle. Because (3)H has a half-life of 12.3 years, this (3)H and the resulting (3)He must have formed recently in the mantle and not be part of a primordial reservoir. The nuclear reactions that generate tritium might be a source of "missing" energy in the interior of the Earth.

  4. A possible in situ 3H and 3He source in Earth's interior: an alternative explanation of origin of 3He in deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Songsheng; Liu, Jing; He, Ming

    2010-07-01

    Origin of 3He in the Earth is a mystery. Lacking a production mechanism, scientists assume 3He was trapped in the Earth, when the Earth was formed. In contrast to this assumption, we have found 3He and 3H concentrations in excess of the atmospheric values in the deep waters of the volcanic Lakes Pavin (France), Laacher (Germany) and Nemrut (Turkey). This paper reports the result of finding 3H in these three volcanic lakes that appear to originate from the mantle. Because 3H has a half-life of 12.3 years, this 3H and the resulting 3He must have formed recently in the mantle and not be part of a primordial reservoir. The nuclear reactions that generate tritium might be a source of “missing” energy in the interior of the Earth.

  5. A Metastability-Exchange Optical Pumping and Compression System using Polarized 3 He for a Proposed Laboratory Search for Neutron Monopole-Dipole Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erick; Ariadne Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    3 He nuclei polarized using the metastability-exchange optical pumping (MEOP) method have been used for scientific applications such as magnetometry in space, neutron polarization and analysis, and medical imaging. In this talk we explain how this technique is also well-suited for a proposed experiment to search for possible monopole-dipole interactions of polarized 3 He nuclei with matter. The P-odd and T-odd monopole-dipole potential proposed by Moody and Wilczek is proportional to s-> . r-> where s-> is the 3 He spin and r-> is the separation between the particles. It can be induced by axions, and ARIADNE proposes to perform NMR on a polarized 3 He ensemble at 4K with a radially-slotted tungsten disk spinning at a multiple of the 3 He Larmour frequency to induce a resonant monopole-dipole perturbation. The radial slot length variations are chosen to maximize sensitivity to a monopole-dipole interaction range corresponding to the axion window. We describe the advantages that MEOP presents for this experiment and describe the MEOP-based polarized 3 He gas compression system at Indiana University.

  6. Near threshold two meson production with the pd→3Heπ+π- and pd→3HeK+K- reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellemann, F.; Berg, A.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bohlscheid, G.; Ernst, J.; Henrich, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Ibald, R.; Jahn, R.; Jarczyk, L.; Joosten, R.; Kozela, A.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mertler, G.; Munkel, J.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schnitker, H.; Scho, K.; Smyrski, J.; Strzalkowski, A.; Tölle, R.; Wilkin, C.

    2000-06-01

    Near threshold two meson production via the reactions pd→3Heπ+π- and pd→3HeK+K- was measured kinematically complete with the MOMO experiment at COSY. The obtained two pion invariant mass spectra and angular distributions depict a remarkable deviation from phase space. The two kaon data are consistent with phase space topped by a clear signal of the φ meson.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of liquid 3He- 4He mixtures at zero pressure for temperatures below 250 mK and 3He concentrations below 8%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuerten, J. G. M.; Castelijns, C. A. M.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Gijsman, H. M.

    We calculated the thermodynamic quantities of dilute liquid 3He- 4He mixtures, starting from experimental values of the specific heat and the osmotic pressure. The calculations are confined to temperatures below 250 mK and 3He concentrations below 8% at zero pressure. Some results are especially useful for dilution refrigeration. Contrary to the calculations previously performed by Radebaugh, our results are in good agreement with the experimental date on both the osmotic pressure and the osmotic enthalpy.

  8. A 3He Cryostat for Scientific Measurements in Pulsed High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoliang; Li, Liang; Liu, Mengyu; Zuo, Huakun; Peng, Tao

    A top loading 3He cryostat has been developed for scientific experiments with a 60 T pulsed magnetic field facility at Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. The cryostat consists of a 4He bath cryostat, a 3He insert and a closed circulation system for 3He gas handling. To eliminate the eddy current heating during the pulse, the tail of the 3He insert with a vacuum space at the bottom is made from fiberglass tubing coated with epoxy. The 3He bath is separated from the 4He bath with the vacuum space. The 4He bath cryostat provides cooling power to condense 3He gas by a neck tube on top of the tail. Experimental results have shown that the sample can be cooled down to 385 mK and kept cold for more than 150 second by one-shot cooling, which is sufficiently long for an experiment in a pulsed high magnetic field.

  9. Effect of ^3He impurity on the supersolid transition of ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Xia, J. S.; West, J. T.; Lin, X.; Chan, M. H. W.

    2007-03-01

    The supersolid phase of ^4He was reported by a series of torsional oscillator experiments [1]. One of the most striking features of the supersolid transition is the intriguing ^3He impurity effect. The addition of an extremely small amount of ^3He impurity broadens the transition and enhances the transition temperature Tc. This effect is very different from that in helium film and that in `bulk' superfluid helium. We have studied the influence of ^3He impurity on the supersolid transition systematically by progressively diluting isotopically-pure ^4He (^3He impurity less than 2ppb) with ^3He. The transition temperature is monotonically enhanced with increasing ^3He concentration and the supersolid fraction shows a broad maximum around 0.2 ppm. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004); Nature 425, 227 (2004); J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 859 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 115302 (2006).

  10. 3He immersion cell for ultralow temperature study of amorphous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Sven; Natelson, Douglas; Osheroff, D. D.

    1997-04-01

    We have constructed a 3He immersion cell for dielectric measurements of insulating amorphous solids in a nuclear demagnetization cryostat at temperatures between 500 μK and 150 mK. The samples are directly immersed in 3He with two heat exchangers per electrode which are thermally isolated from each other and have a very low capacitance to ground. The cell incorporates a 195Pt pulsed NMR thermometer with a novel superconducting magnet and a 3He viscometer for calibration.

  11. Transport in very dilute solutions of 3He in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baym, Gordon; Beck, D. H.; Pethick, C. J.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by a proposed experimental search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM) utilizing neutron-3He capture in a dilute solution of 3He in superfluid 4He, we derive the transport properties of dilute solutions in the regime where the 3He are classically distributed and rapid 3He-3He scatterings keep the 3He in equilibrium. Our microscopic framework takes into account phonon-phonon, phonon-3He, and 3He-3He scatterings. We then apply these calculations to measurements by Rosenbaum [J. Low Temp. Phys.JLTPAC0022-229110.1007/BF00655864 16, 131 (1974)] and by Lamoreaux [Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/epl/i2002-00408-4 58, 718 (2002)] of dilute solutions in the presence of a heat flow. We find satisfactory agreement of theory with the data, serving to confirm our understanding of the microscopics of the helium in the future nEDM experiment.

  12. (3)He-MRI in follow-up of lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Gast, Klaus Kurt; Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Biedermann, Alexander; Knitz, Frank; Eberle, Balthasar; Schmiedeskamp, Joerg; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Mayer, Eckhard; Schreiber, Wolfgang Günter; Thelen, Manfred; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible contribution of (3)He-MRI to detect obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) in the follow-up of lung transplant recipients. Nine single- and double-lung transplanted patients were studied by an initial and a follow-up (3)He-MRI study. Images were evaluated subjectively by estimation of ventilation defect area and quantitatively by individually adapted threshold segmentation and subsequent calculation of ventilated lung volume. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) was diagnosed using pulmonary function tests. At (3)He-MRI, OB was suspected if ventilated lung volume had decreased by 10% or more at the follow-up MRI study compared with the initial study. General accordance between pulmonary function testing and (3)He-MRI was good, although subjective evaluation of (3)He-MRI underestimated improvement in ventilation as obtained by pulmonary function tests. The (3)He-MRI indicated OB in 6 cases. According to pulmonary function tests, BOS was diagnosed in 5 cases. All diagnoses of BOS were also detected by (3)He-MRI. In 2 of these 5 cases, (3)He-MRI indicated OB earlier than pulmonary function tests. The results support the hypothesis that (3)He-MRI may be sensitive for early detection of OB and emphasize the need for larger prospective follow-up studies.

  13. Cluster folding model analysis of 3He elastic and inelastic scattering from 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaf, S. A. E.; Nossair, A. M. A.; Ebrahim, A. A.; Ebraheem, Awad A.

    2003-02-01

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections for the 12C( 3He, 3He) 12C, 12C( 3He, 3He) 12C ∗ reactions at E=72 MeV have been analyzed with a double folding cluster model DFC based on five sets of the effective N-N interaction of Gaussian form with different parameters. The transition to the (2 +; 4.44 MeV) state in 12C is studied and the deformation length δ2 is extracted. It is found that the extracted deformation length is sensitive to the nuclear model used and it is similar to the corresponding value found in the literature.

  14. Development of a thermodynamic model for a cold cycle 3He-4He dilution refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, B. W.; Miller, F. K.

    2016-10-01

    A thermodynamic model of a 3He-4He cold cycle dilution refrigerator with no actively-driven mechanical components is developed and investigated. The refrigerator employs a reversible superfluid magnetic pump, passive check valves, a phase separation chamber, and a series of recuperative heat exchangers to continuously circulate 3He-4He and maintain a 3He concentration gradient across the mixing chamber. The model predicts cooling power and mixing chamber temperature for a range of design and operating parameters, allowing an evaluation of feasibility for potential 3He-4He cold cycle dilution refrigerator prototype designs. Model simulations for a prototype refrigerator design are presented.

  15. Ion Implantation of 3He in Tantalum for Use in a Low Energy Deuteron Polarization Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    depends on aAzz2 where a and A are the cross section and analyzing power, respectively. The cross section of the 3He ( d ,p) reaction below 978 keV appears...protons from the 3He ( d ,p) 4He reaction would be more visible. The statistics were poor, but a definite implant in all the targets on the order of 1017 3He ...accelerator and a polarimeter using the 3He ( d ,p)4 He reaction . (Figure 8) During the experiment Pzz was measured at the beginning, and twice during the tests

  16. The influence of restricted geometry of diamagnetic nanoporous media on 3He relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakshin, E. M.; Gazizulin, R. R.; Zakharov, M. Yu.; Klochkov, A. V.; Morozov, E. V.; Salikhov, T. M.; Safin, T. R.; Safiullin, K. R.; Tagirov, M. S.; Shabanova, O. B.

    2015-01-01

    This is an experimental study of the spin kinetics of 3He in contact with diamagnetic samples of inverse opals SiO2, and LaF3 nanopowder. It is demonstrated that the nuclear magnetic relaxation of the absorbed 3He occurs due to the modulation of dipole-dipole interaction by the quantum motion in the two-dimensional film. It is found that the relaxation of liquid 3He occurs through a spin diffusion to the absorption layer, and that the restricted geometry of diamagnetic nanoporous media has an influence on the 3He relaxation.

  17. The scattering length difference between the b1 and b0 states of n-3 He using a neutron interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. G.

    2015-04-01

    We report a determination of the n -3 He scattering length difference Δb' =b1' -b0' = (- 5 . 411 +/- 0 . 051) fm between the triplet and singlet states using a neutron interferometer. This revises our previous result Δb' = (- 5 . 610 +/- 0 . 042) fm obtained using the same technique in 2008. A sample placed in one of the beam paths of the interferometer causes a phase shift that is proportional to sample's scattering length density, thickness and n wavelength. For this experiment, polarized neutrons were incident on the interferometer and the relative phase shift caused by a spin-dependent interaction with a polarized 3 He target was measured. The neutron polarization and spin flipper efficiency were determined separately using helium-3 analyzers to < 0.1% relative uncertainty. This re-evaluation comes from new phase shift data taken in 2013 and a partial reanalysis of the 2008 data that includes a systematic correction caused by magnetic field gradients which was previously underestimated. Scattering lengths of low Z materials are important for both providing inputs into effective field theories and testing nuclear models. This result along with other measured values of b for 3 He will be compared to nucleon models. This work is supported in part by the NSF through Grants PHY-0555347, PHY-0855445, and PHY-1205342.

  18. An improved long counter for neutron fluence measurement with a flat response over a wide energy range from 1 keV to 15 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. Y.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, D.; Guo, H. S.; Yang, G. Z.; Li, B. J.; Ye, F.; Si, F. N.; Liu, J.; Fu, Y. C.; Ning, J. M.; Yang, J.; Yang, H. H.; Wang, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    A new long counter has been developed with a flat energy response over a wide range from 1 keV to 15 MeV. It consists of five 3He proportional counter tubes and a number of carefully designed polyethylene moderators. The structure of this detector was determined by careful Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated results show that the efficiency of this counter is uniform from 1 keV neutron energy to 15 MeV. Calibration was performed on an Am-Be source and the accelerator-produced monoenergetic D-D and D-T neutron sources. Fluctuation of the response curve is less than 10% over this energy range.

  19. Temperature Measurements of Fusion Plasmas Produced by Laser-Irradiated D2-3 He or CD4-3 He Clustering Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, W.; Ditmire, T.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Donovan, M.; Gaul, E.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Hagel, K.; Natowitz, J. B.

    2014-10-01

    We report on experiments in which a mixture of D2 or CD4 clusters and 3He gas was irradiated by a petawatt-laser pulse, generating nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He) n, D(d, t) p , and 3He(d, p)4He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model. The plasma temperature was determined by two different methods. In the first, it was derived from time-of-flight data of deuterium ions ejected from exploding D2 or CD4 clusters. In the second, it was measured from the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d, 3He) n and 3He(d, p)4He reactions, respectively. The temperatures determined by these two methods agree well, indicating (i) the ion energy distribution is not significantly distorted when ions travel in the disassembling plasma; (ii) the kinetic energy of deuterium ions, especially the hottest part responsible for nuclear fusion, is well described by a near-Maxwellian distribution.

  20. Type 3 solar radio bursts and 3HE-rich events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Stone, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The kilometric radio data for 3He-rich events during the 1979 to 82 time period were investigated. Type 3 bursts are present for each event as expected from the prevous electron 3He-event association. A list of identified solar events is presented.

  1. Fusion product studies via fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Hellsten, T.; Kiptily, V. G.; Craciunescu, T.; Eriksson, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Girardo, J.-B.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Johnson, T.; Kazakov, Y.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Monakhov, I.; Nabais, F.; Nocente, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Rimini, F.; Santala, M.; Schneider, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tsalas, M.; Yavorskij, V.; Zoita, V.; Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    Dedicated fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion experiments were performed on JET with carbon wall (2008) and ITER-like wall (2014) for testing the upgraded neutron and energetic ion diagnostics of fusion products. Energy spectrum of D-D neutrons was the focus of the studies in pure deuterium plasmas. A significant broadening of the energy spectrum of neutrons born in D-D fast fusion was observed, and dependence of the maximum D and D-D neutron energies on plasma density was established. Diagnostics of charged products of aneutronic D-3He fusion reactions, 3.7 MeV alpha-particles similar to those in D-T fusion, and 14.6 MeV protons, were the focus of the studies in D-3He plasmas. Measurements of 16.4 MeV gamma-rays born in the weak secondary branch of D(3He, γ)5Li reaction were used for assessing D-3He fusion power. For achieving high yield of D-D and D-3He reactions at relatively low levels of input heating power, an acceleration of D beam up to the MeV energy range was used employing 3rd harmonic (f=3{{f}CD} ) ICRH technique. These results were compared to the techniques of D beam injection into D-3He mixture, and 3He-minority ICRH in D plasmas.

  2. Measurement of fast minority /sub 3/He/sup + +/ energy distribution during ICRF heating

    DOEpatents

    Post, D.E. Jr.; Grisham, L.R.; Medley, S.S.

    A method and means for measuring the fast /sub 3/He/sup + +/ distribution during /sub 3/He/sup + +/ minority Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating is disclosed. The present invention involves the use of 10 to 100 keV beams of neutral helium atoms to neutralize the fast /sub 3/He/sup + +/ ions in a heated plasma by double charge exchange (/sub 3/He/sup + +/ + /sub 4/He/sup 0/ ..-->.. /sub 3/He/sup 0/ + /sub 4/He/sup + +/). The neutralized fast /sub 3/He/sup 0/ atoms then escape from the hot plasma confined by a magnetic field and are detected by conventional neutral particle analyzing means. This technique permits the effectiveness of the coupling of the ion cyclotron waves to the /sub 3/He/sup + +/ minority ions to be accurately measured. The present invention is particularly adapted for use in evaluating the effectiveness of the intermediate coupling between the RF heating and the /sub 3/He/sup + +/ in an energetic toroidal plasma.

  3. On the connection between the 3HE-enrichment and spectral index of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocharov, L. G.; Dvoryanchikov, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A model is presented which explains the observed tendency of events with large 3He/4He ratios to have steeper spectra. In this model preferential injection of 3He, acceleration by Alfven waves and Coulomb deceleration of ions are considered simultaneously. The observed tendency may be obtained as a result of competition between injection and acceleration processes.

  4. 4 He adsorption on a 3He-plated graphite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yongkyung; Ahn, Jeonghwan

    Path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations have been performed for 4He atoms on top of the 3He first layer on graphite. For this we ignore Fermi statistics of solidified 3He adatoms while Bose statistics of 4He atoms are fully incorporated. We first find that the first 3He layer exhibits a 7/12 commensurate solid structure at the areal density of 0.111 Å-2, which turns out to be identical to the experimental value for its completion density. Additional adsorption of 4He atoms above the complete first 3He layer is found to sustain the underlying 3He commensurate structure and the second 4He layer is observed to display the 4/7 commensurate structure with respect to the first-layer commensurate 3He solid at the areal density of 0.0636 Å-2. Furthermore, it is found that the 4/7 commensurate structure of the second-layer 4He atoms can be formed above a mixture of the first-layer 3He and 4He atoms on graphite. These PIMC results suggest that the 4/7 commensurate structure of the second-layer 4He atoms on graphite, whose existence on top of the first 4He layer has long been in dispute, may be realized on a 3He-plated graphite surface. This could lead to a new approach to observe two-dimensional supersolidity in 4He on graphite.

  5. Surface Specific Heat of {sup 3}He and Andreev Bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Davis, J. P.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W.P.

    2006-03-31

    High resolution measurements of the specific heat of liquid {sup 3}He in the presence of a silver surface have been performed at temperatures near the superfluid transition in the pressure range of 1-29 bar. The surface contribution to the heat capacity is identified with Andreev bound states of {sup 3}He quasiparticles that have a range of half a coherence length.

  6. Pyrochemical neutron multiplicity counter design

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Pyrochemical process materials are difficult to measure using conventional neutron counting methods because of significant self- multiplication and variable ({alpha},n) reaction rates. Multiplicity counters measure the first three moments of the neutron multiplicity distribution and thus make it possible to determine sample mass even when multiplication and ({alpha},n) rate are unknown. A new multiplicity counter suitable for inplant measurement of pyrochemical process materials has been designed using Monte Carlo simulations. The goals were to produce a counter that has high neutron detection efficiency, low die-away time, a flat spatial efficiency profile, and is insensitive to the neutron energy spectrum. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for several prototype models consisting of four rings of 71-cm active length {sup 3}He tubes in a polyethylene body. The cadmium-lined sample well is 25 cm in diameter to accommodate a wide variety of inplant sample containers. The counter can be free-standing or in-line without mechanical modification. The calculations were performed to determine the above design criteria for several configurations of tube spacing, cadmium liners, and sample height. Calculations were also performed for distributed sample sources to understand the integrated effects of variable neutron spectra on the counter. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Nuclear georeactor origin of oceanic basalt 3He/4He, evidence, and implications

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear georeactor numerical simulation results yield substantial 3He and 4He production and 3He/4He ratios relative to air (RA) that encompass the entire 2-SD (2σ) confidence level range of tabulated measured 3He/4He ratios of basalts from along the global spreading ridge system. Georeactor-produced 3He/4He ratios are related to the extent of actinide fuel consumption at time of production and are high near the end of the georeactor lifetime. Georeactor numerical simulation results and the observed high 3He/4He ratios measured in Icelandic and Hawaiian oceanic basalts indicate that the demise of the georeactor is approaching. Within the present level of uncertainty, one cannot say precisely when georeactor demise will occur, whether in the next century, in a million years, or in a billion years from now. PMID:12615991

  8. Variational calculations for ground state properties of liquid 3He injected in a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, G. H.; Rastkhadiv, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Liquid 3He injected in a carbon nanotube is of high interests due to different behavior of the liquid helium in the quasi-one-dimensional systems. In this work, a variational approach has been performed to calculate some thermodynamic properties of this quantum system. In order to do so, a single-walled carbon nanotube containing liquid 3He is considered, applying the Lennard-Jones and Stan-Cole potentials for 3He-3He and 3He-C interactions, respectively. Finally the total energy, equation of state and incompressibility of the system have been calculated. Our calculations show the high values for the incompressibility at high densities, especially for high radii.

  9. Development of a polarized 3He neutron spin filter for POLANO at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, T.; Ohkawara, M.; Ohoyama, K.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Nambu, Y.; Fujita, M.; Kira, H.; Hayashida, H.; Hiroi, K.; Sakai, K.; Oku, T.; Kakurai, K.

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a polarized 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) for a new polarized neutron spectrometer, POLANO, at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). POLANO aims to utilize high energy neutrons polarized by a 3He NSF and spin analyzed by an array of magnetic supermirrors for inelastic neutron scattering. The 3He gas is continuously polarized in-situ by spin-exchange optical pumping to provide a highly and stably polarized neutron beam. The POLANO 3He NSF is designed to polarize neutrons with energies as high as 200 meV and fit in a restricted space. It is equipped with adiabatic fast passage NMR that enables one to flip the 3He spins, and consequently, the neutron spins.

  10. Nuclear georeactor origin of oceanic basalt 3He/4He, evidence, and implications.

    PubMed

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2003-03-18

    Nuclear georeactor numerical simulation results yield substantial (3)He and (4)He production and (3)He(4)He ratios relative to air (R(A)) that encompass the entire 2-SD (2sigma) confidence level range of tabulated measured (3)He(4)He ratios of basalts from along the global spreading ridge system. Georeactor-produced (3)He(4)He ratios are related to the extent of actinide fuel consumption at time of production and are high near the end of the georeactor lifetime. Georeactor numerical simulation results and the observed high (3)He(4)He ratios measured in Icelandic and Hawaiian oceanic basalts indicate that the demise of the georeactor is approaching. Within the present level of uncertainty, one cannot say precisely when georeactor demise will occur, whether in the next century, in a million years, or in a billion years from now.

  11. Application of Sol-Gel Technology to High Pressure Polarized 3HE Nuclear Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, W. A.; Cates, G. D.; Chaput, J.; Deur, A.; Rohrbaugh, S.; Singh, J.

    2003-01-01

    High-purity sol-gel solutions have been developed to coat the interior surface of glass vessels used for polarizing 3He by spin-exchange optical pumping. Such cells have been shown to exhibit 3He longitudinal lifetimes T1 in excess of 350 hours1. The sol-gel technique was designed to minimize spin-relaxation due to wall collisions so that only dipole-dipole interactions between colliding 3He atoms dominate in the relaxation process. Until now, sol-gel technology had not been applied to high pressure 3He gas targets used in nuclear scattering experiments. A description of the sol-gel technique and recent developments on its integration into the production of 3He targets will be presented.

  12. Far-ultraviolet signatures of the 3He(n,tp) reaction in noble gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Patrick P.; Coplan, Michael A.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-12-01

    Previous work showed that the H3e(n ,tp) reaction in a cell of H3e at atmospheric pressure generated tens of far-ultraviolet photons per reacted neutron. Here we report amplification of that signal by factors of 1000 and more when noble gases are added to the cell. Calibrated filter-detector measurements show that this large signal is due to noble gas excimer emissions and that the nuclear reaction energy is converted to far-ultraviolet radiation with efficiencies of up to 30%. The results have been placed on an absolute scale through calibrations at the NIST SURF III synchrotron. They suggest possibilities for high-efficiency neutron detectors as an alternative to existing proportional counters.

  13. T(T,4He)2n and 3He(3He,4He)2p Reactions and the Energy Dependence of Their Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, Andrew; McNabb, Dennis; Brune, Carl; Sayre, Dan; Hale, Gerry; Frenje, Johan; Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the T(T,alpha)2n reaction because it is the charge symmetric analog to the 3He(3He,alpha)2p reaction which completes the most direct mode of the p-p chain in stellar interiors. These reactions lead to three-body final states whose energy spectrum shapes are dominated by the strong nucleon-alpha interaction and the weaker nucleon-nucleon interaction. These experiments were done at OMEGA at the University of Rochester and at the NIF at Lawrence Livermore Lab. We will focus on two features: (1) the excitation energy dependence of the reaction mechanism and (2) the center-of-mass energy dependence of the reaction mechanism. At stellar energies (OMEGA and the NIF) we find that the shape of the neutron spectrum peaks in the middle. The n-alpha 1/2-excited state is about two times stronger than the n-alpha 3/2-ground state. For the 3He+3He reaction (at CalTech), the proton spectrum peaks at the high end. The p-alpha 3/2-state is about two times stronger than the 1/2-state. This difference in the spectrum shape is explained by theoretical models which include the interference between the two identical fermions in the final state. At CalTech we have angular distributions of the 3He+3He reaction from 2 MeV to 18 MeV. We see the p-wave strength increasing.

  14. Interpretation of the Processes 3He(e,e'p)2H and 3He(e,e'p)(pn) at High Missing Momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofi Degli Atti, C.; Kaptari, L. P.

    2005-07-01

    Using realistic three-body wave functions corresponding to the AV18 interaction, it is shown that the effects of the final state interaction in the exclusive processes 3He(e,e'p)2H and 3He(e,e'p)(pn), can be successfully treated in terms of a generalized eikonal approximation based upon the direct calculation of the Feynman diagrams describing the rescattering of the struck nucleon. The relevant role played by the double rescattering contribution at high values of the missing momentum is illustrated.

  15. Interpretation of the processes 3He(e,e'p)2H and 3He(e,e'p)(pn) at high missing momenta.

    PubMed

    Ciofi degli Atti, C; Kaptari, L P

    2005-07-29

    Using realistic three-body wave functions corresponding to the AV18 interaction, it is shown that the effects of the final state interaction in the exclusive processes 3He(e,e'p)2H and 3He(e,e'p)(pn), can be successfully treated in terms of a generalized eikonal approximation based upon the direct calculation of the Feynman diagrams describing the rescattering of the struck nucleon. The relevant role played by the double rescattering contribution at high values of the missing momentum is illustrated.

  16. T(T,2n)4He and 3He(3He,2p)4He: The Reaction Mechanism from Solar Energies to 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, A. D.; Brune, C. R.; Sayre, D. B.; Hale, G. M.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the energy dependence of the reaction mechanism of the T(t,2n)4He reaction at stellar energies and of its charge symmetric analog reaction 3He(3He,2p)4He at energies up 10 MeV. We find that the reaction mechanism changes dramatically over this energy range in part due to the interference of the two identical fermions in the three-body final state. This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Tom Tombrello, my Ph.D. advisor at Cal Tech, who died in 2014.

  17. Search for anomalous deuterons in the reaction /sup 3/He+C. -->. d+X at p3He = 10. 8 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Ableev, V.G.; Vorob'ev, G.G.; Gasparyan, A.P.; Grigalashvili, N.S.; Dzhmukhadze, S.V.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.; Strokovskii, E.A.

    1985-07-01

    The Alpha apparatus in a beam of 10.78-GeV/c /sup 3/He nuclei has been used to search for anomalous deuterons (demons) in the reaction /sup 3/He+C ..-->.. d+X. The deuteron yield was measured at angles theta< or approx. =20 mrad as a function of the target thickness, which varied from 0.6 to 70 cm. The data obtained exclude the production of demons in this reaction over a wide range of expected values of the cross sections for their production and interaction with matter. The technique used can be applied also to beams of relativistic nuclei in experiments to search for anomalons.

  18. Plate Tectonic Cycling and Whole Mantle Convection Modulate Earth's 3He/22Ne Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Jackson, C.; Hesse, M. A.; Tremblay, M. M.; Shuster, D. L.; Gu, J.

    2016-12-01

    3He and 22Ne are not produced in the mantle or fractionated by partial melting, and neither isotope is recycled back into the mantle by subduction of oceanic basalt or sediment. Thus, it is a surprise that large 3He/22Ne variations exist within the mantle and that the mantle has a net elevated 3He/22Ne ratio compared to volatile-rich planetary precursor materials. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle have distinctly higher 3He/22Ne compared to ocean island basalt (OIB) sources ( 4-12.5 vs. 2.5-4.5, respectively) [1,2]. The low 3He/22Ne of OIBs approaches chondritic ( 1) and solar nebula values ( 1.5). The high 3He/22Ne of the MORB mantle is not similar to solar sources or any known family of meteorites, requiring a mechanism for fractionating He from Ne in the mantle and suggesting isolation of distinct mantle reservoirs throughout geologic time. We model the formation of a MORB source with elevated and variable 3He/22Ne though diffusive exchange between dunite channel-hosted basaltic liquids and harzburgite wallrock beneath mid-ocean ridges. Over timescales relevant to mantle upwelling beneath spreading centers, He may diffuse tens to hundreds of meters into wallrock while Ne is relatively immobile, producing a regassed, depleted mantle lithosphere with elevated 3He/22Ne. Subduction of high 3He/22Ne mantle would generate a MORB source with high 3He/22Ne. Regassed, high 3He/22Ne mantle lithosphere has He concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than undegassed mantle. To preserve the large volumes of high 3He/22Ne mantle required by the MORB source, mixing between subducted and undegassed mantle reservoirs must have been limited throughout geologic time. Using the new 3He/22Ne constraints, we ran a model similar to [3] to quantify mantle mixing timescales, finding they are on the order of Gyr assuming physically reasonable seafloor spreading rates, and that Earth's convecting mantle has lost >99% of its primordial

  19. Selective Inactivity of Pyrazinamide against Tuberculosis in C3HeB/FeJ Mice Is Best Explained by Neutral pH of Caseum.

    PubMed

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Ioerger, Thomas; Ormond, Aimee; Kaya, Firat; Sacchettini, James; Dartois, Véronique; Nuermberger, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is one of only two sterilizing drugs in the first-line antituberculosis regimen. Its activity is strongly pH dependent; the MIC changes by several orders of magnitude over a range of pH values that may be encountered in various in vivo compartments. We recently reported selective inactivity of PZA in a subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lung lesions. In the present study, we evaluated whether such inactivity was explained by poor penetration of PZA into such lesions or selection of drug-resistant mutants. Despite demonstrating similar dose-proportional PZA exposures in plasma, epithelial lining fluid, and lung lesions, no dose response was observed in a subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with the highest CFU burden. Although PZA-resistant mutants eventually replaced the susceptible bacilli in BALB/c mice and in C3HeB/FeJ mice with low total CFU burdens, they never exceeded 1% of the total population in nonresponding C3HeB/FeJ mice. The selective inactivity of PZA in large caseous lesions of C3HeB/FeJ mice is best explained by the neutral pH of liquefying caseum.

  20. Third sound and stability of 3He-4He mixture films

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. H.; Krotscheck, E.; Miller, M. D.

    2006-09-07

    We study third sound and the interaction between 3He adatoms in two thin 3He-4He mixture films from a first-principles, microscopic theory. Utilizing the variational, hypernetted-chain Euler-Lagrange (HNC-EL) theory as applied to inhomogeneous boson systems, we calculate chemical potentials for both the 4He superfluid film and the physisorbed 3He. Numerical density derivatives of the chemical potentials lead to the sought-after third sound speeds that clearly reflect a layered structure of at least seven oscillations. In this paper, we report third sound on model substrates: Nuclepore, and sodium. We find that the effect of the 3He depends sensitively on the particular 4He film coverage. Our most important result is that, with the addition of 3He, the third sound speed can either increase or decrease. In fact, in some regimes, the added 3He destabilizes the film and can drive ''layering transitions'', leading to fairly complicated geometric structures of the film in which the outermost layer is predicted to consist of phase-separated regions of 3He and 4He.

  1. The cosmological density of baryons from observations of 3He+ in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Bania, T M; Rood, Robert T; Balser, Dana S

    2002-01-03

    Primordial nucleosynthesis after the Big Bang can be constrained by the abundances of the light elements and isotopes 2H, 3He, 4He and 7Li (ref. 1). The standard theory of stellar evolution predicts that 3He is also produced by solar-type stars, so its abundance is of interest not only for cosmology, but also for understanding stellar evolution and the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The 3He abundance in star-forming (H II) regions agrees with the present value for the local interstellar medium, but seems to be incompatible with the stellar production rates inferred from observations of planetary nebulae, which provide a direct test of stellar evolution theory. Here we develop our earlier observations, which, when combined with recent theoretical developments in our understanding of light-element synthesis and destruction in stars, allow us to determine an upper limit for the primordial abundance of 3He relative to hydrogen: 3He/H = (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(-5). The primordial density of all baryons determined from the 3He data is in excellent agreement with the densities calculated from other cosmological probes. The previous conflict is resolved because most solar-mass stars do not produce enough 3He to enrich the interstellar medium significantly.

  2. Enhanced IR hollow cathode laser in a 3He Ne gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova, M. S.; Pramatarov, P. M.; Karelin, A. V.

    2005-09-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on 3He-Ne and 4He-Ne helical hollow cathode lasers is presented. Enhanced laser operation on the near IR NeI lines is observed when the natural isotope 4He is substituted by the lighter isotope 3He. A four-fold increase in the laser output power and a three-fold increase in the laser gain for the strongest NeI 1.1523 µm line is measured in the 3He-Ne gas mixture compared to the 4He-Ne gas mixture. On the basis of the theoretical analysis done by means of a non-stationary kinetic model for the negative glow plasma of 3He-Ne and 4He-Ne hollow cathode lasers, a study on the changes in the particle kinetics is carried out and an explanation of the experimental results is proposed. In the 3He-Ne mixture the electron temperature is lower than in the 4He-Ne mixture, while the gas temperature is higher. As a result the helium triplet metastable density and the rate constant for excitation transfer to neon atoms are higher in the 3He-Ne mixture. The lower laser level de-excitation due to intra-multiplet mixing of 2p1-10levels by 3He atoms is more efficient.

  3. Gas cells for 3He hyperpolarized via spin-exchange optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Kim, A.; Tan, J. A.; Woo, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a device for the production of hyperpolarized 3He, which is widely used in spinrelated nuclear physics research. Spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) is employed to polarize 3He enclosed in a circular borosilicate glass cell suitable not only for the production of polarized gas but also for its storage. The portable glass cell can, thus, be transported to any other research facility. The glass cell can be refilled several times. Special attention is given to the preparation and the filling of the cell to minimize the impurities on its walls and in the gas. We employ glass tubes with shorter lengths and larger diameters in the gas-filling system to achieve the improvement in the air flow necessary to obtain purer polarized 3He samples. The cell is prepared, and after it has been filled with rubidium (Rb) and 3He-N2 mixture, it is sealed under high vacuum conditions. The cell containing the mixture is exposed to circularly-polarized laser light with a wavelength of 795 nm at temperatures of 180 - 220 °C for SEOP. The polarization of 3He is measured via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We obtained 40% polarized 3He in less than 15 hours and 50% in about 25 hours. The longitudinal relaxation time T 1 of the polarized 3He we measured was about 58 hours.

  4. AFP flipper devices: Polarized 3He spin flipper and shorter wavelength neutron flipper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, E.; Petoukhov, A.; Chastagnier, J.; Jullien, D.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Andersen, K. H.; Georgii, R.; Masalovich, S.; Boag, S.; Frost, C. D.; Parnell, S. R.

    2007-07-01

    We describe the development of a polarized neutron device that combines a 3He neutron spin filter and a neutron spin flipper using adiabatic fast passage (AFP), to adiabatically reverse the 3He polarization and thus the neutron polarization with near perfect symmetry. A typical AFP sequence takes place in 2.5-7.5 ms, with the time for the 3He transition from P to -P much less, thus the neutron polarization is nearly perfectly reversed very quickly with only a 2×10-5 loss in 3He polarization per flip. We believe this device, the 3He “flipperizer” can become a standard option wherever a 3He spin filter is already in use. Our first on beam test was performed on MIRA at the new FRM-2 reactor in Garching using polarized 3He from HELIOS. We also briefly describe tests of a new neutron flipper based on AFP. This broad band neutron RF flipper was shown to create neutron flipping efficiencies of >99% at a neutron wavelength of 0.4 Å. Neutron tests were performed on D3 (ILL) and on ROTAX (ISIS).

  5. Recent advances in polarized 3 He based neutron spin filter development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wangchun; Gentile, Thomas; Erwin, Ross; Watson, Shannon; Krycka, Kathryn; Ye, Qiang; NCNR NIST Team; University of Maryland Team

    2015-04-01

    Polarized 3 He neutron spin filters (NSFs) are based on the strong spin-dependence of the neutron absorption cross section by 3 He. NSFs can polarize large area, widely divergent, and broadband neutron beams effectively and allow for combining a neutron polarizer and a spin flipper into a single polarizing device. The last capability utilizes 3 He spin inversion based on the adiabatic fast passage (AFP) nuclear magnetic resonance technique. Polarized 3 He NSFs are significantly expanding the polarized neutron measurement capabilities at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Here we present an overview of 3 He NSF applications to small-angle neutron scattering, thermal triple axis spectrometry, and wide-angle polarization analysis. We discuss a recent upgrade of our spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) systems that utilize chirped volume holographic gratings for spectral narrowing. The new capability allows us to polarize rubidium/potassium hybrid SEOP cells over a liter in volume within a day, with 3 He polarizations up to 88%, Finally we discuss how we can achieve nearly lossless 3 He polarization inversion with AFP.

  6. Cosmogenic 3He in terrestrial rocks: The summit lavas of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Craig, H.; Poreda, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    We have identified terrestrial cosmic rayproduced 3He in three lava flows on the crest of Haleakala Volcano on Maui, 3 km above sea level, and ≈0.5 million years old. Although these lavas, like all oceanic basalts, contain primordial 3He from the mantle, the “cosmogenic” component (3HeC) can be identified unambiguously because it is extractable only by high-temperature vacuum fusion. In contrast, a large fraction of the mantle helium resides in fluid inclusions and can be extracted by vacuum crushing, leaving a residual component with 3He/4He ratios as high as 75× those in the atmosphere, which can be liberated by melting the crushed grains. Cosmogenic 3He is present in both olivines and clinopyroxenes at 0.8-1.2 × 10-12 ml(STP)/g and constitutes 75% ± 5% of the total 3He present. The observed 3HeC levels require a cosmic ray exposure age of only some 64,000 years, much less than the actual age of the lavas, if there is no erosion. Using a model that includes effects of uplift or submergence as well as erosion, we calculate an apparent “erosion rate” of the order of 8.5 m/106 years for the western rim of the summit crater, as an example of the application of measurements of cosmogenic rare gases to terrestrial geological problems. PMID:16593671

  7. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive DT implosions due to 3He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W; Langenbrunner, James R; Mack, Joseph M; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Douglas C; Evans, Scott C; Sedillo, Tom J; Kyrala, George A; Caldwell, Stephen E; Young, Carlton A; Nobile, Arthur; Wermer, Joseph R; Paglieri, Stephen N; Mcevoy, Aaron M; Kim, Yong Ho; Batha, Steven H; Horsfield, Colin J; Drew, Dave; Garbett, Warren; Rubery, Michael; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Roberts, Samuel; Frenje, Johan A

    2008-01-01

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et aI., Opt. Commun. 133, 495, 1997] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas, but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of ICF implosions and capsule performance. A relatively short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to provide some degree of temporal separation between shock and compression yield components for analysis. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the 'factor of two' degradation previously reported by MIT at a 50% {sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg et aI., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT, but consistent with LANL results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He [Wilson, et aI., lml Phys: Conf Series 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression ofcapsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood Equation-of-State (EOS) for gas mixtures, and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  8. Polarized {sup 3}He{sup −} ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, V.; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-08

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized {sup 3}He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized {sup 3}He{sup −} ion source. This report discusses a polarized {sup 3}He{sup −} ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different {sup 3}He{sup −} ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of τ ∼ 350 µs while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of τ ~ 10 µs. By producing {sup 3}He{sup −} ion beam composed of only the |5/2, ±5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, {sup 3}He{sup −} beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized {sup 3}He{sup −} production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He{sup +} ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized {sup 3}He{sup −} ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness {sup 3}He{sup +} beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ∼1-4 mA of {sup 3}He{sup −} ions with ∼90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of {sup 3}He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated {sup 3}He{sup −} ion source design providing high beam polarization could be

  9. Triple oxygen isotopic composition of the high-3He/4He mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, N. A.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Parman, S.; Franchi, I. A.; Jackson, M.; Fitton, J. G.; Stuart, F. M.; Kurz, M.; Larsen, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of Xe isotope ratios in ocean island basalts (OIB) suggest that Earth's mantle accreted heterogeneously, and that compositional remnants of accretion are sampled by modern, high-3He/4He OIB associated with the Icelandic and Samoan plumes. If so, the high-3He/4He source may also have a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the rest of the mantle. Here, we test if the major elements of the high-3He/4He source preserve any evidence of heterogeneous accretion using measurements of three oxygen isotopes on olivine from a variety of high-3He/4He OIB locations. To high precision, the Δ17O value of high-3He/4He olivines from Hawaii, Pitcairn, Baffin Island and Samoa, are indistinguishable from bulk mantle olivine (Δ17OBulk Mantle - Δ17OHigh 3He/4He olivine = -0.002 ± 0.004 (2 × SEM)‰). Thus, there is no resolvable oxygen isotope evidence for heterogeneous accretion in the high-3He/4He source. Modelling of mixing processes indicates that if an early-forming, oxygen-isotope distinct mantle did exist, either the anomaly was extremely small, or the anomaly was homogenised away by later mantle convection. The δ18O values of olivine with the highest 3He/4He ratios from a variety of OIB locations have a relatively uniform composition (∼5‰). This composition is intermediate to values associated with the depleted MORB mantle and the average mantle. Similarly, δ18O values of olivine from high-3He/4He OIB correlate with radiogenic isotope ratios of He, Sr, and Nd. Combined, this suggests that magmatic oxygen is sourced from the same mantle as other, more incompatible elements and that the intermediate δ18O value is a feature of the high-3He/4He mantle source. The processes responsible for the δ18O signature of high-3He/4He mantle are not certain, but δ18O-87Sr/86Sr correlations indicate that it may be connected to a predominance of a HIMU-like (high U/Pb) component or other moderate δ18O components recycled into the high-3He/4He source.

  10. The heavy ion composition in 3HE-rich solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Reames, D. V.; Hovestadt, D.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    The 3He-rich flares show a tendency to be enriched in heavy ions, and that this enrichment covers the charge range through Fe. The discovery of this association was responsible, in part, for the discarding of 3He enrichment models which involved spallation or thermonuclear reactions, since such models were unable to produce heavy nuclei enhancement. Results of a survey of heavy nucleus abundances observed in 66 3He-rich flares which occurred over the period October 1978 to June 1982 are presented.

  11. Recent advances of polarized {sup 3}He target at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang Yi

    2011-10-24

    Polarized {sup 3}He targets have been widely used in nuclear and particle physics experiments to study neutron structure in the spin degree of freedom, as most of the {sup 3}He spin is carried by the unpaired neutron. The Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) process is used in Jefferson Lab Hall A to polarize its {sup 3}He target. In recent years, both the performance and corresponding polarimetry of such a target have been greatly improved. Several experiments recently carried out in Hall A have achieved record high figure of merit using this target.

  12. Recent advances in spin-exchange pumped polarized 3He target technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. B.; Chupp, T. E.; Coulter, K. P.; Welsh, R. C.

    1998-02-01

    We have produced long lifetime 3He spin-exchange cells from Corning 7056 glass. The lifetimes of single cells have approached the 3He 3He bulk-limited lifetime (250 h at a density of 8 × 10 19 cm -3, (3 amagats)). Corning 7056 glass has the advantage of being a much easier glass for the glassblower to work, allowing for more complex cell designs. In our experiments at Michigan and at SLAC, we have implemented laser diode arrays for spin-exchange optical pumping. In particular, for experiment E154 at SLAC, we achieved high polarizations in high-density 3He targets using laser diode arrays.

  13. Investigation of the {sup 3}He wave function by quasifree scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Hansen, J.O.; Bloch, C.

    1995-08-01

    The analysis of the data from the CE25 experiment at IUCF, which measured the target and beam analyzing powers and the spin correlation parameter in {sup 3}He(p,2p) and {sup 3}He(p,pn) quasielastic scattering, is nearing completion. At low missing momentum, the extracted polarization of the neutron and proton in {sup 3}He are consistent with Faddeev calculations. Two papers, one reporting the physics results and one describing the experiment, were published. The data from this experiment indicates that for q {>=} 500 MeV/c the plane wave impulse approximation is valid.

  14. Discriminating Acquisition of 15-MeV Protons from D-3He Fusion Reaction in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Miyazawa, Junichi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Murakami, Sadayoshi; Masuzaki, Suguru; Osakabe, Masaki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Tokitani, Masayuki; Motojima, Osamu

    Discriminating acquisition of 15-MeV protons is possible in LHD D-3He experiments (D+ beam to 3He plasma), due to the nonaxisymmetric structure of the magnetic field and the ultra-high energy of the fusion products. The collisionless orbits of D-3He fusion products are studied numerically in the standard magnetic field configuration of LHD. Three sets of fusion product acquisition systems are installed in LHD and numerical computations show the possibility of discriminating between fusion products and plasma particles. The acquisition rate of 15-MeV protons is expected to be in the range of 12 ˜ 28 %.

  15. PULSE COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Trumbo, D.E.

    1959-02-10

    A transistorized pulse-counting circuit adapted for use with nuclear radiation detecting detecting devices to provide a small, light weight portable counter is reported. The small size and low power requirements of the transistor are of particular value in this instance. The circuit provides an adjustable count scale with a single transistor which is triggered by the accumulated charge on a storage capacitor.

  16. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of 3He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Excitation functions of 3He -induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27MeV, the cross-sections for natZn (3He, xn) 69Ge, natZn(3He, xnp) 66,67,68Ga, and natZn(3He, x)62,65Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined.

  17. Recent advancements of wide-angle polarization analysis with 3He neutron spin filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C.; Gentile, T. R.; Ye, Q.; Kirchhoff, A.; Watson, S. M.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Qiu, Y.; Broholm, C.

    2016-09-01

    Wide-angle polarization analysis with polarized 3He based neutron spin filters (NSFs) has recently been employed on the Multi-Axis Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Over the past several years, the apparatus has undergone many upgrades to address the fundamental requirements for wide angle polarization analysis using spin exchange optical pumping based 3He NSFs. In this paper, we report substantial improvements in the on-beam-line performance of the apparatus and progress toward routine user capability. We discuss new standard samples used for 3He NSF characterization and the flipping ratio measurement on MACS. We further discuss the management of stray magnetic fields produced by operation of superconducting magnets on the MACS instrument, which can significantly reduce the 3He polarization relaxation time. Finally, we present the results of recent development of horseshoe-shaped wide angle cells.

  18. Progress Towards the Detection of Faraday Rotation on Spin Polarized 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abney, Josh; Broering, Mark; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Off-resonance Faraday rotation can offer a new method to monitor the nuclear spin polarization of a dense 3He target and gain access to new information about the magnetic polarizability of the 3He nucleus. The interaction of the polarization state of light with the nuclear spin of the helium atom is very weak and has never been detected. A sensitive triple modulation technique has been developed which can detect the expected rotation angle on the order of 100 nrad. Once a Faraday rotation signal is observed, the next step is to separate the magnetic and electric contributions to the rotation by utilizing their different frequency dependencies. Recent studies involved optimizing several parameters which impact 3He target polarization. Progress towards detecting nuclear spin optical rotation on 3He will be reported. This research is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER41101.

  19. The enigmatic high 3He/4He mantle: Characteristics and Origins. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Noble gas isotopes measured in some oceanic island basalts (OIBs) exhibit ratios that are associated with the solar wind and the atmosphere of Jupiter, suggesting that the lavas tap portions of an ancient reservoir that still resides in the Earth’s mantle [e.g., 1]. High 3He/4He, as seen in the sources of some OIBs, can therefore serve as a powerful indicator for tracing ancient signatures that have survived in the Earth’s interior. However, the storage mechanisms and reasons for long-term survival of the high 3He/4He signature in the Earth’s convecting mantle are poorly understood. One important observation is that high 3He/4He lavas have 143Nd/144Nd ratios that are higher than chondrites, suggesting that they were derived from a mantle reservoir that suffered ancient depletion. The association of primitive, high 3He/4He with depleted, nonprimitive 143Nd/144Nd in OIBs is not straightforward and a number of models have been developed to resolve this apparent complexity [e.g., 2,3,4,5,6]. It is also becoming apparent that the high 3He/4He reservoir is heterogeneous. High 3He/4He (>30 times atmospheric) lavas from Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have more depleted 143Nd/144Nd (0.51294-0.51297) than lavas with similarly high 3He/4He from Samoa (0.51283). In fact, the highest 3He/4He sample from each southern hemisphere high 3He/4He hotspot (FOZO-A, austral) exhibits lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios their northern hemisphere (FOZO-B, boreal) counterparts. The mechanism for this separation is unknown, but it is similar in spatial scale to the DUPAL anomaly, a globe-encircling feature of isotopic enrichment observed primarily in southern hemisphere OIBs. With the exception of Baffin Is. picrites [7], high 3He/4He OIBs also exhibit evidence for Ti, Ta, and Nb (TITAN) enrichment relative to low 3He/4He OIBs. This was interpreted as the result of addition of refractory, rutile-bearing eclogite to a peridotitic high 3He/4He reservoir [8]. This hypothesis is supported by the

  20. On Feasibility of Absolute Measurements of Ion Temperature in D-3He Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki

    2003-05-01

    We investigate a possibility of using γ-ray-generating nuclear reactions for absolute measurements of bulk ion temperature in D-3He fusion plasma. Radiative capture processes between fuel ions and specific γ-ray modes of nuclear reactions induced by a small admixture of 6Li are examined for such an application. It is shown that ion temperature can be determined by comparative measurements of the respective γ-ray yields. An essential point of the method proposed is that any fluctuations of plasma parameters during the measurements do not affect accuracy of temperature probe. Nuclear reactions 3He(3He,γ)6Be and 6Li(3He,γp)8Be are suggested for diagnostics for the first time. Necessary data on reaction cross sections and Maxwellian rate parameters are calculated.

  1. Core Plasma Characteristics of a Spherical Tokamak D-3He Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bingren

    2005-04-01

    The magnetic fusion reactor using the advanced D-3He fuels has the advantage of much less-neutron productions so that the consequent damages to the first wall are less serious. If the establishment of this kind of reactor becomes realistic, the exploration of 3He on the moon will be largely motivated. Based on recent progresses in the spherical torus (ST) research, we have physically designed a D-3He fusion reactor using the extrapolated results from the ST experiments and also the present-day tokamak scaling. It is found that the reactor size significantly depends on the wall reflection coefficient of the synchrotron radiation and of the impurity contaminations. The secondary reaction between D-D that promptly leads to the D-T reaction producing 14 MeV neutrons is also estimated. Comparison of this D-3He ST reactor with the D-T reactor is made.

  2. Effect of ^3He impurity on the supersolid transition of ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunseong; Chan, Moses H. W.

    2006-03-01

    The supersolid phase of ^4He was revealed by a series of torsional oscillator experiments.[1] One of the most intriguing features of the supersolid transition is the broadening of the transition and the enhancement of Tc by the addition of extremely small amount of ^3He impurity. This effect is very different from that in superfluid film and that in `bulk' superfluid helium. We have investigated the^ influence of ^3He on the supersolid transition by systematically diluting isotopically-pure ^4He (^3He impurity less than 0.3ppb) with ^3He. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004); Nature 425, 227 (2004); J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 859 (2005)

  3. Sol-gel coatings for high pressure polarized ^3He nuclear targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Cates, Gordon D.; Chaput, Julien; Singh, Jaideep; Tobias, William A.

    2001-11-01

    Sol-gel coated glass cells have been shown to exhibit longitudinal lifetimes T1 in excess of 350 hours for ^3He that is polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping.( Ming F. Hsu shape et al, Appl. Phys. Lett.) series 77 (2000) 2069. The sol-gel technique was designed to minimize spin-relaxation due to wall collisions so that only dipole-dipole interactions between colliding ^3He atoms dominate in the relaxation process. Until now, sol-gel technology has not been applied to high pressure ^3He gas targets used in nuclear scattering experiments. Latest developments on incorporating the sol-gel technique in the production of these ^3He targets will be presented.

  4. The Triple Oxygen Isotopic Composition of High 3He/4He Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Starkey, N.; Greenwood, R.; Franchi, I.; Jackson, M. G.; Fitton, J. G.; Stewart, F. M.; Larsen, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of Xe isotope ratios in ocean island basalts (OIB) suggest that Earth's mantle accreted heterogeneously, and that compositional remnants of accretion are sampled by modern, high-3He/4He OIB associated with the Icelandic and Samoan plumes [1]. If so, the high-3He/4He source may also have a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the rest of the mantle. Here, we test if the major elements of the high-3He/4He source preserve any evidence of heterogeneous accretion using measurements of three oxygen isotopes on olivine from a variety of high-3He/4He OIB locations. To high precision, the ∆17O value of high-3He/4He olivines from Hawaii, Pitcairn, Baffin Island and Samoa, are indistinguishable from bulk mantle olivine (Δ17OBulk Mantle - Δ17OHigh 3He/4He olivine = -0.002 ± 0.004 (2 x SEM) ‰). Thus, there is no resolvable oxygen isotope evidence for heterogeneous accretion in the high-3He/4He source. Modelling of mixing processes indicates that if an early-forming, oxygen-isotope distinct mantle did exist, either the anomaly was extremely small, or the anomaly was homogenised away by later mantle convection. The δ18O values of olivine with the highest 3He/4He ratios from a variety of OIB locations have a relatively uniform composition (~5 ‰). This composition is intermediate to values associated with the depleted MORB mantle and the average mantle. Similarly, δ18O values of olivine from high-3He/4He OIB correlate with radiogenic isotope ratios of He, Sr, and Nd. Combined, this suggests that oxygen remains coupled to the more incompatible elements during melt production and migration and that the intermediate δ18O value is a feature of the mantle source. The processes responsible for the δ18O signature of high-3He/4He mantle are not certain, but δ18O-87Sr/86Sr correlations indicate that it may be connected to a predominance of a HIMU-like (high U/Pb) component or other moderate δ18O components recycled into the high-3He/4He source. [1] S

  5. Preservation of extraterrestrial 3He in 480-Ma-old marine limestones.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D B; Farley, K A; Schmitz, B

    1998-11-01

    We have measured the helium abundance and isotopic composition of a suite of Lower Ordovician marine limestones and associated fossil meteorites from Kinnekulle, Sweden. Limestone 3He/4He ratios as high as 11.5 times the atmospheric value in fused samples and up to 23 times atmospheric in a single step-heat fraction indicate the presence of extraterrestrial helium, and demonstrate that at least a fraction of the extraterrestrial 3He carried by interplanetary dust particles must be retained against diffusive and diagenetic losses for up to 480 Ma. The carrier phase has not been identified but is not magnetic. Extrapolation of high-temperature 3He diffusivities in these sediments is consistent with strong retention of extraterrestrial 3He under ambient Earth-surface conditions. Combination of the observed helium concentrations with sedimentation rates estimated from conodont biostratigraphy suggest that the flux of extraterrestrial 3He in the Early Ordovician was about 0.5 x 10(-12) cm3 STP cm-2 ka-1, ignoring potential post-deposition helium loss. This value is indistinguishable from the average 3He flux estimated for the Cenozoic Era. In contrast, previous studies of fossil meteorites, Ir abundances, and Os isotopic ratios in the limestone suggest that the total accretion rate of extraterrestrial material during the studied interval was at least an order of magnitude higher than the Cenozoic average. This disparity may reflect significant post-depositional loss of 3He from IDPs within these old limestones; if so, the match between the Ordovician flux and the Cenozoic average would be fortuitous. Alternatively, the size distribution of infalling objects during the Early Ordovician may have been enriched only in extraterrestrial material too large to retain 3He during atmospheric entry heating (> approximately 30 micrometers). The fossil meteorites themselves also preserve extraterrestrial helium. Meteorite 3He concentrations of 2 to 9 x 10(-12) cm3 STP g-1 are

  6. Prediction of reentrant wetting of [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures on cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersen, M.S. ); Saam, W.F. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors examine the effect of [sup 3]He impurities on the wetting behavior of [sup 4]He on cesium, predicting a phase diagram which includes reentrant wetting transitions. This phase diagram is shown to be very sensitive to effects such as a theoretically predicted bound state of [sup 3]He at the liquid-cesium interface, and the contact angle may be sensitive to interesting temperature dependences of the helium-cesium surface tension resulting from surface rotons or Rayleigh waves.

  7. Distal airways in humans: dynamic hyperpolarized 3He MR imaging--feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooker, Angela C.; Hong, Kwan Soo; McKinstry, Erin L.; Costello, Philip; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic hyperpolarized helium 3 (3He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the human airways is achieved by using a fast gradient-echo pulse sequence during inhalation. The resulting dynamic images show differential contrast enhancement of both distal airways and the lung periphery, unlike static hyperpolarized 3He MR images on which only the lung periphery is seen. With this technique, up to seventh-generation airway branching can be visualized. Copyright RSNA, 2003.

  8. SANS study of phase separation in solid {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.P.; Nagler, S.E.; Adams, E.D.; Wignall, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    Small angle neutron scattering has been used to study phase separation in a quantum alloy, solid {sup 3}He{sub x}-{sup 4}He{sub 1{minus}x}. The onset of phase separation is marked by a dramatic increase in the measured scattering. A simple interpretation of the results suggests that the late-stage phase separation kinetics are dominated by an increase in the concentration of {sup 3}He atoms in preexisting precipitate regions.

  9. Meson exchange currents for nuclear muon capture by {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, J.G.; Truhlik, E.

    1995-05-10

    We have calculated exchange corrections for nuclear muon capture by {sup 3}He using the hard pion method for the currents and wavefunctions for {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H found by the coupled rearrangement channel method. The result for the rate (triton asymmetry) has an uncertainty of 3% (1%) due mainly to the uncertainty in the value of {ital f}{sub {pi}{ital N}{Delta}} (various factors). {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. A compact SEOP 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Takashi; Arimoto, Yasushi; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Kenji; Kira, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Takenao; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Chang, Lieh-Jeng

    2012-02-01

    We developed AFP NMR in an aluminum container for polarized noble gas nuclei. The radio frequency magnetic field inside the aluminum container was designed from computer simulations. The polarization loss by the AFP spin flip of 3He was measured to be as low as 3.8×10-4. With this technique, a compact in-situ polarizing 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR is demonstrated.

  11. Hyperpolarized (3) He and (129) Xe MRI: differences in asthma before bronchodilation.

    PubMed

    Svenningsen, Sarah; Kirby, Miranda; Starr, Danielle; Leary, Del; Wheatley, Andrew; Maksym, Geoffrey N; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2013-12-01

    To compare hyperpolarized helium-3 ((3) He) and xenon-129 ((129) Xe) MRI in asthmatics before and after salbutamol inhalation. Seven asthmatics provided written informed consent and underwent spirometry, plethysmography, and MRI before and after salbutamol inhalation. (3) He and (129) Xe ventilation defect percent (VDP) and ventilation coefficient of variation (COV) were measured. To characterize the airways spatially related to ventilation defects, wall area percent (WA%) and lumen area (LA) were evaluated for two subjects who had thoracic x-ray computed tomography (CT) acquired 1 year before MRI. Before salbutamol inhalation, (129) Xe VDP (8 ± 5%) was significantly greater than (3) He VDP (6 ± 5%, P = 0.003). Post-salbutamol, there was a significant improvement in both (129) Xe (5 ± 4%, P < 0.0001) and (3) He (4 ± 3%, P = 0.001) VDP, and the improvement in (129) Xe VDP was significantly greater (P = 0.008). (129) Xe MRI COV (Pre: 0.309 ± 0.028, Post: 0.296 ± 0.036) was significantly greater than (3) He MRI COV (Pre: 0.282 ± 0.018, Post: 0.269 ± 0.024), pre- (P < 0.0001) and post-salbutamol (P < 0.0001) and the decrease in COV post-salbutamol was significant ((129) Xe, P = 0.002; (3) He, P < 0.0001). For a single asthmatic, a sub-segmental (129) Xe MRI ventilation defect that was visible only before salbutamol inhalation but not visible using (3) He MRI was spatially related to a remodeled fourth generation sub-segmental airway (WA% = 78%, LA = 2.9 mm(2) ). In asthma, hyperpolarized (129) Xe MRI may help reveal ventilation abnormalities before bronchodilation that are not observed using hyperpolarized (3) He MRI. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Distal airways in humans: dynamic hyperpolarized 3He MR imaging--feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooker, Angela C.; Hong, Kwan Soo; McKinstry, Erin L.; Costello, Philip; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic hyperpolarized helium 3 (3He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the human airways is achieved by using a fast gradient-echo pulse sequence during inhalation. The resulting dynamic images show differential contrast enhancement of both distal airways and the lung periphery, unlike static hyperpolarized 3He MR images on which only the lung periphery is seen. With this technique, up to seventh-generation airway branching can be visualized. Copyright RSNA, 2003.

  13. Compressing Spin-Polarized 3He With a Modified Diaphragm Pump

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, T. R.; Rich, D. R.; Thompson, A. K.; Snow, W. M.; Jones, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear spin-polarized 3He gas at pressures on the order of 100 kPa (1 bar) are required for several applications, such as neutron spin filters and magnetic resonance imaging. The metastability-exchange optical pumping (MEOP) method for polarizing 3He gas can rapidly produce highly polarized gas, but the best results are obtained at much lower pressure (~0.1 kPa). We describe a compact compression apparatus for polarized gas that is based on a modified commercial diaphragm pump. The gas is polarized by MEOP at a typical pressure of 0.25 kPa (2.5 mbar), and compressed into a storage cell at a typical pressure of 100 kPa. In the storage cell, we have obtained 20 % to 35 % 3He polarization using pure 3He gas and 35 % to 50 % 3He polarization using 3He-4He mixtures. By maintaining the storage cell at liquid nitrogen temperature during compression, the density has been increased by a factor of four. PMID:27500044

  14. Pomeranchuk cell for hyperpolarized 3He based on the brute force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Seiji; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ueda, Kunihiro; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Fujimura, Hisako; Yosoi, Masaru; Ohta, Takeshi; Frossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette; Rouille, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) has been used for the medical diagnosis as a radiation-free imaging equipment. Since the proton has been mainly used for medical MRI, usefulness has been rather restrictive. As an example for expanding the range of applicability, MRI with hyperpolarized 3He gas has been used for the lung disease. Here, ``hyperpolarized'' means ``polarized higher than the thermal equilibrium polarization.'' For producing a large amount of hyperpolarized 3He gas at a time, we have been developing a hyperpolarization technique based on the brute force method which uses an ultralow temperature of a few mK and a strong magnetic field around 17 T in combination with the principle of the Pomeranchuk cooling. The Pomeranchuk cell made with non-metallic materials of small heat capacity is attached to the 3He/4He dilution refrigerator using a sintered silver allowing large heat conduction. After the sensors to monitor the temperature and pressure of 3He are calibrated and the Pomeranchuk cell is constructed, the system is tested. Then, the solidification of 3He and the measurement of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) signals of 3He under the magnetic field of 17 T are carried out. The current status is reported in this talk.

  15. Tritium/3He measurements in young groundwater: Progress in applications to complex hydrogeological systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlosser, P.; Shapiro, S.D.; Stute, M.; Plummer, N.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium/3He dating has been applied to many problems in groundwater hydrology including, for example, determination of circulation patterns, mean residence times, recharge rates, or bank infiltration. Here, we discuss recent progress in the application of the tritium/3He dating method to sites with complex hydrogeological settings. Specifically, we report on tritium/3He dating at sites with (a) river infiltration into the basaltic fractured rock aquifer of the Eastern Snake River Plain, and (b) river infiltration through sinkholes into the karstic limestone Upper Floridian aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia.Tritium/3He dating has been applied to many problems in groundwater hydrology including, for example, determination of circulation patterns, mean residence times, recharge rates, or bank infiltration. Here, we discuss recent progress in the application of the tritium/3He dating method to sites with complex hydrogeological settings. Specifically, we report on tritium/3He dating at sites with (a) river infiltration into the basaltic fractured rock aquifer of the Eastern Snake River Plain, and (b) river infiltration through sinkholes into the karstic limestone Upper Floridian aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia.

  16. Primordial 3He in South Atlantic deep waters from sources on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüth, Christine; Well, Roland; Roether, Wolfgang

    2000-06-01

    Helium isotope data from three zonal WOCE sections (11°S, 19°S and 30°S) in the South Atlantic are presented. Among other features we find a distinct δ 3He-maximum above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at all three latitudes. Using a hydrographic multiparameter analysis, we separate 3He emanating from the MAR from the large-scale 3He background. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of input of primordial 3He at the MAR in the South Atlantic. The source appears to be weak compared with the Pacific sources, causing 3He elevations (relative to background values) of only 2-3% directly above the MAR. This exceeds by several times the statistical and systematic data uncertainties, which amount to 0.35% each, so that detailed contouring of the MAR-derived 3He is possible. At 30°S and 11°S, a significant signal extends westward over at least 2000 km, whereas at 19°S the signal is more confined to the ridge area. The westward extensions indicate westward flow at depths near the ridge crest elevation, contradicting flow directions deduced previously by Reid (1989).

  17. Fusion gamma-ray measurements for D-3He experiments at JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Kusama, Y.; Shibata, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion gamma rays were measured in D-3He experiments using negative ion-based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) in reverse shear plasmas of the JT-60 tokamak. 3He gas was puffed at plasma initiation and just before N-NB injection. The D-3He reaction produces 3.6 MeV alphas and 14.7 MeV protons, but there is also a small branch which provides 5Li and 16.7 MeV gamma rays. The total D-3He reaction rate can be evaluated from measurement of gamma rays of the 3He (d,γ) 5Li reactions using a 3 in. diam by 3 in. long Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator. The gamma-ray detector was located 17 m below the plasma center and measured the gamma-rays in a vertical line of sight. The detector was mounted inside a heavy collimator with polyethylene and lead shielding. The floor penetration, a 4×8 cm2 hole, was used as a precollimator. Energy calibration of the detector was done with photopeaks for neutron capture gamma rays from the structural materials in D-D discharges. The detection efficiency was calculated with Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B for 16.7 MeV gammas. The pulse height analysis of the gamma rays resulted in the D-3He fusion power of 110±30 kW in this experiment.

  18. Transport of polarized 3He for the nEDM experiment at the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Thomas; Beck, Douglas; Koivuniemi, Jaakko; Silvera, Ike; Williamson, Steven; Yao, Weijun; nEDM Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment at the ORNL SNS aims to determine the neutron's electric dipole moment to an accuracy of 5.4 x 10-28 e cm by measuring the Lamor precession of neutrons using the spin dependent reaction n +3He =>p +3H +764KeV. In the experiment polarized 3He is injected into a free surface of 4He, and then brought to the measurement cell and removed once it depolarizes. The proposed transport method for the 3He, the heat flush mechanism, must be tested. In the heat flush mechanism a thermal gradient along a long pipe, generates phonons whose collisions with 3He, drives 3He transport to the cold end of the pipe. Tests of the heat flush mechanism by measuring the change in 3He concentration at the cold end of a long pipe, using a capacitive pressure sensor, are underway at Harvard University. Work supported in part by NSF Grants PHY-1440011 and PHY-1506416.

  19. An Update on 3He Correlation Function Research for the SNS nEDM collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Austin; Golub, Robert; Dipert, Robert

    2016-09-01

    In the 65 years since Ramsey's null result for the neutron's permanent electric dipole moment (nEDM), techniques have become increasingly sensitive, establishing the present upper limit of 3 ×10-26 e .cm . This value was limited by an unexpected source of error: a freqency shift with linear dependence on the electric field colloquially called a false EDM. The next generation nEDM sensing apparatus being developed for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory uses a 3He comagenetometer in a pure helium-II bath. The false EDM in 3He may be related to the 3He's position autocorrelation function, which in turn is accessible by a detailed study of T1 decay in hyperpolarized 3He. Existing measurements of this system were limited by temperature, noise, and 3He concentration. Dramatic improvements have been made on all three fronts by improving the thermal connection between the measurment cell and the dilution refrigerator, by adding additional shielding and a SQUID package, and by developing a MEOP 3He polarization system. Data collection is underway. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41042.

  20. Terrestrial cosmogenic 3He: where are we 30 years after its discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Pik, Raphaël; Farley, Kenneth A.; Lavé, Jérôme; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    It is now 30 years since cosmogenic 3He has been detected for the first time in a terrestrial sample (Kurz, 1986). 3He is now a widely used geochemical tool in many fields of Earth sciences: volcanology, tectonics, paleoclimatology. 3He has the advantage to have a high "production rate" to "detection limit" ratio, allowing surfaces as young as hundred of years to be dated. Although its nuclear stability implies several limitations, it moreover represents a useful alternative to 10Be in mafic environments. This contribution is a review of the progresses that have been accomplished since this discovery, and discuss strategies to improve both the accuracy and the precision of this geochronometer. 1) Measurement of cosmogenic 3He Correction of magmatic 3He. To estimate the non-cosmogenic magmatic 3He, Kurz (1986) invented a two steps method involving crushing of phenocrysts (to analyze the isotopic ratio of the magmatic component), followed by a subsequent melting of the sample, to extract the remaining components, including the cosmogenic 3He: 3Hec = 3Hemelt -4Hemelt x (3He/4He)magmatic (1) Several studies suggested that the preliminary crushing may induce a loss of cosmogenic 3He (Hilton et al., 1993; Yokochi et al., 2005; Blard et al., 2006), implying an underestimate of the cosmogenic 3He measurement. However, subsequent work did not replicate these observations (Blard et al., 2008; Goerhing et al., 2010), suggesting an influence of the used apparatus. An isochron method (by directly melting several phenocrysts aliquots) is an alternative to avoid the preliminary crushing step (Blard and Pik, 2008). Atmospheric contamination. Protin et al. (in press) provides robust evidences for a large and irreversible contamination of atmospheric helium on silicate surfaces. This unexpected behavior may reconcile the contrasted observations about the amplitude of crushing loss. This undesirable atmospheric contamination is negligible if grain fractions smaller than 150 mm are

  1. An important source of 4He (and 3He) in diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.

    1989-12-01

    A large data base has recently accumulated on the concentrations of helium isotopes in diamonds mined from various regions. It was noted earlier (Ozima et al. (1985) [1]; Lal et al. (1989) [2]) that the frequency distribution of the 4He concentrations is a fairly narrow one, whereas that of 3He concentrations is a broad one with no pronounced peaks. The ratios 3He/ 4He , on the other hand show a broad maximum around 2 R a ( R a equals atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio, = 1.40 × 10 -6) with a slow decrease over two orders of magnitude on either side. Does this imply that the diamonds sample a wide variety of helium reservoirs having a range of 3He/ 4He ratios but somehow attain similar 4He concentrations? We propose that in a majority of the diamonds studied, 4He is primarily due to implantation of radiogenic alpha particles from the host material after emplacement in the crust, usually kimberlite, and that the concentrations of 4He in diamonds often get appreciably altered by this process. Thus the 4He trapped in the diamond at the time of its crystallization is usually overwhelmed by the implanted helium and the measured 3He/ 4He ratios do not generally correspond to any "sources" in the mantle. However, the implanted 4He resides in the outer 16 μm of the diamond, and the intrinsic 4He and 3He/ 4He ratios in the diamond can be studied if its outer layers are removed. The wider implications of diamond being the "target" material for nuclear reaction products from the host material are discussed. Radiogenic 3He produced in the host material is also implanted in the diamond, but this contribution is small on a gross basis. However, since the depth of implantation of 3He is greater than that of 4He, some of the very high 3He/ 4He ratios observed in diamonds could be due to the "implantation" of radiogenic 3He. The radiogenic reactions in the host material can also contribute to appreciable 21Ne in diamonds.

  2. Cherenkov Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, Marlon

    2012-04-19

    When a charged particle passes through an optically transparent medium with a velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium, it emits prompt photons, called Cherenkov radiation, at a characteristic polar angle that depends on the particle velocity. Cherenkov counters are particle detectors that make use of this radiation. Uses include prompt particle counting, the detection of fast particles, the measurement of particle masses, and the tracking or localization of events in very large, natural radiators such as the atmosphere, or natural ice fields, like those at the South Pole in Antarctica. Cherenkov counters are used in a number of different fields, including high energy and nuclear physics detectors at particle accelerators, in nuclear reactors, cosmic ray detectors, particle astrophysics detectors and neutrino astronomy, and in biomedicine for labeling certain biological molecules.

  3. Minority and mode conversion heating in (3He)-H JET plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Hellsten, T.; Ongena, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Frigione, D.; Sozzi, C.; Calabro, G.; Lennholm, M.; Beaumont, P.; Blackman, T.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Cecconello, M.; Coffey, I.; Coyne, A.; Crombe, K.; Czarnecka, A.; Felton, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giroud, C.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Jacquet, P.; Kazakov, Ye; Kiptily, V.; Knipe, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Lin, Y.; Maslov, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Nocente, M.; Pangioni, L.; Proverbio, I.; Stamp, M.; Studholme, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Versloot, T. W.; Vdovin, V.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2012-07-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating experiments have recently been conducted in JET (3He)-H plasmas. This type of plasmas will be used in ITER's non-activated operation phase. Whereas a companion paper in this same PPCF issue will discuss the RF heating scenario's at half the nominal magnetic field, this paper documents the heating performance in (3He)-H plasmas at full field, with fundamental cyclotron heating of 3He as the only possible ion heating scheme in view of the foreseen ITER antenna frequency bandwidth. Dominant electron heating with global heating efficiencies between 30% and 70% depending on the 3He concentration were observed and mode conversion (MC) heating proved to be as efficient as 3He minority heating. The unwanted presence of both 4He and D in the discharges gave rise to 2 MC layers rather than a single one. This together with the fact that the location of the high-field side fast wave (FW) cutoff is a sensitive function of the parallel wave number and that one of the locations of the wave confluences critically depends on the 3He concentration made the interpretation of the results, although more complex, very interesting: three regimes could be distinguished as a function of X[3He]: (i) a regime at low concentration (X[3He] < 1.8%) at which ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating is efficient, (ii) a regime at intermediate concentrations (1.8 < X[3He] < 5%) in which the RF performance is degrading and ultimately becoming very poor, and finally (iii) a good heating regime at 3He concentrations beyond 6%. In this latter regime, the heating efficiency did not critically depend on the actual concentration while at lower concentrations (X[3He] < 4%) a bigger excursion in heating efficiency is observed and the estimates differ somewhat from shot to shot, also depending on whether local or global signals are chosen for the analysis. The different dynamics at the various concentrations can be traced back to the presence of 2 MC layers and their

  4. Counter Deception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    This report describes research on the problem of providing counter- deception support for expert systems. An expert system is deceived only if its...sensitive to deception. If the enemy can acquire a copy of the expert system then his problem is that much simpler; however, he does not need a copy to...be an effective deceiver Ultimately, the technical problem is that the expert system lacks an explicit representation for deception and thus has no

  5. Photodisintegration of /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He. [Threshold to 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Faul, D.D.

    1980-09-01

    The photoneutron cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have been measured from threshold to approx. 25 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons at the LLL Electron-Positron Linear Accelerator facility. These reactions include the two-body breakup of /sup 3/H and the three-body breakup of both /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He; these measurements for /sup 3/H are the first to span the energy region across the peaks of the cross sections. An efficient BF/sub 3/-tube-and-paraffin neutron detector and high-pressure gaseous samples of several moles each (the activity of the /sup 3/H sample was approx. 200,000 Ci) were employed in these measurements. Measurements on /sup 16/O and /sup 2/H also were performed to verify the absolute cross-section scale. The results, when compared with each other and with results for the two-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He from the literature, show that the two-body breakup cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have nearly the same shape, but the one for /sup 3/He lies lower in magnitude; the three-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He lies higher in magnitude and is broader in the peak region and also rises less sharply from threshold than that for /sup 3/H; and these measured differences between the cross sections for the breakup modes largely compensate in their sum, so that the total photon absorption cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He are nearly the same in both size and shape at energies near and above their peaks. Theoretical results from the literature disagree with the experimental results to a certain extent over the entire photon-energy region for which the photoneutron cross sections were measured. 50 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Grand Comore Island: A well-constrained “low 3He/4He” mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, Cornelia; Goldstein, Steven L.; Stute, Martin; Kurz, Mark D.; Schlosser, Peter

    2005-05-01

    We report He isotope ( 3He/ 4He) variations in samples from alkali basaltic and basanitic lava flows from Grande Comore Island complemented by existing [1,2] [C. Class, S.L. Goldstein, Plume-lithosphere interactions in the ocean basins: constraints from the source mineralogy. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 150 (1997) 245-260, C. Class, S.L. Goldstein, R. Altherr, P. Bachèchlery, The process of plume-lithosphere interaction in the ocean basins—the case of Grande Comore. J. Petrol., 39 (5) (1998) 881-903] and new Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios and major and trace element abundances. He isotope data in samples from Tristan da Cunha and Gough islands and the Huri Hills in Kenya are reported also. Grande Comore 3He/ 4He ratios vary between 5.05 and 7.08 RA ( 4He/ 3He ≈ 141,000-101,000). Chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic variations of Grande Comore lavas were previously shown to reflect melts derived from the deep mantle plume and the shallow lithospheric mantle [1-3] [C. Class, S.L. Goldstein, Plume-lithosphere interactions in the ocean basins: constraints from the source mineralogy. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 150 (1997) 245-260, C. Class, S.L. Goldstein, R. Altherr, P. Bachèchlery, The process of plume-lithosphere interaction in the ocean basins-the case of Grande Comore. J. Petrol., 39 (5) (1998) 881-903, C. Claude-Ivanaj, B. Bourdon, C.J. Allègre, Ra-Th-Sr isotope systematics in Grande Comore Island: a case study of plume-lithosphere interaction. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 99-117]. The lithosphere-dominated end-member (La Grille volcano) shows uniform 3He/ 4He ratios within error of 6.75-7.08 RA ( 4He/ 3He ≈ 106,000-101,000) over a range of [He] = 36-428 × 10 - 9 ccSTP/g. The plume end-member (of the Karthala volcano suite), as constrained by Sr, Nd, Pb isotope ratios, shows uniformly lower 3He/ 4He ratios with 5.05-5.41 RA ( 4He/ 3He ≈ 141,000-132,000) over a range of [He] = 11-136 × 10 - 9 ccSTP/g. All samples show good correlations between Sr-Nd-He isotope

  7. Titanium Isotopes Link the High 3He/4He Reservoir to Continent Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, M. A.; Jackson, M. G.; Dauphas, N.; Burton, K. W.; Williams, H. M.; Kurz, M. D.; Doucelance, R.; Smithies, H.; Champion, D. C.; Nowell, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Elevated 3He/4He ratios found in ocean island basalts (OIB) argue for the survival of an early-formed reservoir (>4.5 Ga) in the Earth's mantle [1]. However, its nature remains debated. A characteristic of high 3He/4He OIBs is their anomalous enrichment in Ti abundance relative to elements of similar incompatibility (Sm and Tb). Here we use a new geochemical tool, the stable isotopes of Titanium, to investigate the origin of Ti enrichment of high 3He/4He OIBs. Recent work [2] has shown that Ti isotopes are a powerful tracer of oxide-melt equilibrium in magmatic systems. Results show that primitive OIB samples from localities associated with low 3He/4He ratios (≤15 R/Ra) have δ49Ti values within error of the mantle (δ49Ti=0.005±0.005 [2]) and chondrite values (+0.004±0.010 [3]) regardless of their Ti anomaly (0.93He/4He ratios (>25R/Ra) display δ49Ti values ranging from mantle-like to enriched in light isotopes (up to -0.065‰±0.005) that are negatively correlated with their Ti/Ti* and uncorrelated to indices of magma differentiation. This indicates that i) elevated Ti/Ti* in high 3He/4He OIBs is a mantle source signature and ii) that the high 3He/4He reservoir is enriched in light isotopes of Ti relative to the BSE. This enrichment in light isotopes is balanced by the heavy δ49Ti values and negative Ti/Ti* of Archean Tonalite-Throndhjemite-Granodiorite samples (TTG) from the Pilbara and Yilgarn Craton (+0.20<δ49Ti<+0.40), a proxy for early-formed, juvenile continental crust. Given the chondritic composition of the Earth's mantle and the inability of the typical mantle lithologies to fractionate Ti isotopes, this implies that the Ti enrichment of the high 3He/4He mantle reservoir is linked to the recycling of residues of partial melting events in the presence of rutile (TiO2), a process that drove continent formation in the Archean and possibly earlier. In addition, since these residues cannot display elevated 3He/4He ratios, it requires the Ti

  8. 3He spin filter based polarized neutron capability at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C.; Gentile, T. R.; Erwin, R.; Watson, S.; Ye, Q.; Krycka, K. L.; Maranville, B. B.

    2014-07-01

    A 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) program for polarized neutron scattering was launched in 2006 as part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) Expansion Initiative. The goal of the project was to enhance the NCNR polarized neutron measurement capabilities. Benefitting from more than a decade's development of spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) at NIST, we planned to employ SEOP based 3He neutron spin filters for the polarized neutron scattering community. These 3He NSF devices were planned for use on different classes of polarized neutron instrumentation at the NCNR, including triple-axis spectrometers (TAS), small-angle neutron scattering instruments (SANS), reflectometers, and wide-angle polarization analysis. Among them, the BT-7 thermal TAS, NG-3 SANS, and MAGIK reflectometer have already been in the user program for routine polarized beam experiments. Wide-angle polarization analysis on Multi-Axis Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) has been developed for user experiments. We describe briefly the SEOP systems dedicated for polarized beam experiments and polarizing neutron development for each instrument class. We summarize the current status and polarized neutronic performance for each instrument. We present a 3He NSF hardware and software interface to allow for synchronization of 3He polarization inversion (neutron spin flipping) and free-induction decay (FID) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with neutron data collection.

  9. ^3He Polarization by Rb Spin Exchange in a Multistage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, K. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Smith, T. B.; Welsh, R. C.; Zerger, J. N.

    1999-10-01

    Polarization of ^3He by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb has benefited greatly from the use of high powered laser diode arrays. Efficient use of these lasers requires operation of cells with high ^3He densities to match better the pressure broadened Rb absorption line to the wide laser spectral profile. However, lower delivery pressures are often required. For example, for low energy neutron spin filters the optimum ^3He thickness (for practical polarizations) would produce impractically thin cells. A multistage system is practical for applications requiring high ^3He polarization delivered at variable pressure because the optical pumping stage can be separated from the delivery/refilling stages. Additionally, operation can be improved by choosing the appropriate glass for each stage. We have constructed a multistage system that consists of a 70 cc pump cell (Corning 7056 glass), a transition region (Pyrex Glass), and a 350 cc receiving cell (Cs-coated Fused Silica). The cells are connected using commercial Viton-rubber o-ring sealed Pyrex glass valves and ball and socket joints. The transition region is connected to a vacuum pump and gas fill system so that cells may be refilled in situ. Both pump cells and receiving cells have exhibited intrinsic ^3He relaxation times of >35 hours. We will report on tests of this prototype system.

  10. Longitudinal and transverse spin diffusion in3He-4He solutions in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, J. H.; Child, A.; König, R.; Owers-Bradley, J. R.; Bowley, R. M.

    1995-06-01

    Using pulsed NMR techniques, we have measured spin diffusion in3He-3He solutions with3He concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.46%, 1.0%, 3.8% and 6.4% in a magnetic field of 8.8 Tesla for a temperature range 11 mK⩽ T ⩽ 200 mK. We observe that the temperature dependence of the transverse spin diffusion coefficient D1 deviates from that expected for an unpolarized Fermi liquid in the degenerate region in the 1.0%, 3.8% and 6.4% solutions. Moreover, by measuring both longitudinal and transverse spin diffusion coefficients in the 6.4%-mixture, we have verified experimentally the difference between them, and provided direct evidence for a field-induced anisotropy in spin diffusion. The results from the 0.05% and 0.1% solutions show agreement with the theory of Jeon and Mullin; however, no deviation of D1 from that expected in an unpolarized mixture was observed because the3He is not in the degenerate regime for these very dilute systems for the temperatures we could achieve. The analysis of our measurements in terms of the Leggett-Rice equations also yields values for the spin rotation parameter μM0. Using our results along with previous measurements at various3He concentrations, we deduce a value for the s-wave quasiparticle scattering length of a=-0.88 ± 0.05 Å.

  11. Neutron Diffuse Reflectometry of Magnetic Thin Films with a 3He Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wangchun; O'Donovan, Kevin; Borchers, Julie

    2005-03-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) is a powerful probe that characterizes the magnetization depth profile and magnetic domains in magnetic thin films. Although the conventionally used supermirrors are well-matched for specular PNR, they have limited angular acceptance and hence are impractical for complete characterization of the magnetic off-specular scattering where polarization analysis for diffusely reflected neutrons is required. Polarized ^3He gas, produced by optical pumping, can be used to polarize or analyze neutron beams because of the strong spin dependence of the neutron absorption cross section for ^3He. Here we report efficient polarization analysis of diffusely reflected neutrons in a reflectometry geometry using a polarized ^3He analyzer in conjunction with a position-sensitive detector (PSD). We obtained spin-resolved two-dimensional Qx-Qz reciprocal space maps for a patterned array of Co antidots in both the saturated and the demagnetized states. The preliminary results for a patterned amorphous bilayer, Gd40Fe60/ Tb55Fe45, measured with a ^3He analyzer and a PSD will also be discussed. Using the spin exchange optical pumping method we have achieved record high ^3He polarizations of 76% on the neutron beam line where we measured an initial analyzing efficiency of 0.97 and a neutron transmission for the desired spin state of 0.45.

  12. p +d →3He+γ reaction with pionless effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematollahi, H.; Bayegan, S.; Mahboubi, N.; Arani, M. Moeini

    2016-11-01

    We study the proton radiative capture by a deuteron with the pionless effective field theory [EFT(π / )] formalism. The calculation of the p d →3Heγ amplitude is considered for the incoming doublet and quartet channels leading to the formation of a 3He. The strong and Coulomb scattering amplitudes for the proton-deuteron (p d ) scattering are included in this study. In this calculation, the properly normalized 3He wave function has been used at each order. We evaluate both M 1 and E 1 transitions in the p d →3Heγ process up to NLO. We calculate the total cross section for the p d →3Heγ process based on the cluster-configuration space and compare it with the experimental data. The cross section results are presented for the incoming proton with the energy 0.5 ≤E ≤3 MeV where the lower and upper limits are chosen for the treatment of Coulomb effects perturbatively and the EFT(π / ) breakdown scale, respectively. No three-body force is needed to renormalize observables up to NLO other than those we have introduced in the p d scattering amplitudes.

  13. Association of 3He-Rich Solar Energetic Particles with Large-scale Coronal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučík, Radoslav; Innes, Davina E.; Mason, Glenn M.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2016-12-01

    Small, 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been commonly associated with extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets and narrow coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are believed to be the signatures of magnetic reconnection, involving field lines open to interplanetary space. The elemental and isotopic fractionation in these events are thought to be caused by processes confined to the flare sites. In this study, we identify 32 3He-rich SEP events observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer, near the Earth, during the solar minimum period 2007-2010, and we examine their solar sources with the high resolution Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUV images. Leading the Earth, STEREO-A has provided, for the first time, a direct view on 3He-rich flares, which are generally located on the Sun’s western hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the 3He-rich SEP events in this survey are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. An examination of the wave front propagation, the source-flare distribution, and the coronal magnetic field connections suggests that the EUV waves may affect the injection of 3He-rich SEPs into interplanetary space.

  14. OBSERVATIONS OF EUV WAVES IN {sup 3}He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bucík, R.; Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2015-10-10

    Small {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events with their anomalous abundances, markedly different from the solar system, provide evidence for a unique acceleration mechanism that operates routinely near solar active regions. Although the events are sometimes accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), it is believed that mass and isotopic fractionation is produced directly in the flare sites on the Sun. We report on a large-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) coronal wave observed in association with {sup 3}He-rich SEP events. In the two examples discussed, the observed waves were triggered by minor flares and appeared concurrently with EUV jets and type III radio bursts, but without CMEs. The energy spectra from one event are consistent with so-called class-1 (characterized by power laws) {sup 3}He-rich SEP events, while the other with class-2 (characterized by rounded {sup 3}He and Fe spectra), suggesting different acceleration mechanisms in the two. The observation of EUV waves suggests that large-scale disturbances, in addition to more commonly associated jets, may be responsible for the production of {sup 3}He-rich SEP events.

  15. Results on Double-polarization Asymmetries in Quasielastic Scattering from Polarized 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Sulkosky, Vincent A.

    2016-03-01

    The 3He nucleus has become extremely important in the investigation of the neutron’s spin structure. When polarized, 3He acts as an effective polarized neutron target and hence facilitates our understanding of the neutron’s internal structure. However, to be used in this manner, our understanding of the internal structure of 3He is of extreme importance. As the precision of experiments has improved, the extraction of polarized neutron information from 3He leads to an ever larger share of the systematic uncertainty for these experiments. In these proceedings, I present a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries in the and reactions. The former process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in 3He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed around the quasi-elastic peak at Q2 = 0.25 (GeV/c)2 and 0.35 (GeV/c)2 for recoil momenta up to 270 MeV/c. The experimental apparatus, analysis and results were presented together with a comparison to state-of-the art Faddeev calculations.

  16. Combined measurement of pulmonary inert gas washout and regional ventilation heterogeneity by MR of a single dose of hyperpolarized 3He.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Martin H; Parra-Robles, Juan; Ajraoui, Salma; Wild, Jim M

    2011-04-01

    Washout of inert gases is a measure of pulmonary function well-known in lung physiology. This work presents a method combining inert gas washout and spatially resolved imaging using hyperpolarized (3) He, thus providing complementary information on lung function and physiology. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal of intrapulmonary hyperpolarized (3) He is used to track the total amount of gas present within the lungs during multiple-breath washout via tidal breathing. Before the washout phase, 3D ventilation images are acquired using (3) He magnetic resonance imaging from the same dose of inhaled gas. The measured washout signal is corrected for T(1) relaxation and radiofrequency depletion, converting it into a quantity proportional to the apparent amount of gas within the lungs. The use of a pneumotachograph for acquisition of breathing volumes during washout, together with lung volumes derived from the magnetic resonance imaging data, permits assessment of the washout curves against physiological model predictions for healthy lungs. The shape of the resulting washout curves obtained from healthy volunteers matches the predictions, demonstrating the utility of the technique for the quantitative assessment of lung function. The proposed method can be readily integrated with a standard breath-hold (3) He ventilation imaging sequence, thus providing additional information from a single dose of gas.

  17. The Effect Of Neutron Attenuation On Power Deposition In Nuclear Pumped 3He-Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cetin, Fuesun

    2007-04-23

    Nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) are driven by the products of nuclear reactions and directly convert the nuclear energy to directed optical energy. Pumping gas lasers by nuclear reaction products has the advantage of depositing large energies per reaction. The need for high laser power output implies high operating pressure. In the case of volumetric excitation by 3He(n, p)3H reactions, however, operation at high pressure (more than a few atm) causes excessive neutron attenuation in the 3He gas. This fact adversely effects on energy deposition and, hence, laser output power and beam quality. Here, spatial and temporal variations of neutron flux inside a closed 3He -filled cylindrical laser tube have been numerically calculated for various tube radii and operating pressures by using a previously reported dynamic model for energy deposition. Calculations are made by using ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor as the neutron source. The effects of neutron attenuation on power deposition are examined.

  18. The Feasibility Of Fusion Reactors Fueled With D-{sup 3}He And D-D

    SciTech Connect

    Stott, Peter

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we discuss the feasibility of fusion reactors based on D-{sup 3}He and D-D fuel mixtures. The low reactivity of the D-{sup 3}He and D-D fusion reactions and the large energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation at high plasma temperatures severely restricts the choice of fuel mixtures that can be brought to ignition. These fuel mixtures are extremely sensitive to impurities and to helium ash retention and they would require reactor conditions (plasma density, temperature, beta and energy confinement time) that are much more demanding than the requirements for D-T. A reactor burning D-{sup 3}He or D-D would be far beyond the most optimistic extrapolations of known magnetic confinement schemes, it would have problems with sustainable fuel supplies and it would produce substantial numbers of neutrons. Our conclusion is that these fuels cannot be considered as realistic alternatives to D-T.

  19. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3 He

    DOE PAGES

    Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  20. The Neutron and 3He Spin Structure Functions at Low Q^2

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent Sulkosky

    2009-08-01

    Experiment E97-110 was performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Hall A to provide a precise measurement of the moments of the neutron and $^{3}$He spin structure functions. A longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered from a longitudinally or transversely polarized $^{3}$He target. The extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral and other moments of the neutron and $^{3}$He spin structure functions were extracted at very low momentum transfers (0.02 $< Q^{2} <$ 0.3 [GeV$/c$]$^{2}$). These data allow us to make a benchmark check of Chiral Perturbation Theory calculations in a region where they are expected to be valid. In these proceedings, the experimental details are discussed and preliminary results on the moments of the spin structure functions are presented.

  1. Observation of a new superfluid phase for 3He embedded in nematically ordered aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelev, N.; Reichl, M.; Abhilash, T. S.; Smith, E. N.; Nguyen, K. X.; Mueller, E. J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In bulk superfluid 3He at zero magnetic field, two phases emerge with the B-phase stable everywhere except at high pressures and temperatures, where the A-phase is favoured. Aerogels with nanostructure smaller than the superfluid coherence length are the only means to introduce disorder into the superfluid. Here we use a torsion pendulum to study 3He confined in an extremely anisotropic, nematically ordered aerogel consisting of ~10 nm-thick alumina strands, spaced by ~100 nm, and aligned parallel to the pendulum axis. Kinks in the development of the superfluid fraction (at various pressures) as the temperature is varied correspond to phase transitions. Two such transitions are seen in the superfluid state, and we identify the superfluid phase closest to Tc at low pressure as the polar state, a phase that is not seen in bulk 3He.

  2. Magnetic field dependent transverse spin diffusion constant in 3He- 4He solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers-Bradley, J. R.; Child, A.; Bowley, R. M.

    1994-02-01

    The transverse spin diffusion constant of 3He- 4He solutions has been measured by pulsed nmr in magnetic fields of 2.18T and 8.8T for 3He concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 3.8%. For the higher concentrations the diffusion constant at 8.8T is smaller than at 2.18T for the lowest temperatures used. The effect is largest for the 3.8% solution (a reduction by 1.7 at 15mK), but is too small to be measurable for the 0.5% solution. These results are compared to measurements of Candela et al. for pure 3He, and to the theory of Jeon and Mullin.

  3. A Short History of the Theory and Experimental Discovery of Superfluidity in 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, W. F.

    I discuss the development of the theory and experiments on superfluid 3He. After the discovery of superfluidity in 3He by Osheroff, Richardson and Lee, Phil Anderson quickly recruited Doug Osheroff to come to Bell Labs and set up a dilution fridge to continue his experiments. One of the mysteries at that time was how the high-temperature A-phase, which has a gapless excitation spectrum, could be stabilized relative to the fully gapped, lower temperature B-phase. I explain how Phil Anderson and I developed the spin fluctuation theory of the A-phase of superfluid 3He which accounted for its stability, leading to the Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) theory of the superfluid A-phase...

  4. Developing a long duration 3He fridge for the LSPE-SWIPE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Gabriele; de Bernardis, Paolo; May, Andrew J.; Masi, Silvia; McCulloch, Mark; Melhuish, Simon J.; Piccirillo, Lucio

    2016-07-01

    A 3He sorption cooler design for the Short-Wavelength Instrument for the Polarization Explorer (SWIPE) of the Large-Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE) balloon-borne experiment is described. The aim of this experiment is the detection of the primordial B-mode polarisation component of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The SWIPE instrument will use Transition-Edge Sensors that are designed to work at temperature of almost 300 mK. Therefore, a 3He sorption cooler has been specifically designed that can reach this temperature with a heat load of up to 25 μW. The fridge is compact in order to be housed inside the SWIPE cryostat and operate vertically. It has been designed to have a cycle duration of at least 7 days. In order to meet these specifications, the fridge will be charged with 0.75 moles of 3He.

  5. Rotational spectrum of the NH3-He van der Waals complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L.; Schnell, M.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction between ammonia and helium has attracted considerable interest over many years, partly because of the observation of interstellar ammonia. The rate coefficients of NH3-He scattering are an important ingredient for numerical modeling of astrochemical environments. Another, though quite different application in which the NH3-He interaction can play an important role is the doping of helium clusters with NH3 molecules to perform high-resolution spectroscopy. Such experiments are directed on the detection of non-classical response of molecular rotation in helium clusters addressing fundamental questions related to the microscopic nature of superfluidity. High-resolution spectroscopy on the NH3-He complex is an important tool for increasing our understanding of intermolecular forces between NH3 and He.

  6. Heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory approach to thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun

    2011-03-15

    The cross section for radiative thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He ({sup 3}He+n{yields}{sup 4}He+{gamma}; known as the hen reaction) is calculated based on heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The relevant M1 operators are derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO). The initial and final nuclear wave functions are obtained from the rigorous Faddeev-Yakubovski equations for five sets of realistic nuclear interactions. Up to N{sup 3}LO, the M1 operators contain two low-energy constants, which appear as the coefficients of nonderivative two-nucleon contact terms. After determining these two constants using the experimental values of the magnetic moments of the triton and {sup 3}He, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the hen cross section. The results are in good agreement with the data.

  7. Observation of a new superfluid phase for 3He embedded in nematically ordered aerogel

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, N.; Reichl, M.; Abhilash, T. S.; Smith, E. N.; Nguyen, K. X.; Mueller, E. J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    In bulk superfluid 3He at zero magnetic field, two phases emerge with the B-phase stable everywhere except at high pressures and temperatures, where the A-phase is favoured. Aerogels with nanostructure smaller than the superfluid coherence length are the only means to introduce disorder into the superfluid. Here we use a torsion pendulum to study 3He confined in an extremely anisotropic, nematically ordered aerogel consisting of ∼10 nm-thick alumina strands, spaced by ∼100 nm, and aligned parallel to the pendulum axis. Kinks in the development of the superfluid fraction (at various pressures) as the temperature is varied correspond to phase transitions. Two such transitions are seen in the superfluid state, and we identify the superfluid phase closest to Tc at low pressure as the polar state, a phase that is not seen in bulk 3He. PMID:27669660

  8. New apparatus for the precise temperature control in 3He refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kiyonori; Yoshida, Hisashi; Suzui, Mitsukazu

    1998-01-01

    A new, simple, and low cost apparatus was developed to control the temperature in the very low-temperature region (0.3-3.3 K) using a 3He refrigerator. A low temperature was obtained by controlling the 3He vapor pressure. The apparatus consists of a set of valves, an automated microvalve, a manually operated auxiliary valve, a controller including a one-board microcomputer, and a set of pressure transducers. The temperature was easily controlled by this apparatus. The temperature stability was 0.95% at 1.04 K by controlling the 3He vapor pressure. The temperature drift was typically 0.02 K at 0.85 K.

  9. Implications of new High 3He/4He Values from the Samoan Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Kurz, M. D.; Hart, S. R.; Workman, R.

    2005-12-01

    We report new olivine phenocryst helium measurements from Ofu Island, American Samoa; the 3He/4He ratios range from 19.5 to 33.7 times atmospheric (R/Ra), significantly expanding the observed range for Samoa. The highest 3He/4He ratio of 33.7 Ra was measured in olivines from an ankaramite dike. Relatively high helium concentrations (4.4*108 cc/g) in this sample, crushing and fusion measurements, coupled with sampling from a roadcut exposure, all ensure that the isotope ratio is not affected by in situ cosmogenic 3He. A second basaltic dike yielded a 3He/4He ratio of 29.6 Ra, and measurements on 9 other basalt samples from Ofu range from 19.5 to 26.4 Ra. Previous high 3He/4He measurements (~25 Ra) from the Samoan hotspot were also obtained from basaltic dikes, but were from Tutuila Island (Farley et al., 1992). The new high 3He/4He ratios from Samoa are similar in magnitude to the high ratios found at Iceland (~37 Ra) and Hawaii (~35 Ra). However, the Ofu basalts have 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7044, which is significantly more radiogenic than Iceland or Hawaii. The combined Sr-He isotopic data are broadly consistent with mixing between an enriched mantle source (EM2) and the putative common high 3He/4He component (FOZO, as best represented by Baffin Island Picrites, Stuart et al., 2003). Assuming that the overall isotopic variations are produced by mixing processes, we attempt to place constraints on the relative helium concentrations in the FOZO, EM2 and Depleted MORB mantle (DMM) endmembers. In addition to using the shape of the plausible mixing lines, we employ new estimates for the trace element concentrations in the DMM and Samoan EM2 sources (Workman et al., 2004; Workman and Hart, 2005) to get at relative helium concentrations in these reservoirs. We assume that high 3He/4He basalts from the mid-Atlantic ridge North of Iceland (Schilling et al., 1999, and others) are a mixture between DMM and FOZO. We further assume that the N. Iceland ridge-FOZO and Ofu-FOZO mixing

  10. Longitudinal assessment of treatment effects on pulmonary ventilation using 1H/3He MRI multivariate templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Contrella, Benjamin; Altes, Talissa A.; Avants, Brian B.; de Lange, Eduard E.; Mugler, John P.

    2013-03-01

    The utitlity of pulmonary functional imaging techniques, such as hyperpolarized 3He MRI, has encouraged their inclusion in research studies for longitudinal assessment of disease progression and the study of treatment effects. We present methodology for performing voxelwise statistical analysis of ventilation maps derived from hyper­ polarized 3He MRI which incorporates multivariate template construction using simultaneous acquisition of IH and 3He images. Additional processing steps include intensity normalization, bias correction, 4-D longitudinal segmentation, and generation of expected ventilation maps prior to voxelwise regression analysis. Analysis is demonstrated on a cohort of eight individuals with diagnosed cystic fibrosis (CF) undergoing treatment imaged five times every two weeks with a prescribed treatment schedule.

  11. The Feasibility Of Fusion Reactors Fueled With D-3He And D-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Peter

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the feasibility of fusion reactors based on D-3He and D-D fuel mixtures. The low reactivity of the D-3He and D-D fusion reactions and the large energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation at high plasma temperatures severely restricts the choice of fuel mixtures that can be brought to ignition. These fuel mixtures are extremely sensitive to impurities and to helium ash retention and they would require reactor conditions (plasma density, temperature, beta and energy confinement time) that are much more demanding than the requirements for D-T. A reactor burning D-3He or D-D would be far beyond the most optimistic extrapolations of known magnetic confinement schemes, it would have problems with sustainable fuel supplies and it would produce substantial numbers of neutrons. Our conclusion is that these fuels cannot be considered as realistic alternatives to D-T.

  12. d-3 He reaction measurements during fast wave minority heating in the PLT tokamak experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrien, R. E.; Strachan, J. D.

    1983-07-01

    Time- and energy-resolved d-3He fusion reactions have been measured to infer the energy of the d+ or He++ minority ions heated near their cyclotron frequency by the magnetosonic fast wave. The average energy of the reacting 3He ions during 3He minority heating is in the range of 100-400 keV, as deduced from the magnitude of the reaction rate, its decay time, and the energy spread of the proton reaction products. The observed reaction rate and its scaling with wave power and electron density and temperature are in qualitative agreement with a radial reaction rate model using the minority distribution predicted from quasilinear velocity space diffusion. Oscillations in the reaction rate are observed concurrent with sawtooth and m=2 magnetohydrodynamic activity in the plasma.

  13. Phase separation in dilute solutions of 3He in solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, C.; Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Candela, D.; Cowan, B. P.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the phase separation of solid solutions of dilute concentrations of 3He in 4He. The temperatures and the kinetics of the phase separation were determined from NMR experiments for 3He concentrations 1.6 ×10-53He droplets shows a t1 /3 time dependence at long times consistent with Ostwald ripening.

  14. Chiral effective field theory predictions for muon capture on deuteron and {3}He.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, L E; Kievsky, A; Rosati, S; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M

    2012-02-03

    The muon-capture reactions {2}H(μ{-},ν{μ})nn and {3}He(μ{-},ν{μ}){3}H are studied with nuclear potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LECs) c{D} and c{E}, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c{D}) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The muon-capture rates on deuteron and {3}He are predicted to be 399±3  sec{-1} and 1494±21  sec{-1}, respectively. The spread accounts for the cutoff sensitivity, as well as uncertainties in the LECs and electroweak radiative corrections. By comparing the calculated and precisely measured rates on {3}He, a value for the induced pseudoscalar form factor is obtained in good agreement with the chiral perturbation theory prediction.

  15. Use of .sup.3 He.sup.30 + ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating

    DOEpatents

    Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Hwang, David Q.; Hovey, Jane

    1986-04-22

    Neutron activation due to high levels of neutron production in a first heated deuterium-tritium plasma is substantially reduced by using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating of energetic .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions in a second deuterium-.sup.3 He.sup.++ plasma which exhibit an energy distribution and density similar to that of alpha particles in fusion reactor experiments to simulate fusion alpha particle heating in the first plasma. The majority of the fast .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions and their slowing down spectrum can be studied using either a modulated hydrogen beam source for producing excited states of He.sup.+ in combination with spectrometers or double charge exchange with a high energy neutral lithium beam and charged particle detectors at the plasma edge. The maintenance problems thus associated with neutron activation are substantially reduced permitting energetic alpha particle behavior to be studied in near term large fusion experiments.

  16. A System for Open-Access 3He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field

    PubMed Central

    RUSET, I.C.; TSAI, L.L.; MAIR, R.W.; PATZ, S.; HROVAT, M.I.; ROSEN, M.S.; MURADIAN, I.; NG, J.; TOPULOS, G.P.; BUTLER, J.P.; WALSWORTH, R.L.; HERSMAN, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser-polarized 3He gas. The system employs an open four-coil electromagnet with an operational B0 field of 4 mT, and planar gradient coils that generate gradient fields up to 0.18 G/cm in the x and y direction and 0.41 G/cm in the z direction. This system was used to obtain 1H and 3He phantom images and supine and upright 3He images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50 –200 kHz, including noise filtering and compensation for narrow-bandwidth coils. PMID:20354575

  17. Intercalibration of 3He and Other Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rates In Multiple Mineral Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, K. A.; Amidon, W. H.; Renne, P. R.; Simon, J. I.; Burbank, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    To extend the applicability of cosmogenic 3He dating beyond minerals restricted to mafic rocks (i.e., olivine and pyroxene), we have been assessing the suitability of 3He dating of additional minerals, e.g., zircon. A key aspect of this undertaking is the calibration of spallation production rates. Because the production rate of 3He varies from element to element in a fashion that is not yet well known, an empirical approach is necessary. Our recent work has focused on the Devil's Kitchen rhyolite, Coso Volcanic Field, SE California. This rhyolite has a 587 ka K/Ar age, which will be verified with a new 40Ar/39Ar age on sanidine. The attraction of this rhyolite is its extraordinary mineral assemblage arising from both the rhyolite itself and abundant mafic inclusions. From two individual rocks we obtained separates and measured 3He in the following minerals: olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, garnet, zircon, apatite, hornblende, and ilmenite. In addition we intend to measure 21Ne in quartz and sanidine, 38Ar in sanidine, and 10Be and 26Al in quartz. We sampled two surfaces: one with tension gashes documenting an original flow surface, and a protruding rock fin. The sample with primary surface morphology is apparently uneroded, but preliminary 3He analyses of olivine suggest the surface has been buried for a substantial part of its history. Olivine 3He analyses from the fin indicate exposure ages consistent with the eruption age, so this sample may allow absolute calibration of production rates. In either case we can use these samples to inter-calibrate production rates in a large number of minerals using multiple cosmogenic isotopes.

  18. Characterizing a sewage plume using the 3H-3He dating technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; LeBlanc, Denis; Schlosser, Peter; Ludin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    An extensive 3H-3He study was performed to determine detailed characteristics of a regional flow system and a sewage plume over a distance of 4 km in a sand and gravel aquifer at Otis Air Base in Falmouth, Massachusetts. 3H-3He ages increase with depth in individual piezometer clusters and with distance along flowpaths. However, the age gradient with depth (Δt/Δz) is smaller in the plume than that in the regional waters, due to the intense recharge in the infiltration beds. The 1960s bomb peak of tritium in precipitation is archived longitudinally along a flowline through the main axis of the plume and vertically in individual piezometer clusters. On the eastern side of the sampling area, where water from Ashumet Pond forces plume water deeper into the flow system, 3H-3He ages are young at depth because the 3H-3He "clock" is reset due to outgassing of helium in the pond. A reconstruction of the tritium input functions for the regional and plume samples shows that there is no offset in the peak [3H]+[3Hetrit] concentrations for the plume and regional water, indicating that the water from supply wells for use on the base is young. The 3H-3He ages and detergent concentrations in individual wells are consistent with the beginning of use of detergents and the time period when their concentrations in sewage would have been greatest. Ages and hydraulic properties calculated using the 3H-3He data compare well with those from previous investigations and from particle-tracking simulations.

  19. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for 3He-based neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B.

    2011-10-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of 3He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of 3He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on 3He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of 10B-enriched boron carbide ( 10B 4C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of 10B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional 3He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as 10BF 3 tubes and 10B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed 3He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter 3He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  20. JET (3He)-D scenarios relying on RF heating: survey of selected recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Casati, A.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Ericsson, G.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Joffrin, E.; Kallne, J.; Kiptily, V.; Marinoni, A.; Santala, M.; Valisa, M.

    2009-03-01

    Recent JET experiments have been devoted to the study of (3He) D plasmas involving radio frequency (RF) heating. This paper starts by discussing the RF heating efficiency theoretically expected in such plasmas, covering both relevant aspects of wave and of particle dynamics. Then it gives a concise summary of the main conclusions drawn from recent experiments that were either focusing on studying RF heating physics aspects or that were adopting RF heating as a tool to study plasma behavior. Depending on the minority concentration chosen, different physical phenomena are observed. At very low concentration (X[3He] < 1%), energetic tails are formed which trigger MHD activity and result in loss of fast particles. Alfv n cascades were observed and gamma ray tomography indirectly shows the impact of sawtooth crashes on the fast particle orbits. Low concentration (X[3He] < 10%) favors minority heating while for X[3He] 10% electron mode conversion damping becomes dominant. Evidence for the Fuchs et al standing wave effect (Fuchs et al 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 1637 47) on the absorption is presented. RF induced deuterium tails were observed in mode conversion experiments with large X[3He] (18%). As tentative modeling shows, the formation of these tails can be explained as a consequence of wave power absorption by neutral beam particles that efficiently interact with the waves well away from the cold D cyclotron resonance position as a result of their substantial Doppler shift. As both ion and electron RF power deposition profiles in (3He) D plasmas are fairly narrow giving rise to localized heat sources the RF heating method is an ideal tool for performing transport studies. Various of the experiments discussed here were done in plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs). ITBs are identified as regions with locally reduced diffusivity, where poloidal spinning up of the plasma is observed. The present know-how on the role of RF heating for impurity transport is also