Vajpai, Navratna; Gentner, Martin; Huang, Jie-Rong; Blackledge, Martin; Grzesiek, Stephan
2010-03-10
Current NMR information on side-chain conformations of unfolded protein states is sparse due to the poor dispersion particularly of side-chain proton resonances. We present here optimized schemes for the detection of (3)J(HalphaHbeta), (3)J(NHbeta), and (3)J(C'Hbeta) scalar and (1)D(CbetaHbeta) residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in unfolded proteins. For urea-denatured ubiquitin and protein G, up to six (3)J-couplings to (1)H(beta) are detected, which define the chi(1) angle at very high precision. Interpretation of the (3)J couplings by a model of mixed staggered chi(1) rotamers yields excellent agreement and also provides stereoassignments for (1)H(beta) methylene protons. For all observed amino acids with the exception of leucine, the chemical shift of (1)H(beta3) protons was found downfield from (1)H(beta2). For most residues, the precision of individual chi(1) rotamer populations is better than 2%. The experimental chi(1) rotamer populations are in the vicinity of averages obtained from coil regions in folded protein structures. However, individual variations from these averages of up to 40% are highly significant and indicate sequence- and residue-specific interactions. Particularly strong deviations from the coil average are found for serine and threonine residues, an effect that may be explained by a weakening of side-chain to backbone hydrogen bonds in the urea-denatured state. The measured (1)D(CbetaHbeta) RDCs correlate well with predicted RDCs that were calculated from a sterically aligned coil model ensemble and the (3)J-derived chi(1) rotamer populations. This agreement supports the coil model as a good first approximation of the unfolded state. Deviations between measured and predicted values at certain sequence locations indicate that the description of the local backbone conformations can be improved by incorporation of the RDC information. The ease of detection of a large number of highly precise side-chain RDCs opens the possibility for a more
RNA structure and scalar coupling constants
Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G.
1994-12-01
Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.
LIPSS results for photons coupling to light neutral scalar bosons
Andrei Afanasev; Oliver K. Baker; Kevin Beard; George Biallas; James Boyce; Minarni Minarni; Roopchan Ramdon; Michelle D. Shinn; Penny Slocum
2008-06-01
The LIPSS search for a light neutral scalar boson coupling to optical photons is reported. The search covers a region of parameter space of approximately 1.0 meV and coupling strength greater than 10^-6 GeV^-1. The LIPSS results show no evidence for scalar coupling in this region of parameter space.
Inflationary solutions in the nonminimally coupled scalar field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Seoktae; Kim, Sang Pyo; Song, Doo Jong
2005-08-01
We study analytically and numerically the inflationary solutions for various type scalar potentials in the nonminimally coupled scalar field theory. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is used to deal with nonlinear evolutions of inhomogeneous spacetimes and the long-wavelength approximation is employed to find the homogeneous solutions during an inflation period. The constraints that lead to a sufficient number of e-folds, a necessary condition for inflation, are found for the nonminimal coupling constant and initial conditions of the scalar field for inflation potentials. In particular, we numerically find an inflationary solution in the new inflation model of a nonminimal scalar field.
Relativistic stars in scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minamitsuji, Masato; Silva, Hector O.
2016-06-01
We present a general formulation to analyze the structure of slowly rotating relativistic stars in a broad class of scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling to matter. Our approach includes theories with generalized kinetic terms, generic scalar field potentials and contains theories with conformal coupling as particular limits. In order to investigate how the disformal coupling affects the structure of relativistic stars, we propose a minimal model of a massless scalar-tensor theory and investigate in detail how the disformal coupling affects the spontaneous scalarization of slowly rotating neutron stars. We show that for negative values of the disformal coupling parameter between the scalar field and matter, scalarization can be suppressed, while for large positive values of the disformal coupling parameter stellar models cannot be obtained. This allows us to put a mild upper bound on this parameter. We also show that these properties can be qualitatively understood by linearizing the scalar field equation of motion in the background of a general-relativistic incompressible star. To address the intrinsic degeneracy between uncertainties in the equation of state of neutron stars and gravitational theory, we also show the existence of universal equation-of-state-independent relations between the moment of inertia and compactness of neutron stars in this theory. We show that in a certain range of the theory's parameter space the universal relation largely deviates from that of general relativity, allowing, in principle, to probe the existence of spontaneous scalarization with future observations.
Noncommutative scalar field minimally coupled to nonsymmetric gravity
Kouadik, S.; Sefai, D.
2012-06-27
We construct a non-commutative non symmetric gravity minimally coupled model (the star product only couples matter). We introduce the action for the system considered namely a non-commutative scalar field propagating in a nontrivial gravitational background. We expand the action in powers of the anti-symmetric field and the graviton to second order adopting the assumption that the scalar is weekly coupled to the graviton. We compute the one loop radiative corrections to the self-energy of a scalar particle.
Inflation from cosmological constant and nonminimally coupled scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glavan, Dražen; Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav
2015-08-01
We consider inflation in a universe with a positive cosmological constant and a nonminimally coupled scalar field, in which the field couples both quadratically and quartically to the Ricci scalar. When considered in the Einstein frame and when the nonminimal couplings are negative, the field starts in slow roll and inflation ends with an asymptotic value of the principal slow-roll parameter, ɛE=4 /3 . Graceful exit can be achieved by suitably (tightly) coupling the scalar field to matter, such that at late time the total energy density reaches the scaling of matter, ɛE=ɛm . Quite generically the model produces a red spectrum of scalar cosmological perturbations and a small amount of gravitational radiation. With a suitable choice of the nonminimal couplings, the spectral slope can be as large as ns≃0.955 , which is about one standard deviation away from the central value measured by the Planck satellite. The model can be ruled out by future measurements if any of the following is observed: (a) the spectral index of scalar perturbations is ns>0.960 ; (b) the amplitude of tensor perturbations is above about r ˜10-2 ; (c) the running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations is positive.
Scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with negative coupling constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, L. L.; Eby, P. B.
1976-01-01
The possibility of a Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor gravitation theory with a negative coupling constant is considered. The admissibility of a negative-coupling theory is investigated, and a simplified cosmological solution is obtained which allows a negative derivative of the gravitation constant. It is concluded that a Brans-Dicke theory with a negative coupling constant can be a viable alternative to general relativity and that a large negative value for the coupling constant seems to bring the original scalar-tensor theory into close agreement with perihelion-precession results in view of recent observations of small solar oblateness.
N-body simulations for coupled scalar-field cosmology
Li Baojiu; Barrow, John D.
2011-01-15
We describe in detail the general methodology and numerical implementation of consistent N-body simulations for coupled-scalar-field models, including background cosmology and the generation of initial conditions (with the different couplings to different matter species taken into account). We perform fully consistent simulations for a class of coupled-scalar-field models with an inverse power-law potential and negative coupling constant, for which the chameleon mechanism does not work. We find that in such cosmological models the scalar-field potential plays a negligible role except in the background expansion, and the fifth force that is produced is proportional to gravity in magnitude, justifying the use of a rescaled gravitational constant G in some earlier N-body simulation works for similar models. We then study the effects of the scalar coupling on the nonlinear matter power spectra and compare with linear perturbation calculations to see the agreement and places where the nonlinear treatment deviates from the linear approximation. We also propose an algorithm to identify gravitationally virialized matter halos, trying to take account of the fact that the virialization itself is also modified by the scalar-field coupling. We use the algorithm to measure the mass function and study the properties of dark-matter halos. We find that the net effect of the scalar coupling helps produce more heavy halos in our simulation boxes and suppresses the inner (but not the outer) density profile of halos compared with the {Lambda}CDM prediction, while the suppression weakens as the coupling between the scalar field and dark-matter particles increases in strength.
Scalar field conformally coupled to a charged BTZ black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtancoli, P.
2016-06-01
We study the Klein-Gordon equation of a scalar field conformally coupled to a charged BTZ black hole. The background metric is obtained by coupling a non-linear and conformal invariant Maxwell field to (2 + 1) gravity. We show that the radial part is generally solved by a Heun function and, in the pure gravity limit, by a hypergeometric function.
Scalar decay constant and Yukawa coupling in walking gauge theories
Hashimoto, Michio
2011-05-01
We propose an approach for the calculation of the Yukawa coupling through the scalar decay constant and the chiral condensate in the context of the extended technicolor . We perform the nonperturbative computation of the Yukawa coupling based on the improved ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. It turns out that the Yukawa coupling can be larger or smaller than the standard model value, depending on the number N{sub D} of the weak doublets for each technicolor (TC) index. It is thus nontrivial whether or not the huge enhancement of the production of the scalar via the gluon fusion takes place even for a walking TC model with a colored techni-fermion. For the typical one-family TC model near conformality, it is found that the Yukawa coupling is slightly larger than the standard model one, where the expected mass of the scalar bound state is around 500 GeV. In this case, the production cross section via the gluon fusion is considerably enhanced, as naively expected, and hence such a scalar can be discovered/excluded at the early stage of the LHC.
Trace anomaly of dilaton-coupled scalars in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen
1997-12-01
Conformal scalar fields coupled to the dilaton appear naturally in two-dimensional models of black hole evaporation. We show that their trace anomaly is (1/24π)[R-6(∇φ)2-2□φ]. It follows that a Russo-Susskind-Thorlacius-type counterterm appears naturally in the one-loop effective action.
Quantum entanglement in three accelerating qubits coupled to scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Yue; Shen, Zhejun; Shi, Yu
2016-07-01
We consider quantum entanglement of three accelerating qubits, each of which is locally coupled with a real scalar field, without causal influence among the qubits or among the fields. The initial states are assumed to be the GHZ and W states, which are the two representative three-partite entangled states. For each initial state, we study how various kinds of entanglement depend on the accelerations of the three qubits. All kinds of entanglement eventually suddenly die if at least two of three qubits have large enough accelerations. This result implies the eventual sudden death of all kinds of entanglement among three particles coupled with scalar fields when they are sufficiently close to the horizon of a black hole.
Improved Measurement of 3J(H αi, N i+1 ) Coupling Constants in H 2O Dissolved Proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löhr, Frank; Schmidt, Jürgen M.; Maurer, Steffen; Rüterjans, Heinz
2001-11-01
A modification to the recently proposed α/β-HN(CO)CA-J TROSY pulse sequence (P. Permi et al., J. Magn. Reson.146, 255-259 (2000)) makes it possible to determine 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) coupling constants from a single E.COSY-type cross-peak pattern rather than from two 1Hα spin-state-edited subspectra. Advantages are increased 15N resolution, critical to extracting accurate 1Hα-15N coupling constants, and minimized differential relaxation due to nested 13Cα and 15N evolution periods. Application of the improved pulse sequence to Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin results in 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) values being systematically larger than those obtained with the original scheme. Parametrization of the coupling dependence on the protein backbone torsion angle ψ yields the Karplus relation 3J(Hαi, Ni+1)=-1.00 cos2(ψ-120°)+0.65 cos(ψ-120°)-0.15 Hz, with a residual root-mean-square difference of 0.13 Hz between measured and back-calculated coupling constants. The curve compares with data derived from ubiquitin (A. C. Wang and A. Bax, J. Am. Chem. Soc.117, 1810-1813 (1995)), although spanning a slightly larger range of J values in flavodoxin. The orientation of the Ala39/Ser40 peptide link, forming a type-II β-turn in flavodoxin, is twisted against X-ray-derived torsions by approximately 10° in the NMR structure as evident from the analysis of φ- and ψ-related 3J coupling constants. The remaining deviation of some experimental values from the prediction is likely to be due to strong hydrogen bonding, substituent effects, or the additional dependence on the adjacent torsions φ.
Probing scalar coupling differences via long-lived singlet states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeVience, Stephen J.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Rosen, Matthew S.
2016-01-01
We probe small scalar coupling differences via the coherent interactions between two nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules. We show that the spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) technique enables the coherent transfer of singlet order between one spin pair and another. The transfer is mediated by the difference in syn and anti vicinal or long-range J couplings among the spins. By measuring the transfer rate, we calculate a J coupling difference of 8 ± 2 mHz in phenylalanine-glycine-glycine and 2.57 ± 0.04 Hz in glutamate. We also characterize a coherence between two singlet states in glutamate, which may enable the creation of a long-lived quantum memory.
Effective field theory of quantum gravity coupled to scalar electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibiapina Bevilaqua, L.; Lehum, A. C.; da Silva, A. J.
2016-05-01
In this work, we use the framework of effective field theory to couple Einstein’s gravity to scalar electrodynamics and determine the renormalization of the model through the study of physical processes below Planck scale, a realm where quantum mechanics and general relativity are perfectly compatible. We consider the effective field theory up to dimension six operators, corresponding to processes involving one-graviton exchange. Studying the renormalization group functions, we see that the beta function of the electric charge is positive and possesses no contribution coming from gravitational interaction. Our result indicates that gravitational corrections do not alter the running behavior of the gauge coupling constants, even if massive particles are present.
Scalar coupling limits and diphoton Higgs decay from LHC in an U (1 )' model with scalar dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, R.; Nisperuza, J.; Ochoa, F.; Rubio, J. P.; Sierra, C. F.
2015-08-01
We explore constraints on the scalar coupling in a family nonuniversal U (1 )' extension of the standard model free from anomalies with a complex scalar dark matter particle. From unitarity and stability of the Higgs potential, we find the full set of bounds and order relations for the scalar coupling constants. Using recent data from the CERN-LHC collider, we study the signal strength of the diphoton Higgs decay, which imposes very stringent bounds to the scalar couplings and other scalar parameters, including parameters associated to the dark matter. Taking into account these constraints, the observable relic density of the Universe, and the limits from LUX collaboration for direct detection, we obtain allowed masses for the dark matter particle as low as 55 GeV. By assuming that the lightest scalar boson of the model corresponds to the observed Higgs boson, we evaluate deviations from the standard model of the trilineal Higgs self-coupling. The conditions from unitarity, stability and Higgs diphoton decay data allow trilineal deviations in the range 0 ≤δ g ≲-72 %.
Neutron star structure in the presence of conformally coupled scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2014-10-01
Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.
Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Conformally Coupled Scalar Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2014-01-01
Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.
Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; Varani, G.; Tinoco, I. Jr. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )
1994-06-29
Long range carbon-proton scalar couplings were measured for an RNA hairpin of 12 nucleotides using 3D and [sup 13]C-edited 2D NMR. The large one-bond carbon-proton scalar couplings ([sup 1]J[sub CH]) and small n-bond couplings ([sup 1]J[sub CH]) produce ECOSY type cross-peaks, thus facilitating the determination of the sign and magnitude of the smaller [sup 2]J[sub CH] or [sup 3]J[sub CH]. The UUCGRNA hairpin (5[prime]-rGGACUUCGGUCC-3[prime]), whose structure has been determined by our laboratory, was uniformly [sup 13]C-labeled at 30% isotopic enrichment. The observed [sup 1]J[sub CH] couplings were then correlated to the known structure. The signs of [sup 2]J[sub C4[prime]H5[prime
Extended quintessence with nonminimally coupled phantom scalar field
Hrycyna, Orest; Szydlowski, Marek
2007-12-15
We investigate evolutional paths of an extended quintessence with a nonminimally coupled phantom scalar field {psi} to the Ricci curvature. The dynamical system methods are used to investigate typical regimes of dynamics at the late time. We demonstrate that there are two generic types of evolutional scenarios which approach the attractor (a focus or a node type critical point) in the phase space: the quasioscillatory and monotonic trajectories approach the attractor which represents the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with the cosmological constant. We demonstrate that the dynamical system admits an invariant two-dimensional submanifold and discuss that which cosmological scenario is realized depends on the behavior of the system on the phase plane ({psi},{psi}{sup '}). We formulate simple conditions on the value of the coupling constant {xi} for which trajectories tend to the focus in the phase plane and hence damping oscillations around the mysterious value w=-1. We describe this condition in terms of slow-roll parameters calculated at the critical point. We discover that the generic trajectories in the focus-attractor scenario come from the unstable node. We also investigate the exact form of the parametrization of the equation of state parameter w(z) (directly determined from dynamics) which assumes a different form for both scenarios.
Visualizing Unresolved Scalar Couplings by Real-Time J-Upscaled NMR
2015-01-01
Scalar coupling patterns contain a wealth of structural information. The determination, especially of small scalar coupling constants, is often prevented by merging the splittings with the signal line width. Here we show that real-time J-upscaling enables the visualization of unresolved coupling constants in the acquisition dimension of one-dimensional (1D) or multidimensional NMR spectra. This technique, which works by introducing additional scalar coupling evolution delays within the recording of the FID (free induction decay), not only stretches the recorded coupling patterns but also actually enhances the resolution of multiplets, by reducing signal broadening by magnetic field inhomogeneities during the interrupted data acquisition. Enlarging scalar couplings also enables their determination in situations where the spectral resolution is limited, such as in the acquisition dimension of heteronuclear broadband decoupled HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) spectra. PMID:25837306
Bean, J.W.; Briand, J.; Burgess, J.L.; Callahan, J.F.
1994-12-01
The conformations of two diazocine turn mimics, which were later incorporated into GPIIb/IIIa peptide antagonists, were investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The two compounds, methyl (2,5-dioxo-3-(S)-(3-{omega}-tosylguanidino-propyl)-4-methyl-octahydro-1,4-dazocin-1-yl)acetate (1) and methyl (2,5-dioxo-3-(S)-(3-{omega}-tosyl-guanidino-propyl)-octahydro-1,5-diazocin-1-yl)acetate (2), differ only in their substituent at the diazocine position 4 nitrogen, yet this substitution results in a marked difference in the affinity of the resulting analogs for the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. It was of interest to determine if the difference observed in the antagonistic potency between these analogs was related to constitutional or, perhaps, conformational differences. The backbone conformations of these two molecules can be determined by measuring vicinal coupling constants along the trimethylene portion of the C8 ring backbone and by measuring interproton NOE intensities between the diazocine methine proton and the protons of the trimethylene group. For compound 1, {sup 3}J{sub HH} values measured from a P.E.COSY spectrum and interproton distances calculated from ROESY buildup curves indicated the presence of a single C8 ring backbone conformation where the trimethylene bridge adopted a staggered conformation and the H{alpha}1 and H{gamma}1 protons of the trimethylene group were 2.2 A from the methine proton. For compound 2, however, partial overlap of the central H{beta}1 and H{beta}2 protons made it impossible to measure {sup 3}J{sub HH} values from the P.E.COSY spectrum. We therefore used a {sup 13}C-filtered TOCSY experiment to measure the {sup 3}J{sub CH} values in both compounds 1 and 2. These heteronuclear vicinal coupling constants measured with {sup 13}C in natural abundance in conjunction with measured interproton NOE intensities indicate that these compounds share a common C8 ring backbone conformation.
Granda, L.N.
2011-04-01
We study a scalar field with non-minimal kinetic coupling to itself and to the curvature. The slow rolling conditions allowing an inflationary background have been found. The quadratic and Higgs type potentials have been considered, and the corresponding values for the scalar fields at the end of inflation allows to recover the connection with particle physics.
Non-minimally coupled scalar field cosmology on the phase plane
Hrycyna, Orest; Szydlowski, Marek E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl
2009-04-15
In this publication we investigate dynamics of a flat FRW cosmological model with a non-minimally coupled scalar field with the coupling term {xi}R{psi}{sup 2} in the scalar field action. The quadratic potential function V({psi}) {proportional_to} {psi}{sup 2} is assumed. All the evolutional paths are visualized and classified in the phase plane, at which the parameter of non-minimal coupling {xi} plays the role of a control parameter. The fragility of global dynamics with respect to changes of the coupling constant is studied in details. We find that the future big rip singularity appearing in the phantom scalar field cosmological models can be avoided due to non-minimal coupling constant effects. We have shown the existence of a finite scale factor singular point (future or past) where the Hubble function as well as its first cosmological time derivative diverge.
Cosmological three-coupled scalar theory for the dS/LCFT correspondence
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr
2015-01-01
We investigate cosmological perturbations generated during de Sitter inflation in the three-coupled scalar theory. This theory is composed of three coupled scalars φ{sub p},p=1,2,3) to give a sixth-order derivative scalar theory for φ{sub 3}, in addition to tensor. Recovering the power spectra between scalars from the LCFT correlators in momentum space indicates that the de Sitter/logarithmic conformal field theory (dS/LCFT) correspondence works in the superhorizon limit. We use LCFT correlators derived from the dS/LCFT differentiate dictionary to compare cosmological correlators (power spectra) and find also LCFT correlators by making use of extrapolate dictionary. This is because the former approach is more conventional than the latter. A bulk version dual to the truncation process to find a unitary CFT in the LCFT corresponds to selecting a physical field φ{sub 2} with positive norm propagating on the dS spacetime.
Matter in loop quantum gravity without time gauge: A nonminimally coupled scalar field
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni
2009-10-15
We analyze the phase space of gravity nonminimally coupled to a scalar field in a generic local Lorentz frame. We reduce the set of constraints to a first class one by fixing a specific hypersurfaces in the phase space. The main issue of our analysis is to extend the features of the vacuum case to the presence of scalar matter by recovering the emergence of an SU(2) gauge structure and the nondynamical role of boost variables. Within this scheme, the supermomentum and the super-Hamiltonian are those ones associated with a scalar field minimally coupled to the metric in the Einstein frame. Hence, the kinematical Hilbert space is defined as in canonical loop quantum gravity with a scalar field, but the differences in the area spectrum are outlined to be the same as in the time-gauge approach.
Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrzakulov, R.; Odintsov, S. D.; Sebastiani, L.
2016-06-01
We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.
RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Dimensionless coupling of bulk scalars at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beauchemin, P.-H.; Azuelos, G.; Burgess, C. P.
2004-10-01
We identify the lowest-dimension interaction which is possible between standard model brane fields and bulk scalars in six dimensions. The lowest-dimension interaction is unique and involves a trilinear coupling between the standard model Higgs boson and the bulk scalar. Because this interaction has a dimensionless coupling, it depends only logarithmically on ultraviolet mass scales and heavy physics need not decouple from it. We compute its influence on Higgs physics at ATLAS and identify how large a coupling can be detected at the LHC. Besides providing a potentially interesting signal in Higgs-boson searches, such couplings provide a major observational constraint on 6D large-extra-dimensional models with scalars in the bulk.
Stationary states of fermions in a sign potential with a mixed vector–scalar coupling
Castilho, W.M. Castro, A.S. de
2014-01-15
The scattering of a fermion in the background of a sign potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling under the Sturm–Liouville perspective. When the vector coupling and the scalar coupling have different magnitudes, an isolated solution shows that the fermion under a strong potential can be trapped in a highly localized region without manifestation of Klein’s paradox. It is also shown that the lonely bound-state solution disappears asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of spin and pseudospin symmetries. -- Highlights: •Scattering of fermions in a sign potential assessed under a Sturm–Liouville perspective. •An isolated bounded solution. •No pair production despite the high localization. •No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries.
Scalar-tensor gravity with a non-minimally coupled Higgs field and accelerating universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sim, Jonghyun; Lee, Tae Hoon
2016-03-01
We consider general couplings, including non-minimal derivative coupling, of a Higgs boson field to scalar-tensor gravity and calculate their contributions to the energy density and pressure in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. In a special case where the kinetic term of the Higgs field is non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor, we seek de Sitter solutions for the cosmic scale factor and discuss the possibility that the late-time acceleration and the inflationary era of our universe can be described by means of scalar fields with self-interactions and the Yukawa potential.
Search for strongly coupled Chameleon scalar field with neutron interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, K.; Arif, M.; Cory, D.; Haun, R.; Heacock, B.; Huber, M.; Nsofini, J.; Pushin, D. A.; Saggu, P.; Sarenac, D.; Shahi, C.; Skavysh, V.; Snow, M.; Young, A.
2015-04-01
The dark energy proposed to explain the observed accelerated expansion of the universe is not understood. A chameleon scalar field proposed as a dark energy candidate can explain the accelerated expansion and evade all current gravity experimental bounds. It features an effective range of the chameleon scalar field that depends on the local mass density. Hence a perfect crystal neutron interferometer, that measures relative phase shift between two paths, is a prefect tool to search for the chameleon field. We are preparing a two-chamber helium gas cell for the neutron interferometer. We can lower the pressure in one cell so low that the chameleon field range expands into the cell and causes a measurable neutron phase shift while keeping the pressure difference constant. We expect to set a new upper limit of the Chameleon field by at least one order of magnitude. This work is supported by NSF Grant 1205977, DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER41042, Canadian Excellence Research Chairs program, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Collaborative Research and Training Experience Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Sourav; Panja, Madan Mohan; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2016-06-01
Non-minimally coupled scalar field cosmology has been studied in this work within the framework of Einstein gravity. In the background of homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime non-minimally coupled scalar field having self-interacting potential is taken as the source of the matter content. The constraint of imposing Noether symmetry on the Lagrangian of the system not only determines the infinitesimal generator (the symmetry vector) but also the coupling function and the self-interacting potential for the scalar field. By choosing appropriately a point transformation in the augmented space, one of the transformed variables is cyclic for the Lagrangian. Finally, using constants of motion, the solutions are analyzed.
Non-minimally coupled scalar fields, Holst action and black hole mechanics
Chatterjee, Ayan
2011-02-15
The paper deals with the extension of the Weak Isolated Horizon (WIH) formulation of black hole horizons to the non-minimally coupled scalar fields. In the early part of the paper, we introduce an appropriate Holst type action to incorporate scalar fields non-minimally coupled to gravity and construct the covariant phase space of the theory. Using this phase space, we proceed to prove the laws of black hole mechanics. Further, we show that with a gauge fixing, the symplectic structure on the horizon reduces to that of a U(1) Chern-Simons theory. The level of the Chern-Simons theory is shown to depend on the non-minimally coupled scalar field.
Determination of unresolved heteronuclear scalar coupling constants by J(up)-HSQMBC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glanzer, Simon; Kunert, Olaf; Zangger, Klaus
2016-07-01
Long-range heteronuclear scalar coupling constants provide important structural information, which is necessary for obtaining stereospecific assignment or dihedral angle information. The measurement of small proton-carbon splittings is particularly difficult due to the low natural abundance of carbon-13 and the presence of homonuclear couplings of similar size. Here we present a real-time J-upscaled HSQMBC, which allows the measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants even if they are hidden in the signal linewidth of a regular spectrum.
The Hamiltonian formalism for scalar fields coupled to gravity in a cosmological background
Bernardini, A.E. Bertolami, O.
2013-11-15
A novel routine to investigate the scalar fields in a cosmological context is discussed in the framework of the Hamiltonian formalism. Starting from the Einstein–Hilbert action coupled to a Lagrangian density that contains two components–one corresponding to a scalar field Lagrangian, L{sub ϕ}, and another that depends on the scale parameter, L{sub a}–one can identify a generalized Hamiltonian density from which first-order dynamical equations can be obtained. This set up corresponds to the dynamics of Friedmann–Robertson–Walker models in the presence of homogeneous fields embedded into a generalized cosmological background fluid in a system that evolves all together isentropically. Once the generalized Hamiltonian density is properly defined, the constraints on the gravity–matter–field system are straightforwardly obtained through the first-order Hamilton equations. The procedure is illustrated for three examples of cosmological interest for studies of the dark sector: real scalar fields, tachyonic fields and generalized Born–Infeld tachyonic fields. The inclusion of some isentropic fluid component into the Friedmann equation allows for identifying an exact correspondence between the dark sector underlying scalar field and an ordinary real scalar field dynamics. As a final issue, the Hamiltonian formulation is used to set the first-order dynamical equations through which one obtains the exact analytical description of the cosmological evolution of a generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) with dustlike matter, radiation or curvature contributions. Model stability in terms of the square of the sound velocity, c{sub s}{sup 2}, cosmic acceleration, q, and conditions for inflation are discussed. -- Highlights: •The Hamiltonian formalism for scalar fields coupled to gravity in a cosmological background is constructed. •Real scalar, tachyonic and generalized Born–Infeld tachyonic-type fields are considered. •An extended formulation of the Hamilton
Conformally Coupled Scalars, Instantons, and Vacuum Instability in 4D Anti-de Sitter Space
Haro, Sebastian de; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Petkou, Anastasios C.
2007-06-08
We show that a scalar field conformally coupled to AdS gravity in four dimensions with a quartic self-interaction can be embedded into M theory. The holographic effective potential is exactly calculated, allowing us to study nonperturbatively the stability of AdS{sub 4} in the presence of the conformally coupled scalar. It is shown that there exists a one-parameter family of conformal scalar boundary conditions for which the boundary theory has an unstable vacuum. In this case, the bulk theory has instanton solutions that mediate the decay of the AdS{sub 4} space. These results match nicely with the vacuum structure and the existence of instantons in an effective three-dimensional boundary model.
Holographic fluid from the nonminimally coupled scalar-tensor theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bin; Zhao, Liu
2014-05-01
We establish the gravity/fluid correspondence in the nonminimally coupled scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Imposing the Petrov type I boundary condition over the gravitational field, we find that, for a certain class of background metrics, the boundary fluctuations obey the standard Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible fluid without any external force term in the leading order approximation under the near horizon expansion. That is to say, the scalar field fluctuations do not contribute in the leading order approximation regardless of what kind of boundary condition we impose on it.
Thermodynamics of general scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, YuMei; Gong, YunGui
2016-04-01
With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we discuss the first law of the thermodynamics on the apparent in the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with the kinetic term of the scalar field non-minimally coupling to Einstein tensor. We show the equivalence between the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and Friedmann equation for the general models, by using a mass-like function which is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass on the apparent horizon. The results further support the universal relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equation.
Cosmological effects of scalar-photon couplings: dark energy and varying-α Models
Avgoustidis, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Monteiro, A.M.R.V.L.; Vielzeuf, P.E.; Luzzi, G. E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt E-mail: up110370652@alunos.fc.up.pt
2014-06-01
We study cosmological models involving scalar fields coupled to radiation and discuss their effect on the redshift evolution of the cosmic microwave background temperature, focusing on links with varying fundamental constants and dynamical dark energy. We quantify how allowing for the coupling of scalar fields to photons, and its important effect on luminosity distances, weakens current and future constraints on cosmological parameters. In particular, for evolving dark energy models, joint constraints on the dark energy equation of state combining BAO radial distance and SN luminosity distance determinations, will be strongly dominated by BAO. Thus, to fully exploit future SN data one must also independently constrain photon number non-conservation arising from the possible coupling of SN photons to the dark energy scalar field. We discuss how observational determinations of the background temperature at different redshifts can, in combination with distance measures data, set tight constraints on interactions between scalar fields and photons, thus breaking this degeneracy. We also discuss prospects for future improvements, particularly in the context of Euclid and the E-ELT and show that Euclid can, even on its own, provide useful dark energy constraints while allowing for photon number non-conservation.
Possible Statistics of Two Coupled Random Fields: Application to Passive Scalar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dubrulle, B.; He, Guo-Wei; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We use the relativity postulate of scale invariance to derive the similarity transformations between two coupled scale-invariant random elds at different scales. We nd the equations leading to the scaling exponents. This formulation is applied to the case of passive scalars advected i) by a random Gaussian velocity field; and ii) by a turbulent velocity field. In the Gaussian case, we show that the passive scalar increments follow a log-Levy distribution generalizing Kraichnan's solution and, in an appropriate limit, a log-normal distribution. In the turbulent case, we show that when the velocity increments follow a log-Poisson statistics, the passive scalar increments follow a statistics close to log-Poisson. This result explains the experimental observations of Ruiz et al. about the temperature increments.
Determination of unresolved heteronuclear scalar coupling constants by J(up)-HSQMBC.
Glanzer, Simon; Kunert, Olaf; Zangger, Klaus
2016-07-01
Long-range heteronuclear scalar coupling constants provide important structural information, which is necessary for obtaining stereospecific assignment or dihedral angle information. The measurement of small proton-carbon splittings is particularly difficult due to the low natural abundance of carbon-13 and the presence of homonuclear couplings of similar size. Here we present a real-time J-upscaled HSQMBC, which allows the measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants even if they are hidden in the signal linewidth of a regular spectrum. PMID:27183090
Hairy black holes sourced by a conformally coupled scalar field in D dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giribet, Gaston; Leoni, Matías; Oliva, Julio; Ray, Sourya
2014-04-01
There exist well-known no-hair theorems forbidding the existence of hairy black hole solutions in general relativity coupled to a scalar conformal field theory in asymptotically flat space. Even in the presence of cosmological constant, where no-hair theorems can usually be circumvented and black holes with conformal scalar hair were shown to exist in D≤4 dimensions, no-go results were reported for D>4. In this paper we prove that these obstructions can be evaded and we answer in the affirmative a question that remained open: Whether hairy black holes do exist in general relativity sourced by a conformally coupled scalar field in arbitrary dimensions. We find the analytic black hole solution in arbitrary dimension D>4, which exhibits a backreacting scalar hair that is regular everywhere outside and on the horizon. The metric asymptotes to (anti-)de Sitter spacetime at large distance and admits spherical horizon as well as horizon of a different topology. We also find analytic solutions when higher-curvature corrections O(Rn) of arbitrary order n are included in the gravity action.
Three-dimensional black holes with conformally coupled scalar and gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cárdenas, Marcela; Fuentealba, Oscar; Martínez, Cristián
2014-12-01
We consider three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant in the presence of a scalar and an Abelian gauge field. Both fields are conformally coupled to gravity, the scalar field through a nonminimal coupling with the curvature and the gauge field by means of a Lagrangian given by a power of the Maxwell one. A sixth-power self-interaction potential, which does not spoil conformal invariance is also included in the action. Using a circularly symmetric ansatz, we obtain black hole solutions dressed with the scalar and gauge fields, which are regular on and outside the event horizon. These charged hairy black holes are asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. The mass and the electric charge are computed by using the Regge-Teitelboim Hamiltonian approach. If both leading and subleading terms of the asymptotic condition of the scalar field are present, a boundary condition that functionally relates them is required for determining the mass. Since the asymptotic form of the scalar field solution is defined by two integration constants, the boundary condition may or may not respect the asymptotic conformal symmetry. An analysis of the temperature and entropy of these black holes is presented. The temperature is a monotonically increasing function of the horizon radius as expected for asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes. However, restrictions on the parameters describing the black holes are found by requiring the entropy to be positive, which, given the nonminimal coupling considered here, does not follow the area law. Remarkably, the same conditions ensure that the conformally related solutions become black holes in the Einstein frame.
Scale-invariant scalar spectrum from the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon
2015-08-01
In this paper, an exactly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbation generated during de Sitter spacetime is found from the gravity model of the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term. The nonminimal derivative coupling term generates a healthy (ghost-free) fourth-order derivative term, while the fourth-order term provides an unhealthy (ghost) fourth-order derivative term. The Harrison-Zel’dovich spectrum obtained from Fourier transforming the fourth-order propagator in de Sitter space is recovered by computing the power spectrum in its momentum space directly. It shows that this model provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum, in addition to the Lee-Wick scalar theory.
False vacuum bubble nucleation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field
Lee, Wonwoo; Park, Chanyong; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Chul H.
2006-12-15
We study the possibility of forming the false vacuum bubble nucleated within the true vacuum background via the true-to-false vacuum phase transition in curved spacetime. We consider a semiclassical Euclidean bubble in the Einstein theory of gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. In this paper we present the numerical computations as well as the approximate analytical computations. We mention the evolution of the false vacuum bubble after nucleation.
False vacuum bubble nucleation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonwoo; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Chul H.; Park, Chanyong
2006-12-01
We study the possibility of forming the false vacuum bubble nucleated within the true vacuum background via the true-to-false vacuum phase transition in curved spacetime. We consider a semiclassical Euclidean bubble in the Einstein theory of gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. In this paper we present the numerical computations as well as the approximate analytical computations. We mention the evolution of the false vacuum bubble after nucleation.
Gil, Roberto R; Gayathri, Chakicherla; Tsarevsky, Nicolay V; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof
2008-02-01
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) gels prepared by copolymerizing methyl methacrylate (MMA) and various amounts of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of the radical initiator V-70 (2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-4-methoxyvaleronitrile)) can orient small organic molecules when swollen in NMR tubes with CDCl(3). The aligning properties of the stretched PMMA gels were evaluated by monitoring the quadrupolar splitting of the (2)H NMR signal of CDCl(3), and the aligning degree is proportional to the cross-linking density. Natural abundance one-bond (1)H-(13)C residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) for menthol measured in the gels depended on the cross-link density. The stereochemistry and assignment of the diastereotopic protons of the gastroprotective and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor sesquiterpene lactone ludartin, isolated from Stevia yaconensis var. subeglandulosa, were unambiguously determined using a combination of natural abundance one-bond (1)H-(13)C RDCs measured in a PMMA gel and a (3)J coupling constant analysis. PMID:18177050
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Kupče, Eriks; Bharatam, Jagadeesh
2015-02-01
Unambiguous measurement of homonuclear scalar couplings (J) in multi-spin scalar network systems is not straightforward. Further, the direct measurement of J-couplings is obscured in solid-state samples due to the dipolar and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA)-dominated line broadening, even under the magic angle spinning (MAS). We present a new multiple frequency selective spin-echo method based on Hadamard matrix encoding, for simultaneous measurement of multiple homonuclear scalar couplings (J) in the solid-state. In contrast to the Hadamard encoded selective excitation schemes known for the solution-state, herein the selectivity is achieved during refocusing period. The Hadamard encoded refocusing scheme concurrently allows to create the spin-spin commutation property between number of spin-pairs of choice in uniformly labelled molecules, which, therefore avoids (1) the repetition of the double selective refocusing experiments for each spin-pair and (2) the synthesis of expensive selective labelled molecules. The experimental scheme is exemplified for determining 1JCC and 3JCC values in 13C6L-Histidine.HCl molecule, which are found to be in excellent agreement with those measured in conventional double frequency selective refocusing mode as well as in the solution-state. This method can be simply extended to 2D/3D pulse schemes and be applied to small bio-molecular solids.
Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Kupče, Eriks; Bharatam, Jagadeesh
2015-02-01
Unambiguous measurement of homonuclear scalar couplings (J) in multi-spin scalar network systems is not straightforward. Further, the direct measurement of J-couplings is obscured in solid-state samples due to the dipolar and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA)-dominated line broadening, even under the magic angle spinning (MAS). We present a new multiple frequency selective spin-echo method based on Hadamard matrix encoding, for simultaneous measurement of multiple homonuclear scalar couplings (J) in the solid-state. In contrast to the Hadamard encoded selective excitation schemes known for the solution-state, herein the selectivity is achieved during refocusing period. The Hadamard encoded refocusing scheme concurrently allows to create the spin-spin commutation property between number of spin-pairs of choice in uniformly labelled molecules, which, therefore avoids (1) the repetition of the double selective refocusing experiments for each spin-pair and (2) the synthesis of expensive selective labelled molecules. The experimental scheme is exemplified for determining (1)JCC and (3)JCC values in (13)C6l-Histidine.HCl molecule, which are found to be in excellent agreement with those measured in conventional double frequency selective refocusing mode as well as in the solution-state. This method can be simply extended to 2D/3D pulse schemes and be applied to small bio-molecular solids. PMID:25554944
Directly Measuring the Tensor Structure of the Scalar Coupling to Gauge Bosons
Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto
2012-12-01
Kinematic distributions in the decays of the newly discovered resonance to four leptons can provide a direct measurement of the tensor structure of the particle's couplings to gauge bosons. Even if the particle is shown to be a parity even scalar, measuring this tensor structure is a necessary step in determining if this particle is responsible for giving mass to the Z. We consider a Standard Model like coupling as well as coupling via a dimension five operator to either ZZ or Z\\gamma. We show that using full kinematic information from each event allows discrimination between renormalizable and higher dimensional coupling to ZZ at the 95% confidence level with O(50) signal events, and coupling to Z\\gamma can be distinguished with as few as 20 signal events. This shows that these measurements can be useful even with this year's LHC data.
Asymptotically free scalar curvature-ghost coupling in quantum Einstein gravity
Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Michael M.
2009-11-15
We consider the asymptotic-safety scenario for quantum gravity which constructs a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theory with the help of the functional renormalization group (RG). We verify the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point and include a running curvature-ghost coupling as a first step towards the flow of the ghost sector of the theory. We find that the scalar curvature-ghost coupling is asymptotically free and RG relevant in the ultraviolet. Most importantly, the property of asymptotic safety discovered so far within the Einstein-Hilbert truncation and beyond remains stable under the inclusion of the ghost flow.
The universe dominated by oscillating scalar with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity
Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori E-mail: mukaida@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2014-01-01
We study the expansion law of the universe dominated by the oscillating scalar field with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity as G{sup μν}∂{sub μ}φ∂{sub ν}φ. In this system the Hubble parameter oscillates with a frequency of the effective mass of the scalar field, which formerly caused a difficulty in analyzing how the universe expands. We find an analytical solution for power law potentials and interpret the solution in an intuitive way by using a new invariant of the system. As a result, we find marginally accelerated expansion for the quadratic potential and no accelerated expansion for the potential with higher power.
Backreaction for Einstein-Rosen waves coupled to a massless scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szybka, Sebastian J.; Wyrebowski, Michał J.
2016-07-01
We present a one-parameter family of exact solutions to Einstein's equations that may be used to study the nature of the Green-Wald backreaction framework. Our explicit example is a family of Einstein-Rosen waves coupled to a massless scalar field. This solution may be reinterpreted as a generalized three-torus polarized Gowdy cosmology with scalar and gravitational waves. We use it to illustrate essential properties of the Green-Wald approach. Among other things we show that within our model the Green-Wald framework uniquely determines backreaction for finite-size inhomogeneities on a predefined background. The results agree with those calculated in the Charach-Malin approach. In the vacuum limit, the Green-Wald, the Charach-Malin and the Isaacson methods imply identical backreaction, as expected.
Camci, Ugur; Kucukakca, Yusuf
2007-10-15
We consider some scalar-coupled theories of gravity, including induced gravity, and study the Noether symmetries of Bianchi I, Bianchi III, and Kantowski-Sachs cosmological models for this theory. For various forms of coupling of the scalar field with gravity, some potentials are found in these cosmological models under the assumption that the Lagrangian admits Noether symmetry. The solutions of the field equations for the considered models are presented by using the results obtained from the Noether symmetry. We also find the explicit form of the scalar field in terms of the conformal time for Bianchi I, III, and Kantowski-Sachs models.
Bertone, G.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Collar, J. I.; Odom, B.
2007-10-12
We study the prospects for detecting weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in a number of phenomenological scenarios, with a detector composed of a target simultaneously sensitive to both spin-dependent and spin-independent couplings, as is the case of COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics). First, we show that sensitivity to both couplings optimizes chances of initial WIMP detection. Second, we demonstrate that, in case of detection, a comparison of the signal on two complementary targets, such as in COUPP CF{sub 3}I and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} bubble chambers, allows a significantly more precise determination of the dark matter axial and scalar couplings. This strategy would provide crucial information on the nature of the WIMPs and possibly allow discrimination between neutralino and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.
Inflation from non-minimally coupled scalar field in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artymowski, Michał; Dapor, Andrea; Pawłowski, Tomasz
2013-06-01
The FRW model with non-minimally coupled massive scalar field has been investigated in LQC framework. Considered form of the potential and coupling allows applications to Higgs driven inflation. Out of two frames used in the literature to describe such systems: Jordan and Einstein frame, the latter one is applied. Specifically, we explore the idea of the Einstein frame being the natural 'environment' for quantization and the Jordan picture having an emergent nature. The resulting dynamics qualitatively modifies the standard bounce paradigm in LQC in two ways: (i) the bounce point is no longer marked by critical matter energy density, (ii) the Planck scale physics features the ''mexican hat'' trajectory with two consecutive bounces and rapid expansion and recollapse between them. Furthermore, for physically viable coupling strength and initial data the subsequent inflation exceeds 60 e-foldings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurić, Tajron; Samsarov, Andjelo
2016-05-01
In this work, we consider a noncommutative (NC) massless scalar field coupled to the classical nonrotational BTZ geometry. In a manner of the theories where the gravity emerges from the underlying scalar field theory, we study the effective action and the entropy derived from this noncommutative model. In particular, the entropy is calculated by making use of the two different approaches, the brick-wall method and the heat kernel method designed for spaces with conical singularity. We show that the UV divergent structures of the entropy obtained through these two different methods agree with each other. It is also shown that the same renormalization condition that removes the infinities from the effective action can also be used to renormalize the entanglement entropy for the same system. Besides, the interesting feature of the NC model considered here is that it allows an interpretation in terms of an equivalent system comprising a commutative massive scalar field but in a modified geometry: that of the rotational BTZ black hole, the result that hints at a duality between the commutative and noncommutative systems in the background of a BTZ black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladwin Pradeep, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Mohanasubha, R.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-07-01
We identify contact transformations which linearize the given equations in the Riccati and Abel chains of nonlinear scalar and coupled ordinary differential equations to the same order. The identified contact transformations are not of Cole-Hopf type and are new to the literature. The linearization of Abel chain of equations is also demonstrated explicitly for the first time. The contact transformations can be utilized to derive dynamical symmetries of the associated nonlinear ODEs. The wider applicability of identifying this type of contact transformations and the method of deriving dynamical symmetries by using them is illustrated through two dimensional generalizations of the Riccati and Abel chains as well.
Exact quantization of Einstein-Rosen waves coupled to massless scalar matter.
Barbero G, J Fernando; Garay, Iñaki; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S
2005-07-29
We show in this Letter that gravity coupled to a massless scalar field with full cylindrical symmetry can be exactly quantized by an extension of the techniques used in the quantization of Einstein-Rosen waves. This system provides a useful test bed to discuss a number of issues in quantum general relativity, such as the emergence of the classical metric, microcausality, and large quantum gravity effects. It may also provide an appropriate framework to study gravitational critical phenomena from a quantum point of view, issues related to black hole evaporation, and the consistent definition of test fields and particles in quantum gravity. PMID:16090861
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minazzoli, Olivier; Hees, Aurélien
2014-07-01
We investigate the late-time cosmological behavior of scalar-tensor theories with a universal multiplicative coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian in the matter era. This class of theory encompasses the case of the massless string dilaton [see Damour and Polyakov, General Relativity and Gravitation 26, 1171 (1994)] as well as a theory with an intrinsic decoupling mechanism in the solar system [see Minazzoli and Hees, Phys. Rev. D 88, 041504 (2013)]. The cosmological evolution is studied in the general relativity limit justified by solar system constraints on the gravitation theory. The behavior of these cosmological evolutions are then compared to two types of observations: the constraints on temporal variations of the constants of nature and the distance-luminosity measurements. In particular, the nonminimal coupling implies that the distance-luminosity relation is modified compared to general relativity. Theories producing a cosmological behavior in agreement with these observations are identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minazzoli, Olivier; Hees, Aurélien
2013-08-01
In this Communication, we present a class of Brans-Dicke-like theories with a universal coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian. We show this class of theories naturally exhibits a decoupling mechanism between the scalar field and matter. As a consequence, this coupling leads to almost the same phenomenology as general relativity in the Solar System: the trajectories of massive bodies and the light propagation differ from general relativity only at the second post-Newtonian order. Deviations from general relativity are beyond present detection capabilities. However, this class of theories predicts a deviation of the gravitational redshift at a level detectable by the future ACES and STE/QUEST missions.
Vögeli, Beat; Olsson, Simon; Riek, Roland; Güntert, Peter
2015-01-01
We compiled an NMR data set consisting of exact nuclear Overhauser enhancement (eNOE) distance limits, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and scalar (J) couplings for GB3, which forms one of the largest and most diverse data set for structural characterization of a protein to date. All data have small experimental errors, which are carefully estimated. We use the data in the research article Vogeli et al., 2015, Complementarity and congruence between exact NOEs and traditional NMR probes for spatial decoding of protein dynamics, J. Struct. Biol., 191, 3, 306–317, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.07.008 [1] for cross-validation in multiple-state structural ensemble calculation. We advocate this set to be an ideal test case for molecular dynamics simulations and structure calculations. PMID:26504890
Randall-Sundrum cosmological model with nonminimal derivative coupling of scalar field
Widiyani, Agustina Suroso, Agus Zen, Freddy P.
2015-04-16
Nonminimal derivative coupling (NMDC) of scalar field in time-dependent Randall-Sundrum model is investigated. Firstly, we take a simple relation between the scale factor on the brane, a(t), and the scale factor of the extradimension, b(t), as b = a{sup γ} where γ is a constant. Then, we derive the Einstein equation and find its cosmological solution for a special case of static extra dimension, γ = 0. As the result, we find that de Sitter solution is a typical solution of our model. We also find that the brane tension which is related to cosmological constant on the brane is related to the coupling constant of the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Weiping; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang
2011-06-01
We have studied the quasinormal modes of a massive scalar field coupling to Einstein’s tensor in the spacelike stretched AdS3 black hole spacetime. We find that both the right-moving and left-moving quasinormal frequencies depend not only on the warped parameter v of the black hole, but also on the coupling between the scalar field and Einstein’s tensor. Moreover, we also discuss the warped AdS/CFT correspondence from the quasinormal modes and probe the effects of the coupling on the left and right conformal weights hL and hR of the operators dual to the scalar field in the boundary.
Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek
2015-11-01
Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.
Sundu, H.; Suengue, J. Y.; Sahin, S.; Yinelek, N.; Azizi, K.
2011-06-01
The strong coupling constants, g{sub D{sub sDK{sub 0}{sup *}, g{sub B{sub sBK{sub 0}{sup *}, g{sub D{sub s}{sup *}{sub DK}}}}}}, g{sub B{sub s}{sup *}{sub BK}}, g{sub D{sub s}{sup *}{sub DK{sub 1}}} and g{sub B{sub s}{sup *}{sub BK{sub 1}}}, where K{sub 0}{sup *}, K and K{sub 1} are scalar, pseudoscalar, and axial-vector kaon mesons, respectively, are calculated in the framework of three-point QCD sum rules. In particular, the correlation functions of the considered vertices when both B(D) and K{sub 0}{sup *}(K)(K{sub 1}) mesons are off shell are evaluated. In the case of K{sub 1}, which is either K{sub 1}(1270) or K{sub 1}(1400), the mixing between these two states are also taken into account. A comparison of the obtained result with the existing prediction on g{sub D{sub s}{sup *}{sub DK}} as the only coupling constant among the considered vertices, previously calculated in the literature, is also made.
Iteration Profiles in Radiative Transfer Problems. I. From Vectorial to Scalar Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellari, L.; Simonneau, E.
1995-09-01
We have recently introduced a new algorithm, the implicit integral method (IIM), for solving radiative transfer problems in which the specific source functions (for each frequency and direction) depend linearly on the radiation field via a single quantity which is independent of both frequency and direction. We define this kind of relationship as scalar coupling. The fact that our method turned out to be fast, robust, and highly reliable leads us to seek its extension to include those problems where the above, necessary condition is not fulfilled. In these problems, the specific source functions depend on the radiation field through a nonfactorable redistribution operator. In our definition, these are cases of vectorial coupling. In this paper we present the successful application of the IIM, through an iterative procedure, to two specific instances of vectorial coupling. The first is the determination of the temperature distribution, self-consistent with the energy conservation constraint, within a LTE stellar atmosphere model. Here the physical processes other than radiative transfer require an iterative procedure for the global solution of the problem. Thus we take advantage of this circumstance to solve iteratively the radiative transfer part as well. The second is the case of the non-LTE two-level-atom line formation problem in which partial redistribution is taken into account in the presence of a background continuum. This problem allows a direct solution, but at the cost of using algorithms that necessarily require the storage and inversion of very high order matrices. On the contrary, we show that a solution based on the iterative application of the IIM, thanks to the outstanding features of the latter, is not only fast, but above all much more reliable in numerical terms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanemura, Shinya; Kikuchi, Mariko; Yagyu, Kei
2016-06-01
We calculate renormalized Higgs boson couplings with gauge bosons and fermions at the one-loop level in the model with an additional isospin singlet real scalar field. These coupling constants can deviate from the predictions in the standard model due to tree-level mixing effects and one-loop contributions of the extra neutral scalar boson. We investigate how they can be significant under the theoretical constraints from perturbative unitarity and vacuum stability and also the condition of avoiding the wrong vacuum. Furthermore, comparing with the predictions in the Type I two Higgs doublet model, we numerically demonstrate how the singlet extension model can be distinguished and identified by using precision measurements of the Higgs boson couplings at future collider experiments.
Canonical quantisation via conditional symmetries of the closed FLRW model coupled to a scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zampeli, Adamantia
2015-09-01
We study the classical, quantum and semiclassical solutions of a Robertson-Walker spacetime coupled to a massless scalar field. The Lagrangian of these minisuperspace models is singular and the application of the theory of Noether symmetries is modified to include the conditional symmetries of the corresponding (weakly vanishing) Hamiltonian. These are found to be the simultaneous symmetries of the supermetric and the superpotential. The quantisation is performed adopting the Dirac proposal for constrained systems. The innovation in the approach we use is that the integrals of motion related to the conditional symmetries are promoted to operators together with the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. These additional conditions imposed on the wave function render the system integrable and it is possible to obtain solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Finally, we use the wave function to perform a semiclassical analysis following Bohm and make contact with the classical solution. The analysis starts with a modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation from which the semiclassical momenta are defined. The solutions of the semiclassical equations are then studied and compared to the classical ones in order to understand the nature and behaviour of the classical singularities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Yeom, Dong-han
2016-05-01
Investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems, especially in the regime of quantum gravity, poses a problem of measuring time during the evolution. One of the approaches to this issue is using one of the internal degrees of freedom as a time variable. The objective of our research was to check whether a scalar field or any other dynamical quantity being a part of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system can be treated as a `clock' during its evolution. We investigated a collapse of a self-gravitating electrically charged scalar field in the Einstein and Brans-Dicke theories using the 2+2 formalism. Our findings concentrated on the spacetime region of high curvature existing in the vicinity of the emerging singularity, which is essential for the quantum gravity applications. We investigated several values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke and the electrically charged scalar fields. It turned out that both evolving scalar fields and a function which measures the amount of electric charge within a sphere of a given radius can be used to quantify time nearby the singularity in the dynamical spacetime part, in which the apparent horizon surrounding the singularity is spacelike. Using them in this respect in the asymptotic spacetime region is possible only when both fields are present in the system and, moreover, they are coupled to each other. The only nonzero component of the Maxwell field four-potential cannot be used to quantify time during the considered process in the neighborhood of the whole central singularity. None of the investigated dynamical quantities is a good candidate for measuring time nearby the Cauchy horizon, which is also singular due to the mass inflation phenomenon.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ransom, Jonathan B.
2002-01-01
A multifunctional interface method with capabilities for variable-fidelity modeling and multiple method analysis is presented. The methodology provides an effective capability by which domains with diverse idealizations can be modeled independently to exploit the advantages of one approach over another. The multifunctional method is used to couple independently discretized subdomains, and it is used to couple the finite element and the finite difference methods. The method is based on a weighted residual variational method and is presented for two-dimensional scalar-field problems. A verification test problem and a benchmark application are presented, and the computational implications are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Yeom, Dong-han
2016-02-01
There does not exist a notion of time which could be transferred straightforwardly from classical to quantum gravity. For this reason, a method of time quantification which would be appropriate for gravity quantization is being sought. One of the existing proposals is using the evolving matter as an intrinsic `clock' while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems. The objective of our research was to check whether scalar fields can serve as time variables during a dynamical evolution of a coupled multicomponent matter-geometry system. We concentrated on a neutral case, which means that the elaborated system was not charged electrically nor magnetically. For this purpose, we investigated a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting complex and real scalar fields in the Brans-Dicke theory using the 2+2 spacetime foliation. We focused mainly on the region of high curvature appearing nearby the emerging singularity, which is essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. We investigated several formulations of the theory for various values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the matter sector of the theory. The obtained results indicated that the evolving scalar fields can be treated as time variables in close proximity of the singularity due to the following reasons. The constancy hypersurfaces of the Brans-Dicke field are spacelike in the vicinity of the singularity apart from the case, in which the equation of motion of the field reduces to the wave equation due to a specific choice of free evolution parameters. The hypersurfaces of constant complex and real scalar fields are spacelike in the regions nearby the singularities formed during the examined process. The values of the field functions change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.
Cadoni, Mariano; Serra, Matteo; Mignemi, Salvatore
2011-10-15
We propose a general method for solving exactly the static field equations of Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field. Our method starts from an ansatz for the scalar field profile, and determines, together with the metric functions, the corresponding form of the scalar self-interaction potential. Using this method we prove a new no-hair theorem about the existence of hairy black-hole and black-brane solutions and derive broad classes of static solutions with radial symmetry of the theory, which may play an important role in applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter and strongly coupled QFTs. These solutions include: (1) four- or generic (d+2)-dimensional solutions with planar, spherical or hyperbolic horizon topology; (2) solutions with anti-de Sitter, domain wall and Lifshitz asymptotics; (3) solutions interpolating between an anti-de Sitter spacetime in the asymptotic region and a domain wall or conformal Lifshitz spacetime in the near-horizon region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, R. B.; Popescu, Eugeniu M.
2006-06-01
We consider the coupling of scalar topological matter to (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity. The matter fields consist of a 0-form scalar field and a 2-form tensor field. We carry out a canonical analysis of the classical theory, investigating its sectors and solutions. We show that the model admits both BTZ-like black-hole solutions and homogeneous/inhomogeneous FRW cosmological solutions.We also investigate the global charges associated with the model and show that the algebra of charges is the extension of the Kac Moody algebra for the field-rigid gauge charges, and the Virasoro algebra for the diffeomorphism charges. Finally, we show that the model can be written as a generalized Chern Simons theory, opening the perspective for its formulation as a generalized higher gauge theory.
An Exact Solution of Einstein-Maxwell Gravity Coupled to a Scalar Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turyshev, S. G.
1995-01-01
The general solution to low-energy string theory representing static spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity with a massless scalar field has been found. Some of the partial cases appear to coincide with known solutions to black holes, naked singularities, and gravity and electromagnetic fields.
3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Veenendaal, Michel
2011-01-01
The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Sravan Kumar, K.; Marto, João; Morais, João; Zhuk, Alexander
2016-07-01
In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, we can consider the Universe to be filled with dust-like matter in the form of discretely distributed galaxies, a K-essence scalar field, playing the role of dark energy, and radiation as matter sources. We investigate such a Universe in the mechanical approach. This means that the peculiar velocities of the inhomogeneities (in the form of galaxies) as well as the fluctuations of the other perfect fluids are non-relativistic. Such fluids are designated as coupled because they are concentrated around the inhomogeneities. In the present paper, we investigate the conditions under which the K-essence scalar field with the most general form for its action can become coupled. We investigate at the background level three particular examples of the K-essence models: (i) the pure kinetic K-essence field, (ii) a K-essence with a constant speed of sound and (iii) the K-essence model with the Lagrangian bX+cX2‑V(phi). We demonstrate that if the K-essence is coupled, all these K-essence models take the form of multicomponent perfect fluids where one of the component is the cosmological constant. Therefore, they can provide the late-time cosmic acceleration and be simultaneously compatible with the mechanical approach.
Hennig, Mirko; Munzarová, Markéta L.; Bermel, Wolfgang; Scott, Lincoln G.; Sklenár̂, Vladimír; Williamson, James R.
2008-01-01
Long range scalar 5J(H1’,F) couplings were observed in 5-fluoropyrimidine substituted RNA. We developed a novel S3E-19F-α,β-edited NOESY experiment for quantitation of these long range scalar 5J(H1’,F), where the J-couplings can be extracted from inspection of intraresidual (H1’,H6) NOE crosspeaks. Quantum chemical calculations were exploited to investigate the relation between scalar couplings and conformations around the glycosidic bond in oligonucleotides. The theoretical dependence of the observed 5J(H1’,F) couplings on the torsion angle χ can be described by a generalized Karplus relationship. The corresponding density functional theory (DFT) analysis is outlined. Additional NMR experiments facilitating the resonance assignments of 5-fluoropyrimidine substituted RNAs are described and chemical shift changes due to altered shielding in the presence of fluorine-19 (19F) are presented. PMID:16637654
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Campo, Sergio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Herrera, Ramón
2015-08-01
We study the power law inflation in the context of non-minimally coupled to the scalar curvature. We analyze the inflationary solutions under an exact analysis and also in the slow roll approximations. In both solutions, we consider the recent data from Planck 2015 data to constraint the parameters in our model. In this framework, we find that in the slow roll approximations the spectral scalar index , during the power law inflation.
Eshuis, Nan; Aspers, Ruud L E G; van Weerdenburg, Bram J A; Feiters, Martin C; Rutjes, Floris P J T; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco
2016-04-01
SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) nuclear spin hyperpolarization method can provide strongly enhanced NMR signals as a result of the reversible association of small molecules with para-hydrogen (p-H2) at an iridium metal complex. The conversion of p-H2 singlet order to enhanced substrate proton magnetization within such complex is driven by the scalar coupling interactions between the p-H2 derived hydrides and substrate nuclear spins. In the present study these long-range homonuclear couplings are experimentally determined for several SABRE substrates using an NMR pulse sequence for coherent hyperpolarization transfer at high magnetic field. Pyridine and pyrazine derivatives appear to have a similar ∼1.2Hz (4)J coupling to p-H2 derived hydrides for their ortho protons, and a much lower (5)J coupling for their meta protons. Interestingly, the (4)J hydride-substrate coupling for five-membered N-heterocyclic substrates is well below 1Hz. PMID:26859865
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshuis, Nan; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; van Weerdenburg, Bram J. A.; Feiters, Martin C.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.; Tessari, Marco
2016-04-01
SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) nuclear spin hyperpolarization method can provide strongly enhanced NMR signals as a result of the reversible association of small molecules with para-hydrogen (p-H2) at an iridium metal complex. The conversion of p-H2 singlet order to enhanced substrate proton magnetization within such complex is driven by the scalar coupling interactions between the p-H2 derived hydrides and substrate nuclear spins. In the present study these long-range homonuclear couplings are experimentally determined for several SABRE substrates using an NMR pulse sequence for coherent hyperpolarization transfer at high magnetic field. Pyridine and pyrazine derivatives appear to have a similar ∼1.2 Hz 4J coupling to p-H2 derived hydrides for their ortho protons, and a much lower 5J coupling for their meta protons. Interestingly, the 4J hydride-substrate coupling for five-membered N-heterocyclic substrates is well below 1 Hz.
Conformally coupled scalar black holes admit a flat horizon due to axionic charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardoux, Yannis; Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos
2012-09-01
Static, charged black holes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and with a planar horizon are found in four dimensions. The solutions have scalar secondary hair. We claim that these constitute the planar version of the Martínez-Troncoso-Zanelli black holes, only known up to now for a curved event horizon in four dimensions. Their planar version is rendered possible due to the presence of two, equal and homogeneously distributed, axionic charges dressing the flat horizon. The solutions are presented in the conformal and minimal frame and their basic properties and thermodynamics analysed. Entertaining recent applications to holographic superconductors, we expose two branches of solutions: the undressed axionic Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole, and the novel black hole carrying secondary hair. We show that there is a critical temperature at which the (bald) axionic Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole undergoes a second order phase transition to the hairy black hole spontaneously acquiring scalar hair.
Chu, Yi-Zen
2014-09-15
Motivated by the desire to understand the causal structure of physical signals produced in curved spacetimes – particularly around black holes – we show how, for certain classes of geometries, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d ≥ 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the “wave equation” perpendicular to the hyperboloid – followed by a one-dimensional integral – needs to be evaluated. A topological obstruction to the general construction is also discussed by utilizing it to derive a generalized Green's function of the Laplacian on the (d ≥ 2)-dimensional sphere.
Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E. E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn
2014-07-01
We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified parameter space for a systematic study of inflationary and bounce cosmologies. The CSTB cosmos is dual-in Wands's sense-to slow-roll inflation as can be visualized with the aid of this parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of the CSTB Cosmos, the scale invariance of its power spectrum is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.
3j symbols : to normalize or not to normalize.
van Veenendaal, M.
2011-07-01
The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to tesseral harmonics. The methodology developed here leads to a significantly clearer presentation, which is of interest, not only for textbooks but also for researchers using spherical tensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segawa, Takuya F.; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2013-12-01
Homogeneous line-widths that arise from transverse relaxation tend to be masked by B0 field inhomogeneity and by multiplets due to homonuclear J-couplings. Besides well-known spin-locking sequences that lead to signals that decay with a rate R1ρ without any modulations, alternative experiments allow one to determine the transverse relaxation rates R2 in systems with scalar-coupled spins. We evaluate three recent strategies by experiment and simulation: (i) moderate-amplitude SITCOM-CPMG sequences (Dittmer and Bodenhausen, 2006 [2]), (ii) multiple-quantum filtered (MQF) sequences (Barrère et al., 2011 [4]) and (iii) PROJECT sequences (Aguilar et al., 2012 [5]). Experiments where the J-evolution is suppressed by spin-locking measure the pure relaxation rate R2(Ix) of an in-phase component. Experiments based on J-refocusing yield a mixture of in-phase rates R2(Ix) and antiphase rates R2(2IySz), where the latter are usually faster than the former. Moderate-amplitude SITCOM-CPMG and PROJECT methods can be applied to systems with many coupled spins, but applications of MQF sequences are limited to two-spin systems since modulations in larger systems can only partly be suppressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel
2015-11-01
We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2013-01-01
We discuss a gauge fixing of gravity coupled to a scalar field in spherical symmetry such that the Hamiltonian is an integral over space of a local density. In a previous paper, we had presented it using Ashtekar’s new variables. Here we study it in metric variables. We specify completely the initial-boundary value problem for ingoing Gaussian pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Kaushik
2016-01-01
In this article, we will discuss a Lorentzian sector calculation of the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in the Schwarzschild black hole background using the brick wall model of 't Hooft. In the original article, the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation was used for the modes that are globally stationary. In a previous article, we found that the WKB quantization rule together with a proper counting of the states, leads to a new expression of the scalar field entropy which is not proportional to the area of the horizon. The expression of the entropy is logarithmically divergent in the brick wall cut-off parameter in contrast to an inverse power divergence obtained earlier. In this article, we will consider the entropy for a thin shell of matter field of a given thickness surrounding the black hole horizon. The thickness is chosen to be large compared with the Planck length and is of the order of the atomic scale. We will discuss the corresponding boundary conditions and the appropriateness of the WKB approximation using the Regge-Wheeler tortoise coordinates. When expressed in terms of a covariant cut-off parameter, the entropy of a thin shell of matter field of a given thickness and surrounding the horizon in the Schwarzschild black hole background is given by an expression proportional to the area of the black hole horizon. This leading order divergent term in the cut-off parameter remains to be logarithmically divergent. The logarithmic divergence is expected from the nature of the near-horizon geometry and is discussed in detail at the end of Sect. 2. We will find that these discussions are significant in the context of the continuation to the Euclidean sector and the corresponding regularization schemes used to evaluate the thermodynamical properties of matter fields in curved spaces. These are related with to geometric aspects of curved spaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunaga, A.; Abe, M.; Hada, M.; Das, B. P.
2016-04-01
The scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) interaction, which has been predicted between the electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, violates parity- (P -) and time- (T -) reversal symmetries. The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) and the S-PS interaction together give rise to an energy shift in paramagnetic polar molecules, which in principle can be measured. The determination of the S-PS interaction constant, ks ,A, for an atom A could be a sensitive probe of physics beyond the standard model. The upper limit for it can be obtained by combining the results of the measured energy shift mentioned above and the accurate quantum chemical calculation of the S-PS coefficient, Ws ,A. In this work, we use a method based on the four-component relativistic coupled-cluster singles and doubles (RCCSD) method to calculate this coefficient for YbF, one of the most promising candidates for the search of the eEDM and the S-PS interaction. We obtain Ws ,Yb=-40.5 (kHz ) with an estimated error of less than 10% for YbF. We also calculate the effective electric field (Eeff), the molecular dipole moment, and the parallel component of the hyperfine coupling constant (A∥) by the RCCSD method. The discrepancies in the results of these calculations with those of accurate measurements are used to estimate the accuracy of our calculation of Ws ,Yb.
Pseudo-scalar pi N coupling and relativistic proton-nucleus scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, Franz; Maung, Khin Maung; Tjon, J. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wallace, S. J.
1988-01-01
Relativistic p-Ca-40 elastic scattering observables are calculated using relativistic NN amplitudes obtained from the solution of a two-body relativistic equation in which one particle is kept on its mass-shell. Results at 200 MeV are presented for two sets of NN amplitudes, one with pure pseudo-vector coupling for the pion and another with a 25 percent admixture of pseudo-scaling coupling. Both give a very good fit to the positive energy on-shell NN data. Differences between the predictions of these two models (which are shown to be due only to the differences in their corresponding negative energy amplitudes) provide a measure of the uncertainty in contructing Dirac optical potentials from NN amplitudes.
Collection of NMR Scalar and Residual Dipolar Couplings Using a Single Experiment.
Gil-Silva, Leandro F; Santamaría-Fernández, Raquel; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Gil, Roberto R
2016-01-11
A new DMSO-compatible aligning gel based on cross-linked poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA) has been developed. Due to a significant difference in bulk magnetic susceptibility between the DMSO inside and outside the gel, it is possible to simultaneously collect isotropic and anisotropic NMR data, such as residual dipolar couplings (RDC), in the same NMR tube. RDC-assisted structural analysis of menthol and the alkaloid retrorsine is reported as proof of concept. PMID:26515991
Aquino, Fredy W.; Pritchard, Ben; Autschbach, Jochen
2012-02-14
A method is reported by which calculated hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) and paramagnetic NMR (pNMR) chemical shifts can be analyzed in a chemically intuitive way by decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals (LMOs). A new module for density functional calculations with nonhybrid functionals, global hybrids, and range-separated hybrids, utilizing the two-component relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA), has been implemented in the parallel open-source NWChem quantum chemistry package. Benchmark results are reported for a test set of few-atom molecules with light and heavy elements. Finite nucleus effects on ¹⁹⁹Hg HFCCs are shown to be on the order of -11 to -15%. A proof of concept for the LMO analysis is provided for the metal and fluorine HFCCs of TiF₃ and NpF₆. Calculated pNMR chemical shifts are reported for the 2-methylphenyl-t-butylnitroxide radical and for five cyclopentadienyl (Cp) sandwich complexes with 3d metals. Nickelocene and vanadocene carbon pNMR shifts are analyzed in detail, demonstrating that the large carbon pNMR shifts calculated as +1540 for Ni (exptl.: +1514) and -443 for V (exptl.: -510) are caused by different spin-polarization mechanisms. For Ni, Cp to Ni π back-donation dominates the result, whereas for vanadocene, V to Cp σ donation with relaxation of the carbon 1s shells can be identified as the dominant mechanism.
Yao, Lishan; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad
2009-03-01
The presence of dipole-dipole cross-correlated relaxation as well as unresolved E.COSY effects adversely impacts the accuracy of (1)J(NH) splittings measured from gradient-enhanced IPAP-HSQC spectra. For isotropic samples, the size of the systematic errors caused by these effects depends on the values of (2)J(NHalpha), (3)J(NHbeta) and (3)J(HNHalpha). Insertion of band-selective (1)H decoupling pulses in the IPAP-HSQC experiment eliminates these systematic errors and for the protein GB3 yields (1)J(NH) splittings that agree to within a root-mean-square difference of 0.04 Hz with values measured for perdeuterated GB3. Accuracy of the method is also highlighted by a good fit to the GB3 structure of the (1)H-(15)N RDCs extracted from the minute differences in (1)J(NH) splitting measured at 500 and 750 MHz (1)H frequencies, resulting from magnetic susceptibility anisotropy. A nearly complete set of (2)J(NHalpha) couplings was measured in GB3 in order to evaluate whether the impact of cross-correlated relaxation is dominated by the (15)N-(1)H(alpha) or (15)N-(1)H(beta) dipolar interaction. As expected, we find that (2)J(NHalpha) < or = 2 Hz, with values in the alpha-helix (0.86 +/- 0.52 Hz) slightly larger than in beta-sheet (0.66 +/- 0.26 Hz). Results indicate that under isotropic conditions, N-H(N)/N-H(beta) cross-correlated relaxation often dominates. Unresolved E.COSY effects under isotropic conditions involve (3)J(HNHalpha) and J(NHalpha), but when weakly aligned any aliphatic proton proximate to both N and H(N) can contribute. PMID:19205898
Hendrickx, Pieter MS; Martins, José C
2008-01-01
Background The advent of combinatorial chemistry has revived the interest in five-membered heterocyclic rings as scaffolds in pharmaceutical research. They are also the target of modifications in nucleic acid chemistry. Hence, the characterization of their conformational features is of considerable interest. This can be accomplished from the analysis of the 3JHH scalar coupling constants. Results A freely available program including an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed for the calculation of five-membered ring conformations from scalar coupling constant data. A variety of operational modes and parameterizations can be selected by the user, and the coupling constants and electronegativity parameters can be defined interactively. Furthermore, the possibility of generating high-quality graphical output of the conformational space accessible to the molecule under study facilitates the interpretation of the results. These features are illustrated via the conformational analysis of two 4'-thio-2'-deoxynucleoside analogs. Results are discussed and compared with those obtained using the original PSEUROT program. Conclusion A user-friendly Matlab interface has been developed and tested. This should considerably improve the accessibility of this kind of calculations to the chemical community. PMID:18950513
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camci, U.; Yildirim, A.; Basaran Oz, I.
2016-03-01
The Noether symmetry approach is useful tool to restrict the arbitrariness in a gravity theory when the equations of motion are underdetermined due to the high number of functions to be determined in the ansatz. We consider two scalar-coupled theories of gravity, one motivated by induced gravity, the other more standard; in Bianchi I, Bianchi III and Kantowski-Sachs cosmological models. For these models, we present a full set of Noether gauge symmetries, which are more general than those obtained by the strict Noether symmetry approach in our recent work. Some exact solutions are derived using the first integrals corresponding to the obtained Noether gauge symmetries.
Scalar limitations of diffractive optical elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Eric G.; Hochmuth, Diane; Moharam, M. G.; Pommet, Drew
1993-01-01
In this paper, scalar limitations of diffractive optic components are investigated using coupled wave analyses. Results are presented for linear phase gratings and fanout devices. In addition, a parametric curve is given which correlates feature size with scalar performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiavazza, Enrico; Kubala, Eugen; Gringeri, Concetta V.; Düwel, Stephan; Durst, Markus; Schulte, Rolf F.; Menzel, Marion I.
2013-02-01
Scalar coupling relaxation, which is usually only associated with closely resonant nuclei (e.g., 79Br-13C), can be a very effective relaxation mechanism. While working on hyperpolarized [5-13C]glutamine, fast liquid-state polarization decay during transfer to the MRI scanner was observed. This behavior could hypothetically be explained by substantial T1 shortening due to a scalar coupling contribution (type II) to the relaxation caused by the fast-relaxing quadrupolar 14N adjacent to the 13C nucleus in the amide group. This contribution is only effective in low magnetic fields (i.e., less than 800 μT) and prevents the use of molecules bearing the 13C-amide group as hyperpolarized MRS/MRI probes. In the present work, this hypothesis is explored both theoretically and experimentally. The results show that high hyperpolarization levels can be retained using either a 15N-labeled amide or by applying a magnetic field during transfer of the sample from the polarizer to the MRI scanner.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br
2013-06-01
We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.
Barfield, Michael
2007-08-01
A study is presented of the structural dependencies for scalar, interproton J-coupling across two bonds in a series of substituted methanes. The coupled perturbed, density functional theory method with a B3PW91 functional and aug-cc-pVTZ-J basis sets is used to examine coupling between geminal protons (2)J(H,H') in methane and a series of substituted compounds CH(3)X (X = CH3, CH(2)CH(3), CH=CH2, CH=O, and NH2) as functions of the dihedral angle phi measured about the C1-X2 bonds. All four contributions are obtained but all conformational effects are dominated by the Fermi contact term. Simple linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-molecular orbital (MO) sum-over-states methods are used to examine the relationships of the coupling constants with dihedral angles as well as internal H-C-H and H-C1-X2 angles. This study explores some novel aspects of geminal H-H coupling including an analysis of the asymmetry in the conformational dependencies arising from non-next-nearest neighbor interactions. For each of the substituted methanes, explicit trigonometric/exponential expressions are given and these accurately reproduce the (2)J(H,H') structural dependencies with standard deviations usually less than 0.03 Hz. The molecular structures for representative bicyclic molecules were fully optimized, and DFT results for (2)J(H,H') reproduce all the trends in the experimental data. A discussion is given on the applicability of the equations for H--H coupling in the substituted methanes to coupling in the bicyclic molecules. PMID:17559165
Electroweak Baryogenesis and Colored Scalars
Cohen, Timothy; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP
2012-02-15
We consider the 2-loop finite temperature effective potential for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, allowing Higgs boson couplings to additional scalars. If the scalars transform under color, they contribute 2-loop diagrams to the effective potential that include gluons. These 2-loop effects are perhaps stronger than previously appreciated. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, they can increase the strength of the phase transition by as much as a factor of 3.5. It is this effect that is responsible for the survival of the tenuous electroweak baryogenesis window of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We further illuminate the importance of these 2-loop diagrams by contrasting models with colored scalars to models with singlet scalars. We conclude that baryogenesis favors models with light colored scalars. This motivates searches for pair-produced di-jet resonances or jet(s) + = E{sub T}.
Conformal scalar field wormholes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond
1989-01-01
The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.
Hines, J.V.; Varani, G.; Landry, S.M.; Tinoco, I. Jr. )
1993-11-17
Stereospecific assignment of H5' and H5' protons in the NMR spectra of nucleic acids provides significant improvement in the use of NOE distance and torsion angle constraints for structure determination. With stereospecific assignments, the torsion angles [beta] (P5'-O5'-C5'-C4') and [gamma] (O5'-C5'-C4'-C3') can be determined on the basis of [sup 1]H-[sup 1]H and [sup 31]P-[sup 1]H couplings. In addition, stereospecific assignment allows use of NOE distance constraints for H5' and H5'. We report a novel, independent method for the stereospecific assignment of the H5' (pro-S) and H5' (pro-R) protons which is based only on the sign of the carbon-proton two-bond scalar couplings and will not be greatly limited by line width. The sign of [sup 2]J[sub CH] can also be used to determine torsion angle [gamma] and the sugar conformation. Determination of the sign of the two-bond carbon-proton couplings provides a useful new method for the structure determination of RNA molecules. The ribose sugar conformation and torsion angle [gamma] (O5'-C5'-C4'-C3') can be specified. Furthermore, H5' and H5' protons can be stereospecifically assigned, allowing their use in NOE distance constraints and in determining [beta] (P5'-O5'-C5'-C4'). The correlation we have reported between the sign of [sup 2]J[sub CH] and RNA structure will be particularly useful in the study of large RNAs and RNA-protein complexes. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Are stealth scalar fields stable?
Faraoni, Valerio; Moreno, Andres F. Zambrano
2010-06-15
Nongravitating (stealth) scalar fields associated with Minkowski space in scalar-tensor gravity are examined. Analytical solutions for both nonminimally coupled scalar field theory and for Brans-Dicke gravity are studied and their stability with respect to tensor perturbations is assessed using a covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for alternative gravity. For Brans-Dicke solutions, the stability with respect to homogeneous perturbations is also studied. There are regions of parameter space corresponding to stability and other regions corresponding to instability.
Cheng, Lan
2015-08-14
Quantum-chemical computations of nuclear quadrupole-coupling parameters for 24 open-shell states of small molecules based on non-relativistic and spin-free exact two-component (SFX2C) relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) as well as spin-orbital-based restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock coupled-cluster (ROHF-CC) methods are reported. Relativistic effects, the performance of the EOM-CC and ROHF-CC methods for treating electron correlation, as well as basis-set convergence have been carefully analyzed. Consideration of relativistic effects is necessary for accurate calculations on systems containing third-row (K-Kr) and heavier elements, as expected, and the SFX2C approach is shown to be a useful cost-effective option here. Further, it is demonstrated that the EOM-CC methods constitute flexible and accurate alternatives to the ROHF-CC methods in the calculations of nuclear quadrupole-coupling parameters for open-shell states.
Slowly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories with a massive scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Popchev, Dimitar
2016-04-01
In the scalar-tensor theories with a massive scalar field, the coupling constants, and the coupling functions in general, which are observationally allowed, can differ significantly from those in the massless case. This fact naturally implies that the scalar-tensor neutron stars with a massive scalar field can have rather different structure and properties in comparison with their counterparts in the massless case and in general relativity. In the present paper, we study slowly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories with a massive gravitational scalar. Two examples of scalar-tensor theories are examined—the first example is the massive Brans-Dicke theory and the second one is a massive scalar-tensor theory indistinguishable from general relativity in the weak-field limit. In the latter case, we study the effect of the scalar field mass on the spontaneous scalarization of neutron stars. Our numerical results show that the inclusion of a mass term for the scalar field indeed changes the picture drastically compared to the massless case. It turns out that mass, radius, and moment of inertia for neutron stars in massive scalar-tensor theories can differ drastically from the pure general relativistic solutions if sufficiently large masses of the scalar field are considered.
Roberts, M.D.
1996-09-01
Static spherically symmetric uncoupled scalar space{endash}times have no event horizon and a divergent Kretschmann singularity at the origin of the coordinates. The singularity is always present so that nonstatic solutions have been sought to see if the singularities can develop from an initially singular free space{endash}time. In flat space{endash}time the Klein{endash}Gordon equation {D`Alembertian}{var_phi}=0 has the nonstatic spherically symmetric solution {var_phi}={sigma}({ital v})/{ital r}, where {sigma}({ital v}) is a once differentiable function of the null coordinate {ital v}. In particular, the function {sigma}({ital v}) can be taken to be initially zero and then grow, thus producing a singularity in the scalar field. A similar situation occurs when the scalar field is coupled to gravity via Einstein{close_quote}s equations; the solution also develops a divergent Kretschmann invariant singularity, but it has no overall energy. To overcome this, Bekenstein{close_quote}s theorems are applied to give two corresponding conformally coupled solutions. One of these has positive ADM mass and has the following properties: (i) it develops a Kretschmann invariant singularity, (ii) it has no event horizon, (iii) it has a well-defined source, (iv) it has well-defined junction condition to Minkowski space{endash}time, and (v) it is asymptotically flat with positive overall energy. This paper presents this solution and several other nonstatic scalar solutions. The properties of these solutions which are studied are limited to the following three: (i) whether the solution can be joined to Minkowski space{endash}time, (ii) whether the solution is asymptotically flat, (iii) and, if so, what the solutions{close_quote} Bondi and ADM masses are. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Maximum J Pairing and Asymptotic Behavior of the 3j and 9j Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertz-Kintish, Daniel; Zamick, Larry; Kleszyk, Brian
2014-09-01
We investigate the large j behavior of certain 3 j and 9 j symbols, where j is the total angular momentum of one particle in a given shell. Our motivation is the problem of maximum J pairing in nuclei, along with the more familiar J = 0 pairing. Maximum J pairing leads to an increase in J = 2 coupling of two protons and two neutrons relative to J = 0 . We find that a coupling unitary 9 j symbol (U 9 j) is very weak as j increases, leading to wavefunctions which are to an excellent approximation single U 9 j coefficients. Our study of the large j behavior of coupling unitary 9 j symbols is through the consideration of the case when the total angular momentum I is equal to Imax - 2 n and Imax ≡ 4 j - 2 , where n = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... . We here derive asymptotic approximations of coupling 3 j symbols and find that the 3 j ~j - 3 / 4 in the high j limit. One major analytical tool we used is the Stirling Approximation. Through analytical, numerical, and graphical methods, we show the power law behavior of the coupling unitary 9 j symbols in the n / j << 1 limit, i.e. U 9 j ~j-n . Power-law behavior is evident if there is a linear dependence of ln | U 9 j | vs. ln j . We also present some examples of percent errors in our approximations. We investigate the large j behavior of certain 3 j and 9 j symbols, where j is the total angular momentum of one particle in a given shell. Our motivation is the problem of maximum J pairing in nuclei, along with the more familiar J = 0 pairing. Maximum J pairing leads to an increase in J = 2 coupling of two protons and two neutrons relative to J = 0 . We find that a coupling unitary 9 j symbol (U 9 j) is very weak as j increases, leading to wavefunctions which are to an excellent approximation single U 9 j coefficients. Our study of the large j behavior of coupling unitary 9 j symbols is through the consideration of the case when the total angular momentum I is equal to Imax - 2 n and Imax ≡ 4 j - 2 , where n = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... . We here
Preimesberger, Matthew R; Majumdar, Ananya; Rice, Selena L; Que, Lauren; Lecomte, Juliette T J
2015-11-24
In addition to its well-known roles as an electrophile and general acid, the side chain of histidine often serves as a hydrogen bond (H-bond) acceptor. These H-bonds provide a convenient pH-dependent switch for local structure and functional motifs. In hundreds of instances, a histidine caps the N-terminus of α- and 310-helices by forming a backbone NH···Nδ1 H-bond. To characterize the resilience and dynamics of the histidine cap, we measured the trans H-bond scalar coupling constant, (2h)JNN, in several forms of Group 1 truncated hemoglobins and cytochrome b5. The set of 19 measured (2h)JNN values were between 4.0 and 5.4 Hz, generally smaller than in nucleic acids (~6-10 Hz) and indicative of longer, weaker bonds in the studied proteins. A positive linear correlation between (2h)JNN and the difference in imidazole ring (15)N chemical shift (Δ(15)N = |δ(15)Nδ1 - δ(15)Nε2|) was found to be consistent with variable H-bond length and variable cap population related to the ionization of histidine in the capping and noncapping states. The relative ease of (2h)JNN detection suggests that this parameter can become part of the standard arsenal for describing histidines in helix caps and other key structural and catalytic elements involving NH···N H-bonds. The combined nucleic acid and protein data extend the utility of (2h)JNN as a sensitive marker of local structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties in biomolecules. PMID:26523621
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasukov, V. V.
2012-06-01
It is shown that negative Scalars can claim to be the object referred to as black holes, therefore observation of black holes means observation of Scalars. In contrast to blackholes, negative Scalars contain no singularity inside. Negative Scalars can be observed from the effect of generation of ordinary matter by the Lemaître primordial atom.
Creation of the universe with a stealth scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Hideki; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2012-12-01
The stealth scalar field is a nontrivial configuration without any backreaction to geometry, which is characteristic for nonminimally coupled scalar fields. Studying the creation probability of the de Sitter universe with a stealth scalar field by Hartle and Hawking’s semiclassical method, we show that the effect of the stealth field can be significant. For the class of scalar fields we consider, creation with a stealth field is possible for a discrete value of the coupling constant, and its creation probability is always less than that with a trivial scalar field. However, those creation rates can be almost the same depending on the parameters of the theory.
Generic scalar potentials in geometric scalar gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2016-06-01
We discuss a generic form of the scalar potential appearing in the geometric scalar theory of gravity. We find the conditions on the potential by considering weak and strong gravity. The modified black hole solutions are obtained for generic potentials and the inverse problems on a black hole and on a spherical body (`pseudo-gravastar') are investigated.
Black hole hair in generalized scalar-tensor gravity.
Sotiriou, Thomas P; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-06-27
The most general action for a scalar field coupled to gravity that leads to second-order field equations for both the metric and the scalar--Horndeski's theory--is considered, with the extra assumption that the scalar satisfies shift symmetry. We show that in such theories, the scalar field is forced to have a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless one carefully tunes away a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Hence, black holes for generic theories in this class will have hair. This contradicts a recent no-hair theorem which seems to have overlooked the presence of this coupling. PMID:25014801
Inflation in anisotropic scalar-tensor theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pimentel, Luis O.; Stein-Schabes, Jaime
1988-01-01
The existence of an inflationary phase in anisotropic Scalar-Tensor Theories is investigated by means of a conformal transformation that allows us to rewrite these theories as gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a nontrivial potential. The explicit form of the potential is then used and the No Hair Theorem concludes that there is an inflationary phase in all open or flat anisotropic spacetimes in these theories. Several examples are constructed where the effect becomes manifest.
Scalar self-interactions loosen constraints from fifth force searches
Gubser, Steven S.; Khoury, Justin
2004-11-15
The mass of a scalar field mediating a fifth force is tightly constrained by experiments. We show, however, that adding a quartic self-interaction for such a scalar makes most tests much less constraining: the nonlinear equation of motion masks the coupling of the scalar to matter through the chameleon mechanism. We discuss consequences for fifth force experiments. In particular, we find that, with quartic coupling of order unity, a gravitational strength interaction with matter is allowed by current constraints. We show that our chameleon scalar field results in experimental signatures that could be detected through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottola, Emil
2016-03-01
General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degree of freedom in the extended effective field theory (EFT) of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. Linearized around flat space this quantum scalar degree of freedom combines with the conformal part of the metric and predicts the existence of scalar spin-0 ``breather'' propagating gravitational waves in addition to the transverse tensor spin-2 waves of classical General Relativity. Estimates of the expected strength of scalar gravitational radiation from compact astrophysical sources are given.
Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F
2013-04-19
Several extensions of general relativity and high energy physics include scalar fields as extra degrees of freedom. In the search for predictions in the nonlinear regime of cosmological evolution, the community makes use of numerical simulations in which the quasistatic limit is assumed when solving the equation of motion of the scalar field. In this Letter, we propose a method to solve the full equations of motion for scalar degrees of freedom coupled to matter. We run cosmological simulations which track the full time and space evolution of the scalar field, and find striking differences with respect to the commonly used quasistatic approximation. This novel procedure reveals new physical properties of the scalar field and uncovers concealed astrophysical phenomena which were hidden in the old approach. PMID:23679591
Scalar explanation of diphoton excess at LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Huayong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Sibo
2016-06-01
Inspired by the diphoton signal excess observed in the latest data of 13 TeV LHC, we consider either a 750 GeV real scalar or pseudo-scalar responsible for this anomaly. We propose a concrete vector-like quark model, in which the vector-like fermion pairs directly couple to this scalar via Yukawa interaction. For this setting the scalar is mainly produced via gluon fusion, then decays at the one-loop level to SM diboson channels gg , γγ , ZZ , WW. We show that for the vector-like fermion pairs with exotic electric charges, such model can account for the diphoton excess and is consistent with the data of 8 TeV LHC simultaneously in the context of perturbative analysis.
A Search for Scalar Chameleons with ADMX
Rybka, G.; Hotz, M.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Asztalos, S.J.; Carosi, G.; Hagmann, C.; Kinion, D.; van Bibber, K.; Hoskins, J.; Martin, C.; Sikivie, P.; Tanner, D.B.; Bradley, R.; Clarke, J.
2010-04-26
Scalar fields with a"chameleon" property, in which the effective particle mass is a function of its local environment, are common to many theories beyond the standard model and could be responsible for dark energy. If these fields couple weakly to the photon, they could be detectable through the afterglow effect of photon-chameleon-photon transitions. The ADMX experiment was used in the first chameleon search with a microwave cavity to set a new limit on scalar chameleon-photon coupling beta_gamma excluding values between 2x109 and 5x1014 for effective chameleon masses between 1.9510 and 1:9525 micro eV.
Brane solutions sourced by a scalar with vanishing potential and classification of scalar branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadoni, Mariano; Franzin, Edgardo; Serra, Matteo
2016-01-01
We derive exact brane solutions of minimally coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar gravity in d + 2 dimensions with a vanishing scalar potential and we show that these solutions are conformal to the Lifshitz spacetime whose dual QFT is characterized by hyperscaling violation. These solutions, together with the AdS brane and the domain wall sourced by an exponential potential, give the complete list of scalar branes sourced by a generic potential having simple (scale-covariant) scaling symmetries not involving Galilean boosts. This allows us to give a classification of both simple and interpolating brane solution of minimally coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar gravity having no Schrödinger isometries, which may be very useful for holographic applications.
Santiago, Marcelina; Low, Eddy; Chambournier, Gilles; Gawley, Robert E
2003-10-31
The solution conformation of N-methyl-2-(tributylstannyl)piperidines has been determined through the use of vicinal 119Sn-13C coupling constants, revealing a conformational distortion caused by an unexpected stereoelectronic effect in some cases. Specifically, the "equatorial" conformer is distorted into a half-chair, in which the nitrogen lone pair eclipses the C-Sn bond. This distortion, which "costs" approximately 1 kcal/mol, correlates with a conformational dependence of geminal 119Sn-15N couplings and a possible correlation with reactivity in the tin-lithium exchange reaction. PMID:14575474
Induced gravity I: real scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy
2016-01-01
We show that classically scale invariant gravity coupled to a single scalar field can undergo dimensional transmutation and generate an effective Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity, coupled to a massive dilaton. The same theory has an ultraviolet fixed point for coupling constant ratios such that all couplings are asymptotically free. However the catchment basin of this fixed point does not include regions of coupling constant parameter space compatible with locally stable dimensional transmutation. In a companion paper, we will explore whether this more desirable outcome does obtain in more complicated theories with non-Abelian gauge interactions.
Inflation as AN Attractor in Scalar Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyeong-Chan
2013-06-01
We study an inflation mechanism based on attractor properties in cosmological evolutions of a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime based on the Einstein-scalar field theory. We find a new way to get the Hamilton-Jacobi equation solving the field equations. The equation relates a solution "generating function" with the scalar potential. We analyze its stability and find a later time attractor which describes a Universe approaching to an eternal-de Sitter inflation driven by the potential energy, V0>0. The attractor exists when the potential is regular and does not have a linear and quadratic terms of the field. When the potential has a mass term, the attractor exists if the scalar field is in a symmetric phase and is weakly coupled, λ<9V0/16. We also find that the attractor property is intact under small modifications of the potential. If the scalar field has a positive mass-squared or is strongly coupled, there exists a quasi-attractor. However, the quasi-attractor property disappears if the potential is modified. On the whole, the appearance of the eternal inflation is not rare in scalar cosmology in the presence of an attractor.
Scalar and anisotropic J interactions in undoped InP: A triple-resonance NMR study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomaselli, Marco; Degraw, David; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Augustine, Matthew P.; Pines, Alexander
1998-10-01
The heteronuclear J-coupling tensor between nearest neighbor 31P and 113In spins in undoped InP is investigated by means of 113In-->31P polarization transfer under rapid magic angle spinning (MAS). The scalar contribution can be measured directly and is found to have the value \\|Jiso(31P-113,115In)\\|=(225+/-10) Hz. The principal value of the traceless anisotropic J-coupling tensor (pseudodipolar coupling) is determined to be Janiso(31P-113,115In)=2/3[J||(31P-113,115In)-J⊥(31P-113,115In)]=(813+/-50) or (1733+/-50) Hz, assuming axial symmetry with the principal axis parallel to the In-P bond. Our values deviate from those reported previously [M. Engelsberg and R. E. Norberg, Phys. Rev. B 5, 3395 (1972)] [based on a moment analysis of the 31P resonance \\|Jiso(31P-113,115In)\\|=350 Hz and Janiso(31P-113,115In)=1273 Hz], but confirm the postulate that the nearest neighbor 31P-113,115In magnetic dipolar and pseudodipolar interactions are of the same order of magnitude and partially cancel each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendes, Raissa F. P.; Ortiz, Néstor
2016-06-01
Scalar-tensor theories of gravity are extensions of general relativity (GR) including an extra, nonminimally coupled scalar degree of freedom. A wide class of these theories, albeit indistinguishable from GR in the weak field regime, predicts a radically different phenomenology for neutron stars, due to a nonperturbative, strong-field effect referred to as spontaneous scalarization. This effect is known to occur in theories where the effective linear coupling β0 between the scalar and matter fields is sufficiently negative, i.e. β0≲-4.35 , and has been strongly constrained by pulsar timing observations. In the test-field approximation, spontaneous scalarization manifests itself as a tachyonic-like instability. Recently, it was argued that, in theories where β0>0 , a similar instability would be triggered by sufficiently compact neutron stars obeying realistic equations of state. In this work we investigate the end state of this instability for some representative coupling functions with β0>0 . This is done both through an energy balance analysis of the existing equilibrium configurations, and by numerically determining the nonlinear Cauchy development of unstable initial data. We find that, contrary to the β0<0 case, the final state of the instability is highly sensitive to the details of the coupling function, varying from gravitational collapse to spontaneous scalarization. In particular, we show, for the first time, that spontaneous scalarization can happen in theories with β0>0 , which could give rise to novel astrophysical tests of the theory of gravity.
Spontaneous Scalarization of Massive Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramazanoglu, Fethi M.; Pretorius, Frans
2014-03-01
Spontaneous scalarization is a phenomenon in certain scalar-tensor theories where large deviations from general relativity can be observed inside compact stars, while the known observational bounds can also be satisfied far away. This scenario has been investigated for massless scalars and binary neutron stars using numerical relativity, but the parameter space for such theories have been severely restricted by recent observations. Here, we present our results on the spontaneous scalarization of massive scalars. We simulate cases with different equations of state and scalar field parameters, and comment on the detectability of the scalar field effects from the gravitational wave signal.
Nonprojectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity without the unwanted scalar graviton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaichian, Masud; KlusoÅ, Josef; Oksanen, Markku
2015-11-01
We consider a way of eliminating the unwanted scalar graviton from Horava-Lifshitz gravity that is achieved via introduction of certain additional constraints. We perform canonical analysis of both projectable and nonprojectable versions of the theory. We obtain the structure of constraints in each case, and analyze its dependence on the values of the coupling constants involved in the additional constraints. In the nonprojectable theory, the scalar graviton is absent when the coupling constants have certain values, while for other values the scalar graviton appears. The projectable theory is free from the scalar graviton regardless of the values of the coupling constants, even though the structure of the constraints does depend on the value of a coupling constant.
Interacting scalar radiation and dark matter in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yong
2016-06-01
We investigate possible cosmological effects of interacting scalar radiation and dark matter. After its decoupling, scalar radiation can stream freely as neutrinos or self-interact strongly as perfect fluid, highly depending on the magnitude of its self-couplings. We obtain the general and novel structure for self-scattering rate and compare it with the expansion rate of our Universe. If its trilinear/cubic coupling is non-zero, scalar radiation can be eventually treated as perfect fluid. Possible effects on CMB are also discussed. When this scalar also mediates interaction among dark matter particles, the linear matter power spectrum for large scale structure can be modified differently from other models. We propose to use Debye shielding to avoid the singularity appearing in the scattering between scalar radiation and dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Li; Shi, Yu
2012-10-01
Using the approach of low-energy effective field theory, the phase diagram is studied for a mixture of two species of pseudospin-\\frac{1}{2} Bose atoms with interspecies spin exchange. There are four mean-field regimes on the parameter plane of ge and gz, where ge is the interspecies spin-exchange interaction strength, while gz is the difference between the interaction strength of interspecies scattering without spin exchange of equal spins and that of unequal spins. Two regimes, with |gz| > |ge|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel along the z direction, and the low-energy excitations are equivalent to those of two-component spinless bosons. The other two regimes, with |ge| > |gz|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel on the xy plane, and the low-energy excitations are described by a sine-Gordon model coupled with a free scalar field, where the effective fields are combinations of the phases of the original four boson fields. In (1 + 1)-dimension, they are described by Kosterlitz-Thouless renormalization group (RG) equations, and there are three sectors in the phase plane of a scaling dimension and a dimensionless parameter proportional to the strength of the cosine interaction, both depending on the densities. The gaps of these elementary excitations are experimental probes of the underlying many-body ground states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claeys, Pieter W.; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Van Raemdonck, Mario; Van Neck, Dimitri
2015-10-01
Starting from integrable su(2) (quasi-)spin Richardson-Gaudin (RG) XXZ models we derive several properties of integrable spin models coupled to a bosonic mode. We focus on the Dicke-Jaynes-Cummings-Gaudin models and the two-channel (p + ip)-wave pairing Hamiltonian. The pseudo-deformation of the underlying su(2) algebra is here introduced as a way to obtain these models in the contraction limit of different RG models. This allows for the construction of the full set of conserved charges, the Bethe ansatz state, and the resulting RG equations. For these models an alternative and simpler set of quadratic equations can be found in terms of the eigenvalues of the conserved charges. Furthermore, the recently proposed eigenvalue-based determinant expressions for the overlaps and form factors of local operators are extended to these models, linking the results previously presented for the Dicke-Jaynes-Cummings-Gaudin models with the general results for RG XXZ models.
Self-accelerating solutions of scalar-tensor gravity
Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph D E-mail: lykken@fnal.gov
2008-03-15
Scalar-tensor gravity is the simplest and best understood modification of general relativity, consisting of a real scalar field coupled directly to the Ricci scalar curvature. Models of this type have self-accelerating solutions. In an example inspired by string dilaton couplings, scalar-tensor gravity coupled to ordinary matter exhibits a de Sitter type expansion, even in the presence of a negative cosmological constant whose magnitude exceeds that of the matter density. This unusual behavior does not require phantoms, ghosts or other exotic sources. More generally, we show that any expansion history can be interpreted as arising partly or entirely from scalar-tensor gravity. To distinguish any quintessence or inflation model from its scalar-tensor variants, we use the fact that scalar-tensor models imply deviations of the post-Newtonian parameters of general relativity and time variation of Newton's gravitational coupling G. We emphasize that next-generation probes of modified GR and the time variation of G are an essential complement to dark energy probes based on luminosity-distance measurements.
Liu Yunhu; Shao Jianxin; Wang Xiaogang; Zhang Ziying; Li Demin
2008-02-01
Based on the main assumption that the D{sub sJ}(2860) belongs to the 2{sup 3}P{sub 0} qq multiplet, the masses of the scalar meson nonet are estimated in the framework of the relativistic independent quark model, Regge phenomenology, and meson-meson mixing. We suggest that the a{sub 0}(1005), K{sub 0}*(1062), f{sub 0}(1103), and f{sub 0}(564) constitute the ground scalar meson nonet; it is supposed that these states would likely correspond to the observed states a{sub 0}(980), {kappa}(900), f{sub 0}(980), and f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma}, respectively. Also a{sub 0}(1516), K{sub 0}*(1669), f{sub 0}(1788), and f{sub 0}(1284) constitute the first radial scalar meson nonet, it is supposed that these states would likely correspond to the observed states a{sub 0}(1450), K{sub 0}*(1430), f{sub 0}(1710), and f{sub 0}(1370), respectively. The scalar state f{sub 0}(1500) may be a good candidate for the ground scalar glueball. The agreement between the present findings and those given by other different approaches is satisfactory.
Zeng, Tao; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Klobukowski, Mariusz
2009-09-28
A theory of model core potentials that can treat spin-orbit-coupling (SOC) effects at the level of Douglas-Kroll formalism has been developed. By storing the damping effect of kinematic operator in the Douglas-Kroll spin-orbit operator into an additional set of basis set contraction coefficients, the Breit-Pauli spin-orbit code in the GAMESS-US program was successfully used to perform Douglas-Kroll spin-orbit calculations. It was found that minute errors in the radial functions of valence orbitals lead to large errors in the spin-orbit energy levels and thus fitting the radial part of the spin-orbit matrix elements is necessary in model core potential parametrization. The first model core potentials that include the new formalism were developed for two 6p-block elements, Pb and Bi. The valence space of the 5p, 5d, 6s, and 6p orbitals was used because of the large SOC between the 5p and 6p orbitals. The model core potentials were validated in the calculations of atomic properties as well as spectroscopic constants of diatomic metal hydrides. The agreement between results of the model core potential and all-electron calculations was excellent, with energy errors of hundreds of cm(-1) and hundredths of eV, r(e) errors of thousandths of A, and omega(e) errors under 20 cm(-1). Two kinds of interplay between SOC effect and bonding process (antibonding and bonding SOC) were demonstrated using spin-free term potential curves of PbH and BiH. The present study is the first extension of the model core potential method beyond Breit-Pauli to Douglas-Kroll SOC calculations. PMID:19791854
Hawke, B.C.
1963-02-26
This patent relates to a releasable coupling connecting a control rod to a control rod drive. This remotely operable coupling mechanism can connect two elements which are laterally and angviarly misaligned, and provides a means for sensing the locked condition of the elements. The coupling utilizes a spherical bayonet joint which is locked against rotation by a ball detent lock. (AEC)
Time-dependent scalar fields in modified gravities in a stationary spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yi; Gu, Bao-Ming; Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-07-01
Most no-hair theorems involve the assumption that the scalar field is independent of time. Recently in Graham and Jha (Phys. Rev. D90: 041501, 2014) the existence of time-dependent scalar hair outside a stationary black hole in general relativity was ruled out. We generalize this work to modified gravities and non-minimally coupled scalar field with the additional assumption that the spacetime is axisymmetric. It is shown that in higher-order gravity such as metric f( R) gravity the time-dependent scalar hair does not exist. In Palatini f( R) gravity and the non-minimally coupled case the time-dependent scalar hair may exist.
On the late-time cosmology of a condensed scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghalee, Amir
2016-04-01
We study the late-time cosmology of a scalar field with a kinetic term non-minimally coupled to gravity. It is demonstrated that the scalar field dominate the radiation matter and the cold dark matter (CDM). Moreover, we show that eventually the scalar field will be condensed and results in an accelerated expansion. The metric perturbations around the condensed phase of the scalar field are investigated and it has been shown that the ghost instability and gradient instability do not exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel
2016-01-01
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
De Leo, S. ); Rotelli, P. )
1992-01-15
We discuss the extension of a version of {ital quaternion} quantum mechanics to field theory and in particular to the simplest example, the free scalar field. A previous difficulty with the conservation of four-momentum for the anomalous'' bosonic particles is resolved.
Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain 3J6▿
Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain
2010-01-01
Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN3J6 were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN3J6 had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN3J6 also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies. PMID:20363799
Cosmological model with gravitational, electromagnetic, and scalar waves
Charach, C.; Malin, S.
1980-06-15
Following Gowdy, Berger, and Misner we construct a new exact solution of the Einstein--Maxwell--massless-scalar-field equations which corresponds to an inhomogeneous closed universe filled with scalar, gravitational, and electromagnetic waves. It is obtained as a result of homogeneity breaking in the corresponding Bianchi type-I universe. The combined effect of the scalar and vector fields on the dynamics of the evolution process and the interactions between the fields involved are systematically investigated. The structure of the initial singularity is studied in detail in both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. The final stage of evolution is studied and interpreted in terms of the quanta of scalar, gravitational, and electromagnetic fields. Possible extensions of the present model to the conformally coupled scalar field and the Abelian solutions of the Yang-Mills field equations are pointed out.
Identification of a scalar glueball.
Albaladejo, M; Oller, J A
2008-12-19
We perform a coupled channel study of the meson-meson S waves with isospin (I) 0 and 1/2 up to 2 GeV. A new approach is derived that allows one to include the many channels pipi, KK[over ], etaeta, sigmasigma, etaeta; eta; eta; , rhorho, omegaomega, omegavarphi, varphivarphi, a(1)pi, and pipi with still few free parameters. It follows that coupled channel dynamics is strong and cannot be neglected in order to study resonance properties in the region 1.4-1.6 GeV. All the resonances with masses below 2 GeV and I=0 and 1/2 are generated. We identify the f(0)(1710) and an important contribution to the f (0)(1500) as an unmixed glueball. This is based on an accurate agreement of our results with predictions of lattice QCD and the chiral suppression of the coupling of a scalar glueball to q[over ]q. Another pole, mainly corresponding to the f_{0}(1370), is a pure octet state. PMID:19113698
Robinson-Trautman solution with scalar hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahamtan, T.; Svítek, O.
2015-05-01
The explicit Robinson-Trautman solution with a minimally coupled free scalar field is derived and analyzed. It is shown that this solution contains curvature singularity, which is initially naked but later enveloped by the horizon. We use the quasilocal horizon definition and prove its existence in later retarded times using sub- and supersolution method combined with growth estimates. We show that the solution is generally of algebraic type II but reduces to type D in spherical symmetry.
Growth of spherical overdensities in scalar-tensor cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazari-Pooya, N.; Malekjani, M.; Pace, F.; Jassur, D. Mohammad-Zadeh
2016-06-01
The accelerated expansion of the universe is a rather established fact in cosmology and many different models have been proposed as a viable explanation. Many of these models are based on the standard general relativistic framework of non-interacting fluids or more recently of coupled (interacting) dark energy models, where dark energy (the scalar field) is coupled to the dark matter component giving rise to a fifth-force. An interesting alternative is to couple the scalar field directly to the gravity sector via the Ricci scalar. These models are dubbed non-minimally coupled models and give rise to a time-dependent gravitational constant. In this work, we study few models falling into this category and describe how observables depend on the strength of the coupling. We extend recent work on the subject by taking into account also the effects of the perturbations of the scalar field and showing their relative importance on the evolution of the mass function. By working in the framework of the spherical collapse model, we show that perturbations of the scalar field have a limited impact on the growth factor (for small coupling constant) and on the mass function with respect to the case where perturbations are neglected.
Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.
1962-05-15
A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bittencourt, E.; Moschella, U.; Novello, M.; Toniato, J. D.
2016-06-01
We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordström which predated and, in some ways, inspired general relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in terms of its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterization of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first post-Newtonian approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egorov, A. I.; Kashargin, P. E.; Sushkov, Sergey V.
2016-09-01
In 1921 Bach and Weyl derived the method of superposition to construct new axially symmetric vacuum solutions of general relativity. In this paper we extend the Bach–Weyl approach to non-vacuum configurations with massless scalar fields. Considering a phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy, we construct a multi-wormhole solution describing an axially symmetric superposition of N wormholes. The solution found is static, everywhere regular and has no event horizons. These features drastically tell the multi-wormhole configuration from other axially symmetric vacuum solutions which inevitably contain gravitationally inert singular structures, such as ‘struts’ and ‘membranes’, that keep the two bodies apart making a stable configuration. However, the multi-wormholes are static without any singular struts. Instead, the stationarity of the multi-wormhole configuration is provided by the phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy. Anther unusual property is that the multi-wormhole spacetime has a complicated topological structure. Namely, in the spacetime there exist 2 N asymptotically flat regions connected by throats.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang; Liu, Keh-Fei
2015-11-01
It is commonly believed that the lowest-lying scalar glueball lies somewhere in the isosinglet scalar mesons f0(1370 ) , f0(1500 ) and f0(1710 ) denoted generically by f0. In this work we consider lattice calculations and experimental data to infer the glue and q q ¯ components of f0. These include the calculations of the scalar glueball masses in quenched and unquenched lattice QCD, measurements of the radiative decays J /ψ →γ f0 , the ratio of f0 decays to π π , K K ¯ and η η , the ratio of J /ψ decays to f0(1710 )ω and f0(1710 )ϕ , the f0 contributions to Bs→J /ψ π+π- , and the near mass degeneracy of a0(1450 ) and K0*(1430 ) . All analyses suggest the prominent glueball nature of f0(1710 ) and the flavor octet structure of f0(1500 ).
Hyperbolicity of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Salgado, Marcelo; Martinez del Rio, David; Alcubierre, Miguel; Nunez, Dario
2008-05-15
Two first order strongly hyperbolic formulations of scalar-tensor theories of gravity allowing nonminimal couplings (Jordan frame) are presented along the lines of the 3+1 decomposition of spacetime. One is based on the Bona-Masso formulation, while the other one employs a conformal decomposition similar to that of Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura. A modified Bona-Masso slicing condition adapted to the scalar-tensor theory is proposed for the analysis. This study confirms that the scalar-tensor theory has a well-posed Cauchy problem even when formulated in the Jordan frame.
Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2014-06-01
We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. HBHs branch off from the Kerr metric at the threshold of the superradiant instability and reduce to spinning boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon area. They overlap with Kerr black holes for a set of (M, J) values. A single Killing vector field preserves the solutions, tangent to the null geodesic generators of the event horizon. HBHs can exhibit sharp physical differences when compared to the Kerr solution, such as J/M^{2}>1, a quadrupole moment larger than J^{2}/M, and a larger orbital angular velocity at the innermost stable circular orbit. Families of HBHs connected to the Kerr geometry should exist in scalar (and other) models with more general self-interactions. PMID:24949750
Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Marek
2008-11-01
We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain.
Bi-scalar modified gravity and cosmology with conformal invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tsoukalas, Minas
2016-04-01
We investigate the cosmological applications of a bi-scalar modified gravity that exhibits partial conformal invariance, which could become full conformal invariance in the absence of the usual Einstein-Hilbert term and introducing additionally either the Weyl derivative or properly rescaled fields. Such a theory is constructed by considering the action of a non-minimally conformally-coupled scalar field, and adding a second scalar allowing for a nonminimal derivative coupling with the Einstein tensor and the energy-momentum tensor of the first field. At a cosmological framework we obtain an effective dark-energy sector constituted from both scalars. In the absence of an explicit matter sector we extract analytical solutions, which for some parameter regions correspond to an effective matter era and/or to an effective radiation era, thus the two scalars give rise to "mimetic dark matter" or to "dark radiation" respectively. In the case where an explicit matter sector is included we obtain a cosmological evolution in agreement with observations, that is a transition from matter to dark energy era, with the onset of cosmic acceleration. Furthermore, for particular parameter regions, the effective dark-energy equation of state can transit to the phantom regime at late times. These behaviors reveal the capabilities of the theory, since they arise purely from the novel, bi-scalar construction and the involved couplings between the two fields.
29 CFR 451.4 - Labor organizations under section 3(j).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organizations under section 3(j). 451.4 Section 451.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AS DEFINED IN THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 § 451.4 Labor organizations...
Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.
2015-02-01
Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.
Morphine analgesic tolerance in 129P3/J and 129S6/SvEv mice
Bryant, Camron D.; Roberts, Kristofer W.; Byun, Janet S.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Evans, Christopher J.
2007-01-01
Morphine analgesic tolerance is heritable in both humans and rodents, with some individuals and strains exhibiting little and others exhibiting robust tolerance. 129S6/SvEv and 129P3/J mice reportedly do not demonstrate tolerance to morphine analgesia. Using our laboratory's standard morphine tolerance regimen and a between-subjects design, tolerance developed in the hot plate and tail withdrawal assays as indicated by a change in analgesic efficacy following a morphine challenge dose. Furthermore, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilipine) blocked morphine tolerance in 129S6/SvEv and CD-1 mice in the hot plate assay. As previously reported, when a within-subjects design and cumulative dosing was employed, no tolerance was observed in the 129P3/J strain. However, using the same morphine regimen and a between-subjects design, comparable tolerance developed between 129P3/J and C57BL/6J strains following a single challenge dose of morphine. Spontaneous hyperalgesia was observed in the tail withdrawal assay following chronic morphine in C57BL/6J, but not 129P3/J mice. Additionally, morphine-tolerant C57BL/6J mice, but not 129P3/J mice, exhibited a large increase in the frequency of tail flicks during the first second following the baseline nociceptive response which may facilitate detection of the response during the tolerant state. We conclude that the method of tolerance assessment affects the ability to detect tolerance and thus, may affect the degree and pattern of heritability of this trait and this could have implications for gene mapping studies. PMID:17196637
Scalar meson spectroscopy with lattice staggered fermions
Bernard, Claude; DeTar, Carleton; Fu Ziwen; Prelovsek, Sasa
2007-11-01
With sufficiently light up and down quarks the isovector (a{sub 0}) and isosinglet (f{sub 0}) scalar meson propagators are dominated at large distance by two-meson states. In the staggered-fermion formulation of lattice quantum chromodynamics, taste-symmetry breaking causes a proliferation of two-meson states that further complicates the analysis of these channels. Many of them are unphysical artifacts of the lattice approximation. They are expected to disappear in the continuum limit. The staggered-fermion fourth-root procedure has its purported counterpart in rooted staggered chiral perturbation theory (rS{chi}PT). Fortunately, the rooted theory provides a strict framework that permits the analysis of scalar meson correlators in terms of only a small number of low-energy couplings. Thus the analysis of the point-to-point scalar meson correlators in this context gives a useful consistency check of the fourth-root procedure and its proposed chiral realization. Through numerical simulation we have measured correlators for both the a{sub 0} and f{sub 0} channels in the 'Asqtad' improved staggered-fermion formulation in a lattice ensemble with lattice spacing a=0.12 fm. We analyze those correlators in the context of rS{chi}PT and obtain values of the low-energy chiral couplings that are reasonably consistent with previous determinations.
Constructing scalar-photon three point vertex in massless quenched scalar QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Rangel, L. Albino; Bashir, Adnan; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Concha-Sánchez, Y.
2016-03-01
Nonperturbative studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations require their infinite, coupled tower to be truncated in order to reduce them to a practically solvable set. In this connection, a physically acceptable Ansatz for the three point vertex is the most favorite choice. Scalar quantum electrodynamics (sQED) provides a simple and neat platform to address this problem. The most general form of the three point scalar-photon vertex can be expressed in terms of only two independent form factors, a longitudinal and a transverse one. Ball and Chiu have demonstrated that the longitudinal vertex is fixed by requiring the Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identity while the transverse vertex remains undetermined. In massless quenched sQED, we construct the transverse part of the nonperturbative scalar-photon vertex. This construction (i) ensures multiplicative renormalizability of the scalar propagator in keeping with the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations, (ii) has the same transformation properties as the bare vertex under charge conjugation, parity and time reversal, (iii) has no kinematic singularities and (iv) reproduces the one-loop asymptotic result in the weak coupling regime of the theory.
Landau pole in the Standard Model with weakly interacting scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu; Tsumura, Koji
2015-07-01
We consider the Standard Model with a new scalar field X which is an nX representation of the SU (2)L with a hypercharge YX. The renormalization group running effects on the new scalar quartic coupling constants are evaluated. Even if we set the scalar quartic coupling constants to be zero at the scale of the new scalar field, the coupling constants are induced by the one-loop effect of the weak gauge bosons. Once non-vanishing couplings are generated, the couplings rapidly increase by renormalization group effect of the quartic coupling constant itself. As a result, the Landau pole appears below Planck scale if nX ≥ 4. We find that the scale of the obtained Landau pole is much lower than that evaluated by solving the one-loop beta function of the gauge coupling constants.
A Lagrangian PDF Model for the Scalar Dissipation in Homogeneous Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Rodney O.
1996-11-01
The scalar dissipation is a key quantity in the description of turbulent mixing. The spectral relaxation model (SRM) was developed to account for the effect of the evolution of the scalar spectrum on the mean scalar dissipation < ɛ_φ >, and it successfully predicts the observed (DNS, grid turbulence) dependence on Re, Sc (>= 1), and the initial scalar spectrum without recourse to fitting parameters. In this work, we present a Lagrangian PDF version (LSRM) for the PDF of ɛ_φ conditioned on the turbulent vortex stretching history of Kolmogorov-scale fluid particles. In homogeneous turbulence, the LSRM is coupled to a Lagrangian PDF model for the turbulent dissipation (ɛ) which strongly influences the statistics of ɛ_φ. Closure of scalar molecular dissipation term (< Γ nabla^2 φ | φ, ɛ^*_φ, ɛ^* >) is carried out using the Fokker-Planck model that was developed earlier for the joint scalar, scalar gradient PDF following fluid particles with the identical vortex stretching histories. Model predictions for inert scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence with and without a uniform mean scalar gradient are compared to DNS data. In particular, the effect of the mean scalar gradient on the correlation between ɛ_φ and ɛ (i.e. local anisotropy) is examined, as well as the effect of the initial scalar spectrum and small-scale random vortex stretching on non-Gaussian behavior of the scalar PDF.
Anisotropic inflation from charged scalar fields
Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Movahed, S.M. Sadegh; Zarei, Moslem E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: m.zarei@cc.iut.ac.ir
2011-02-01
We consider models of inflation with U(1) gauge fields and charged scalar fields including symmetry breaking potential, chaotic inflation and hybrid inflation. We show that there exist attractor solutions where the anisotropies produced during inflation becomes comparable to the slow-roll parameters. In the models where the inflaton field is a charged scalar field the gauge field becomes highly oscillatory at the end of inflation ending inflation quickly. Furthermore, in charged hybrid inflation the onset of waterfall phase transition at the end of inflation is affected significantly by the evolution of the background gauge field. Rapid oscillations of the gauge field and its coupling to inflaton can have interesting effects on preheating and non-Gaussianities.
Detecting chameleons: The astronomical polarization produced by chameleonlike scalar fields
Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas J.
2009-02-15
We show that a coupling between chameleonlike scalar fields and photons induces linear and circular polarization in the light from astrophysical sources. In this context chameleonlike scalar fields include those of the Olive-Pospelov (OP) model, which describes a varying fine structure constant. We determine the form of this polarization numerically and give analytic expressions in two useful limits. By comparing the predicted signal with current observations we are able to improve the constraints on the chameleon-photon coupling and the coupling in the OP model by over 2 orders of magnitude. It is argued that, if observed, the distinctive form of the chameleon induced circular polarization would represent a smoking gun for the presence of a chameleon. We also report a tentative statistical detection of a chameleonlike scalar field from observations of starlight polarization in our galaxy.
On the distribution of scalar k for elliptic scalar multiplication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajeena, Ruma Kareem K.; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza
2015-10-01
In this study, we introduce the probability distribution of the elliptic curve scalar multiplication through finding the probability distribution of the secret key, namely, the scalar k of the scalar multiplication kP of a point P which has a large prime order n lying on elliptic curve group E(Fp) over a finite prime field Fp. To determine this distribution of k, we use the integer sub-decomposition (ISD) approach that inspired from Gallant, Lambert and Vanstone (GLV) idea. In ISD approach, the distribution of the values of scalars k lie outside the range ±√{n } on the interval [1, n - 1]. This distribution determines the successful rate to compute a scalar multiplication kP, on ISD approach, in comparison with the original GLV method. The conception of the ISD approach depends on the sub- decomposition of the scalar k to compute the scalar multiplication kP which uses efficiently computable endomorphisms Ψ1 and Ψ2 of elliptic curve E over Fp. The ISD sub-decomposition can be defined by k P =k11P +k12ψ1(P )+k21P +k22ψ2(P ), with max{ | k11 | ,| k12 | } and max{ | k21 | ,| k22 | } ≤C √{n }, for some explicit constant C > 0. Furthermore, this study compares between the GLV and ISD approaches on the basis of the probability distribution of the scalar k in the interval [1, n - 1], where n is a large prime number.
General analytic solutions of scalar field cosmology with arbitrary potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimakis, N.; Karagiorgos, A.; Zampeli, Adamantia; Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Christodoulakis, T.; Terzis, Petros A.
2016-06-01
We present the solution space for the case of a minimally coupled scalar field with arbitrary potential in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric. This is made possible due to the existence of a nonlocal integral of motion corresponding to the conformal Killing field of the two-dimensional minisuperspace metric. Both the spatially flat and nonflat cases are studied first in the presence of only the scalar field and subsequently with the addition of noninteracting perfect fluids. It is verified that this addition does not change the general form of the solution, but only the particular expressions of the scalar field and the potential. The results are applied in the case of parametric dark energy models where we derive the scalar field equivalence solution for some proposed models in the literature.
Composite (pseudo) scalar contributions to muon g - 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Du Hwan
2016-07-01
We have calculated the composite (pseudo) scalar contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of muons in models of walking technicolor. By the axial or scale anomaly the light scalars such as techni-dilaton, techni-pions or techni-eta have anomalous couplings to two-photons, which make them natural candidates for the recent 750 GeV resonance excess, observed at LHC. Due to the anomalous couplings, their contributions to muon (g - 2) are less suppressed and might explain the current deviation in muon (g - 2) measurements from theory.
On the stability and causality of scalar-vector theories
Fleury, Pierre; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Almeida, Juan P. Beltrán E-mail: juanpbeltran@uan.edu.co E-mail: uzan@iap.fr
2014-11-01
Various extensions of standard inflationary models have been proposed recently by adding vector fields. Because they are generally motivated by large-scale anomalies, and the possibility of statistical anisotropy of primordial fluctuations, such models require to introduce non-standard couplings between vector fields on the one hand, and either gravity or scalar fields on the other hand. In this article, we study models involving a vector field coupled to a scalar field. We derive restrictive necessary conditions for these models to be both stable (Hamiltonian bounded by below) and causal (hyperbolic equations of motion)
Spontaneous scalarization with massive fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramazanoǧlu, Fethi M.; Pretorius, Frans
2016-03-01
We study the effect of a mass term in the spontaneous scalarization of neutron stars, for a wide range of scalar field parameters and neutron star equations of state. Even though massless scalars have been the focus of interest in spontaneous scalarization so far, recent observations of binary systems rule out most of their interesting parameter space. We point out that adding a mass term to the scalar field potential is a natural extension to the model that avoids these observational bounds if the Compton wavelength of the scalar is small compared to the binary separation. Our model is formally similar to the asymmetron scenario recently introduced in application to cosmology, though here we are interested in consequences for neutron stars and thus consider a mass term that does not modify the geometry on cosmological scales. We review the allowed values for the mass and scalarization parameters in the theory given current binary system observations and black hole spin measurements. We show that within the allowed ranges, spontaneous scalarization can have nonperturbative, strong effects that may lead to observable signatures in binary neutron star or black hole-neutron star mergers, or even in isolated neutron stars.
Scalar self-force on static charge in a long throat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A.; Aslan, O.
2015-08-01
We compute the self-force on a scalar charge at rest in the space-time of long throat. We consider arbitrary values of the mass of the scalar field and the constant of nonminimal coupling of the scalar field to the curvature of space-time. We also show the coincidence of explicit calculations of self-force in the limit of large mass of the field with known results.
Ultrarelativistic boost with scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svítek, O.; Tahamtan, T.
2016-02-01
We present the ultrarelativistic boost of the general global monopole solution which is parametrized by mass and deficit solid angle. The problem is addressed from two different perspectives. In the first one the primary object for performing the boost is the metric tensor while in the second one the energy momentum tensor is used. Since the solution is sourced by a triplet of scalar fields that effectively vanish in the boosting limit we investigate the behavior of a scalar field in a simpler setup. Namely, we perform the boosting study of the spherically symmetric solution with a free scalar field given by Janis, Newman and Winicour. The scalar field is again vanishing in the limit pointing to a broader pattern of scalar field behaviour during an ultrarelativistic boost in highly symmetric situations.
Scalar-tensor theories with an external scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauvineau, Bertrand; Rodrigues, Davi C.; Fabris, Júlio C.
2016-06-01
Scalar-tensor (ST) gravity is considered in the case where the scalar is an external field. We show that general relativity (GR) and usual ST gravity are particular cases of the external scalar-tensor (EST) gravity. It is shown with a particular cosmological example that it is possible to join a part of a GR solution to a part of a ST one such that the complete solution neither belongs to GR nor to ST, but fully satisfies the EST field equations. We argue that external fields may effectively work as a type of screening mechanism for ST theories.
Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baier, R.; Nishimura, H.; Stricker, S. A.
2015-07-01
The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter, which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Without fine tuning the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a generic formation of a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.
Scalar multiplet recombination at large N and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashmakov, Vladimir; Bertolini, Matteo; Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Raj, Himanshu
2016-05-01
We consider the coupling of a free scalar to a single-trace operator of a large N CFT in d dimensions. This is equivalent to a double-trace deformation coupling two primary operators of the CFT, in the limit when one of the two saturates the unitarity bound. At leading order, the RG-flow has a non-trivial fixed point where multiplets recombine. We show this phenomenon in field theory, and provide the holographic dual description. Free scalars correspond to singleton representations of the AdS algebra. The double-trace interaction is mapped to a boundary condition mixing the singleton with the bulk field dual to the single-trace operator. In the IR, the singleton and the bulk scalar merge, providing just one long representation of the AdS algebra.
Simplified recursive algorithm for Wigner 3j and 6j symbols
Luscombe, J.H.; Luban, M.
1998-06-01
We present a highly accurate, {ital ab initio} recursive algorithm for evaluating the Wigner 3j and 6j symbols. Our method makes use of two-term, nonlinear recurrence relations that are obtained from the standard three-term recurrence relations satisfied by these quantities. The use of two-term recurrence relations eliminates the need for rescaling of iterates to control numerical overflows and thereby simplifies the widely used recursive algorithm of Schulten and Gordon. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Domain Walls in AdS-EINSTEIN-SCALAR Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Sangheon
In this paper, we show that the supergravity theory which is dual to ABJM field theory can be consistently reduced to scalar-coupled AdS-Einstein gravity and then consider the reflection symmetric domain wall and its small fluctuation. It is also shown that this domain wall solution is none other than dimensional reduction of M2-brane configuration.
Pseudo-scalar form factors at three loops in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Taushif; Gehrmann, Thomas; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V.
2015-11-01
The coupling of a pseudo-scalar Higgs boson to gluons is mediated through a heavy quark loop. In the limit of large quark mass, it is described by an effective Lagrangian that only admits light degrees of freedom. In this effective theory, we compute the three-loop massless QCD corrections to the form factor that describes the coupling of a pseudo-scalar Higgs boson to gluons. Due to the axial anomaly, the pseudo-scalar operator for the gluonic field strength mixes with the divergence of the axial vector current. Working in dimensional regularization and using the 't Hooft-Veltman prescription for the axial vector current, we compute the three-loop pseudo-scalar form factors for massless quarks and gluons. Using the universal infrared factorization properties, we independently derive the three-loop operator mixing and finite operator renormalisation from the renormalisation group equation for the form factors, thereby confirming recent results in the operator product expansion. The finite part of the three-loop form factor is an important ingredient to the precise prediction of the pseudo-scalar Higgs boson production cross section at hadron colliders. We discuss potential applications and derive the hard matching coefficient in soft-collinear effective theory.
Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolić, Ivica
2015-07-01
Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair.
Gravitational scalar-tensor theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-05-01
We consider a new form of gravity theories in which the action is written in terms of the Ricci scalar and its first and second derivatives. Despite the higher derivative nature of the action, the theory is ghost-free under an appropriate choice of the functional form of the Lagrangian. This model possesses 2 + 2 physical degrees of freedom, namely 2 scalar degrees and 2 tensor degrees. We exhaust all such theories with the Lagrangian of the form f(R,{({{\
Scalar graviton as dark matter
Pirogov, Yu. F.
2015-06-15
The basics of the theory of unimodular bimode gravity built on the principles of unimodular gauge invariance/relativity and general covariance are exposed. Besides the massless tensor graviton of General Relativity, the theory includes an (almost) massless scalar graviton treated as the gravitational dark matter. A spherically symmetric vacuum solution describing the coherent scalar-graviton field for the soft-core dark halos, with the asymptotically flat rotation curves, is demonstrated as an example.
Abnormal Sperm Development in pcd3J-/- Mice: the Importance of Agtpbp1 in Spermatogenesis
Kim, Nameun; Xiao, Rui; Choi, Hojun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Sang-Jun, Uhm; Chankyu, Park
2011-01-01
Homozygous Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant males exhibit abnormal sperm development. Microscopic examination of the testes from pcd3J-/- mice at postnatal days 12, 15, 18 and 60 revealed histological differences, in comparison to wild-type mice, which were evident by day 18. Greatly reduced numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids were found in the adult testes, and apoptotic cells were identified among the differentiating germ cells after day 15. Our immunohistological analysis using an antihuman AGTPBP1 antibody showed that AGTPBP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells between late stage primary spermatocytes and round spermatids. A global gene expression analysis from the testes of pcd3J-/- mice showed that expression of cyclin B3 and de-ubiquitinating enzymes USP2 and USP9y was altered by >1.5-fold compared to the expression levels in the wild-type. Our results suggest that the pcd mutant mice have defects in spermatogenesis that begin with the pachytene spermatocyte stage and continue through subsequent stages. Thus, Agtpbp1, the gene responsible for the pcd phenotype, plays an important role in spermatogenesis and is important for survival of germ cells at spermatocytes stage onward. PMID:21110128
Tensor-multi-scalar theories: relativistic stars and 3 + 1 decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horbatsch, Michael; Silva, Hector O.; Gerosa, Davide; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Sperhake, Ulrich
2015-10-01
Gravitational theories with multiple scalar fields coupled to the metric and each other—a natural extension of the well studied single-scalar-tensor theories—are interesting phenomenological frameworks to describe deviations from general relativity in the strong-field regime. In these theories, the N-tuple of scalar fields takes values in a coordinate patch of an N-dimensional Riemannian target-space manifold whose properties are poorly constrained by weak-field observations. Here we introduce for simplicity a non-trivial model with two scalar fields and a maximally symmetric target-space manifold. Within this model we present a preliminary investigation of spontaneous scalarization for relativistic, perfect fluid stellar models in spherical symmetry. We find that the scalarization threshold is determined by the eigenvalues of a symmetric scalar-matter coupling matrix, and that the properties of strongly scalarized stellar configurations additionally depend on the target-space curvature radius. In preparation for numerical relativity simulations, we also write down the 3 + 1 decomposition of the field equations for generic tensor-multi-scalar theories.
Braneworld inflation with a complex scalar field from Planck 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mounzi, Z.; Ferricha-Alami, M.; Chakir, H.; Bennai, M.
2016-06-01
We study an inflationary model with a single complex scalar field in the framework of braneworld Randall-Sundrum model type 2. From the scalar curvature perturbation constrained by the recent observation values, and for specific choice of parameters, we can reduce the values of the coupling constant to take the natural values, and we found that the phase theta θ of the inflation field can take the narrow interval. We have also derived all known inflationary parameters (ns, r and dns/d ln (k)), which are widely consistent with the recent Planck data for a suitable choice of brane tension value λ.
Color Sextet Scalars in Early LHC Experiments
Berger, Edmond L.; Cao Qinghong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Zhang Hao
2010-10-29
We explore the potential for discovery of an exotic color sextet scalar in same-sign top quark pair production in early running at the LHC. We present the first phenomenological analysis at colliders of color sextet scalars with full top quark spin correlations included. We demonstrate that one can measure the scalar mass, the top quark polarization, and confirm the scalar resonance with 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The top quark polarization can distinguish gauge triplet and singlet scalars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berberian, John Edwin
1999-01-01
matching interface, and scalar-tensor coupling function) to which they can be joined. The screening procedure is independent of the particular spherically symmetric coordinate system in which the candidate solution is expressed. Scalar field coordinates are also used to examine succinctly the problem of perturbative expansion of scalar-tensor vacuum solutions about the vacuum solution of general relativity. All solutions are shown to fall into three categories: perturbation about the Schwarzschild solution, perturbation about a two dimensional metric, and non-perturbative solutions. In the process of classification, the Birkhoff theorem for vacuum solutions of general relativity is explicitly shown. In the final section, future directions are discussed. They are: exploiting Lie-theoretic methods to find new solution families which may lead to an explicit matched solution, searching for the Choptuik critical solution, and application of scalar field coordinates to relativistic perfect fluids (T = 0) in order to find exact solutions. Finally, a re-examination of classical gravitational collapse of a scalar field is advocated using matched solutions.
ROTSE3 J133033.0-313427 is a Type Ia Supernova
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quimby, R. M.
2010-03-01
A spectrum (340-760 nm) of ROTSE3 J133033.0-313427 (Zheng et al., ATel #2468) obtained on Mar 14.58 UT with the 10-m Keck I (+ Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) shows it to be a normal Type Ia supernova. The spectra are similar to SN 1992A a few days after maximum light (Kirshner et al. 1993, ApJ 415,589). Adopting the redshift of the apparent host (z=0.048; Katgert et al. 1998, A&AS 129, 399), the expansion velocity derived from the minimum of the SiII (rest 635.5 nm) line is about 12,000 km/s.
Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Coc, Alain; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth
2006-04-15
We investigate Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in scalar-tensor theories of gravity with arbitrary matter couplings and self-interaction potentials. We first consider the case of a massless dilaton with a quadratic coupling to matter. We perform a full numerical integration of the evolution of the scalar field and compute the resulting light element abundances. We demonstrate in detail the importance of particle mass thresholds on the evolution of the scalar field in a radiation dominated universe. We also consider the simplest extension of this model including a cosmological constant in either the Jordan or Einstein frame.
Dynamical Characteristics of a Non-canonical Scalar-Torsion Model of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banijamali, A.; Ghasemi, E.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we analyze the phase-space of a model of dark energy in which a non-canonical scalar field (tachyon) non-minimally coupled to torsion scalar in the framework of teleparallelism. Scalar field potential and non-minimal coupling function are chosen as V(ϕ) = V 0 ϕ n and f(ϕ) = ϕ N , respectively. We obtain a critical point that behaves like a stable or saddle point depending on the values of N and n. Additionally we find an unstable critical line. We have shown such a behavior of critical points using numerical computations and phase-space trajectories explicitly.
Asymptotic cosmological regimes in scalar-torsion gravity with a perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skugoreva, Maria A.; Toporensky, Alexey V.
2016-06-01
We consider the cosmological dynamics of a nonminimally coupled scalar field in scalar-torsion gravity in the presence of hydrodynamical matter. The potential of the scalar field have been chosen as power law with negative index, this type of potentials is usually used in quintessence scenarios. We identify several asymptotic regimes, including de Sitter, kinetic dominance, kinetic tracker, and tracker solutions and study the conditions for their existence and stability. We show that for each combination of coupling constant and potential power index one of the regimes studied in the present paper is stable to the future.
Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on scalar-tensor theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coc, Alain; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth
2006-04-01
We investigate Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in scalar-tensor theories of gravity with arbitrary matter couplings and self-interaction potentials. We first consider the case of a massless dilaton with a quadratic coupling to matter. We perform a full numerical integration of the evolution of the scalar field and compute the resulting light element abundances. We demonstrate in detail the importance of particle mass thresholds on the evolution of the scalar field in a radiation dominated universe. We also consider the simplest extension of this model including a cosmological constant in either the Jordan or Einstein frame.
Dynamical Characteristics of a Non-canonical Scalar-Torsion Model of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banijamali, A.; Ghasemi, E.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we analyze the phase-space of a model of dark energy in which a non-canonical scalar field (tachyon) non-minimally coupled to torsion scalar in the framework of teleparallelism. Scalar field potential and non-minimal coupling function are chosen as V( ϕ) = V 0 ϕ n and f( ϕ) = ϕ N , respectively. We obtain a critical point that behaves like a stable or saddle point depending on the values of N and n. Additionally we find an unstable critical line. We have shown such a behavior of critical points using numerical computations and phase-space trajectories explicitly.
Non-perturbative Calculation of the Scalar Yukawa Theory in Four-Body Truncation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Karmanov, V. A.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.
2015-09-01
The quenched scalar Yukawa theory is solved in the light-front Tamm-Dancoff approach including up to four constituents (one scalar nucleon, three scalar pions). The Fock sector dependent renormalization is implemented. By studying the Fock sector norms, we find that the lowest two Fock sectors dominate the state even in the large-coupling region. The one-body sector shows convergence with respect to the Fock sector truncation. However, the four-body norm exceeds the three-body norm at the coupling.
An inflationary model with small scalar and large tensor nongaussianities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Jessica L.; Sorbo, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
We study a model of inflation where the scalar perturbations are almost gaussian while there is sizable (equilateral) nongaussianity in the tensor sector. In this model, a rolling pseudoscalar gravitationally coupled to the inflaton amplifies the vacuum fluctuations of a vector field. The vector sources both scalar and tensor metric perturbations. Both kinds of perturbations are nongaussian, but, due to helicity conservation, the tensors have a larger amplitude, so that nongaussianity in the scalar perturbations is negligible. Moreover, the tensors produced this way are chiral. We study, in the flat sky approximation, how constraints on tensor nongaussianities affect the detectability of parity violation in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We expect the model to feature interesting patterns on nongaussianities in the polarization spectra of the CMB.
Scalar field dark matter and the Higgs field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolami, O.; Cosme, Catarina; Rosa, João G.
2016-08-01
We discuss the possibility that dark matter corresponds to an oscillating scalar field coupled to the Higgs boson. We argue that the initial field amplitude should generically be of the order of the Hubble parameter during inflation, as a result of its quasi-de Sitter fluctuations. This implies that such a field may account for the present dark matter abundance for masses in the range 10-6-10-4eV, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is within the range of planned CMB experiments. We show that such mass values can naturally be obtained through either Planck-suppressed non-renormalizable interactions with the Higgs boson or, alternatively, through renormalizable interactions within the Randall-Sundrum scenario, where the dark matter scalar resides in the bulk of the warped extra-dimension and the Higgs is confined to the infrared brane.
Primordial power spectra for scalar perturbations in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín de Blas, Daniel; Olmedo, Javier
2016-06-01
We provide the power spectrum of small scalar perturbations propagating in an inflationary scenario within loop quantum cosmology. We consider the hybrid quantization approach applied to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with flat spatial sections coupled to a massive scalar field. We study the quantum dynamics of scalar perturbations on an effective background within this hybrid approach. We consider in our study adiabatic states of different orders. For them, we find that the hybrid quantization is in good agreement with the predictions of the dressed metric approach. We also propose an initial vacuum state for the perturbations, and compute the primordial and the anisotropy power spectrum in order to qualitatively compare with the current observations of Planck mission. We find that our vacuum state is in good agreement with them, showing a suppression of the power spectrum for large scale anisotropies. We compare with other choices already studied in the literature.
A scalar field dark energy model: Noether symmetry approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Sourav; Panja, Madan Mohan; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2016-04-01
Scalar field dark energy cosmology has been investigated in the present paper in the frame work of Einstein gravity. In the context of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space time minimally coupled scalar field with self interacting potential and non-interacting perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state (dark matter) is chosen as the matter context. By imposing Noether symmetry on the Lagrangian of the system the symmetry vector is obtained and the self interacting potential for the scalar field is determined. Then we choose a point transformation (a, φ )→ (u, v) such that one of the transformation variable (say u) is cyclic for the Lagrangian. Subsequently, using conserved charge (corresponding to the cyclic co-ordinate) and the constant of motion, solutions are obtained. Finally, the cosmological implication of the solutions in the perspective of recent observation has been examined.
Inert scalars and vacuum metastability around the electroweak scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Świeżewska, Bogumiła
2015-07-01
We analyse effective potential around the electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) extended with a heavy scalar doublet. We show that the additional scalars can have a strong impact on vacuum stability. Although the additional heavy scalars may improve the behaviour of running Higgs self-coupling at large field values, we prove that they can destabilise the vacuum due to EW-scale effects. A new EW symmetry conserving minimum of the effective potential can appear rendering the electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) minimum meta- or unstable. However, for the case of the inert doublet model (IDM) with a 125 GeV Higgs boson we demonstrate that the parameter space region where the vacuum is meta- or unstable cannot be reconciled with the constraints from perturbative unitarity, electroweak precision tests (EWPT) and dark matter relic abundance measurements.
Thick branes from self-gravitating scalar fields
Novikov, Oleg O.; Andrianov, Vladimir A.; Andrianov, Alexander A.
2014-07-23
The formation of a domain wall ('thick brane') induced by scalar matter dynamics and triggered by a thin brane defect is considered in noncompact five-dimensional space-time with warped AdS type geometry. The scalar matter is composed of two fields with softly broken O(2) symmetry and minimal coupling to gravity. The nonperturbative effects in the invariant mass spectrum of light localized scalar states are investigated for different values of the tension of the thin brane defect. Especially interesting is the case of the thin brane with negative tension when the singular barriers form a potential well with two infinitely tall walls and the discrete spectrum of localized states arises completely isolated from the bulk.
Cosmic variance in inflation with two light scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonga, Béatrice; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Deutsch, Anne-Sylvie; Shandera, Sarah
2016-05-01
We examine the squeezed limit of the bispectrum when a light scalar with arbitrary non-derivative self-interactions is coupled to the inflaton. We find that when the hidden sector scalar is sufficiently light (m lesssim 0.1 H), the coupling between long and short wavelength modes from the series of higher order correlation functions (from arbitrary order contact diagrams) causes the statistics of the fluctuations to vary in sub-volumes. This means that observations of primordial non-Gaussianity cannot be used to uniquely reconstruct the potential of the hidden field. However, the local bispectrum induced by mode-coupling from these diagrams always has the same squeezed limit, so the field's locally determined mass is not affected by this cosmic variance.
DFT analysis of NMR scalar interactions across the glycosidic bond in DNA.
Munzarová, Markéta L; Sklenár, Vladimír
2003-03-26
The relationship between the glycosidic torsion angle chi, the three-bond couplings (3)J(C2/4-H1') and (3)J(C6/8-H1'), and the one-bond coupling (1)J(C1'-H1') in deoxyribonucleosides and a number of uracil cyclo-nucleosides has been analyzed using density functional theory. The influence of the sugar pucker and the hydroxymethyl conformation has also been considered. The parameters of the Karplus relationships between the three-bond couplings and chi depend strongly on the aromatic base. (3)J(C2/4-H1') reveals different behavior for deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, and deoxycytidine as compared to deoxythymidine and deoxyuridine. In the case of (3)J(C6/8-H1'), an opposite trans to cis ratio of couplings is obtained for pyrimidine nucleosides in contrast to purine nucleosides. The extremes of the Karplus curves are shifted by ca. 10 degrees with respect to syn and anti-periplanar orientations of the coupled nuclei. The change in the sugar pucker from S to N decreases (3)J(C2/4-H1') and (3)J(C6/8-H1'), while increasing (1)J(C1'-H1') for the syn rotamers, whereas all of the trends are reversed for the anti rotamers. The influence of the sugar pucker on (1)J(C1'-H1') is interpreted in terms of interactions between the n(O4'), sigma*(C1'-H1') orbitals. The (1)J(C1'-H1') are related to chi through a generalized Karplus relationship, which combines cos(chi) and cos(2)(chi) functions with mutually different phase shifts that implicitly accounts for a significant portion of the related sugar pucker effects. Most of theoretical (3)J(C2/4-H1') and (3)J(C6/8-H1') for uracil cyclo-nucleosides compare well with available experimental data. (3)J(C6/8-H1') couplings for all C2-bridged nucleosides are up to 3 Hz smaller than in the genuine nucleosides with the corresponding chi, revealing a nonlocal aspect of the spin-spin interactions across the glycosidic bond. Theoretical (1)J(C1'-H1') are underestimated with respect to the experiment by ca. 10% but reproduce the trends in (1)J
Astrophysical effects of scalar dark matter miniclusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, Kathryn M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Quinn, Thomas R.
2007-02-01
We model the formation, evolution and astrophysical effects of dark compact Scalar Miniclusters (“ScaMs”). These objects arise when a scalar field, with an axion-like or Higgs-like potential, undergoes a second-order phase transition below the QCD scale. Such a scalar field may couple too weakly to the standard model to be detectable directly through particle interactions, but may still be detectable by gravitational effects, such as lensing and baryon accretion by large, gravitationally bound miniclusters. The masses of these objects are shown to be constrained by the Lyα power spectrum to be less than ˜104M⊙, but they may be as light as classical axion miniclusters, of the order of 10-12M⊙. We simulate the formation and nonlinear gravitational collapse of these objects around matter-radiation equality using an N-body code, estimate their gravitational lensing properties, and assess the feasibility of studying them using current and future lensing experiments. Future MACHO-type variability surveys of many background sources can reveal either high-amplification, strong-lensing events, or measure density profiles directly via weak-lensing variability, depending on ScaM parameters and survey depth. However, ScaMs, due to their low internal densities, are unlikely to be responsible for apparent MACHO events already detected in the Galactic halo. As a result, in the entire window between 10-7M⊙ and 102M⊙ covered by the galactic scale lensing experiments, ScaMs may in fact compose all the dark matter. A simple estimate is made of parameters that would give rise to early structure formation; in principle, early stellar collapse could be triggered by ScaMs as early as recombination, and significantly affect cosmic reionization.
The emergence of scalar meanings
Etxeberria, Urtzi; Irurtzun, Aritz
2015-01-01
This paper analyzes the emergence of scalar additive meanings. We show that in Basque the same particle ere can obtain both the “simple additive” reading (akin to English too) and the “scalar additive” reading (akin to English even) but we argue that we do not have to distinguish two types of ere. We provide evidence, by means of a production and a perception experiment, that the reading is disambiguated by means of prosody (the placement of nuclear stress), which is a correlate of focus. We argue that the scalarity effect is generated by the combination of two presuppositions (a focus-induced one and a lexical one) and the assertion of the sentence. PMID:25745405
Scalar transport by planktonic swarms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.
2012-11-01
Nutrient and energy transport in the ocean is primarily governed by the action of physical phenomena. In previous studies it has been suggested that aquatic fauna may significantly contribute to this process through the action of the induced drift mechanism. In this investigation, the role of planktonic swarms as ecosystem engineers is assessed through the analysis of scalar transport within a stratified water column. The vertical migration of Artemia salina is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. The scalar transport of fluorescent dye is visualized and quantified through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms enhances scalar transport relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present. Funded by the BSF program (2011553).
Long-lived, colour-triplet scalars from unnaturalness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnard, James; Cox, Peter; Gherghetta, Tony; Spray, Andrew
2016-03-01
Long-lived, colour-triplet scalars are a generic prediction of unnatural, or split, composite Higgs models where the spontaneous global-symmetry breaking scale f ≳ 10 TeV and an unbroken SU(5) symmetry is preserved. Since the triplet scalars are pseudo NambuGoldstone bosons they are split from the much heavier composite-sector resonances and are the lightest exotic, coloured states. This makes them ideal to search for at colliders. Due to discrete symmetries the triplet scalar decays via a dimension-six term and given the large suppression scale f is often metastable. We show that existing searches for collider-stable R-hadrons from Run-I at the LHC forbid a triplet scalar mass below 845 GeV, whereas with 300 fb-1 at 13 TeV triplet scalar masses up to 1.4 TeV can be discovered. For shorter lifetimes displaced-vertex searches provide a discovery reach of up to 1.8 TeV. In addition we present exclusion and discovery reaches of future hadron colliders as well as indirect limits that arise from modifications of the Higgs couplings.
Electroweak baryogenesis in a scalar-assisted vectorlike fermion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Ming-Lei; Yu, Jiang-Hao
2016-07-01
We extend the standard model to a scalar-assisted vectorlike fermion model to realize electroweak baryogenesis. The extended Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, due to the mixing among the vectorlike quark and the standard model quarks, provides additional sources of the C P violation. Together with the enhancement from a large vectorlike quark mass, a large enough baryon-to-photon ratio could be obtained. The strongly first-order phase transition could be realized via the potential barrier which separates the broken minimum and the symmetric minimum in the scalar potential. We investigate in detail the one loop temperature-dependent effective potential and perform a random parameter scan to study the allowed parameter region that satisfies the strongly first order phase transition criteria vc≥Tc. Several distinct patterns of phase transition are classified and discussed. Among these patterns, a large trilinear mass term between the Higgs boson and the scalar is preferred, for it controls the width of the potential barrier. Our results indicate large quartic scalar couplings and a moderate mixing angle between the Higgs boson and the new scalar. This parameter region could be further explored at the Run 2 LHC.
Effect of dilatation on scalar dissipation in turbulent premixed flames
Swaminathan, N.; Bray, K.N.C.
2005-12-01
The scalar dissipation rate signifies the local mixing rate and thus plays a vital role in the modeling of reaction rate in turbulent flames. The local mixing rate is influenced by the turbulence, the chemical, and the molecular diffusion processes which are strongly coupled in turbulent premixed flames. Thus, a model for the mean scalar dissipation rate, and hence the mean reaction rate, should include the contributions of these processes. Earlier models for the scalar dissipation rate include only a turbulence time scale. In this study, we derive exact transport equations for the instantaneous and the mean scalar dissipation rates. Using these equations, a simple algebraic model for the mean scalar dissipation rate is obtained. This model includes a chemical as well as a turbulence time scale and its prediction compares well with direct numerical simulation results. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations of a test flame using the model obtained here show that the contribution of dilatation to local turbulent mixing rate is important to predict the propagation phenomenon.
Constraining scalar fields with stellar kinematics and collisional dark matter
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Rezzolla, Luciano E-mail: jbarranc@aei.mpg.de E-mail: rezzolla@aei.mpg.de
2010-11-01
The existence and detection of scalar fields could provide solutions to long-standing puzzles about the nature of dark matter, the dark compact objects at the centre of most galaxies, and other phenomena. Yet, self-interacting scalar fields are very poorly constrained by astronomical observations, leading to great uncertainties in estimates of the mass m{sub φ} and the self-interacting coupling constant λ of these fields. To counter this, we have systematically employed available astronomical observations to develop new constraints, considerably restricting this parameter space. In particular, by exploiting precise observations of stellar dynamics at the centre of our Galaxy and assuming that these dynamics can be explained by a single boson star, we determine an upper limit for the boson star compactness and impose significant limits on the values of the properties of possible scalar fields. Requiring the scalar field particle to follow a collisional dark matter model further narrows these constraints. Most importantly, we find that if a scalar dark matter particle does exist, then it cannot account for both the dark-matter halos and the existence of dark compact objects in galactic nuclei.
Survival of scalar zero modes in warped extra dimensions
George, Damien P.
2011-05-15
Models with an extra dimension generally contain background scalar fields in a nontrivial configuration, whose stability must be ensured. With gravity present, the extra dimension is warped by the scalars, and the spin-0 degrees of freedom in the metric mix with the scalar perturbations. Where possible, we formally solve the coupled Schroedinger equations for the zero modes of these spin-0 perturbations. When specializing to the case of two scalars with a potential generated by a superpotential, we are able to fully solve the system. We show how these zero modes can be used to construct a solution matrix, whose eigenvalues tell whether a normalizable zero mode exists, and how many negative mass modes exist. These facts are crucial in determining stability of the corresponding background configuration. We provide examples of the general analysis for domain-wall models of an infinite extra dimension and domain-wall soft-wall models. For five-dimensional models with two scalars constructed using a superpotential, we show that a normalizable zero mode survives, even in the presence of warped gravity. Such models, which are widely used in the literature, are therefore phenomenologically unacceptable.
Iron Kα line of Kerr black holes with scalar hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Yueying; Zhou, Menglei; Cárdenas-Avendaño, Alejandro; Bambi, Cosimo; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen
2016-07-01
Recently, a family of hairy black holes in 4-dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field was discovered [1]. Besides the mass M and spin angular momentum J, these objects are characterized by a Noether charge Q, measuring the amount of scalar hair, which is not associated to a Gauss law and cannot be measured at spatial infinity. Introducing a dimensionless scalar hair parameter q, ranging from 0 to 1, we recover (a subset of) Kerr black holes for q = 0 and a family of rotating boson stars for q = 1. In the present paper, we explore the possibility of measuring q for astrophysical black holes with current and future X-ray missions. We study the iron Kα line expected in the reflection spectrum of such hairy black holes and we simulate observations with Suzaku and eXTP. As a proof of concept, we point out, by analyzing a sample of hairy black holes, that current observations can already constrain the scalar hair parameter q, because black holes with q close to 1 would have iron lines definitively different from those we observe in the available data. We conclude that a detailed scanning of the full space of solutions, together with data from the future X-ray missions, like eXTP, will be able to put relevant constraints on the astrophysical realization of Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Effects of a real singlet scalar on Veltman condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karahan, Canan Nurhan; Korutlu, Beste
2014-05-01
We revisit the fine-tuning problem in the Standard Model (SM) and show the modification in the Veltman condition by virtue of a minimally-extended particle spectrum with one real SM gauge singlet scalar field. We demand the new scalar to interact with the SM fields through Higgs portal only, and the new singlet to acquire a vacuum expectation value, resulting in a mixing with the CP-even neutral component of the Higgs doublet in the SM. The experimental bounds on the mixing angle are determined by the observed best-fit signal strength σ/σ. While, the one-loop radiative corrections to the Higgs mass squared, computed with an ultraviolet cut-off scale Λ, come with a negative coefficient, the quantum corrections to the singlet mass squared acquire both positive and negative values depending on the parameter space chosen, which if positive might be eliminated by introducing singlet or doublet vector-like fermions. However, based upon the fact that there is mixing between the scalars, when transformed into the physical states, the tree-level coupling of the Higgs field to the vector-like fermions worsens the Higgs mass hierarchy problem. Therefore, the common attempt to introduce vector-like fermions to cancel the divergences in the new scalar mass might not be a solution, if there is mixing between the scalars.
Modelling Scalar Skewness in Cloudy Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, Dmitrii; Machulskaya, Ekaterina; Naumann, Ann Kristin; Seifert, Axel; Mellado, Juan Pedro
2015-04-01
Following the pioneering work of Sommeria and Deardorff (1977), statistical cloud schemes are widely used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models to parameterize the effect of shallow clouds on turbulent mixing and radiation fluxes. Statistical cloud schemes compute the cloud fraction, the amount of cloud condensate and the effect clouds on the buoyancy flux in a given atmospheric-model grid box. This is done with due regard for the sub-grid scale (SGS) fluctuations of temperature and humidity (and possibly the vertical velocity), thus providing an important coupling between cloudiness and the SGS mixing processes. The shape of the PDF of fluctuating fields is assumed, whereas the PDF moments should be provided to the cloud scheme as an input. For non-precipitation clouds, the mixing schemes are usually formulated in terms of quasi-conservative variable, e.g. the liquid (total) water potential temperature and the total water specific humidity. Then, the cloud schemes are conveniently cast in terms of the linearized saturation deficit, referred to as the "s" variable (Mellor 1977), that accounts for the combined effect of the two scalars. If a simple two-parameter single-Gaussian PDF is used, the only "turbulence" parameter to be provided to the cloud scheme is the variance of s. The single-Gaussian PDF ignores the skewed nature of SGS motions and fails to describe many important regimes, e.g. shallow cumuli. A number of more flexible skewed PDFs have been proposed to date. A three-parameter PDF, based on a double-Gaussian distribution and diagnostic relations between some PDF parameters derived from LES and observational data (Naumann et al. 2013), appears to be a good compromise between physical realism and computational economy. A crucial point is that the cloud schemes using non-Gaussian PDFs require the scalar skewness as an input. Using rather mild non-restrictive assumptions, we develop a transport equation for the s-variable triple
Optimizing elliptic curve scalar multiplication for small scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giorgi, Pascal; Imbert, Laurent; Izard, Thomas
2009-08-01
On an elliptic curve, the multiplication of a point P by a scalar k is defined by a series of operations over the field of definition of the curve E, usually a finite field Fq. The computational cost of [k]P = P + P + ...+ P (k times) is therefore expressed as the number of field operations (additions, multiplications, inversions). Scalar multiplication is usually computed using variants of the binary algorithm (double-and-add, NAF, wNAF, etc). If s is a small integer, optimized formula for [s]P can be used within a s-ary algorithm or with double-base methods with bases 2 and s. Optimized formulas exists for very small scalars (s <= 5). However, the exponential growth of the number of field operations makes it a very difficult task when s > 5. We present a generic method to automate transformations of formulas for elliptic curves over prime fields in various systems of coordinates. Our method uses a directed acyclic graph structure to find possible common subexpressions appearing in the formula and several arithmetic transformations. It produces efficient formulas to compute [s]P for a large set of small scalars s. In particular, we present a faster formula for [5]P in Jacobian coordinates. Moreover, our program can produce code for various mathematical software (Magma) and libraries (PACE).
Infrared behavior of scalar condensates in effective holographic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadoni, Mariano; Pani, Paolo; Serra, Matteo
2013-06-01
We investigate the infrared behavior of the spectrum of scalar-dressed, asymptotically Anti de Sitter (AdS) black brane (BB) solutions of effective holographic models. These solutions describe scalar condensates in the dual field theories. We show that for zero charge density the ground state of these BBs must be degenerate with the AdS vacuum, must satisfy conformal boundary conditions for the scalar field and it is isolated from the continuous part of the spectrum. When a finite charge density is switched on, the ground state is not anymore isolated and the degeneracy is removed. Depending on the coupling functions, the new ground state may possibly be energetically preferred with respect to the extremal Reissner-Nordstrom AdS BB. We derive several properties of BBs near extremality and at finite temperature. As a check and illustration of our results we derive and discuss several analytic and numerical, BB solutions of Einstein-scalar-Maxwell AdS gravity with different coupling functions and different potentials. We also discuss how our results can be used for understanding holographic quantum critical points, in particular their stability and the associated quantum phase transitions leading to superconductivity or hyperscaling violation.
Global structure of exact scalar hairy dynamical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Zhong-Ying; Chen, Bin; Lü, H.
2016-05-01
We study the global structure of some exact scalar hairy dynamical black holes which were constructed in Einstein gravity either minimally or non-minimally coupled to a scalar field. We find that both the apparent horizon and the local event horizon (measured in luminosity coordinate) monotonically increase with the advanced time as well as the Vaidya mass. At late advanced times, the apparent horizon approaches the event horizon and gradually becomes future outer. Correspondingly, the space-time arrives at stationary black hole states with the relaxation time inversely proportional to the 1/( n-1) power of the final black hole mass, where n is the space-time dimension. These results strongly support the solutions describing the formation of black holes with scalar hair. We also obtain new charged dynamical solutions in the non-minimal theory by introducing an Maxwell field which is non-minimally coupled to the scalar. The presence of the electric charge strongly modifies the dynamical evolution of the space-time.
Scalar fields and particle accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin
2015-06-01
The phenomenon discovered in 2009 by Bañados, Silk and West where particle collisions can achieve arbitrary high center-of-mass (c.m.) energies close to the event horizon of an extreme Kerr black hole, has generated a lot of interest. Although rotation seemed to be an essential requirement, it was later shown that arbitrary high energies can also be achieved for collisions between radially moving particles near the horizon of the electrically charged extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole. Recently Patil and Joshi claimed that instead of spinning up the black hole one can also crank up the c.m. energy of particle collisions by "charging up" a static black hole with a massless scalar field. In this regard they showed that infinite energies can be attained in the vicinity of the naked singularity of the Janis-Newman-Wincour (JNW) spacetime, which contains a massless scalar field that also becomes infinite at the position of the curvature singularity. In this study we show that Patil and Joshi's claim does not apply for other static black hole systems endowed with a massless scalar field. In particular we consider the well-known Bekenstein black hole and the recently discovered Martínez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole, and show that the expression of the c.m. energy for particle collisions near the event horizons of these black holes is no different than the corresponding case with vanishing scalar field represented by the Schwarzschild solution. Moreover by studying the motion of scalar test charges that interact with the background scalar field in these black hole spacetimes we show that the resulting c.m. energies are even smaller than in the case of free particles. This shows that the infinite energies obtained by Patil and Joshi may not be due to the fact that the black hole contains a massless scalar field, but may be instead related to the geometry of the naked singularity in the JNW spacetime. An analogous case of infinite c.m. energy in the vicinity of a naked
Electromagnetic fields with vanishing scalar invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravda, Vojtěch
2016-06-01
We determine the class of p-forms {\\boldsymbol{F}} that possess vanishing scalar invariants (VSIs) at arbitrary order in an n-dimensional spacetime. Namely, we prove that {\\boldsymbol{F}} is a VSI if and only if if it is of type N, its multiple null direction {\\boldsymbol{\\ell }} is ‘degenerate Kundt’, and {\\pounds }{\\boldsymbol{\\ell }}{\\boldsymbol{F}}=0. The result is theory-independent. Next, we discuss the special case of Maxwell fields, both at the level of test fields and of the full Einstein-Maxwell equations. These describe electromagnetic non-expanding waves propagating in various Kundt spacetimes. We further point out that a subset of these solutions possesses a universal property, i.e. they also solve (virtually) any generalized (non-linear and with higher derivatives) electrodynamics, possibly also coupled to Einstein’s gravity.
Scalar Dark Matter From Theory Space
Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas; Wacker, Jay G.
2003-12-26
The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass {Omicron}(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than {Omicron}(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle).
Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.
Bachmanov, A A; Tordoff, M G; Beauchamp, G K
2001-09-01
Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice of the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by B6 mice, but not by 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485
Entanglement entropy and variational methods: Interacting scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotler, Jordan S.; Mueller, Mark T.
2016-02-01
We develop a variational approximation to the entanglement entropy for scalar ϕ4 theory in 1 + 1, 2 + 1, and 3 + 1 dimensions, and then examine the entanglement entropy as a function of the coupling. We find that in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions, the entanglement entropy of ϕ4 theory as a function of coupling is monotonically decreasing and convex. While ϕ4 theory with positive bare coupling in 3 + 1 dimensions is thought to lead to a trivial free theory, we analyze a version of ϕ4 with infinitesimal negative bare coupling, an asymptotically free theory known as precariousϕ4 theory, and explore the monotonicity and convexity of its entanglement entropy as a function of coupling. Within the variational approximation, the stability of precarious ϕ4 theory is related to the sign of the first and second derivatives of the entanglement entropy with respect to the coupling.
The continuous tower of scalar fields as a system of interacting dark matter-dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Paulo
2015-10-01
This paper aims to introduce a new parameterisation for the coupling Q in interacting dark matter and dark energy models by connecting said models with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model. Based upon the existence of a dark matter and a dark energy sectors in the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields, a simplification is considered for the evolution of a single scalar field from the tower, validated in this paper. This allows for the results obtained with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model to match those of an interacting dark matter-dark energy system, considering that the energy transferred from one fluid to the other is given by the energy of the scalar fields that start oscillating at a given time, rather than considering that the energy transference depends on properties of the whole fluids that are interacting.
The trace anomaly and massless scalar degrees of freedom
Gianotti, Maurizio; Mottola, Emil
2008-01-01
The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, {open_square}T{sup {mu}{nu}}J{sup {alpha}}J{sup {beta}}, and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m{yields}0. To emphasize the infrared aspect of the anomaly, we use a dispersive approach and show that this amplitude and the existence of the massless scalar pole is determined completely by its ultraviolet finite terms, together with the requirements of Poincare invariance of the vacuum, Bose symmetry under interchange of J{sup {alpha}} and J{sup {beta}}, and vector current and stress-tensor conservation. We derive a sum rule for the appropriate positive spectral function corresponding to the discontinuity of the triangle amplitude, showing that it becomes proportional to {delta}(k{sup 2}) and therefore contains a massless scalar intermediate state in the conformal limit of zero electron mass. The effective action corresponding to the trace of the triangle amplitude can be expressed in local form by the introduction of two scalar auxiliary fields which satisfy massless wave equations. These massless scalar degrees of freedom couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects.
Bianchi I in scalar and scalar-tensor cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belinchón, José
2012-08-01
We study how the constants G and Λ may vary in different theoretical models (general relativity (GR) with a perfect fluid, scalar cosmological models (SM) ("quintessence") with and without interacting scalar and matter fields and three scalar-tensor theories (STT) with a dynamical Λ) in order to explain some observational results. We apply the program outlined in section II to study the Bianchi I models, under the self-similarity hypothesis. We put special emphasis on calculating exact power-law solutions which allow us to compare the different models. In all the studied cases we conclude that the solutions are isotropic and noninflationary. We also arrive at the conclusion that in the GR model with time-varying constants, Λ vanishes while G is constant. In the SM all the solutions are massless i.e. the potential vanishes and all the interacting models are inconsistent from the thermodynamical point of view. The solutions obtained in the STT collapse to the perfect fluid one obtained in the GR model where G is a true constant and Λ vanishes as in the GR and SM frameworks.
Weak Gravitational Wave and Casimir Energy of a Scalar Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, F.; Pirmoradian, R.; Parsabod, I.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we calculate the effect of a weak gravitational field on the Casimir force between two ideal plates subjected to a massless minimally coupled field. It is the aim of this work to study the Casimir energy under a weak perturbation of gravity. Moreover, the fluctuations of the stress-energy tensor for a scalar field in de Sitter space-time are computed as well.
Scalar fields in BTZ black hole spacetime and entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veer Singh, Dharm; Siwach, Sanjay
2013-12-01
We study the quantum scalar fields in the background of BTZ black hole spacetime. We calculate the entanglement entropy using the discretized model, which resembles a system of coupled harmonic oscillators. The leading term of the entropy formula is standard Bakenstein-Hawking entropy and sub-leading corresponds to quantum corrections to black hole entropy. We calculate the coefficient of sub-leading logarithmic corrections numerically.
Early-time cosmological solutions in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanti, Panagiota; Gannouji, Radouane; Dadhich, Naresh
2015-10-01
In this work, we consider a generalized gravitational theory that contains the Einstein term, a scalar field, and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. We focus on the early-universe dynamics, and demonstrate that a simple choice of the coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term and a simplifying assumption regarding the role of the Ricci scalar can lead to new, analytical, elegant solutions with interesting characteristics. We first argue, and demonstrate in the context of two different models, that the presence of the Ricci scalar in the theory at early times (when the curvature is strong) does not affect the actual cosmological solutions. By considering therefore a pure scalar-GB theory with a quadratic coupling function we derive a plethora of interesting, analytic solutions: for a negative coupling parameter, we obtain inflationary, de Sitter-type solutions or expanding solutions with a de Sitter phase in their past and a natural exit mechanism at later times; for a positive coupling function, we find instead singularity-free solutions with no big bang singularity. We show that the aforementioned solutions arise only for this particular choice of coupling function, a result that may hint at some fundamental role that this coupling function may hold in the context of an ultimate theory.
Topological black holes for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a nonminimal scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaïne, Mokhtar
2013-11-01
We consider the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a negative cosmological constant together with a source given by a scalar field nonminimally coupled in arbitrary dimension D. For a certain election of the cosmological and Gauss-Bonnet coupling constants, we derive two classes of AdS black hole solutions whose horizon is planar. The first family of black holes obtained for a particular value of the nonminimal coupling parameter only depends on a constant M, and the scalar field vanishes as M=0. The second class of solutions corresponds to a two-parametric (with constants M and A) black hole stealth configuration, which is a nontrivial scalar field with a black hole metric such that both sides (gravity and matter parts) of the Einstein equations vanish. In this case, in the vanishing M, the solution reduces to a stealth scalar field on the pure AdS metric. We note that the existence of these two classes of solutions is indicative of the particular choice of the coupling constants, and they cannot be promoted to spherical or hyperboloid black hole solutions in a standard fashion. In the last part, we add to the original action some exact (D-1) forms coupled to the scalar field. The direct benefit of introducing such extra fields is to obtain black hole solutions with a planar horizon for an arbitrary value of the nonminimal coupling parameter.
Gravitational self-force in scalar-tensor gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, Peter
2015-09-01
Motivated by the theoretical possibility of floating orbits and the potential to contribute extra constraints on alternative theories, in this paper we derive the self-force equation for a small compact object moving on an accelerated world line in a background spacetime which is a solution of the coupled gravitational and scalar field equations of scalar-tensor theory. In the Einstein frame, the coupled field equations governing the perturbations sourced by the particle share the same form as the field equations for perturbations of a scalarvac spacetime in general relativity, with both falling under the general class of hyperbolic field equations studied in [1]. Here, we solve the field equations formally in terms of retarded Green functions, which have explicit representations as Hadamard forms in the neighborhood of the world line. Using a quasilocal expansion of the Hadamard form, we derive the regular solutions in Fermi normal coordinates according to the Detweiler-Whiting prescription. To compute the equation of motion, we parametrize the world line by the particle's mass and "charge," which we define in terms of the original Jordan frame mass, its derivative, and the parameter which translates the proper time in the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame. These parameters depend on the value of the background scalar field and its self-field corrections. The equation of motion which follows from the regular fields strongly resembles the equation for the self-force acting on a charged, massive particle in a scalarvac geometry of general relativity. Unlike the scalar vacuum scenario, the charge parameter in the scalar-tensor self-force equation is time variable and leading to additional local and tail terms. We also provide evolution equations for the world line parameters under the influence of the self-fields.
Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budhi, Romy H. S.; Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro
2015-09-01
We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential varphin. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model
Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar
Budhi, Romy H. S.; Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro
2015-09-14
We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential φ{sup n}. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model.
Scalar speed limits and cosmology: Acceleration from D-cceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silverstein, Eva; Tong, David
2004-11-01
Causality on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT correspondence restricts motion on the moduli space of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory by imposing a speed limit on how fast the scalar field may roll. This effect can be traced to higher-derivative operators arising from integrating out light degrees of freedom near the origin. In the strong coupling limit of the theory, the dynamics is well approximated by the Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian for a probe D3-brane moving toward the horizon of the AdS Poincaré patch, combined with an estimate of the (ultimately suppressed) rate of particle and string production in the system. We analyze the motion of a rolling scalar field explicitly in the strong coupling regime of the field theory and extend the analysis to cosmological systems obtained by coupling this type of field theory to four-dimensional gravity. This leads to a mechanism for slow roll inflation for a massive scalar at sub-Planckian vacuum expectation value without need for a flat potential (realizing a version of k inflation in a microphysical framework). It also leads to a variety of novel Friedman-Roberston-Walker cosmologies, some of which are related to those obtained with tachyon matter.
Variations on Slavnov's scalar product
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.
2012-10-01
We consider the rational six-vertex model on an L× L lattice with domain wall boundary conditions and restrict N parallel-line rapidities, N ≤ L/2, to satisfy length- L XXX spin-1/2 chain Bethe equations. We show that the partition function is an ( L - 2 N )- parameter extension of Slavnov's scalar product of a Bethe eigenstate and a generic state, with N magnons each, on a length- L XXX spin-1/2 chain. Decoupling the extra parameters, we obtain a third determinant expression for the scalar product, where the first is due to Slavnov [1], and the second is due to Kostov and Matsuo [2]. We show that the new determinant is Casoratian, and consequently that tree-level {N}=4 SYM structure constants that are known to be determinants, remain determinants at 1-loop level.
Scalar top study: Detector optimization
Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.
2006-09-01
A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).
Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair and a mass gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brihaye, Yves; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen
2014-12-01
We construct a family of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon, within five dimensional Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field doublet. These solutions are supported by rotation and have no static limit. They are described by their mass M, two equal angular momenta J1 =J2 ≡ J and a conserved Noether charge Q, measuring the scalar hair. For vanishing horizon size the solutions reduce to five dimensional boson stars. In the limit of vanishing Noether charge density, the scalar field becomes point-wise arbitrarily small and the geometry becomes, locally, arbitrarily close to that of a specific set of Myers-Perry black holes (MPBHs); but there remains a global difference with respect to the latter, manifest in a finite mass gap. Thus, the scalar hair never becomes a linear perturbation of MPBHs. This is a qualitative difference when compared to Kerr black holes with scalar hair [1]. Whereas the existence of the latter can be anticipated in linear theory, from the existence of scalar bound states on the Kerr geometry (i.e. scalar clouds), the hair of these MPBHs is intrinsically non-linear.
Multiscale renormalization group methods for effective potentials with multiple scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Wei; Steele, Tom; McKeon, Gerry
2015-04-01
Conformally symmetric scalar extensions of the Standard Model are particular appealing to reveal the underlying mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking and to provide dark matter candidates. The Gildener & Weinberg (GW) method is widely used in these models, but is limited to weakly coupled theories. In this talk, multi-scale renormalization group (RG) methods are reviewed and applied to the analysis of the effective potential for radiative symmetry breaking with multiple scalar fields, allowing an extension of the GW method beyond the weak coupling limit. A model containing two interacting real scalar fields is used as an example to illustrate these multi-scale RG methods. Extensions of these multi-scale methods for effective potentials in models containing multiple scalars with O(M) × O(N) symmetry will also be discussed. Reseach funded by NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada).
Fodor, Gyula; Forgacs, Peter; Mezei, Mark
2010-03-15
Spherically symmetric oscillatons (also referred to as oscillating soliton stars) i.e. gravitationally bound oscillating scalar lumps are considered in theories containing a massive self-interacting real scalar field coupled to Einstein's gravity in 1+D dimensional spacetimes. Oscillations are known to decay by emitting scalar radiation with a characteristic time scale which is, however, extremely long, it can be comparable even to the lifetime of our universe. In the limit when the central density (or amplitude) of the oscillaton tends to zero (small-amplitude limit) a method is introduced to compute the transcendentally small amplitude of the outgoing waves. The results are illustrated in detail on the simplest case, a single massive free scalar field coupled to gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennington, M. R.
1989-04-01
The search for I=0 0++ mesons is described. We highlight the crucial role played by the states in the 1 GeV region. An analysis program that with unimpeachable data would produce definitive results on these is outlined and shown with present data to provide prima facie evidence for dynamics beyond that of the quark model. We briefly speculate on the current status of the lowest mass scalar mesons and discuss how experiment can resolve the unanswered issues.
Spinning boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair: The effect of self-interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi F.
2016-05-01
Self-interacting boson stars (BSs) have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their nonself-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting BSs, namely their compactness, the occurrence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these BSs are comparatively less compact than the nonself-interacting ones. We also briefly discuss the effect of scalar self-interactions on the properties of Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Quantum tunneling from rotating black holes with scalar hair in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.; Gursel, H.
2016-06-01
We study the Hawking radiation of scalar and Dirac particles (fermions) emitted from a rotating scalar hair black hole (RSHBH) within the context of three dimensional (3 D) Einstein gravity using non-minimally coupled scalar field theory. Amalgamating the quantum tunneling approach with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, we obtain the tunneling rates of the outgoing particles across the event horizon. Inserting the resultant tunneling rates into the Boltzmann formula, we then obtain the Hawking temperature (T_H) of the 3 D RSHBH.
Vacuum stability of a general scalar potential of a few fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannike, Kristjan
2016-06-01
We calculate analytical vacuum stability or bounded from below conditions for general scalar potentials of a few fields. After a brief review of copositivity, we show how to find positivity conditions for more complicated potentials. We discuss the vacuum stability conditions of the general potential of two real scalars, without and with the Higgs boson included in the potential. As further examples, we give explicit vacuum stability conditions for the two Higgs doublet model with no explicit CP breaking, and for the mathbb {Z}3 scalar dark matter with an inert doublet and a complex singlet. We give a short overview of positivity conditions for tensors of quartic couplings via tensor eigenvalues.
Wheeler-DeWitt equation and Lie symmetries in Bianchi scalar-field cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliathanasis, A.; Karpathopoulos, L.; Wojnar, A.; Capozziello, S.
2016-04-01
Lie symmetries are discussed for the Wheeler-De Witt equation in Bianchi Class A cosmologies. In particular, we consider general relativity, minimally coupled scalar-field gravity and hybrid gravity as paradigmatic examples of the approach. Several invariant solutions are determined and classified according to the form of the scalar-field potential. The approach gives rise to a suitable method to select classical solutions and it is based on the first principle of the existence of symmetries.
Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.
2012-05-01
We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent z = 2, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.
Long-lived colored scalars at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Puente, Alejandro; Szynkman, Alejandro
2016-03-01
We study the collider signatures of a long-lived massive colored scalar transforming trivially under the weak interaction and decaying within the inner sections of a detector such as ATLAS or CMS. In our study, we assume that the colored scalar couples at tree-level to a top quark and a stable fermion, possibly arising from a dark sector or from supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. After implementing the latest experimental searches for long-lived colored scalars, we observe a region of parameter space consistent with a colored electroweak-singlet scalar with mass between {˜ }200-350 GeV and a lifetime between 0.1-1 {mm}/c together, with a nearly degenerate dark fermion that may be probed at the √{s}=13 TeV LHC. We show that a search strategy using a combination of cuts on missing transverse energy and impact parameters can exclude regions of parameter space not accessed by prompt searches. We show that a region of parameter space within our simplified model may naturally arise from the light-stop window regime of supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, where a light mostly right-handed stop has a mass slightly larger than the lightest neutralino and decays through a four-body process.
Scalar triplet flavored leptogenesis: a systematic approach
Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Dhen, Mikaël; Hambye, Thomas E-mail: mikadhen@ulb.ac.be
2014-08-01
Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed neutrinos or extra triplets, it also provides a compelling framework for baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We derive in this context the full network of Boltzmann equations for studying leptogenesis in the flavored regime. To this end we determine the relations which hold among the chemical potentials of the various particle species in the thermal bath. This takes into account the standard model Yukawa interactions of both leptons and quarks as well as sphaleron processes which, depending on the temperature, may be classified as faster or slower than the Universe Hubble expansion. We find that when leptogenesis is enabled by the presence of an extra triplet, lepton flavor effects allow the production of the B-L asymmetry through lepton number conserving CP asymmetries. This scenario becomes dominant as soon as the triplets couple more to leptons than to standard model scalar doublets. In this case, the way the B-L asymmetry is created through flavor effects is novel: instead of invoking the effect of L-violating inverse decays faster than the Hubble rate, it involves the effect of L-violating decays slower than the Hubble rate. We also analyze the more general situation where lepton number violating CP asymmetries are present and actively participate in the generation of the B-L asymmetry, pointing out that as long as L-violating triplet decays are still in thermal equilibrium when the triplet gauge scattering processes decouple, flavor effects can be striking, allowing to avoid all washout suppression effects from seesaw interactions. In this case the amount of B-L asymmetry produced is limited only by a universal gauge suppression effect, which nevertheless goes away for large triplet decay rates.
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel
2015-01-13
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel
2015-01-01
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.
Scalar field evolution in Gauss-Bonnet black holes
Abdalla, E.; Konoplya, R.A.; Molina, C.
2005-10-15
It is presented a thorough analysis of scalar perturbations in the background of Gauss-Bonnet, Gauss-Bonnet-de Sitter and Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter black hole spacetimes. The perturbations are considered both in frequency and time domain. The dependence of the scalar field evolution on the values of the cosmological constant {lambda} and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling {alpha} is investigated. For Gauss-Bonnet and Gauss-Bonnet-de Sitter black holes, at asymptotically late times either power-law or exponential tails dominate, while for Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter black hole, the quasinormal modes govern the scalar field decay at all times. The power-law tails at asymptotically late times for odd-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet black holes does not depend on {alpha}, even though the black hole metric contains {alpha} as a new parameter. The corrections to quasinormal spectrum due to Gauss-Bonnet coupling is not small and should not be neglected. For the limit of near extremal value of the (positive) cosmological constant and pure de Sitter and anti-de Sitter modes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity we have found analytical expressions.
Lepton-flavored scalar dark matter with minimal flavor violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chao-Jung; Tandean, Jusak
2015-04-01
We explore scalar dark matter that is part of a lepton flavor triplet satisfying symmetry requirements under the hypothesis of minimal flavor violation. Beyond the standard model, the theory contains in addition three right-handed neutrinos that participate in the seesaw mechanism for light neutrino mass generation. The dark-matter candidate couples to standard-model particles via Higgs-portal renormalizable interactions as well as to leptons through dimension-six operators, all of which have minimal flavor violation built-in. We consider restrictions on the new scalars from the Higgs boson measurements, observed relic density, dark-matter direct detection experiments, LEP II measurements on e + e - scattering into a photon plus missing energy, and searches for flavor-violating lepton decays. The viable parameter space can be tested further with future data. Also, we investigate the possibility of the new scalars' couplings accounting for the tentative hint of Higgs flavor-violating decay h → μτ recently detected in the CMS experiment. They are allowed by constraints from other Higgs data to produce a rate of this decay roughly compatible with the CMS finding.
A realizable EDQNM model for anisotropic scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, Lance; Ulitsky, Mark
1999-11-01
As noted in the previous talk and abstract, the direct application of the edqnm formalism to two scalars with different diffusivities leads to a scalar covariance spectrum that violates the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. This can be remedied by eliminating the explicit dependence of the eddy damping time scales on the molecular diffusivities, which can be shown to be unphysical at short times. Here we present an extension of this idea to anisotropic scalars. Anisotropy in this case results from uniform mean gradients of the scalar concentration in one direction. The approach we take is similar to the one described in Herr, Wang and Collins (Phys. Fluids 8:1588, 1996), except we substitute the modified eddy damping coefficients derived earlier for the isotropic scalar. The resulting edqnm model yields a realizable covariance spectrum for all times and for all combinations of the scalar diffusivities we considered. Several example calculations will be presented.
Disformal scalars as dark matter candidates — Branon phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Maroto, Antonio L.
2016-05-01
Scalar particles coupled to the Standard Model fields through a disformal coupling arise in different theories, such as massive gravity or braneworld models. We will review the main phenomenology associated with such particles. Distinctive disformal signatures could be measured at colliders and with astrophysical observations. The phenomenological relevance of the disformal coupling demands the introduction of a set of symmetries, which may ensure the stability of these new degrees of freedom. In such a case, they constitute natural dark matter candidates since they are generally massive and weakly coupled. We will illustrate these ideas by paying particular attention to the branon case, since these questions arise naturally in braneworld models with low tension, where they were first discussed.
Baryogenesis from baryon-number-violating scalar interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowes, J. P.; Volkas, R. R.
1997-03-01
In the following work we consider the possibility of explaining the observed baryon-number asymmetry in the universe from simple baryon-number-violating modifications, involving massive scalar bosons, to the standard model. In these cases baryon-number violation is mediated through a combination of Yukawa and scalar self-coupling interactions. Starting with a previously compiled catalogue of baryon-number-violating extensions of the standard model, we identify the minimal subsets which can induce a B-L asymmetry and thus be immune to sphaleron washout. For each of these models, we identify the region of parameter space that leads to the production of a baryon number asymmetry of the correct order of magnitude.
New class of consistent scalar-tensor theories.
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-05-29
We introduce a new class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity that extend Horndeski, or "generalized Galileon," models. Despite possessing equations of motion of higher order in derivatives, we show that the true propagating degrees of freedom obey well-behaved second-order equations and are thus free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in contrast to standard lore. Remarkably, the covariant versions of the original Galileon Lagrangians-obtained by direct replacement of derivatives with covariant derivatives-belong to this class of theories. These extensions of Horndeski theories exhibit an uncommon, interesting phenomenology: The scalar degree of freedom affects the speed of sound of matter, even when the latter is minimally coupled to gravity. PMID:26066423
New Class of Consistent Scalar-Tensor Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-05-01
We introduce a new class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity that extend Horndeski, or "generalized Galileon," models. Despite possessing equations of motion of higher order in derivatives, we show that the true propagating degrees of freedom obey well-behaved second-order equations and are thus free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in contrast to standard lore. Remarkably, the covariant versions of the original Galileon Lagrangians—obtained by direct replacement of derivatives with covariant derivatives—belong to this class of theories. These extensions of Horndeski theories exhibit an uncommon, interesting phenomenology: The scalar degree of freedom affects the speed of sound of matter, even when the latter is minimally coupled to gravity.
Gauge Fields and Scalars in Rolling Tachyon Backgrounds
Thomas Mehen; Brian Wecht
2003-04-01
We investigate the dynamics of gauge and scalar fields on unstable D-branes with rolling tachyons. Assuming an FRW metric on the brane, we find a solution of the tachyon equation of motion which is valid for arbitrary tachyon potentials and scale factors. The equations of motion for a U(1) gauge field and a scalar field in this background are derived. These fields see an effective metric which differs from the original FRW metric. The field equations receive large corrections due to the curvature of the effective metric as well as the time variation of the gauge coupling. The equations of state for these fields resemble those of nonrelativistic matter rather than those of massless particles.
Magnetic black universes and wormholes with a phantom scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolokhov, S. V.; Bronnikov, K. A.; Skvortsova, M. V.
2012-12-01
We construct explicit examples of globally regular static, spherically symmetric solutions in general relativity with scalar and electromagnetic fields which describe traversable wormholes (with flat and AdS asymptotics) and regular black holes, in particular, black universes. A black universe is a non-singular black hole where, beyond the horizon, instead of a singularity, there is an expanding, asymptotically isotropic universe. The scalar field in these solutions is phantom (i.e. its kinetic energy is negative), minimally coupled to gravity and has a nonzero self-interaction potential. The configurations obtained are quite diverse and contain different numbers of Killing horizons, from zero to four. This substantially widens the list of known structures of regular BH configurations. Such models can be of interest both as descriptions of local objects (black holes and wormholes) and as a basis for building non-singular cosmological scenarios.
Schwarzschild Black Holes can Wear Scalar Wigs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-01
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Visualization of scalar topology for structural enhancement
Bajaj, C.L.; Pascucci, V.; Schikore, D.R.
1998-09-22
Scalar fields arise in every scientific application. Existing scalar visualization techniques require that the user infer the global scalar structure from what is frequently an insufficient display of information. We present a visualization technique which numerically detects the structure at all scales, removing from the user the responsibility of extracting information implicit in the data, and presenting the structure explicitly for analysis. We further demonstrate how scalar topology detection proves useful for correct visualization and image processing applications such as image co-registration, isocontouring, and mesh compression.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations. PMID:23002734
Scalar scattering via conformal higher spin exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joung, Euihun; Nakach, Simon; Tseytlin, Arkady A.
2016-02-01
Theories containing infinite number of higher spin fields require a particular definition of summation over spins consistent with their underlying symmetries. We consider a model of massless scalars interacting (via bilinear conserved currents) with conformal higher spin fields in flat space. We compute the tree-level four-scalar scattering amplitude using a natural prescription for summation over an infinite set of conformal higher spin exchanges and find that it vanishes. Independently, we show that the vanishing of the scalar scattering amplitude is, in fact, implied by the global conformal higher spin symmetry of this model. We also discuss one-loop corrections to the four-scalar scattering amplitude.
Quasinormal modes, bifurcations, and nonuniqueness of charged scalar-tensor black holes
Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stefanov, Ivan Zh.
2010-09-15
In the present paper, we study the scalar sector of the quasinormal modes of charged general relativistic, static, and spherically symmetric black holes coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and embedded in a class of scalar-tensor theories. We find that for a certain domain of the parametric space, there exists unstable quasinormal modes. The presence of instabilities implies the existence of scalar-tensor black holes with primary hair that bifurcate from the embedded general relativistic black-hole solutions at critical values of the parameters corresponding to the static zero modes. We prove that such scalar-tensor black holes really exist by solving the full system of scalar-tensor field equations for the static, spherically symmetric case. The obtained solutions for the hairy black holes are nonunique, and they are in one-to-one correspondence with the bounded states of the potential governing the linear perturbations of the scalar field. The stability of the nonunique hairy black holes is also examined, and we find that the solutions for which the scalar field has zeros are unstable against radial perturbations. The paper ends with a discussion of possible formulations of a new classification conjecture.
García-Fontana, Cristina; Vílchez, Juan Ignacio; Narváez-Reinaldo, Juan Jesús; González-López, Jesús
2015-01-01
The genome sequence for Microbacterium sp. strain 3J1, a desiccation-tolerant organism isolated from the Nerium oleander rhizosphere, is reported here. The genome is estimated to be approximately 3.5 Mb in size, with an average G+C content of 67.7% and a predicted number of protein-coding sequences of 3,310. PMID:26316631
Search for Ultralight Scalar Dark Matter with Atomic Spectroscopy.
Van Tilburg, Ken; Leefer, Nathan; Bougas, Lykourgos; Budker, Dmitry
2015-07-01
We report new limits on ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilatonlike couplings to photons that can induce oscillations in the fine-structure constant α. Atomic dysprosium exhibits an electronic structure with two nearly degenerate levels whose energy splitting is sensitive to changes in α. Spectroscopy data for two isotopes of dysprosium over a two-year span are analyzed for coherent oscillations with angular frequencies below 1 rad s-1. No signal consistent with a DM coupling is identified, leading to new constraints on dilatonlike photon couplings over a wide mass range. Under the assumption that the scalar field comprises all of the DM, our limits on the coupling exceed those from equivalence-principle tests by up to 4 orders of magnitude for masses below 3×10(-18) eV. Excess oscillatory power, inconsistent with fine-structure variation, is detected in a control channel, and is likely due to a systematic effect. Our atomic spectroscopy limits on DM are the first of their kind, and leave substantial room for improvement with state-of-the-art atomic clocks. PMID:26182090
Search for Ultralight Scalar Dark Matter with Atomic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Tilburg, Ken; Leefer, Nathan; Bougas, Lykourgos; Budker, Dmitry
2015-07-01
We report new limits on ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilatonlike couplings to photons that can induce oscillations in the fine-structure constant α . Atomic dysprosium exhibits an electronic structure with two nearly degenerate levels whose energy splitting is sensitive to changes in α . Spectroscopy data for two isotopes of dysprosium over a two-year span are analyzed for coherent oscillations with angular frequencies below 1 rad s-1 . No signal consistent with a DM coupling is identified, leading to new constraints on dilatonlike photon couplings over a wide mass range. Under the assumption that the scalar field comprises all of the DM, our limits on the coupling exceed those from equivalence-principle tests by up to 4 orders of magnitude for masses below 3 ×10-18 eV . Excess oscillatory power, inconsistent with fine-structure variation, is detected in a control channel, and is likely due to a systematic effect. Our atomic spectroscopy limits on DM are the first of their kind, and leave substantial room for improvement with state-of-the-art atomic clocks.
Searching for scalar gravitational interactions in current and future cosmological data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hojjati, Alireza; Plahn, Aaron; Zucca, Alex; Pogosian, Levon; Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2016-02-01
Modified gravity theories often contain a scalar field of gravitational strength which interacts with matter. We examine constraints on the range and the coupling strength of a scalar gravitational degree of freedom using a subset of current data that can be safely analyzed within the linear perturbation theory. Using a model-independent implementation of scalar-tensor theories in mgcamb in terms of two functions of the scale factor describing the mass and the coupling of the scalar degree of freedom, we derive constraints on the f (R ), generalized chameleon, symmetron and dilaton models. Since most of the large scale structure data available today is from relatively low redshifts, only a limited range of observed scales is in the linear regime, leading to relatively weak constraints. We then perform a forecast for a future large scale structure survey, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will map a significant volume at higher redshifts, and show that it will produce much stronger constraints on scalar interactions in specific models. We also perform a principal component analysis and find that future surveys should be able to provide tight constraints on several eigenmodes of the scalar mass evolution.
Black hole hair in generalized scalar-tensor gravity: An explicit example
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-12-01
In a recent paper we showed that in shift-symmetric Horndeski theory the scalar field is forced to obtain a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant is tuned away. As a result, black holes generically have hair in this theory. In this companion paper, we first review our argument and discuss it in more detail. We then present actual black hole solutions in the simplest case of a theory with the linear scalar-Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We generate exact solutions numerically for a wide range of values of the coupling and also construct analytic solutions perturbatively in the small-coupling limit. Comparison of the two types of solutions indicates that nonlinear effects that are not captured by the perturbative solution lead to a finite area, as opposed to a central, singularity. Remarkably, black holes have a minimum size, controlled by the length scale associated with the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We also compute some phenomenological observables for the numerical solution for a wide range of values of the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet coupling. Deviations from the Schwarzschild geometry are generically very small.
Polarized lepton-nucleon elastic scattering and a search for a light scalar boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A.
2015-09-01
Lepton-nucleon elastic scattering, using the one-photon and one-scalar-boson exchange mechanisms considering all possible polarizations, is used to study searches for a new scalar boson and suggest new measurements of the nucleon form factors. A new light scalar boson, which feebly couples to leptons and nucleons, may account for the proton radius and muon g -2 puzzles. We show that the scalar boson produces relatively large effects in a certain kinematic region when using sufficient control of lepton and nucleon spin polarization. We generalize current techniques to measure the ratio GE:GM and present a new method to separately measure GM2 and GE2 using polarized incoming and outgoing muons.
Study of earthquakes and related phenomena using a satellite scalar magnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Magnes, Werner; Xuhui, Shen; Wang, Jindong; Pollinger, Andreas; Hagen, Christian; Lammegger, Roland; Ellmeier, Michaela; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans-Ulrich; Wolbang, Daniel; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Rozhnoi, Alexander A.; Zhang, Tielong
2016-04-01
A new type of scalar magnetometer for space applications has been developed (see Lammegger 2008). A first instrument of this type will be flown aboard the upcoming Chinese Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES). The scalar magnetometer can measure the total magnetic field with an accuracy of about 50 pT/sqrt(Hz) in the frequency range between 0 and 30 Hz. In order to minimize the stray field of the satellite, the sensor of the scalar magnetometer is mounted at the tip of a five meter boom. The main scientific objective of the scalar magnetometer aboard the Chinese satellite is the investigation of seismic phenomena before, during and after earthquakes or volcanic activity. The expected variations of the total magnetic field above seismic active regions, are presented, using a model based on the groundbased tectonomagnetic measurements and are simplified lithospheric-ionospheric coupling coefficient. Patent: Lammegger, R., WO 2008/151344 A3, Method and Device for Measuring Magnetic Fields
Pseudo-scalar Higgs boson production at threshold N^3LO and N^3LL QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Taushif; Kumar, M. C.; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V.
2016-06-01
We present the first results on the production of pseudo-scalar Higgs boson through gluon fusion at the LHC to N^3LO in QCD taking into account only soft-gluon effects. We have used the effective Lagrangian that describes the coupling of the pseudo-scalar Higgs boson with the gluons in the large top quark mass limit. We have used quantities that have recently become available, namely the three-loop pseudo-scalar Higgs boson form factor and the third order universal soft function in QCD to achieve this. Along with the fixed order results, we also present the process dependent resummation coefficient for a threshold resummation to N^3LL in QCD. Phenomenological impact of these threshold N^3LO corrections to pseudo-scalar Higgs boson production at the LHC is presented and their role in the reduction of the renormalization scale dependence is demonstrated.
Scalar Potential Model of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodge, John
2008-04-01
Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a particle--like model. A model of light is proposed wherein Newton's and Democritus's speculations are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). The SPM was tested by confrontation with observations of galaxy HI rotation curves (RCs), asymmetric RCs, redshift, discrete redshift, galaxy central mass, and central velocity dispersion; and with observations of the Pioneer Anomaly. The resulting model of light will be tested by numerical simulation of a photon behaving in a wave-like manner such as diffusion, interference, reflection, spectrography, and the Afshar experiment. Although the SPM light model requires more work, early results are beginning to emerge that suggest possible tests because a few predictions are inconsistent with both the current particle and wave models of light and that suggest a re-interpretation of the equations of quantum mechanics.
Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic Investigations of Scalar Implicature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Politzer-Ahles, Stephen
2013-01-01
The present study examines the representation and composition of meaning in scalar implicatures. Scalar implicature is the phenomenon whereby the use of a less informative term (e.g., "some") is inferred to mean the negation of a more informative term (e.g., to mean "not all"). The experiments reported here investigate how the…
A note on perfect scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sriramkumar, L.
2010-05-01
We derive a condition on the Lagrangian density describing a generic, single, noncanonical scalar field, by demanding that the intrinsic, nonadiabatic pressure perturbation associated with the scalar field vanishes identically. Based on the analogy with perfect fluids, we refer to such fields as perfect scalar fields. It is common knowledge that models that depend only on the kinetic energy of the scalar field (often referred to as pure kinetic models) possess no nonadiabatic pressure perturbation. While we are able to construct models that seemingly depend on the scalar field and also do not contain any nonadiabatic pressure perturbation, we find that all such models that we construct allow a redefinition of the field under which they reduce to pure kinetic models. We show that, if a perfect scalar field drives inflation, then, in such situations, the first slow roll parameter will always be a monotonically decreasing function of time. We point out that this behavior implies that these scalar fields cannot lead to features in the inflationary, scalar perturbation spectrum.
Scalar Quantum Electrodynamics: Perturbation Theory and Beyond
Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.
2006-09-25
In this article, we calculate scalar propagator in arbitrary dimensions and gauge and the three-point scalar-photon vertex in arbitrary dimensions and Feynman gauge, both at the one loop level. We also discuss constraints on their non perturbative structure imposed by requirements of gauge invariance and perturbation theory.
Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel
2008-01-01
A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.
A note on perfect scalar fields
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sriramkumar, L.
2010-05-15
We derive a condition on the Lagrangian density describing a generic, single, noncanonical scalar field, by demanding that the intrinsic, nonadiabatic pressure perturbation associated with the scalar field vanishes identically. Based on the analogy with perfect fluids, we refer to such fields as perfect scalar fields. It is common knowledge that models that depend only on the kinetic energy of the scalar field (often referred to as pure kinetic models) possess no nonadiabatic pressure perturbation. While we are able to construct models that seemingly depend on the scalar field and also do not contain any nonadiabatic pressure perturbation, we find that all such models that we construct allow a redefinition of the field under which they reduce to pure kinetic models. We show that, if a perfect scalar field drives inflation, then, in such situations, the first slow roll parameter will always be a monotonically decreasing function of time. We point out that this behavior implies that these scalar fields cannot lead to features in the inflationary, scalar perturbation spectrum.
Diphoton excess and running couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Kyu Jung; Endo, Motoi; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo
2016-06-01
The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-)scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that there is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section σ (pp → S → γγ) as a function of the cutoff scale Λ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop β functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on σ (pp → S → γγ) for explicit models.
Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system of scalar particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François; Jeon, Sangyong; Moore, Guy; Wu, Bin
2015-09-01
A simple kinematical argument suggests that the classical approximation may be inadequate to describe the evolution of a system with an anisotropic particle distribution. In order to verify this quantitatively, we study the Boltzmann equation for a longitudinally expanding system of scalar particles interacting with a ϕ 4 coupling, that mimics the kinematics of a heavy ion collision at very high energy. We consider only elastic 2 → 2 scatterings, and we allow the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in overpopulated situations by solving the coupled equations for the particle distribution and the particle density in the zero mode. For generic CGC-like initial conditions with a large occupation number, the solutions of the full Boltzmann equation cease to display the classical attractor behavior sooner than expected; for moderate coupling, the solutions appear never to follow a classical attractor solution.
Quantization of massive scalar fields over static black string backgrounds
Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel; Montes de Oca, Alejandro Cabo
2007-05-15
The renormalized mean value of the corresponding components of the energy-momentum tensor for massive scalar fields coupled to an arbitrary gravitational field configuration having cylindrical symmetry are analytically evaluated using the Schwinger-DeWitt approximation, up to second order in the inverse mass value. The general results are employed to explicitly derive compact analytical expressions for the energy-momentum tensor in the particular background of the black-string space-time. In the case of the black string considered in this work, we prove that a violation of the weak energy condition occurs at the horizon of the space-time for values of the coupling constant, which include as particular cases the most interesting of minimal and conformal coupling.
Searching for chameleon-like scalar fields with the ammonia method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levshakov, S. A.; Molaro, P.; Lapinov, A. V.; Reimers, D.; Henkel, C.; Sakai, T.
2010-03-01
Aims: We probe the dependence of the electron-to-proton mass ratio, μ = me/mp, on the ambient matter density by means of radio astronomical observations. Methods: The ammonia method, which has been proposed to explore the electron-to-proton mass ratio, is applied to nearby dark clouds in the Milky Way. This ratio, which is measured in different physical environments of high (terrestrial) and low (interstellar) densities of baryonic matter is supposed to vary in chameleon-like scalar field models, which predict strong dependences of both masses and coupling constant on the local matter density. High resolution spectral observations of molecular cores in lines of NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), HC_3N J = 2-1, and N_2H^+ J = 1-0 were performed at three radio telescopes to measure the radial velocity offsets, Δ V ≡ Vrot - Vinv, between the inversion transition of NH_3 (1,1) and the rotational transitions of other molecules with different sensitivities to the parameter Δμ/μ ≡ (μ_obs - μ_lab)/μ_lab. Results: The measured values of Δ V exhibit a statistically significant velocity offset of 23±4_stat ± 3_sys m s-1 . When interpreted in terms of the electron-to-proton mass ratio variation, this infers that Δμ/μ = (2.2±0.4_stat ± 0.3_sys) × 10-8. If only a conservative upper bound is considered, then the maximum offset between ammonia and the other molecules is |Δ V| ≤ 30 m s-1 . This provides the most accurate reference point at z = 0 for Δμ/μ of |Δ μ/μ| ≤ 3×10-8. Based on observations obtained with the Medicina 32-m telescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia, the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie at Effelsberg, and the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
New charged black holes with conformal scalar hair
Anabalon, Andres; Maeda, Hideki
2010-02-15
A new class of four-dimensional, hairy, stationary solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-{Lambda} system with a conformally coupled scalar field is obtained. The metric belongs to the Plebanski-Demianski family and hence its static limit has the form of the charged (A)dS C metric. It is shown that, in the static case, a new family of hairy black holes arises. They turn out to be cohomogeneity-two, with horizons that are neither Einstein nor homogenous manifolds. The conical singularities in the C metric can be removed due to the backreaction of the scalar field providing a new kind of regular, radiative spacetime. The scalar field carries a continuous parameter proportional to the usual acceleration present in the C metric. In the zero-acceleration limit, the static solution reduces to the dyonic Bocharova-Bronnikov-Melnikov-Bekenstein solution or the dyonic extension of the Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black holes, depending on the value of the cosmological constant.
Effects of a scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benioff, Paul
2016-07-01
This paper describes the effects of a complex scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics. The field origin is an extension of the gauge freedom for basis choice in gauge theories to the underlying scalar field. The extension is based on the idea that the value of a number at one space time point does not determine the value at another point. This, combined with the description of mathematical systems as structures of different types, results in the presence of separate number fields and vector spaces as structures, at different space time locations. Complex number structures and vector spaces at each location are scaled by a complex space time dependent scaling factor. The effect of this scaling factor on several physical and geometric quantities has been described in other work. Here the emphasis is on quantum mechanics of one and two particles, their states and properties. Multiparticle states are also briefly described. The effect shows as a complex, nonunitary, scalar field connection on a fiber bundle description of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The lack of physical evidence for the presence of this field so far means that the coupling constant of this field to fermions is very small. It also means that the gradient of the field must be very small in a local region of cosmological space and time. Outside this region, there are no restrictions on the field gradient.
Effects of a scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benioff, Paul
2016-04-01
This paper describes the effects of a complex scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics. The field origin is an extension of the gauge freedom for basis choice in gauge theories to the underlying scalar field. The extension is based on the idea that the value of a number at one space time point does not determine the value at another point. This, combined with the description of mathematical systems as structures of different types, results in the presence of separate number fields and vector spaces as structures, at different space time locations. Complex number structures and vector spaces at each location are scaled by a complex space time dependent scaling factor. The effect of this scaling factor on several physical and geometric quantities has been described in other work. Here the emphasis is on quantum mechanics of one and two particles, their states and properties. Multiparticle states are also briefly described. The effect shows as a complex, nonunitary, scalar field connection on a fiber bundle description of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The lack of physical evidence for the presence of this field so far means that the coupling constant of this field to fermions is very small. It also means that the gradient of the field must be very small in a local region of cosmological space and time. Outside this region, there are no restrictions on the field gradient.
Cosmological density perturbations in a conformal scalar field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Libanov, M. V.; Rubakov, V. A.
2012-02-01
We consider a scenario in which primordial scalar perturbations are generated when a complex conformal scalar field rolls down its negative quartic potential. Initially, these are perturbations of the phase of this field, which are then converted into adiabatic perturbations of the density. The existence of perturbations in the radial field direction, which have a red power spectrum, is a potentially dangerous feature of this scenario. But we show that in the linear order in the small parameter, the self-coupling, the infrared effects are completely nullified by an appropriate field redefinition. We evaluate the statistical anisotropy inherent in the model because of the presence of the long-wave perturbations of the radial field component. In the linear order in the self-coupling, the infrared effects do not affect the statistical anisotropy. They are manifested only at the quadratic order in the self-coupling, weakly (logarithmically) enhancing the corresponding contribution to the statistical anisotropy. The resulting statistical anisotropy is a combination of a large term, which decreases as the momentum increases, and a momentum-independent nonamplified term.
Extra neutral scalars with vectorlike fermions at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopalakrishna, Shrihari; Mukherjee, Tuhin Subhra; Sadhukhan, Soumya
2016-03-01
Many theories beyond the standard model (BSM) contain new C P -odd and C P -even neutral scalars ϕ ={A ,H } , and new vectorlike fermions (ψV L). The couplings of the C P -odd scalar A to two standard model (SM) gauge bosons cannot occur from renormalizable operators in a C P -conserving sector, but can be induced at the quantum loop level. We compute these effective couplings at the 1-loop level induced by the SM fermions and vectorlike fermions, present analytical expressions for them, and plot them numerically. Using the 8 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) γ γ , τ+τ- and t t ¯ channel data, we derive constraints on the effective couplings of the ϕ to standard model gauge bosons and fermions. We present the gluon-fusion channel cross sections of the ϕ at the 8 and 14 TeV LHC, and its branching ratios into SM fermion and gauge-boson pairs. We first present our results in a model independent manner, and then we provide results for some simple models containing ϕ and ψV L in the singlet and doublet representations of S U (2 ). In the doublet case, we focus on the two-Higgs-doublet (2HDM) Type-II and Type-X models in the alignment limit.
Nonuniversal scalar-tensor theories and big bang nucleosynthesis
Coc, Alain; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth
2009-05-15
We investigate the constraints that can be set from big bang nucleosynthesis on two classes of models: extended quintessence and scalar-tensor theories of gravity in which the equivalence principle between standard matter and dark matter is violated. In the latter case, and for a massless dilaton with quadratic couplings, the phase space of theories is investigated. We delineate those theories where attraction toward general relativity occurs. It is shown that big bang nucleosynthesis sets more stringent constraints than those obtained from Solar System tests.
Nonuniversal scalar-tensor theories and big bang nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coc, Alain; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth
2009-05-01
We investigate the constraints that can be set from big bang nucleosynthesis on two classes of models: extended quintessence and scalar-tensor theories of gravity in which the equivalence principle between standard matter and dark matter is violated. In the latter case, and for a massless dilaton with quadratic couplings, the phase space of theories is investigated. We delineate those theories where attraction toward general relativity occurs. It is shown that big bang nucleosynthesis sets more stringent constraints than those obtained from Solar System tests.
Probing quantized Einstein-Rosen waves with massless scalar matter
Fernando Barbero, J. G.; Garay, Inaki; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.
2006-08-15
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in detail the use of scalar matter coupled to linearly polarized Einstein-Rosen waves as a probe to study quantum gravity in the restricted setting provided by this symmetry reduction of general relativity. We will obtain the relevant Hamiltonian and quantize it with the techniques already used for the purely gravitational case. Finally, we will discuss the use of particlelike modes of the quantized fields to operationally explore some of the features of quantum gravity within this framework. Specifically, we will study two-point functions, the Newton-Wigner propagator, and radial wave functions for one-particle states.
Gauss-Bonnet Brane World Gravity with a Scalar Field
Davis, Stephen C.
2004-11-17
The effective four-dimensional, linearised gravity of a brane world model with one extra dimension and a single brane is analysed. The model includes higher order curvature terms (such as the Gauss-Bonnet term) and a conformally coupled scalar field. Large and small distance gravitational laws are derived. In contrast to the corresponding Einstein gravity models, it is possible to obtain solutions with localised gravity which are compatible with observations. Solutions with non-standard large distance Newtonian potentials are also described.
Minimal semi-annihilating Bbb ZN scalar dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bélanger, Geneviève; Kannike, Kristjan; Pukhov, Alexander; Raidal, Martti
2014-06-01
We study the dark matter from an inert doublet and a complex scalar singlet stabilized by Bbb ZN symmetries. This field content is the minimal one that allows dimensionless semi-annihilation couplings for N > 2. We consider explicitly the Bbb Z3 and Bbb Z4 cases and take into account constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, vacuum stability, necessity for the electroweak Bbb ZN preserving vacuum to be the global minimum, electroweak precision tests, upper limits from direct detection and properties of the Higgs boson. Co-annihilation and semi-annihilation of dark sector particles as well as dark matter conversion significantly modify the cosmic abundance and direct detection phenomenology.
Quark mean field approach with derivative coupling for nuclear matter
Kawabata, M.; Akiyama, S.; Futami, Y.; Nakasone, T.; Yukino, T.
2008-05-15
We propose the quark mean field model including derivative coupling between quarks and scalar mesons in nuclear matter. This model concisely interprets an increasing size of the nucleon as well as a modification of coupling constant in the nuclear environment.
Updated axial meson spectrum and scalar-glueball mixing in AdS/QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartz, Sean; Rollag, Joshua
2016-03-01
AdS/QCD is a proposed duality between strongly-coupled quantum chromodynamics and weakly-coupled 5D gravity that can offer new insight to hadronic physics. Previous work accurately models confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in the light hadron spectrum. We improve this model by incorporating new experimental data and making predictions for the scalar glueball sector. Recent COMPASS results indicate a new light axial-vector resonance between the ground state and the currently-accepted value for the first excited state. Incorporating this data lessens the model's dependence on unphysical short length scales. In addition, we analyze the mixing between scalar mesons and glueball by computing to first approximation the radial excitation spectra of these particles. We find good experimental agreement for the scalar mesons and show that predictions for the excited glueball spectrum differ from lattice results.
Local energy-momentum conservation in scalar-tensor-like gravity with generic curvature invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, David Wenjie
2016-08-01
For a large class of scalar-tensor-like gravity whose action contains nonminimal couplings between a scalar field φ (x^α ) and generic curvature invariants R beyond the Ricci scalar R=R^α _{α }, we prove the covariant invariance of its field equation and confirm/prove the local energy-momentum conservation. These φ (x^α )- R coupling terms break the symmetry of diffeomorphism invariance under an active transformation, which implies that the solutions to the field equation should satisfy the consistency condition R ≡ 0 when φ (x^α ) is nondynamical and massless. Following this fact and based on the accelerated expansion of the observable Universe, we propose a primary test to check the viability of the modified gravity to be an effective dark energy, and a simplest example passing the test is the "Weyl/conformal dark energy".
Ab initio approach to the non-perturbative scalar Yukawa model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Karmanov, V. A.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.
2015-09-01
We report on the first non-perturbative calculation of the scalar Yukawa model in the single-nucleon sector up to four-body Fock sector truncation (one "scalar nucleon" and three "scalar pions"). The light-front Hamiltonian approach with a systematic non-perturbative renormalization is applied. We study the n-body norms and the electromagnetic form factor. We find that the one- and two-body contributions dominate up to coupling α ≈ 1.7. As we approach the coupling α ≈ 2.2, we discover that the four-body contribution rises rapidly and overtakes the two- and three-body contributions. By comparing with lower sector truncations, we show that the form factor converges with respect to the Fock sector expansion.
Refining inflation using non-canonical scalars
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun; Toporensky, Aleksey E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in
2012-08-01
This paper revisits the Inflationary scenario within the framework of scalar field models possessing a non-canonical kinetic term. We obtain closed form solutions for all essential quantities associated with chaotic inflation including slow roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, spectral indices, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, etc. We also examine the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and demonstrate the existence of an inflationary attractor. Our results highlight the fact that non-canonical scalars can significantly improve the viability of inflationary models. They accomplish this by decreasing the tensor-to-scalar ratio while simultaneously increasing the value of the scalar spectral index, thereby redeeming models which are incompatible with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in their canonical version. For instance, the non-canonical version of the chaotic inflationary potential, V(φ) ∼ λφ{sup 4}, is found to agree with observations for values of λ as large as unity! The exponential potential can also provide a reasonable fit to CMB observations. A central result of this paper is that steep potentials (such as V∝φ{sup −n}) usually associated with dark energy, can drive inflation in the non-canonical setting. Interestingly, non-canonical scalars violate the consistency relation r = −8n{sub T}, which emerges as a smoking gun test for this class of models.
Hypermultiplet couplings in N = 2 supergravity
Bagger, J.
1984-08-01
An arbitrary number of massless spin (0,/sup 1///sub 2/) multiplets are coupled to N = 2 supergravity, and the scalar fields are found to lie on a negatively curved quaternionic manifold. 6 references.
Gao, Hong; Sneha, Mahima; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C; Zare, Richard N
2015-12-17
We report rovibrationally selected differential cross sections (DCSs) of the benchmark reaction H + D2 → HD(v' = 3, j' = 4-10) + D at a collision energy of 3.26 eV, which exceeds the conical intersection of the H3 potential energy surface at 2.74 eV. We use the PHOTOLOC technique in which a fluorine excimer laser at 157.64 nm photodissociates hydrogen bromide (HBr) molecules to generate fast H atoms and the HD product is detected in a state-specific manner by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. Fully converged quantum wave packet calculations were performed for this reaction at this high collision energy without inclusion of the geometric phase (GP) effect, which takes into account coupling to the first excited state of the H3 potential energy surface. Multimodal structures can be observed in most of the DCSs up to j' = 10, which is predicted by theory and also well-reproduced by experiment. The theoretically calculated DCSs are in good overall agreement with the experimental measurements, which indicates that the GP effect is not large enough that its existence can be verified experimentally at this collision energy. PMID:26090780
Black Holes with a Conformally Coupled Scalar Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneaux, marc
The unexpected and fascinating emergence of hyperbolic Coxeter groups and Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras in the investigation of gravitational theories in the vicinity of a cosmological singularity is briefly reviewed. Some open questions raised by this intriguing result, and some attempts to answer them, are outlined.
Static scalar field solutions in symmetric gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossenfelder, S.
2016-09-01
We study an extension of general relativity with a second metric and an exchange symmetry between the two metrics. Such an extension might help to address some of the outstanding problems with general relativity, for example the smallness of the cosmological constant. We here derive a family of exact solutions for this theory. In this two-parameter family of solutions the gravitational field is sourced by a time-independent massless scalar field. We find that the only limit in which the scalar field entirely vanishes is flat space. The regular Schwarzschild-solution is left with a scalar field hidden in the second metric’s sector.
Bifurcation of tracked scalar waves
Glimm, J.; Grove, J.; Lindquist, B.; McBryan, O.A.; Tryggvason, G.
1986-05-01
The dynamic evolution of tracked waves by a front-tracking algorithm may lead on either numerical or physical grounds to intersections of the waves. The correct resolution of these intersections is described locally by the solution of Riemann problems and requires a bifurcation of the topology defined by the tracked waves. An algorithm is described which is appropriate for the resolution of scalar tracked waves, such as material discontinuities, contact dicontinuities in gas dynamics, or constituent concetration waves including oil-water banks in oil reservoirs Even here the algorithm is not fully general, and the resolution of the intersections of an arbitrary set of curves in the plane for the above range of physical problems remains unsolved. However with the assumption that the set of intersections to be resolved is a small perturbation (resulting for example from a small time step in an evolution) of a valid, non-intersecting front, the algorithm seems to be general. In any case examples will be presented that show that complicated interfaces can be generated automatically from simple ones through successive bifurcations. 15 refs., 9 figs.
Searching for the Scalar Glueball
Ochs, Wolfgang
2008-08-31
Existence of gluonic resonances is among the early expectations of QCD. Today, QCD calculations predict the lightest glueball to be a scalar state with mass within a range of about 900-1700 MeV but there is no consensus about its experimental evidence. In a re-analysis of the phase shifts for {pi}{pi} scattering up to 1800 MeV where such states should show up we find the broad resonance f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma} contributing to the full mass range and the narrow f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(1500) but no evidence for f{sub 0}(1370). Phenomenological arguments for the broad state to be a glueball are recalled. It is argued that the large radiative width of f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma} reported recently is not in contradiction to this hypothesis but is mainly due to {pi}{pi}-rescattering. The small 'direct' radiative component is consistent with QCD sum rule predictions for the light glueball.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guter, W.; Kern, R.; Köstler, W.; Kubera, T.; Löckenhoff, R.; Meusel, M.; Shirnow, M.; Strobl, G.
2011-12-01
AZUR SPACE's current CPV product 3C40C is an advanced lattice-matched In0.50Ga0.50P/In0.01Ga0.99As/Ge triple junction (3J) solar cell. Recently, efficiencies up to 41.2% (450-600×AM1.5d) have been confirmed for this 40%-class product. This kind of solar cell structure has now reached its practical efficiency limit and went into production in 2010. AZUR offers customized cell structures, regarding size and grid design, as well as anti-reflection coatings adapted to the individual CPV system. Integration grades from diced wafers up to assemblies, such as dense arrays, are available. Special features and production results for the 3C40C structure are presented in this work. In order to further push efficiencies beyond 42% AZUR has successfully transferred the upright metamorphic cell from Fraunhofer ISE and advances this concept now for production. First results on metamorphic 3J solar cells at AZUR SPACE and the actual potential of this concept will be discussed. A target efficiency of 42% seems to be realistic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hees, A.; Guéna, J.; Abgrall, M.; Bize, S.; Wolf, P.
2016-08-01
We use 6 yrs of accurate hyperfine frequency comparison data of the dual rubidium and caesium cold atom fountain FO2 at LNE-SYRTE to search for a massive scalar dark matter candidate. Such a scalar field can induce harmonic variations of the fine structure constant, of the mass of fermions, and of the quantum chromodynamic mass scale, which will directly impact the rubidium/caesium hyperfine transition frequency ratio. We find no signal consistent with a scalar dark matter candidate but provide improved constraints on the coupling of the putative scalar field to standard matter. Our limits are complementary to previous results that were only sensitive to the fine structure constant and improve them by more than an order of magnitude when only a coupling to electromagnetism is assumed.
Hees, A; Guéna, J; Abgrall, M; Bize, S; Wolf, P
2016-08-01
We use 6 yrs of accurate hyperfine frequency comparison data of the dual rubidium and caesium cold atom fountain FO2 at LNE-SYRTE to search for a massive scalar dark matter candidate. Such a scalar field can induce harmonic variations of the fine structure constant, of the mass of fermions, and of the quantum chromodynamic mass scale, which will directly impact the rubidium/caesium hyperfine transition frequency ratio. We find no signal consistent with a scalar dark matter candidate but provide improved constraints on the coupling of the putative scalar field to standard matter. Our limits are complementary to previous results that were only sensitive to the fine structure constant and improve them by more than an order of magnitude when only a coupling to electromagnetism is assumed. PMID:27541455
Fixed point analysis of a scalar theory with an external field
Bonanno, A.; Zappala, D.
1997-09-01
A momentum dependent projection of the Wegner-Hougton equation is derived for a scalar theory coupled to an external field. This formalism is useful to discuss the phase diagram of the theory. In particular we study some properties of the Gaussian fixed point. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Nakonieczny, Łukasz
2015-11-01
Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.
Probing a light CP-odd scalar in di-top-associated production at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Farooque, Trisha; Juste, Aurelio; Liu, Tao; Spannowsky, Michael
2015-10-01
CP-odd scalars are an integral part of many extensions of the Standard Model. Recently, electroweak-scale pseudoscalars have received increased attention in explaining the diffuse gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Centre. Elusive due to absence of direct couplings to gauge bosons, these particles receive only weak constraints from direct searches at LEP or searches performed during the first LHC runs. We investigate the LHC's sensitivity in probing a CP-odd scalar in the mass range 20 ≤ m_A ≤ 100 GeV via di-top-associated production using jet-substructure-based reconstruction techniques. We parameterise the scalar's interactions using a simplified model approach and relate the obtained upper limits to couplings within type-I and type-II 2HDMs as well as the NMSSM. We find that in di-top-associated production, experiments at the LHC can set tight limits on CP-odd scalars that fit the Galactic Centre excess. However, direct sensitivity to light CP-odd scalars from the NMSSM remains challenging.
Preferred frame parameters in the tensor-vector-scalar theory of gravity and its generalization
Sagi, Eva
2009-08-15
The tensor-vector-scalar theory of gravity, which was designed as a relativistic implementation to the modified dynamics paradigm, has fared quite well as an alternative to dark matter, on both galactic and cosmological scales. However, its performance in the Solar System, as embodied in the post-Newtonian formalism, has not yet been fully investigated. We calculate the post-Newtonian parameters for TeVeS with the cosmological value of the scalar field taken into account, and show that in this situation the cosmological value of the scalar field is tightly linked to the vector field coupling constant K, preventing the former from evolving as predicted by its equation of motion. We show that generalizing TeVeS to have an Aether-type vector action, as suggested by Skordis, removes the aforesaid link, and this generalized version of TeVes has its {beta}, {gamma}, and {xi} parameterized post-Newtonian parameters identical to those in GR, while solar system constraints on the preferred frame parameters {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} can be satisfied within a modest range of small values of the scalar and vector fields coupling parameters, and for cosmological values of the scalar field consistent with evolution within the framework of existing cosmological models.
Intermediate inflation driven by DBI scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazavari, N.; Mohammadi, A.; Ossoulian, Z.; Saaidi, Kh.
2016-06-01
Picking out a DBI scalar field as inflation, the slow-rolling inflationary scenario is studied by attributing an exponential time function to scale factor, known as intermediate inflation. The perturbation parameters of the model are estimated numerically for two different cases, and the final result is compared with Planck data. The diagram of tensor-to-scalar ratio r versus scalar spectra index ns is illustrated, and it is found that they are within an acceptable range as suggested by Planck. In addition, the acquired values for amplitude of scalar perturbation reveal the ability of the model to depict a good picture of the Universe in one of its earliest stages. As a further argument, the non-Gaussianity is investigated, displaying that the model prediction stands in a 68% C.L. regime according to the latest Planck data.
Subfemtotesla scalar atomic magnetometry using multipass cells.
Sheng, D; Li, S; Dural, N; Romalis, M V
2013-04-19
Scalar atomic magnetometers have many attractive features but their sensitivity has been relatively poor. We describe a Rb scalar gradiometer using two multipass optical cells. We use a pump-probe measurement scheme to suppress spin-exchange relaxation and two probe pulses to find the spin precession zero crossing times with a resolution of 1 psec. We realize a magnetic field sensitivity of 0.54 fT/Hz(1/2), which improves by an order of magnitude the best scalar magnetometer sensitivity and exceeds, for example, the quantum limit set by the spin-exchange collisions for a scalar magnetometer with the same measurement volume operating in a continuous regime. PMID:23679590
Subfemtotesla Scalar Atomic Magnetometry Using Multipass Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, D.; Li, S.; Dural, N.; Romalis, M. V.
2013-04-01
Scalar atomic magnetometers have many attractive features but their sensitivity has been relatively poor. We describe a Rb scalar gradiometer using two multipass optical cells. We use a pump-probe measurement scheme to suppress spin-exchange relaxation and two probe pulses to find the spin precession zero crossing times with a resolution of 1 psec. We realize a magnetic field sensitivity of 0.54fT/Hz1/2, which improves by an order of magnitude the best scalar magnetometer sensitivity and exceeds, for example, the quantum limit set by the spin-exchange collisions for a scalar magnetometer with the same measurement volume operating in a continuous regime.
Enhanced di-Higgs production through light colored scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam
2012-11-01
We demonstrate enhanced di-Higgs production at the LHC in the presence of modifications of the effective couplings of Higgs to gluons from new, light, colored scalars. While our results apply to an arbitrary set of colored scalars, we illustrate the effects with a real color octet scalar—a simple, experimentally viable model involving a light (≃125-300GeV) colored scalar. Given the recent LHC results, we consider two distinct scenarios: First, if the Higgs is indeed near 125 GeV, we show that the di-Higgs cross section could be up to nearly 103 times the Standard Model rate for particular octet couplings and masses. This is potentially observable in single Higgs production modes, such as pp→hh→γγbb¯ as well as pp→hh→τ+τ-bb¯ where a small fraction of the γγ or τ+τ- events near the putative Higgs invariant mass peak contain also a bb¯ resonance consistent with the Higgs mass. Second, if the Higgs is not at 125 GeV (and what the LHC has observed is an impostor), we show that the same parameter region where singly-produced Higgs production can be suppressed below current LHC limits, for a heavier Higgs mass, also simultaneously predicts substantially enhanced di-Higgs production. We point out several characteristic signals of di-Higgs production with a heavier Higgs boson, such as pp→hh→W+W-W+W-, which could use same-sign dileptons or trileptons plus missing energy to uncover evidence.
Characterizing entanglement entropy produced by nonlinear scalar interactions during inflation
Mazur, Dan; Heyl, Jeremy S.
2009-07-15
The density fluctuations that we observe in the universe today are thought to originate from quantum fluctuations produced during a phase of the early universe called inflation. By evolving a wave function describing two coupled Fourier modes of a scalar field forward through an inflationary epoch, we demonstrate that nonlinear effects can result in a generation of entanglement entropy between modes with different momenta in a scalar field during the inflationary period when just one of the modes is observed. Through this mechanism, the field would experience decoherence and appear more like a classical distribution today; however the mechanism is not sufficiently efficient to explain classicality. We find that the amount of entanglement entropy generated scales roughly as a power law S{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup 1.75}, where {lambda} is the coupling coefficient of the nonlinear potential term. We also investigate how the entanglement entropy scales with the duration of inflation and compare various entanglement measures from the literature with the von Neumann entropy. This demonstration explicitly follows particle creation and interactions between modes; consequently, the mechanism contributing to the generation of the von Neumann entropy can be easily seen.
Quantum corrections in Higgs inflation: the real scalar case
George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke E-mail: sander.mooij@ing.uchile.cl
2014-02-01
We present a critical discussion of quantum corrections, renormalisation, and the computation of the beta functions and the effective potential in Higgs inflation. In contrast with claims in the literature, we find no evidence for a disagreement between the Jordan and Einstein frames, even at the quantum level. For clarity of discussion we concentrate on the case of a real scalar Higgs. We first review the classical calculation and then discuss the back reaction of gravity. We compute the beta functions for the Higgs quartic coupling and non-minimal coupling constant. Here, the mid-field regime is non-renormalisable, but we are able to give an upper bound on the 1-loop corrections to the effective potential. We show that, in computing the effective potential, the Jordan and Einstein frames are compatible if all mass scales are transformed between the two frames. As such, it is consistent to take a constant cutoff in either the Jordan or Einstein frame, and both prescriptions yield the same result for the effective potential. Our results are extended to the case of a complex scalar Higgs.
Exact solutions in a scalar-tensor model of dark energy
Granda, L.N.; Loaiza, E. E-mail: edwin.loaiza@correounivalle.edu.co
2012-09-01
We consider a model of scalar field with non minimal kinetic and Gauss Bonnet couplings as a source of dark energy. Based on asymptotic limits of the generalized Friedmann equation, we impose restrictions on the kinetic an Gauss-Bonnet couplings. This restrictions considerable simplify the equations, allowing for exact solutions unifying early time matter dominance with transitions to late time quintessence and phantom phases. The stability of the solutions in absence of matter has been studied.
Anatomy of coannihilation with a scalar top partner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibarra, A.; Pierce, A.; Shah, N. R.; Vogl, S.
2015-05-01
We investigate a simplified model of dark matter where a Majorana fermion χ coannihilates with a colored scalar top partner t ˜. We explore the cosmological history, with particular emphasis on the most relevant low-energy parameters: the mass splitting between the dark matter and the coannihilator, and the Yukawa coupling yχ that connects these fields to the Standard Model top quarks. We also allow a free quartic coupling λh between a pair of Higgs bosons and t ˜ pairs. We pay special attention to the case where the values take on those expected where t ˜ corresponds to the superpartner of the right-handed top, and χ is a bino. Direct detection, indirect detection, and colliders are complementary probes of this simple model.
General relativity as an attractor for scalar-torsion cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Järv, Laur; Toporensky, Alexey
2016-01-01
We study flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for a scalar field coupled nonminimally to teleparallel gravity with generic coupling and potential functions. The goal in this paper is to determine the conditions under which cosmological evolution tends to the limit where the variation of the gravitational "constant" ceases and the system evolves close to general relativity (GR). These conditions can be read off from the approximate analytical solutions describing the process in matter and potential domination eras. Only those models where the GR limit exists and is an attractor can be considered viable. We expect the results to hold in the original "pure tetrad" formulation as well as in the recently suggested covariant formulation of the teleparallel theory. In the former case the GR attractor simultaneously provides a mechanism for how cosmological evolution suppresses the problematic degrees of freedom stemming from the lack of local Lorentz invariance.
Flavor Bounds and Phenomenology in the Scalar Sector of RS Scenarios
Toharia, Manuel
2010-02-10
In the context of a warped extra-dimension with Standard Model fields in the bulk, we obtain the general flavor structure of the couplings to fermions of both the Higgs scalar and the radion graviscalar. In the Flavor Anarchy paradigm, these couplings are generically misaligned with respect to the fermion mass matrix and moreover the off-diagonal couplings can be estimated parametrically as a function of fermion masses and the observed mixing angles. One can then study the flavor constraints and predictions arising from these couplings.
Flavor Bounds and Phenomenology in the Scalar Sector of RS Scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toharia, Manuel
2010-02-01
In the context of a warped extra-dimension with Standard Model fields in the bulk, we obtain the general flavor structure of the couplings to fermions of both the Higgs scalar and the radion graviscalar. In the Flavor Anarchy paradigm, these couplings are generically misaligned with respect to the fermion mass matrix and moreover the off-diagonal couplings can be estimated parametrically as a function of fermion masses and the observed mixing angles. One can then study the flavor constraints and predictions arising from these couplings.
Quintessential inflation with canonical and noncanonical scalar fields and Planck 2015 results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Chao-Qiang; Hossain, Md. Wali; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2015-07-01
We investigate two classes of models of quintessential inflation, based upon canonical as well as noncanonical scalar fields. In particular, introducing potentials steeper than the standard exponential, we construct models that can give rise to a successful inflationary phase, with signatures consistent with Planck 2015 results. Additionally, using nonminimal coupling of the scalar field with massive neutrino matter, we obtain the standard thermal history of the Universe, with late-time cosmic acceleration as the last stage of evolution. In both cases, inflation and late-time acceleration are connected by a tracker solution.
Sub-eV scalar dark matter through the super-renormalizable Higgs portal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piazza, Federico; Pospelov, Maxim
2010-08-01
The Higgs portal of the standard model provides the opportunity for coupling to a very light scalar field ϕ via the super-renormalizable operator ϕ(H†H). This allows for the existence of a very light scalar dark matter that has coherent interaction with the standard model particles and yet has its mass protected against radiative corrections. We analyze ensuing constraints from the fifth force measurements, along with the cosmological requirements. We find that the detectable level of the fifth force can be achieved in models with low inflationary scales, and by a certain amount of fine-tuning in the initial deviation of ϕ from its minimum.
Nonperturbative renormalization group approach for a scalar theory in higher-derivative gravity
Bonanno, A.; Zappala, D.
1997-05-01
A renormalization group study of a scalar theory coupled to gravity through a general functional dependence on the Ricci scalar in the action is discussed. A set of nonperturbative flow equations governing the evolution of the new interaction terms generated in both local potential and wave function renormalization is derived. It is shown for a specific model that these new terms play an important role in determining the scaling behavior of the system above the mass of the inflaton field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Scalar transport in plane mixing layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanormelingen, J.; Van den Bulck, E.
This paper describes the application of the Eulerian, single-point, single-time joint-scalar probability density function (PDF) equation for predicting the scalar transport in mixing layer with a high-speed and a low-speed stream. A finite-volume procedure is applied to obtain the velocity field with the k-ɛ closure being used to describe turbulent transport. The scalar field is represented through the modelled evolution equation for the scalar PDF and is solved using a Monte Carlo simulation. The PDF equation employs gradient transport modelling to represent the turbulent diffusion, and the molecular mixing term is modelled by the LMSE closure. There is no source term for chemical reaction as only an inert mixing layer is considered here. The experimental shear layer data published by Batt is used to validate the computational results despite the fact that comparisons between experiments and computational results are difficult because of the high sensitivity of the shear layer to initial conditions and free stream turbulence phenomena. However, the bimodal shape of the RMS scalar fluctuation as was measured by Batt can be reproduced with this model, whereas standard gradient diffusion calculations do not predict the dip in this profile. In this work for the first time an explanation is given for this phenomenon and the importance of a micromixing model is stressed. Also it is shown that the prediction of the PDF shape by the LMSE model is very satisfactory.
Can dark matter be a scalar field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.; Malatrasi, J. L. G.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.
2016-08-01
In this paper we study a real scalar field as a possible candidate to explain the dark matter in the universe. In the context of a free scalar field with quadratic potential, we have used Union 2.1 SN Ia observational data jointly with a Planck prior over the dark matter density parameter to set a lower limit on the dark matter mass as m>=0.12H0‑1 eV (c=hbar=1). For the recent value of the Hubble constant indicated by the Hubble Space Telescope, namely H0=73±1.8 km s‑1Mpc‑1, this leads to m>=1.56×10‑33 eV at 99.7% c.l. Such value is much smaller than m~ 10‑22 eV previously estimated for some models. Nevertheless, it is still in agreement with them once we have not found evidences for a upper limit on the scalar field dark matter mass from SN Ia analysis. In practice, it confirms free real scalar field as a viable candidate for dark matter in agreement with previous studies in the context of density perturbations, which include scalar field self interaction.
A New Two-Faced Scalar Solution and Cosmological SUSY Breaking
Shmakova, Marina; Burov, Valentin; /Moscow State U.
2010-08-27
We propose a possible new way to resolve the long standing problem of strong supersymmetry breaking coexisting with a small cosmological constant. We consider a scalar component of a minimally coupled N = 1 supermultiplet in a general Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) expanding universe. We argue that a tiny term, proportional to H{sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -122} in Plank's units, appearing in the field equations due to this expansion will provide both, the small vacuum energy and the heavy mass of the scalar supersymmetric partner. We present a non-perturbative solution for the scalar field with an unusual dual-frequency behavior. This solution has two characteristic mass scales related to the Hubble parameter as H{sup 1/4} and H{sup 1/2} measured in Plank's units.
Lifshitz black holes with a time-dependent scalar field in a Horndeski theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2014-05-01
In arbitrary dimensions, we consider a particular Horndeski action given by the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian with a cosmological constant term, while the source part is described by a real scalar field with its usual kinetic term together with a nonminimal kinetic coupling. In order to evade the no-hair theorem, we look for solutions where the radial component of the conserved current vanishes identically. Under this hypothesis, we prove that this model cannot accommodate Lifshitz solutions with a radial scalar field. This problem is finally circumvented by turning on the time dependence of the scalar field, and we obtain a Lifshitz black hole solution with a fixed value of the dynamical exponent z=1/3. The same metric is also shown to satisfy the field equations arising only from the variation of the matter source.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Phenomenology of the equivalence principle with light scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.
2010-10-01
Light scalar particles with couplings of sub-gravitational strength, which can generically be called 'dilatons', can produce violations of the equivalence principle. However, in order to understand experimental sensitivities one must know the coupling of these scalars to atomic systems. We report here on a study of the required couplings. We give a general Lagrangian with five independent dilaton parameters and calculate the 'dilaton charge' of atomic systems for each of these. Two combinations are particularly important. One is due to the variations in the nuclear binding energy, with a sensitivity scaling with the atomic number as A-1/3. The other is due to electromagnetism. We compare limits on the dilaton parameters from existing experiments.
Extremal Kerr-Newman black holes with extremely short charged scalar hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2015-12-01
The recently proved 'no short hair' theorem asserts that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair (the external fields) must extend beyond the null circular geodesic (the "photonsphere") of the corresponding black-hole spacetime: rfield >rnull. In this paper we provide compelling evidence that the bound can be violated by non-spherically symmetric hairy black-hole configurations. To that end, we analytically explore the physical properties of cloudy Kerr-Newman black-hole spacetimes - charged rotating black holes which support linearized stationary charged scalar configurations in their exterior regions. In particular, for given parameters { M , Q , J } of the central black hole, we find the dimensionless ratio q / μ of the field parameters which minimizes the effective lengths (radii) of the exterior stationary charged scalar configurations (here { M , Q , J } are respectively the mass, charge, and angular momentum of the black hole, and { μ , q } are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the linearized scalar field). This allows us to prove explicitly that (non-spherically symmetric non-static) composed Kerr-Newman-charged-scalar-field configurations can violate the no-short-hair lower bound. In particular, it is shown that extremely compact stationary charged scalar 'clouds', made of linearized charged massive scalar fields with the property rfield →rH, can be supported in the exterior spacetime regions of extremal Kerr-Newman black holes (here rfield is the peak location of the stationary scalar configuration and rH is the black-hole horizon radius). Furthermore, we prove that these remarkably compact stationary field configurations exist in the entire range s ≡ J /M2 ∈ (0 , 1) of the dimensionless black-hole angular momentum. In particular, in the large-mass limit they are characterized by the simple dimensionless ratio q / μ = (1 - 2s2) / (1 -s2).
Fermions in a mixed vector-scalar double-step potential via continuous chiral transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castilho, W. M.; de Castro, A. S.
2016-04-01
The behaviour of fermions in the background of a double-step potential is analyzed with a general mixing of scalar and vector couplings via continuous chiral-conjugation transformation. Provided the vector coupling does not exceed the scalar coupling, a Sturm-Liouville approach for the double-step potential shows that the transmission coefficient exhibits oscillations and that a finite set of intrinsically relativistic bound-state solutions might appear as poles of the transmission amplitude in a strong coupling regime. An isolated bound-state solution resulting from coupled first-order equations might also come into sight. It is also shown that all those possible bound solutions disappear asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of the so-called spin and pseudospin symmetries in a four-dimensional space-time. Furthermore, we show that due to the additional mass acquired by the fermion from the scalar background the high localization of the fermion in an extreme relativistic regime does not violate the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Exploring scalar field dynamics with Gaussian processes
Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com
2014-01-01
The origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe remains an unsolved mystery in Cosmology. In this work we consider a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with non-relativistic matter and a single scalar field contributing to the energy density of the Universe. Properties of this scalar field, like potential, kinetic energy, equation of state etc. are reconstructed from Supernovae and BAO data using Gaussian processes. We also reconstruct energy conditions and kinematic variables of expansion, such as the jerk and the slow roll parameter. We find that the reconstructed scalar field variables and the kinematic quantities are consistent with a flat ΛCDM Universe. Further, we find that the null energy condition is satisfied for the redshift range of the Supernovae data considered in the paper, but the strong energy condition is violated.
Extended scalar-tensor theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisostomi, Marco; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-04-01
We study new consistent scalar-tensor theories of gravity recently introduced by Langlois and Noui with potentially interesting cosmological applications. We derive the conditions for the existence of a primary constraint that prevents the propagation of an additional dangerous mode associated with higher order equations of motion. We then classify the most general, consistent scalar-tensor theories that are at most quadratic in the second derivatives of the scalar field. In addition, we investigate the possible connection between these theories and (beyond) Horndeski through conformal and disformal transformations. Finally, we point out that these theories can be associated with new operators in the effective field theory of dark energy, which might open up new possibilities to test dark energy models in future surveys.
Recent progress on light scalar mesons
Peláez, J. R.
2014-07-23
This is a brief account of the recent developments on the determination of the mass and widths of the much debated scalar mesons, paying particular attention to the causes of major revision of the σ or f{sub 0}(500) meson in the last edition of the Review of Particle Physics, which has finally acknowledged that the situation concerning the mass and width of this controversial state has been settled, although this was already well-known to scalar meson practitioners for about a decade. I will briefly comment on the dispersive approach, followed by several groups, which seems to have been the most decisive in support of the existence and precise determinations of scalar meson properties.
The Neural Computation of Scalar Implicature
Hartshorne, Joshua K.; Snedeker, Jesse; Azar, Stephanie Yen-Mun Liem; Kim, Albert E.
2014-01-01
Language comprehension involves not only constructing the literal meaning of a sentence but also going beyond the literal meaning to infer what was meant but not said. One widely-studied test case is scalar implicature: The inference that, e.g., Sally ate some of the cookies implies she did not eat all of them. Research is mixed on whether this is due to a rote, grammaticalized procedure or instead a complex, contextualized inference. We find that in sentences like If Sally ate some of the cookies, then the rest are on the counter, that the rest triggers a late, sustained positivity relative to Sally ate some of the cookies, and the rest are on the counter. This is consistent with behavioral results and linguistic theory suggesting that the former sentence does not trigger a scalar implicature. This motivates a view on which scalar implicature is contextualized but dependent on grammatical structure. PMID:25914890
Song, Ning; Kim, Nameun; Xiao, Rui; Choi, Hojun; Chun, Hyo-Im; Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Kunho; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Do, Jeong-Tae; Song, Hyuk; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Park, Chankyu
2015-01-01
Females homozygous for the Purkinje cell degeneration mutation (pcd) are fertile, although the success rate is much lower than in the wild type. We performed detailed analysis of reproductive abnormalities of pcd females. The number of oocytes produced following exogenous gonadotropin treatment was much lower in pcd3J-/- females than in pcd3J+/+ females. Furthermore, the estrous cyclicity of pcd3J-/- females according to the appearance of the vagina was almost undetectable comparing to that of the wild type. Histological analyses and follicle counting of 4- and 8-week-old pcd3J-/- ovaries showed an increase in the number of secondary follicles and a decrease in the number of antral follicles, indicating that AGTPBP1/ CCP1 plays an important role in the development of secondary follicles into antral follicles. Consistent with a previous analysis of the pcd cerebellum, pcd3J-/- ovaries also showed a clear increase in the level of polyglutamylation. Gene expression analysis showed that both oocytes and cumulus cells express CCP1. However, Ccp4 and CCP6, which can compensate the function of CCP1, were not expressed in mouse ovaries. Failure of microtubule deglutamylation did not affect the structure and function of the meiotic spindle in properly aligning chromosomes in the center of the nucleus during meiosis in pcd3J-/- females. We also showed that the pituitary-derived growth and reproduction-related endocrine system functions normally in pcd3J-/- mice. The results of this study provide insight into additional functions of CCP1, which cannot be fully explained by the side chain deglutamylation of microtubules alone. PMID:26452267
Experimental Investigation of Spatially-periodic Scalar Patterns in an Inline Mixer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baskan, Ozge; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman
2014-11-01
Spatially persisting patterns with exponentially decaying intensities form during the downstream evolution of passive scalars in three-dimensional (3D) spatially periodic flows due to the coupled effect of the chaotic nature of the flow and the diffusivity of the material. This has been investigated in many computational and theoretical studies on 2D time-periodic and 3D spatially-periodic flow fields, however, experimental studies, to date, have mainly focused on flow visualization with streaks of dye rather than fully 3D scalar field measurements. Our study employs the-state-of-the-art experimental methods to analyze the evolution of 3D scalar fields and the correlation between the coherent flow/scalar field structures in a representative inline mixer, called Quatro static mixer. The experimental setup consists of an optically accessible test section with transparent internal elements, accommodating a pressure-driven pipe flow. The 3D scalar fields are measured by 3D Laser-Induced Fluorescence. The preliminary results are consistent with the literature and we discuss the comparative analysis between our experimental observations and the numerical simulations from the previous studies. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by Dutch Technology Foundation STW.
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence
Chumakov, Sergei
2008-01-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
Stability of Gauss-Bonnet black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time against scalar field condensation
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2011-10-15
We study the stability of static, hyperbolic Gauss-Bonnet black holes in (4+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time against the formation of scalar hair. Close to extremality the black holes possess a near-horizon topology of AdS{sub 2}xH{sup 3} such that within a certain range of the scalar field mass one would expect that they become unstable to the condensation of an uncharged scalar field. We confirm this numerically and observe that there exists a family of hairy black hole solutions labeled by the number of nodes of the scalar field function. We construct explicit examples of solutions with a scalar field that possesses zero nodes, one node, and two nodes, respectively, and show that the solutions with nodes persist in the limit of Einstein gravity, i.e. for vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We observe that the interval of the mass for which scalar field condensation appears decreases with increasing Gauss-Bonnet coupling and/or with increasing node number.
On causality in polymer scalar field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Chung, Angel A.; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.
2011-10-01
The properties of spacetime corresponding to a proposed quantum gravity theory might modify the high energy behavior of quantum fields. Motivated by loop quantum gravity, recently, Hossain et al [1] have considered a polymer field algebra that replaces the standard canonical one in order to calculate the propagator of a real scalar field in flat spacetime. This propagator features Lorentz violations. Motivated by the relation between Lorentz invariance and causality in standard Quantum Field Theory, in this work we investigate the causality behavior of the polymer scalar field.
Scalar operators in solid-state NMR
Sun, Boqin
1991-11-01
Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.
Halos of unified dark matter scalar field
Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it
2008-05-15
We investigate the static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term, assumed to provide both the dark matter and dark energy components of the Universe. In particular, we give a prescription to obtain solutions (dark halos) whose rotation curve v{sub c}(r) is in good agreement with observational data. We show that there exist suitable scalar field Lagrangians that allow us to describe the cosmological background evolution and the static solutions with a single dark fluid.
Astrophysical constraints on scalar field models
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-01-15
We use stellar structure dynamics arguments to extract bounds on the relevant parameters of two scalar field models: the putative scalar field mediator of a fifth force with a Yukawa potential and the new variable mass particle models. We also analyze the impact of a constant solar inbound acceleration, such as the one reported by the Pioneer anomaly, on stellar astrophysics. We consider the polytropic gas model to estimate the effect of these models on the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and fundamental quantities such as the central temperature. The current bound on the solar luminosity is used to constrain the relevant parameters of each model.
Initial scalar magnetic anomaly map from Magsat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langel, R. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.
1982-01-01
Magsat data acquired during the November 1979-June 1980 mission was used to derive a scalar magnetic anomaly map covering +50 to -50 deg geographic latitude, and the separation of anomaly fields from core and external fields was accomplished by techniques developed for POGO satellite data. Except in the Atlantic and Pacific at latitudes south of -15 deg, comparison of the Magsat map with its POGO data-derived counterpart shows basic anomaly patterns to be reproducible, and higher resolution due to Magsat's lower measurement altitude. Color-coded scalar anomaly maps are presented for both satellites.
Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic
2007-06-01
In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].
The scalar glueball mass in Regge phenomenology
Burakovsky, L.
1998-12-01
The author shows that linear Regge trajectories for mesons and glueballs, and the cubic mass spectrum associated with them, determine a relation between the masses of the {rho} meson and the scalar glueball, M(0{sup ++}) = 3/{radical}2 M({rho}), which implies M(0{sup ++}) = 1620 {+-} 10 MeV. He also discusses a relation between the masses of the scalar and tensor glueballs, M(2{sup ++}) = {radical}2 M(0{sup ++}), which implies M(2{sup ++}) = 2290 {+-} 15 MeV.
Scalar-Pseudoscalar scattering and pseudoscalar resonances
Albaladejo, M.; Oller, J. A.; Roca, L.
2011-05-23
The interactions between the f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) scalar resonances and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons are studied. We first obtain the interacting kernels, without including any ad hoc free parameter, because the lightest scalar resonances are dynamically generated. These kernels are unitarized, giving the final amplitudes, which generate pseudoscalar resonances, associated with the K(1460), {pi}(1300), {pi}(1800), {eta}(1475) and X(1835). We also consider the exotic channels with I = 3/2 and I{sup G} = 1{sup +} quantum numbers. The former could be also resonant in agreement with a previous prediction.
Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD
Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa
2015-09-15
We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For m π = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state χ c0(1P ) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We then simulatemore » DD¯scattering in s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at χ c0(1P), we found, agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. Further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia.« less
Instability of charged wormholes supported by a ghost scalar field
Gonzalez, J. A.; Guzman, F. S.; Sarbach, O.
2009-07-15
In previous work, we analyzed the linear and nonlinear stability of static, spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to Einstein's field equations coupled to a massless ghost scalar field. Our analysis revealed that all these solutions are unstable with respect to linear and nonlinear spherically symmetric perturbations and showed that the perturbation causes the wormholes to either decay to a Schwarzschild black hole or undergo a rapid expansion. Here, we consider charged generalization of the previous models by adding to the gravitational and ghost scalar field an electromagnetic one. We first derive the most general static, spherically symmetric wormholes in this theory and show that they give rise to a four-parameter family of solutions. This family can be naturally divided into subcritical, critical and supercritical solutions depending on the sign of the sum of the asymptotic masses. Then, we analyze the linear stability of these solutions. We prove that all subcritical and all critical solutions possess one exponentially in time growing mode. It follows that all subcritical and critical wormholes are linearly unstable. In the supercritical case we provide numerical evidence for the existence of a similar unstable mode.
Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD
Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa
2015-09-15
We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For m _{π} = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state χ _{c0}(1P ) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We then simulate DD¯scattering in s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at χ _{c0}(1P), we found, agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. Further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia.
Large N scalars: From glueballs to dynamical Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sannino, Francesco
2016-05-01
We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective Lagrangian description. The framework allows for systematic investigations of composite dynamics of a non-Goldstone nature. Relevant examples are the lightest glueball states emerging in any Yang-Mills theory. We further apply the effective approach and associated counting scheme to composite models at the electroweak scale. To illustrate the formalism we consider the possibility that the Higgs emerges as the lightest glueball of a new composite theory; the large N scalar meson in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking; the large N pseudodilaton useful also for models of near-conformal dynamics. For each of these realizations we determine the leading N corrections to the electroweak precision parameters. The results nicely elucidate the underlying large N dynamics and can be used to confront first principle lattice results featuring composite scalars with a systematic effective approach.
Scalar Contribution to the Graviton Self-Energy During Inflation
Park, Sohyun
2012-01-01
We use dimensional regularization to evaluate the one loop contribution to the graviton self-energy from a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a locally de Sitter background. For noncoincident points our result agrees with the stress tensor correlators obtained recently by Perez-Nadal, Roura and Verdaguer. We absorb the ultraviolet divergences using the R^{2} and C^{2} counterterms first derived by ’t Hooft and Veltman, and we take the D = 4 limit of the finite remainder. The renormalized result is expressed as the sum of two transverse, 4th order differential operators acting on nonlocal, de Sitter invariant structure functions. In this form it can be used to quantum-correct the linearized Einstein equations so that one can study how the inflationary production of infrared scalars affects the propagation of dynamical gravitons and the force of gravity. We have seen that they have no effect on the propagation of dynamical gravitons. Our computation motivates a conjecture for the first correction to the vacuum state wave functional of gravitons. We comment as well on performing the same analysis for the more interesting contribution from inflationary gravitons, and on inferring one loop corrections to the force of gravity.
An improved mixing model providing joint statistics of scalar and scalar dissipation
Meyer, Daniel W.; Jenny, Patrick
2008-11-15
For the calculation of nonpremixed turbulent flames with thin reaction zones the joint probability density function (PDF) of the mixture fraction and its dissipation rate plays an important role. The corresponding PDF transport equation involves a mixing model for the closure of the molecular mixing term. Here, the parameterized scalar profile (PSP) mixing model is extended to provide the required joint statistics. Model predictions are validated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a passive scalar mixing in a statistically homogeneous turbulent flow. Comparisons between the DNS and the model predictions are provided, which involve different initial scalar-field lengthscales. (author)
Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre
2016-04-01
The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus
A minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model with large tensor-to-scalar ratio
McDonald, John
2015-01-01
We present a minimal axion inflation model which can generate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio while remaining sub-Planckian. The modulus of a complex scalar field Φ with a λ|Φ|{sup 4} potential couples directly to the gauge field of a strongly-coupled sector via a term of the form (|Φ|/M{sub Pl}){sup m}F F-tilde . This generates a minimum of the potential which is aperiodic in the phase. The resulting inflation model is equivalent to a φ{sup 4/(m+1)} chaotic inflation model. For the natural case of a leading-order portal-like interaction of the form Φ{sup †}ΦF F-tilde , the model is equivalent to a φ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model and predicts a tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 16/3N = 0.097 and a scalar spectral index n{sub s} = 1 - 5/3N = 0.970. The value of |Φ| remains sub-Planckian throughout the observable era of inflation, with |Φ| ∼< 0.01M{sub Pl} for N ∼< 60 when λ ∼ 1.
Casella, Girolamo; Ferrante, Francesco; Saielli, Giacomo
2010-06-21
ZORA relativistic and non-relativistic DFT protocols have been used to investigate vicinal coupling constants, (3)J(Sn-C-X-C), in several organotin(iv) compounds, with particular emphasis on cyclic alpha-aminoorganostannanes. The dependence of the coupling constant on the heteroatom X (X = N,O,S) in the coupling path, and, for X = N, its substituents, has been studied in detail. The electron-withdrawing strength of the N-substituents has been found to strongly affect the magnitude and shape of the Karplus-type curve. The results obtained for the simple model systems, having no or little conformational flexibility, have helped in rationalizing the data concerning real flexible cyclic systems recently investigated in the literature. For these intricate cases a population analysis of various conformers has allowed to obtain a very good agreement between calculated and experimental data. It is therefore established that NMR J couplings, together with DFT calculations, are a very useful tool to investigate conformational issues in solution by comparison of experimental and weighted average calculated values. PMID:20390147
Minkowski, Peter; Ochs, Wolfgang
2006-02-11
We summarize some persistent problems in scalar spectroscopy and discuss what could be learned here from charmless B-decays. Recent experimental results are discussed in comparison with theoretical expectations: a simple model based on penguin dominance leads to various symmetry relations in good agreement with recent data; a factorisation approach yields absolute predictions of rates.
Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2012-12-01
We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.
Self-gravitating scalar breathers with a negative cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Grandclément, Philippe
2015-07-01
Breather-type (time-periodic and spatially localized) solutions with spherical symmetry are investigated in a massless scalar field theory coupled to Einstein's gravity with cosmological constant in d spatial dimensions imposing anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics on space-time. Using a code constructed with the Kadath library that enables the use of spectral methods, the phase space of breather solutions is explored in detail for d =3 and d =4 . It is found that there are discrete families of solutions indexed by an integer and by their frequency. Using a time evolution code these AdS breathers are found to be stable for up to a critical central density, in analogy to boson stars. Using an analytical perturbative expansion small amplitude breathers are worked out for arbitrary dimensions d .
Warped de Sitter Solutions in the Scalar-Tensor Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flachi, Antonino; Minamitsuji, Masato; Uzawa, Kunihito
2015-01-01
We consider a class of higher dimensional theories consisting of D-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar dilaton and a form field propagating over a warped higher dimensional spacetime. In the simplest set-up, the models are characterized by two moduli: one related to the volume of the internal space, the other to the modulus of the warp factor. While the volume-modulus can be fixed by appropriately tuning the gauge field strength, curvature of the internal space, and cosmological constant, the same mechanism cannot work for the warp modulus. Here, we will present a stabilizing mechanism for the warp modulus and its mass in terms of quantum fluctuations from both moduli. We will show that, while quantum effects from the modulus associated to the warp modulus can only provide a stabilization mechanism of the mass scale in a restricted region of the parameter space, quantum effects from the volume modulus offer an efficient mechanism of stabilization.
Challenging the presence of scalar charge and dipolar radiation in binary pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.; Yunes, Nicolás
2016-01-01
Corrections to general relativity that introduce long-ranged scalar fields which are nonminimally coupled to curvature typically predict that neutron stars possess a nontrivial scalar field profile anchored to the star. An observer far from a star is most sensitive to the spherically symmetric piece of this profile that decays linearly with the inverse of the distance to the source, the so-called scalar monopole charge, which is related to the emission of dipolar radiation from compact binary systems. The presence of dipolar radiation has the potential to rule out or very strongly constrain extended theories of gravity. These facts may lead people to believe that gravitational theories that introduce long-ranged scalar fields have already been constrained strongly from binary pulsar observations. Here we challenge this "lore" by investigating the decoupling limit of Gauss-Bonnet gravity as an example, in which the scalar field couples linearly to the Gauss-Bonnet density in the action. We prove a theorem that neutron stars in this theory cannot possess a scalar charge, due to the topological nature of the Gauss-Bonnet density. Thus Gauss-Bonnet gravity evades the strong binary pulsar constraints on dipole radiation. We discuss the astrophysical systems which will yield the best constraints on Gauss-Bonnet gravity and related quadratic gravity theories. To achieve this we compute the scalar charge in quadratic gravity theories by performing explicit analytic and numerical matching calculations for slowly rotating neutron stars. In generic quadratic gravity theories, either neutron star-binary or neutron star-black hole systems can be used to constrain the theory, but because of the vanishing charge, Gauss-Bonnet gravity evades the neutron star-binary constraints. However, in contrast to neutron stars, black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity do anchor scalar charge, because of the difference in topology. The best constraints on Gauss-Bonnet gravity will thus come from
A two conserved scalar model for HCCI and PPCI engine applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamosfakidis, Vasileios
There is a strong demand for a versatile computational model in the design of modern engines such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines. A robust model is required to describe accurately both the chemistry and turbulent mixing processes in the reacting flow. Although the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes coupled with detailed kinetics models may reproduce some realistic results, the excessive computational cost prevents them to be applicable as engineering tools. The present study aims at developing a new modeling approach that can describe the combustion process with high fidelity and computational efficiency. In this study, a two-conserved scalar approach is proposed to model HCCI and PPCI combustion. The first conserved scalar, the mixture fraction Z, is introduced to capture the inhomogeneities in the fuel-air mixture, and the second conserved scalar, the initial EGR fraction J, is introduced to capture the inhomogeneities in the fresh mixture-EGR charge. The main benefits of this approach are the reduction of dimensionality and the compactness of the domain in the conserved scalar plane, and the capability to use different resolutions for the chemistry and the fluid mechanics calculation. To solve the flow in the conserved scalar plane, two algorithms are proposed. First, the flamelet (zone) creation strategy is introduced to discretize the conserved scalar space based on its mass distribution and reactivity. The second part is the regeneration procedure which accounts for the nonlinear effect of EGR on reaction rates. Test results from the two-conserved scalar approach are compared to those obtained by direct calculation, and it is demonstrated that the regeneration process in the present approach can properly account for the nonlinear effects arising from chemical reactions, as an improvement over the representative interactive flamelet (RIF) approach. The two conserved
Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling
Fazel, Mohamadreza; Mirza, Behrouz; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini
2014-05-15
In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrödinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.
Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lipo; Peters, Norbert
2008-12-01
Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field \\phi'(\\vec{x},t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δphi ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δphi ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δphi ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.
Planar AdS black holes in Lovelock gravity with a nonminimal scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaïne, Mokhtar
2013-11-01
In arbitrary dimension D, we consider a self-interacting scalar field nonminimally coupled with a gravity theory given by a particular Lovelock action indexed by an integer k. To be more precise, the coefficients appearing in the Lovelock expansion are fixed by requiring the theory to have a unique AdS vacuum with a fixed value of the cosmological constant. This yields to k = 1, 2,⋯, inequivalent possible gravity theories; here the case k = 1 corresponds to the standard Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. For each par ( D, k), we derive two classes of AdS black hole solutions with planar event horizon topology for particular values of the nonminimal coupling parameter. The first family of solutions depends on a unique constant and is valid only for k ≥ 2. In fact, its GR counterpart k = 1 reduces to the pure AdS metric with a vanishing scalar field. The second family of solutions involves two independent constants and corresponds to a stealth black hole configuration; that is a nontrivial scalar field together with a black hole metric such that both side of the Einstein equations (gravity and matter parts) vanishes identically. In this case, the standard GR case k = 1 reduces to the Schwarzschild-AdS-Tangherlini black hole metric with a trivial scalar field. We show that the two-parametric stealth solution defined in D dimension can be promoted to the uniparametric black hole solution in ( D + 1) dimension by fixing one of the two constants in term of the other and by adding a transversal coordinate. In both cases, the existence of these solutions is strongly inherent of the presence of the higher order curvature terms k ≥ 2 of the Lovelock gravity. We also establish that these solutions emerge from a stealth configuration defined on the pure AdS metric through a Kerr-Schild transformation. Finally, in the last part, we include multiple exact ( D - 1) - forms homogenously distributed and coupled to the scalar field. For a specific coupling, we obtain black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartanto, A.; Zen, F. P.; Kosasih, J. S.
2014-03-01
Special condition of Scherk-Schwarz and Orbifold S1/Z2 breakings brings about both the weakly-coupled SU(6) Baby Higgs and the strongly-coupled will-be-SimplestLittleHiggs scalar in the near-brane of SU(3)×SU(3)×U(1). The later produces SU(3) VEVs and Simplest Little-like Higgs after triplet-triplet splitting and, under Uncertainty Principles with Coleman-Weinberg potential, the second yields finally exotic Higgses, the scalar-pair and 3-scalar Higgses in the so-called non-asymptotic and asymptotic states produced successively via one-by-one and collective (just-one) one-time breakings.
Mating system of the Amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare.
Cacho, M S R F; Yamamoto, M E; Chellappa, S
2007-02-01
The species, Pterophyllum scalare distinguishes itself by its breeding behavior, involving competition for territory, sexual partners, courtship and parental care. The purpose of this study was to identify the mating system adopted by this species of fish. Twenty males and twenty females were observed under semi-natural and experimental conditions to test the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Under semi-natural conditions, after the third breeding cycle, the couples changed mates. Under experimental conditions, the couples changed partners after the first breeding cycle. Under experimental conditions, mate recognition was investigated through the preference of the females, indicated by the time they spent with the males. The females were available or not for courtship from new males, depending on their aggressiveness or submission. The larger and more aggressive males obtained new mating opportunities while the submissive males were rejected by the females. The mated fish were aggressive towards intruders in the presence of the mate, protecting their pair bond. In the interval between breeding cycles, the couples did not display aggression towards intruders, confirming the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Best mate selection by the females and the opportunity of new matings for both sexes influenced the reproductive success of this species. PMID:17505764
Stealth dark matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; Fleming, G. T.; Jin, X.-Y.; Kiskis, J.; Kribs, G. D.; Neil, E. T.; Osborn, J. C.; Rebbi, C.; Rinaldi, E.; Schaich, D.; Schroeder, C.; Syritsyn, S.; Vranas, P.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.; Lattice Strong Dynamics LSD Collaboration
2015-10-01
We present a new model of stealth dark matter: a composite baryonic scalar of an S U (ND) strongly coupled theory with even ND≥4 . All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to S U (4 ), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass mB≳300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. We briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.
Higgs couplings and electroweak phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim
2014-07-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3) c . Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is not colored, an electron-positron Higgs factory, such as the proposed ILC or TLEP, would be required to test the nature of the phase transition. The extremely precise measurement of the Higgsstrahlung cross section possible at such machines will allow for a comprehensive and definitive probe of the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition in all models we considered, including the case when the new scalar is a pure gauge singlet.
Transport Of Passive Scalars In A Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, John; Moin, Parviz
1990-01-01
Computer simulation of transport of passive scalars in turbulent channel flow described in report. Shows flow structures and statistical properties. As used here, "passive scalars" means scalar quantities like fluctuations in temperature or concentrations of contaminants that do not disturb flow appreciably. Examples include transport of heat in heat exchangers, gas turbines, and nuclear reactors and dispersal of pollution in atmosphere.
Collider constraints and prospects of a scalar singlet extension to Higgs portal dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Grace
2016-07-01
This work considers an extension of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs sector by a real, scalar singlet field, including applicability to a dark matter (DM) model with the addition of a Yukawa coupling to a fermionic dark matter candidate. The collider signatures and constraints on the mixed two-Higgs scenario are determined, including limits from Higgs production signals and exclusion searches, as well as constraints arising from the Higgs total and invisible widths. As there is overwhelming Higgs data which is consistent with a SM scenario, the case in which an additional scalar has evaded detection is further explored in the context of Higgs precision measurement. The discovery reach and prospective signatures of the model at a proposed linear collider are investigated, with particular focus on the Higgs triple coupling, and di-Higgs production processes.
Floating and sinking: the imprint of massive scalars around rotating black holes.
Cardoso, Vitor; Chakrabarti, Sayan; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2011-12-01
We study the coupling of massive scalar fields to matter in orbit around rotating black holes. It is generally expected that orbiting bodies will lose energy in gravitational waves, slowly inspiraling into the black hole. Instead, we show that the coupling of the field to matter leads to a surprising effect: because of superradiance, matter can hover into "floating orbits" for which the net gravitational energy loss at infinity is entirely provided by the black hole's rotational energy. Orbiting bodies remain floating until they extract sufficient angular momentum from the black hole, or until perturbations or nonlinear effects disrupt the orbit. For slowly rotating and nonrotating black holes floating orbits are unlikely to exist, but resonances at orbital frequencies corresponding to quasibound states of the scalar field can speed up the inspiral, so that the orbiting body sinks. These effects could be a smoking gun of deviations from general relativity. PMID:22242985
750 GeV diphoton resonance as a singlet scalar in an extra dimensional model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Chengfeng; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Zhang, Hong-Hao
2016-04-01
We interpret the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently found in the 13 TeV LHC data as a singlet scalar in an extra dimensional model, where one extra dimension is introduced. In the model, the scalar couples to multiple vectorlike fermions, which are just the Kaluza-Klein modes of SM fermions. Mediated by the loops of these vectorlike fermions, the ϕ effective couplings to gluons and photons can be significantly large. Therefore, it is quite easy to obtain an observed cross section for the diphoton excess. We also calculate the cross sections for other decay channels of ϕ , and find that this interpretation can evade the bounds from the 8 TeV LHC data.
Connection dynamics of higher-dimensional scalar-tensor theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yu; Ma, Yongge; Zhang, Xiangdong
2014-09-01
The scalar-tensor theories (STTs) of gravity in spacetime dimensions (D+1)>2 are studied. By performing Hamiltonian analysis, we obtain the geometrical dynamics of the theories from their Lagrangian. The Hamiltonian formalism indicates that the theories are naturally divided into two sectors by the coupling parameter ω. The Hamiltonian structures in both sectors are similar to the corresponding structures of four-dimensional cases. It turns out that, similar to the case of general relativity (GR), there is also a symplectic reduction from the canonical structure of so(D+1) Yang-Mills theories coupled to the scalar field to the canonical structure of the geometrical STTs. Therefore, the non-perturbative loop quantum (LQG) gravity techniques can also be applied to the STTs in D+1 dimensions based on their connection-dynamical formalism.
Conformal inflation coupled to matter
Brax, Philippe
2014-05-01
We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.
Vacuum stress-energy tensor of a massive scalar field in a wormhole spacetime
Bezerra, V. B.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Khusnutdinov, N. R.; Sushkov, S. V.
2010-04-15
The vacuum average value of the stress-energy tensor of a massive scalar field with nonminimal coupling {xi} to the curvature on the short-throat flat-space wormhole background is calculated. The final analysis is made numerically. It was shown that the energy-momentum tensor does not violate the null energy condition near the throat. Therefore, the vacuum polarization cannot self-consistently support the wormhole.
A note on viability of nonminimally coupled f( R) theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koivisto, Tomi S.; Tamanini, Nicola
2016-07-01
Consistency conditions for nonminimally coupled f( R) theories have been derived by requiring the absence of tachyons and instabilities in the scalar fluctuations. This note confirms these results and clarifies a subtlety regarding different definitions of sound speeds.
Consistency of nonminimally coupled f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamanini, Nicola; Koivisto, Tomi S.
2013-09-01
Theories with a nonminimal coupling between the space-time curvature and matter fields introduce an extra force due to the nonconservation of the matter energy momentum. In the present work the theoretical consistency of such couplings is studied using a scalar field Lagrangian to model the matter content. The conditions that the coupling does not introduce ghosts, classical instabilities or superluminal propagation of perturbations are derived. These consistency conditions are then employed to rule out or severely restrict the forms of the nonminimal coupling functions considered in the previous literature. For example, a power-law coupling is viable only for sublinear positive power of the curvature scalar.
Stellar oscillations in scalar-tensor theory of gravity
Sotani, Hajime; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2005-06-15
We derive the perturbation equations for relativistic stars in scalar-tensor theories of gravity and study the corresponding oscillation spectrum. We show that the frequency of the emitted gravitational waves is shifted proportionally to the scalar field strength. Scalar waves which might be produced from such oscillations can be a unique probe for the theory, but their detectability is questionable if the radiated energy is small. However, we show that there is no need for a direct observation of scalar waves: The shift in the gravitational wave spectrum could unambiguously signal the presence of a scalar field.
Scalar field cosmologies with inverted potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H.; Polarski, D.
2015-10-01
Regular bouncing solutions in the framework of a scalar-tensor gravity model were found in a recent work. We reconsider the problem in the Einstein frame (EF) in the present work. Singularities arising at the limit of physical viability of the model in the Jordan frame (JF) are either of the Big Bang or of the Big Crunch type in the EF. As a result we obtain integrable scalar field cosmological models in general relativity (GR) with inverted double-well potentials unbounded from below which possess solutions regular in the future, tending to a de Sitter space, and starting with a Big Bang. The existence of the two fixed points for the field dynamics at late times found earlier in the JF becomes transparent in the EF.
Scalar waves in a wormhole geometry
Kar, S.; Sahdev, D. ); Bhawal, B. )
1994-01-15
The reflection and transmission of massless scalar waves in the curved background geometry of a typical Lorentzian wormhole (in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions) are discussed. Using the exact solutions which involve modified Mathieu (in 2+1 dimensions) and radial oblate spheroidal (in 3+1 dimensions) functions, explicit analytic expressions are obtained for the reflection and transmission coefficients at specific values of the quantity [omega][ital b][sub 0] ([omega] being the energy of the scalar wave and [ital b][sub 0] the throat radius of the wormhole). It is found that both near-perfect reflection as well as transmission are possible for specific choices of certain parameters.
Continuity of scalar fields with logarithmic correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeev, S. G.; Ranken, Evan
2015-08-01
We apply select ideas from the modern theory of stochastic processes in order to study the continuity/roughness of scalar quantum fields. A scalar field with logarithmic correlations (such as a massless field in 1 +1 spacetime dimensions) has the mildest of singularities, making it a logical starting point. Instead of the usual inner product of the field with a smooth function, we introduce a moving average on an interval which allows us to obtain explicit results and has a simple physical interpretation. Using the mathematical work of Dudley, we prove that the averaged random process is in fact continuous, and give a precise modulus of continuity bounding the short-distance variation.
Compton scattering vertex for massive scalar QED
Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.
2009-08-15
We investigate the Compton scattering vertex of charged scalars and photons in scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED). We carry out its nonperturbative construction consistent with Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identity which relates 3-point vertices to the 4-point ones. There is an undetermined part which is transverse to one or both the external photons, and needs to be evaluated through perturbation theory. We present in detail how the transverse part at the 1-loop order can be evaluated for completely general kinematics of momenta involved in covariant gauges and dimensions. This involves the calculation of genuine 4-point functions with three massive propagators, the most nontrivial integrals reported in this paper. We also discuss possible applications of our results.
Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.
2012-12-01
The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.
Scalar entrainment in the mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandham, N. D.; Mungal, M. G.; Broadwell, J. E.; Reynolds, W. C.
1988-01-01
New definitions of entrainment and mixing based on the passive scalar field in the plane mixing layer are proposed. The definitions distinguish clearly between three fluid states: (1) unmixed fluid, (2) fluid engulfed in the mixing layer, trapped between two scalar contours, and (3) mixed fluid. The difference betwen (2) and (3) is the amount of fluid which has been engulfed during the pairing process, but has not yet mixed. Trends are identified from direct numerical simulations and extensions to high Reynolds number mixing layers are made in terms of the Broadwell-Breidenthal mixing model. In the limit of high Peclet number (Pe = ReSc) it is speculated that engulfed fluid rises in steps associated with pairings, introducing unmixed fluid into the large scale structures, where it is eventually mixed at the Kolmogorov scale. From this viewpoint, pairing is a prerequisite for mixing in the turbulent plane mixing layer.
Antimatter signals of singlet scalar dark matter
Goudelis, A.; Mambrini, Y.; Yaguna, C. E-mail: yann.mambrini@th.u-psud.fr
2009-12-01
We consider the singlet scalar model of dark matter and study the expected antiproton and positron signals from dark matter annihilations. The regions of the viable parameter space of the model that are excluded by present data are determined, as well as those regions that will be probed by the forthcoming experiment AMS-02. In all cases, different propagation models are investigated, and the possible enhancement due to dark matter substructures is analyzed. We find that the antiproton signal is more easily detectable than the positron one over the whole parameter space. For a typical propagation model and without any boost factor, AMS-02 will be able to probe –via antiprotons– the singlet model of dark matter up to masses of 600 GeV. Antiprotons constitute, therefore, a promising signal to constraint or detect the singlet scalar model.
Noncommutative scalar fields from symplectic deformation
Daoud, M.; Hamama, A.
2008-02-15
This paper is concerned with the quantum theory of noncommutative scalar fields in two dimensional space-time. It is shown that the noncommutativity originates from the the deformation of symplectic structures. The quantization is performed and the modes expansions of the fields, in the presence of an electromagnetic background, are derived. The Hamiltonian of the theory is given and the degeneracies lifting, induced by the deformation, is also discussed.
Scalar waves in the Witten bubble spacetime
Bhawal, B. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore ); Vishveshwara, C.V. )
1990-09-15
Massless scalar waves in the Witten bubble spacetime are studied. The timelike and angular parts of the separated Klein-Gordon equation are written in terms of hyperbolic harmonics characterized by the generalized frequency {omega}. The radial equation is cast into the Schroedinger form. The above mathematical formulation is applied to study the scattering problem, the bound states, and the corresponding stability criteria. The results confirm the concept of a bubble wall as a perfectly reflecting expanding sphere.
Derivative couplings in massive bigravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xian; Heisenberg, Lavinia
2016-03-01
In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.
Gravitational collapse of a scalar field
Maithreyan, T.
1985-01-01
A self-similar collapse of massless scalar waves is considered, and the Einstein field equations in classical general relativity are solved to obtain the metric for the collapse. These scalar waves satisfy the massless wave equation and the energy momentum tensor associated with them is derived from their Lagrangian density. The collapse begins at t = 0 before which spacetime is flat, empty spacetime described by the Minkowski metric. Self similarity assumes that a homothetic Killing vector exists for the collapse, which satisfies the corresponding homothetic Killing equation. The solution obtained contains a constant c/sup 2/ whose value determines the nature of the collapse and the kind of singularity formed by the collapsing scalar waves. The three different cases are outlined and the corresponding Penrose diagrams are given. The apparent horizons, defined by Hawking as the limit of the trapped surfaces surrounding the singularity, are calculated for each case. A quantum correction is given for the above classical picture using the method developed originally by Hawking, to study particle creation by a black hole.
FESDIF -- Finite Element Scalar Diffraction theory code
Kraus, H.G.
1992-09-01
This document describes the theory and use of a powerful scalar diffraction theory based computer code for calculation of intensity fields due to diffraction of optical waves by two-dimensional planar apertures and lenses. This code is called FESDIF (Finite Element Scalar Diffraction). It is based upon both Fraunhofer and Kirchhoff scalar diffraction theories. Simplified routines for circular apertures are included. However, the real power of the code comes from its basis in finite element methods. These methods allow the diffracting aperture to be virtually any geometric shape, including the various secondary aperture obstructions present in telescope systems. Aperture functions, with virtually any phase and amplitude variations, are allowed in the aperture openings. Step change aperture functions are accommodated. The incident waves are considered to be monochromatic. Plane waves, spherical waves, or Gaussian laser beams may be incident upon the apertures. Both area and line integral transformations were developed for the finite element based diffraction transformations. There is some loss of aperture function generality in the line integral transformations which are typically many times more computationally efficient than the area integral transformations when applicable to a particular problem.
Scalar-vector quantization of medical images.
Mohsenian, N; Shahri, H; Nasrabadi, N M
1996-01-01
A new coding scheme based on the scalar-vector quantizer (SVQ) is developed for compression of medical images. The SVQ is a fixed rate encoder and its rate-distortion performance is close to that of optimal entropy-constrained scalar quantizers (ECSQs) for memoryless sources. The use of a fixed-rate quantizer is expected to eliminate some of the complexity of using variable-length scalar quantizers. When transmission of images over noisy channels is considered, our coding scheme does not suffer from error propagation that is typical of coding schemes using variable-length codes. For a set of magnetic resonance (MR) images, coding results obtained from SVQ and ECSQ at low bit rates are indistinguishable. Furthermore, our encoded images are perceptually indistinguishable from the original when displayed on a monitor. This makes our SVQ-based coder an attractive compression scheme for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). PACS are currently under study for use in an all-digital radiology environment in hospitals, where reliable transmission, storage, and high fidelity reconstruction of images are desired. PMID:18285124
Age Crises, Scalar Fields, and the Apocalypse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, J. C.
Recent observations suggest that Hubble's constant is large, to the extent that the oldest stars appear to have ages which are greater than the Hubble time, and that the Hubble expansion is slowing down, so that according to conventional cosmology the age of the Universe is less than the Hubble time. The concepts of weak and strong age crises (respectively t0<1/H0 but longer than the age inferred from some lower limit on q0, and t0>1/H0 and q0>0) are introduced. These observations are reconciled in models which are dynamically dominated by a homogeneous scalar field, corresponding to an ultra-light boson whose Compton wavelength is of the same order as the Hubble radius. Two such models are considered, an open one with vacuum energy comprising a conventional cosmological term and a scalar field component, and a flat one with a scalar component only, aimed respectively at weak and strong age crises. Both models suggest that anti-gravity plays a significant role in the evolution of the Universe.
Coupled inflation and brane gases
Biswas, Tirthabir; Brandenberger, Robert; Easson, Damien A.; Mazumdar, Anupam
2005-04-15
We study an effective four-dimensional theory with an action with two scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity, and with a matter action which couples to the two scalar fields via an overall field-dependent coefficient in the action. Such a theory could arise from a dimensional reduction of supergravity coupled to a gas of branes winding the compactified dimensions. We show the existence of solutions corresponding to power-law inflation. The graceful exit from inflation can be obtained by postulating the decay of the branes, as would occur if the branes are unstable in the vacuum and stabilized at high densities by plasma effects. This construction provides an avenue for connecting string gas cosmology and the late-time universe.
Searches for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Huehn, T.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Foss, J.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.
1997-11-01
Searches for scalar top and bottom quarks have been performed with data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The data sample consists of 21.7 pb-1 taken at sqrt(s) = 161, 170, and 172 GeV and 5.7 pb-1 taken at sqrt(s) = 130 and 136 GeV. No evidence for scalar top quarks or scalar bottom quarks was found in the channels t~-->cχ, t~-->blν~, and b~-->bχ. For the channel t~-->cχ a limit of 67 GeV/c2has been set on the scalar top quark mass, independent of the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left and right-handed states of the top quark. This limit assumes a mass difference between the t~ and the χ of at least 10 GeV/c2. For the channel t~-->blν~ the mixing-angle independent scalar top limit is 70 GeV/c2, assuming a mass difference between the t~ and the ν~ of at least 10 GeV/c2. For the channel b~-->bχ, a limit of 73 GeV/c2has been set on the mass of the supersymmetric partner of the left-handed state of the bottom quark. This limit is valid if the mass difference between the b~ and the χ is at least 10 GeV/c2.
Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J.; Font, José A.
2015-02-01
Recent perturbative studies have shown the existence of long-lived, quasistationary configurations of scalar fields around black holes. In particular, such configurations have been found to survive for cosmological time scales, which is a requirement for viable dark matter halo models in galaxies based on such types of structures. In this paper we perform a series of numerical relativity simulations of dynamical nonrotating black holes surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We solve numerically the coupled system of equations formed by the Einstein and the Klein-Gordon equations under the assumption of spherical symmetry using spherical coordinates. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around nonrotating black holes in highly dynamical spacetimes with a rich scalar field environment. Our numerical simulations are long-term stable and allow for the extraction of the resonant frequencies to make a direct comparison with results obtained in the linearized regime. A by-product of our simulations is the existence of a degeneracy in plausible long-lived solutions of Einstein equations that would induce the same motion of test particles, either with or without the existence of quasibound states.
Non-minimal Kinetic coupling to gravity and accelerated expansion
Granda, L.N.
2010-07-01
We study a scalar field with kinetic term coupled to itself and to the curvature, as a source of dark energy, and analyze the role of this new coupling in the accelerated expansion at large times. In the case of scalar field dominance, the scalar field and potential giving rise to power-law expansion are found in some cases, and a dynamical equation of state is calculated for a given solution of the field equations. A behavior very close to that of the cosmological constant was found.
Standard Model with a real singlet scalar and inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi
2014-08-01
We study the post-inflationary dynamics of the Standard Model Higgs and a real singlet scalar s, coupled together through a renormalizable coupling λ{sub sh}h{sup 2}s{sup 2}, in a Z{sub 2} symmetric model that may explain the observed dark matter abundance and/or the origin of baryon asymmetry. The initial values for the Higgs and s condensates are given by inflationary fluctuations, and we follow their dissipation and relaxation to the low energy vacua. We find that both the lowest order perturbative and the non-perturbative decays are blocked by thermal effects and large background fields and that the condensates decay by two-loop thermal effects. Assuming instant reheating at T=10{sup 16} GeV, the characteristic temperature for the Higgs condensate thermalization is found to be T{sub h} ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV, whereas s thermalizes typically around T{sub s} ∼ 10{sup 6} GeV. By that time, the amplitude of the singlet is driven very close to the vacuum value by the expansion of the universe, unless the portal coupling takes a value λ{sub sh}∼< 10{sup -7} and the singlet s never thermalizes. With these values of the coupling, it is possible to slowly produce a sizeable fraction of the observed dark matter abundance via singlet condensate fragmentation and thermal Higgs scattering. Physics also below the electroweak scale can therefore be affected by the non-vacuum initial conditions generated by inflation.
The Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers now operating in orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratter, Isabelle; Leger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier
2014-05-01
Swarm is one of the Earth Explorer Missions run by the European Space Agency. Its principal goal is to make the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and ionosphere and to study how they vary over space and time. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument, based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state, was developed by CEA-Leti (1) in Grenoble with technical assistance and financing from CNES (2) and scientific support from IPGP (3). As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performances are crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to a new dedicated design, the ASM offers the best precision and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performances all along the orbit. The ASM will thus deliver high resolution scalar measurements at 1 Hz for the in-flight calibration of the vector field data over the 4 year mission. It can also be operated at a much higher sampling rate ("burst" mode at 250 Hz). In addition, on an experimental basis, this instrument also takes vector field measurements, which are being validated jointly by CEA-Leti and IPGP, with support from CNES. This poster presents the capabilities and working principle of this instrument as well as the results of the in-flight verifications carried out during the 3 first months in orbit, including the performances, the last status and future prospects. 1 CEA-Leti : French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission - Electronics and Information Technology Laboratory 2 CNES : Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales - French Space
Quantum scalar corrections to the gravitational potentials on de Sitter background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sohyun; Prokopec, Tomislav; Woodard, R. P.
2016-01-01
We employ the graviton self-energy induced by a massless, minimally coupled (MMC) scalar on de Sitter background to compute the quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials of a static point particle with a mass M . The Schwinger-Keldysh formalism is used to derive real and causal effective field equations. When evaluated at the one-loop order, the gravitational potentials exhibit a secular decrease in the observed gravitational coupling G. This can also be interpreted as a (time dependent) anti-screening of the mass M.
(An)Isotropic models in scalar and scalar-tensor cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belinchón, José Antonio
2012-04-01
We study how the constants G and Λ may vary in different theoretical models (general relativity with a perfect fluid, scalar cosmological models ("quintessence") with and without interacting scalar and matter fields and a scalar-tensor model with a dynamical Λ) in order to explain some observational results. We apply the program outlined in section II to study three different geometries which generalize the FRW ones, which are Bianchi V, VII0 and IX, under the self-similarity hypothesis. We put special emphasis on calculating exact power-law solutions which allow us to compare the different models. In all the studied cases we arrive at the conclusion that the solutions are isotropic and noninflationary while the cosmological constant behaves as a positive decreasing time function (in agreement with the current observations) and the gravitational constant behaves as a growing time function.
Some advance on the comprehension of SR analysis for estimating the flux of a scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellví, Dr
2009-04-01
the scalar time trace to estimate scalar surface fluxes (Paw U et al., 1995). The analysis consists on determination of the mean ramp-pattern dimensions observed in the trace measured at one height. SR analysis is a simple transilient theory that is Lagrangian in nature and based on the scalar conservation equation. Here, it is shown (indirectly) that for a steady, incompressible and horizontally homogeneous flow, the production term in the budget equation of the mean turbulent variance of a scalar can be expressed in terms of the mean ramp dimensions observed in the trace. Therefore, the budget equation provides a link between the contrasting DM and SR analysis methods for estimating scalar surface fluxes. The dissipation method is based on the finest turbulence scales, whereas the SR analysis is based on canopy-scale coherent structures. By normalizing the budget equation, and invoking similarity, it is shown that DM and SR analysis are closely related (details were given in Castellvi and Snyder, 2008). However, SR analysis avoids the disadvantages of DM and it also overcomes potential problems related with the EC method (such as perfect alignment, rotation of the wind field, sensor separation, shadowing, etc.) because the velocity field (i.e., the sonic anemometer) is not required in SR analysis. The relation between SR analysis and DM allows to better interpret a crucial parameter (originally, denoted as ) involved in SR analysis. The parameter was implemented to account for three assumptions made to solve the scalar flux conservation equation coupled with the Lagrangian scalar mass conservation equation. Considering an air parcel that suddenly moves down to the surface which volume covers all the vertical extend of the surface sources (sinks), the assumptions made are the following; (1) The air parcel remains in contact with the sources (sinks) for a period during which it has been enriched (depleted) of scalar, (2) During the enrichment phase there is not
Universal Attractor for Inflation at Strong Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik
2014-01-01
We introduce a novel nonminimal coupling between gravity and the inflaton sector. Remarkably, for large values of this coupling all models asymptote to a universal attractor. This behavior is independent of the original scalar potential and generalizes the attractor in the φ4 theory with nonminimal coupling to gravity. The attractor is located in the "sweet spot" of parameter values that are preferred by Planck's recent results.
Non-minimal coupling in Higgs–Yukawa model with asymptotically safe gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, Kin-ya; Yamada, Masatoshi
2016-06-01
We study the fixed-point structure of the Higgs–Yukawa model, with its scalar being non-minimally coupled to the asymptotically safe gravity, using the functional renormalization group. We have obtained the renormalization group equations for the cosmological and Newton constants, the scalar mass squared and quartic coupling constant, and the Yukawa and non-minimal coupling constants, taking into account all the scalar, fermion, and graviton loops. We find that switching on the fermionic quantum fluctuations makes the non-minimal coupling constant irrelevant around the Gaussian-matter fixed point with asymptotically safe gravity.
On the power law of passive scalars in turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Takeshi
2015-11-01
It has long been considered that the moments of the scalar increment with separation distance r obey power law with scaling exponents in the inertial convective range and the exponents are insensitive to variation of pumping of scalar fluctuations at large scales, thus the scaling exponents are universal. We examine the scaling behavior of the moments of increments of passive scalars 1 and 2 by using DNS up to the grid points of 40963. They are simultaneously convected by the same isotropic steady turbulence atRλ = 805 , but excited by two different methods. Scalar 1 is excited by the random scalar injection which is isotropic, Gaussian and white in time at law wavenumber band, while Scalar 2 is excited by the uniform mean scalar gradient. It is found that the local scaling exponents of the scalar 1 has a logarithmic correction, meaning that the moments of the scalar 1 do not obey simple power law. On the other hand, the moments of the scalar 2 is found to obey the well developed power law with exponents consistent with those in the literature. Physical reasons for the difference are explored. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research 15H02218 and 26420106, NIFS14KNSS050, HPCI project hp150088 and hp140024, JHPCN project jh150012.
Coupling Electromagnetism to Global Charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guendelman, E. I.
2013-12-01
It is shown that an alternative to the standard scalar quantum electrodynamics (QED) is possible. In this new version, there is only global gauge invariance as far as the charged scalar fields are concerned, although local gauge invariance is kept for the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic coupling has the form jμ(Aμ +∂μB) where B is an auxiliary field and the current jμ is Aμ independent, so that no "sea gull terms" are introduced. As a consequence of the absence of sea gulls, it is seen that no Klein paradox appears in the presence of a strong square well potential. In a model of this kind, spontaneous breaking of symmetry does not lead to photon mass generation, instead the Goldstone boson becomes a massless source for the electromagnetic field. When spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place infrared questions concerning the theory and generalizations to global vector QED are discussed. In this framework, Q-Balls and other nontopological solitons that owe their existence to a global U(1) symmetry can be coupled to electromagnetism and could represent multiply charged particles now in search in the large hadron collider (LHC). Furthermore, we give an example where an "Emergent" Global Scalar QED can appear from an axion-photon system in an external magnetic field. Finally, formulations of Global Scalar QED that allow perturbative expansions without sea gulls are developed.
Isocurvature constraints on portal couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kainulainen, Kimmo; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville
2016-06-01
We consider portal models which are ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model, and confront them with observational constraints on dark matter abundance and isocurvature perturbations. We assume the hidden sector to contain a real singlet scalar s and a sterile neutrino ψ coupled to s via a pseudoscalar Yukawa term. During inflation, a primordial condensate consisting of the singlet scalar s is generated, and its contribution to the isocurvature perturbations is imprinted onto the dark matter abundance. We compute the total dark matter abundance including the contributions from condensate decay and nonthermal production from the Standard Model sector. We then use the Planck limit on isocurvature perturbations to derive a novel constraint connecting dark matter mass and the singlet self coupling with the scale of inflation: mDM/GeV lesssim 0.2λs3/8 (H*/1011 GeV)‑3/2. This constraint is relevant in most portal models ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model and containing light singlet scalar fields.
New production mechanism for keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter by decays of frozen-in scalars
Merle, Alexander; Niro, Viviana; Schmidt, Daniel E-mail: niro@ecm.ub.edu
2014-03-01
We propose a new production mechanism for keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter. In our setting, we assume the existence of a scalar singlet particle which never entered thermal equilibrium in the early Universe, since it only couples to the Standard Model fields by a really small Higgs portal interaction. For suitable values of this coupling, the scalar can undergo the so-called freeze-in process, and in this way be efficiently produced in the early Universe. These scalars can then decay into keV sterile neutrinos and produce the correct Dark Matter abundance. While similar settings in which the scalar does enter thermal equilibrium and then freezes out have been studied previously, the mechanism proposed here is new and represents a versatile extension of the known case. We perform a detailed numerical calculation of the DM production using a set of coupled Boltzmann equations, and we illustrate the successful regions in the parameter space. Our production mechanism notably can even work in models where active-sterile mixing is completely absent.
Non-canonical scalar fields and their applications in cosmology and astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Christopher S.
In this thesis we will discuss several issues concerning cosmological applications of non-canonical scalar fields, which are generically referred to as k-essence. First, we consider two examples of k-essence. These are the rolling tachyon and static spherically symmetric solutions of non-canonical scalar fields in flat space. We find constraints on the form of the allowed interactions in the first case and on the choice of boundary conditions in the latter. For the rolling tachyon we find that at late times the tachyon matter behaves like a non-relativistic dust, thus making it a dark matter candidate. For the static spherically symmetric solutions we show that solutions which are finite at the origin must have negative energy density there. Next, we consider static spherically symmetric solutions of non-canonical scalar fields coupled to gravity as a way to explain dark matter halos as a coherent state of the scalar field. Consistent solutions are found with a smooth scalar profile which can describe observed rotation curves. The non-trivial solutions have negative energy density near the origin, though the total energy is positive. We also reconsider the no scalar hair theorems for black holes with emphasis on asymptotic boundary conditions and superluminal propagation. After this we show that, for general scalar fields, stationary configurations are possible for shift symmetric theories only. This symmetry with respect to constant translations in field space should either be manifest in the original field variables or reveal itself after an appropriate field redefinition. In particular this result implies that neither k-essence nor quintessence can have exact steady state/Bondi accretion onto black holes. Finally, we find that stationary field configurations are necessarily linear in Killing time, provided that shift symmetry is realized in terms of these field variables. The next discussion outlines a general program for reconstructing the action of non
Scalar wave diffraction from a circular aperture
Cerjan, C.
1995-01-25
The scalar wave theory is used to evaluate the expected diffraction patterns from a circular aperture. The standard far-field Kirchhoff approximation is compared to the exact result expressed in terms of oblate spheroidal harmonics. Deviations from an expanding spherical wave are calculated for circular aperture radius and the incident beam wavelength using suggested values for a recently proposed point diffractin interferometer. The Kirchhoff approximation is increasingly reliable in the far-field limit as the aperture radius is increased, although significant errors in amplitude and phase persist.
Scalar-field theory of dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Kerson; Xiong, Chi; Zhao, Xiaofei
2014-05-01
We develop a theory of dark matter based on a previously proposed picture, in which a complex vacuum scalar field makes the universe a superfluid, with the energy density of the superfluid giving rise to dark energy, and variations from vacuum density giving rise to dark matter. We formulate a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation to describe the superfluid, treating galaxies as external sources. We study the response of the superfluid to the galaxies, in particular, the emergence of the dark-matter galactic halo, contortions during galaxy collisions and the creation of vortices due to galactic rotation.
Casimir effect for massive scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mobassem, S.
2014-10-01
The energy-momentum tensor is used to introduce the Casimir force of the massive scalar field acting on a nonpenetrating surface. This expression can be used to evaluate the vacuum force by employing the appropriate field operators. To simplify our formalism, we also relate the vacuum force expression to the imaginary part of the Green function via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and Kubo's formula. This allows one to evaluate the vacuum force without resorting to the process of field quantization. These two approaches are used to calculate the attractive force between two nonpenetrating plates. Special attention is paid to the generalization of the formalism to D+1 spacetime dimensions.
Scalar mesons and polarizability of the nucleon
Schumacher, Martin
2008-08-31
It is shown that the scalar mesons {sigma}, f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) as t-channel exchanges quantitatively solve the problem of diamagnetism and give an explanation of the large missing part of the electric polarizability {alpha} showing up when only the pion cloud is taken into account. The electric polarizability of the proton {alpha}{sub p} confirms a two-photon width of the {sigma} meson of {gamma}{sub {sigma}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}} = (2.58{+-}0.26) keV.
Scalar Potential Model of photon diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodge, John
2011-04-01
Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave-like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle-like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation, and the fractal philosophy are combined with the cosmological Scalar Potential Model (SPM). The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by a toy computer experiment. The simulations included light from a distance and Young's experiment. The patterns on the screens showed diffraction wave patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment and with the concepts of Bohmian mechanics.
Modeling dynamical scalarization with a resummed post-Newtonian expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sennett, Noah; Buonanno, Alessandra
2016-06-01
Despite stringent constraints set by astrophysical observations, there remain viable scalar-tensor theories that could be distinguished from general relativity with gravitational-wave detectors. A promising signal predicted in these alternative theories is dynamical scalarization, which can dramatically affect the evolution of neutron-star binaries near merger. Motivated by the successful treatment of spontaneous scalarization, we develop a formalism that partially resums the post-Newtonian expansion to capture dynamical scalarization in a mathematically consistent manner. We calculate the post-Newtonian order corrections to the equations of motion and scalar mass of a binary system. Through comparison with quasiequilibrium configuration calculations, we verify that this new approximation scheme can accurately predict the onset and magnitude of dynamical scalarization.
Study of Several Potentials as Scalar Field Dark Matter Candidates
Matos, Tonatiuh; Vazquez-Gonzalez, Alberto; Magan a, Juan
2008-12-04
In this work we study several scalar field potentials as a plausible candidate to be the dark matter in the universe. The main idea is the following; if the scalar field is an ultralight boson particle, it condensates like a Bose-Einstein system at very early times and forms the basic structure of the Universe. Real scalar fields collapse in equilibrium configurations which oscillate in space-time (oscillatons). The cosmological behavior of the field equations are solved using the dynamical system formalism. We use the current cosmological parameters as constraints for the free parameters of the scalar field potentials. We are able to reproduce very well the cosmological predictions of the standard {lambda}CDM model with some scalar field potentials. Therefore, scalar field dark matter seems to be a good alternative to be the nature of the dark matter of the universe.
Stealth Dark Matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal
Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; Fleming, G. T.; Jin, X. -Y.; Kiskis, J.; Kribs, G. D.; Neil, E. T.; Osborn, J. C.; Rebbi, C.; et al
2015-10-23
We present a new model of "Stealth Dark Matter": a composite baryonic scalar of an SU(ND) strongly coupled theory with even ND ≥ 4. All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to SU(4), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements,more » basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass mB ≳ 300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. Furthermore, we briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.« less
Stealth Dark Matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal
Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; Fleming, G. T.; Jin, X. -Y.; Kiskis, J.; Kribs, G. D.; Neil, E. T.; Osborn, J. C.; Rebbi, C.; Rinaldi, E.; Schaich, D.; Schroeder, C.; Syritsyn, S.; Vranas, P.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.
2015-10-23
We present a new model of "Stealth Dark Matter": a composite baryonic scalar of an SU(N_{D}) strongly coupled theory with even N_{D} ≥ 4. All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to SU(4), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass m_{B} ≳ 300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. Furthermore, we briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.
Quantum tunneling from scalar fields in rotating black strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2013-08-01
Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method of quantum tunneling and complex path integration, we study Hawking radiation of scalar particles from rotating black strings. We discuss tunneling of both charged and uncharged scalar particles from the event horizons. For this purpose, we use the Klein-Gordon equation and find the tunneling probability of outgoing scalar particles. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for rotating charged black strings as well.
Black holes with surrounding matter in scalar-tensor theories.
Cardoso, Vitor; Carucci, Isabella P; Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-09-13
We uncover two mechanisms that can render Kerr black holes unstable in scalar-tensor gravity, both associated with the presence of matter in the vicinity of the black hole and the fact that this introduces an effective mass for the scalar. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the structure of spacetime in realistic, astrophysical black holes in scalar-tensor theories. PMID:24074068
Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-08-01
The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.
B meson decays into charmless pseudoscalar scalar mesons
Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Ramirez, Carlos A.; Mendoza S, J. A.
2007-06-19
The nonleptonic weak decays of meson B into a scalar and pseudoscalar meson are studied. The scalar mesons under consideration are {sigma} (or f0(600)), f0(980), a0(980) and K{sub 0}{sup *}(1430). We calculate the Branching ratios in the Naive Factorization approximation. Scalars are assumed to be qq-bar bounded sates, but an estimation can be obtained in the case they are four bounded states.
Scalar dissipation rate statistics in turbulent swirling jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stetsyuk, V.; Soulopoulos, N.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.
2016-07-01
The scalar dissipation rate statistics were measured in an isothermal flow formed by discharging a central jet in an annular stream of swirling air flow. This is a typical geometry used in swirl-stabilised burners, where the central jet is the fuel. The flow Reynolds number was 29 000, based on the area-averaged velocity of 8.46 m/s at the exit and the diameter of 50.8 mm. The scalar dissipation rate and its statistics were computed from two-dimensional imaging of the mixture fraction fields obtained with planar laser induced fluorescence of acetone. Three swirl numbers, S, of 0.3, 0.58, and 1.07 of the annular swirling stream were considered. The influence of the swirl number on scalar mixing, unconditional, and conditional scalar dissipation rate statistics were quantified. A procedure, based on a Wiener filter approach, was used to de-noise the raw mixture fraction images. The filtering errors on the scalar dissipation rate measurements were up to 15%, depending on downstream positions from the burner exit. The maximum of instantaneous scalar dissipation rate was found to be up to 35 s-1, while the mean dissipation rate was 10 times smaller. The probability density functions of the logarithm of the scalar dissipation rate fluctuations were found to be slightly negatively skewed at low swirl numbers and almost symmetrical when the swirl number increased. The assumption of statistical independence between the scalar and its dissipation rate was valid for higher swirl numbers at locations with low scalar fluctuations and less valid for low swirl numbers. The deviations from the assumption of statistical independence were quantified. The conditional mean of the scalar dissipation rate, the standard deviation of the scalar dissipation rate fluctuations, the weighted probability of occurrence of the mean conditional scalar dissipation rate, and the conditional probability are reported.
Composite scalars at the LHC: the Higgs, the Sextet and the Octet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying; Deandrea, Aldo; Flacke, Thomas; Lee, Seung J.; Parolini, Alberto
2015-11-01
We present a phenomenological theory of scalar particles that transform as a sextet and an octet of QCD interactions. These particles may arise as light bound states of a fundamental dynamics giving rise to a composite Higgs boson and partial compositeness for the top. As a concrete example, we discuss an explicit UV completion based on the SU(4)/Sp(4) coset, where QCD colour is carried by additional fundamental fermions charged under the confining gauge group. Top partners, as well as potentially even lighter coloured scalars, arise as bound states of the coloured fermions. We study production and detection at LHC Run I and II of the octet and sextet, setting lower limits on masses and couplings to Standard Model particles using existing 8 TeV analyses. We finally explore prospects for the ongoing 13 TeV Run II: we focus on final states with two same sign leptons, that have the potential to discriminate the sextet.
Wightman function and scalar Casimir densities for a wedge with two cylindrical boundaries
Saharian, A.A. Tarloyan, A.S.
2008-07-15
Wightman function, the vacuum expectation values of the field square and the energy-momentum tensor are investigated for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter inside a wedge with two coaxial cylindrical boundaries. It is assumed that the field obeys Dirichlet boundary condition on bounding surfaces. The application of a variant of the generalized Abel-Plana formula enables to extract from the expectation values the contribution corresponding to the geometry of a wedge with a single shell and to present the interference part in terms of exponentially convergent integrals. The local properties of the vacuum are investigated in various asymptotic regions of the parameters. The vacuum forces acting on the boundaries are presented as the sum of self-action and interaction terms. It is shown that the interaction forces between the separate parts of the boundary are always attractive. The generalization to the case of a scalar field with Neumann boundary condition is discussed.
Inert scalar doublet asymmetry as origin of dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhen, Mikaël; Hambye, Thomas
2015-10-01
In the inert scalar doublet framework, we analyze what would be the effect of a B -L asymmetry that could have been produced at high temperature in the thermal bath of the Universe. We show that unless the "λ5" scalar interaction is tiny, this asymmetry is automatically reprocessed in part into an inert scalar asymmetry that could be at the origin of dark matter today. Along this scenario, the inert mass scale lies in the few-TeV range, and direct detection constraints require that the inert scalar particles decay into a lighter dark matter particle which, as the inert doublet, is odd under a Z2 symmetry.
Charged scalar perturbations around a regular magnetic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yang; Liu, Dao-Jun
2016-05-01
We study charged scalar perturbations in the background of a regular magnetic black hole. In this case, the charged scalar perturbation does not result in superradiance. By using a careful time-domain analysis, we show that the charge of the scalar field can change the real part of the quasinormal frequency, but has little impact on the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequency and the behavior of the late-time tail. Therefore, the regular magnetic black hole may be stable under the perturbations of a charged scalar field at the linear level.
Stability of gravitating charged-scalar solitons in a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponglertsakul, Supakchai; Dolan, Sam R.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-07-01
We present new regular solutions of Einstein-charged-scalar-field theory in a cavity. The system is enclosed inside a reflecting mirrorlike boundary, on which the scalar field vanishes. The mirror is placed at the zero of the scalar field closest to the origin, and inside this boundary our solutions are regular. We study the stability of these solitons under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, scalar and electromagnetic fields. If the radius of the mirror is sufficiently large, we present numerical evidence for the stability of the solitons. For small mirror radius, some of the solitons are unstable. We discuss the physical interpretation of this instability.
Duality linking standard and tachyon scalar field cosmologies
Avelino, P. P.; Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Oliveira, J. C. R. E.; Pavan, A. B.
2010-09-15
In this work we investigate the duality linking standard and tachyon scalar field homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in N+1 dimensions. We determine the transformation between standard and tachyon scalar fields and between their associated potentials, corresponding to the same background evolution. We show that, in general, the duality is broken at a perturbative level, when deviations from a homogeneous and isotropic background are taken into account. However, we find that for slow-rolling fields the duality is still preserved at a linear level. We illustrate our results with specific examples of cosmological relevance, where the correspondence between scalar and tachyon scalar field models can be calculated explicitly.
Quinn, Noel P; Ackerman, Josef D
2015-03-21
Bottom roughness can influence gamete and larval transport in benthic organisms. For example the ratio of the roughness spacing (λ) and roughness height (k) determines the type of roughness flow regime created in two dimensional (2D) flows: λ/k<8 results in skimming flow; λ/k~8 results in wake interference flow; and λ/k>8 results in isolated roughness flow. Computational fluid dynamic modeling (COMSOL K-ε) was used to examine the effect of roughness geometry (e.g., a gradient in angularity provided by square, triangular and round 2D bottom roughness elements) on the prediction of roughness flow regime using biologically relevant λ/k ratios. In addition, a continuously released scalar (a proxy for gametes and larvae) in a coupled convection-diffusion model was used to determine the relationship among roughness geometry, λ/k ratios, and scalar transport (relative scalar transport, RT=ratio of scalar measured downstream in a series of roughness elements placed in tandem). The modeled roughness flow regimes fit closely with theoretical predictions using the square and triangle geometries, but the round geometry required a lower λ/k ratio than expected for skimming flow. Relative transport of the scalar was consistent with the modeled flow regimes, however significant differences in RT were found among the roughness flows for each geometry, and significantly lower RT values were observed for skimming flow in the round geometry. The λ/k ratio provides an accurate means of classifying flow in and around the roughness elements, whereas RT indicates the nature of scalar transport and retention. These results indicate that the spatial configuration of bottom roughness is an important determinant of gamete/larval transport in terms of whether the scalar will be retained among roughness elements or transported downstream. PMID:25596514
Searching for Chameleon-Like Scalar Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levshakov, S. A.; Molaro, P.; Kozlov, M. G.; Lapinov, A. V.; Henkel, Ch.; Reimersi, D.; Sakai, T.; Agafonova, I. I.
Using the 32-m Medicina, 45-m Nobeyama, and 100-m Effelsberg telescopes we found a statistically significant velocity offset ΔV ≈ 27 ± 3 m s - 1 (1σ) between the inversion transition in NH3(1,1) and low-J rotational transitions in N2H + (1-0) and HC3N(2-1) arising in cold and dense molecular cores in the Milky Way. Systematic shifts of the line centers caused by turbulent motions and velocity gradients, possible non-thermal hyperfine structure populations, pressure and optical depth effects are shown to be lower than or about 1 m s - 1 and thus can be neglected in the total error budget. The reproducibility of ΔV at the same facility (Effelsberg telescope) on a year-to-year basis is found to be very good. Since the frequencies of the inversion and rotational transitions have different sensitivities to variations in μ ≡ m e / m p, the revealed non-zero ΔV may imply that μ changes when measured at high (terrestrial) and low (interstellar) matter densities as predicted by chameleon-like scalar field models - candidates to the dark energy carrier. Thus we are testing whether scalar field models have chameleon-type interactions with ordinary matter. The measured velocity offset corresponds to the ratio Δμ / μ ≡ (μspace - μlab) / μlab of (26 ± 3) ×10 - 9 (1σ).
Scalar field theory on noncommutative Snyder spacetime
Battisti, Marco Valerio; Meljanac, Stjepan
2010-07-15
We construct a scalar field theory on the Snyder noncommutative space-time. The symmetry underlying the Snyder geometry is deformed at the co-algebraic level only, while its Poincare algebra is undeformed. The Lorentz sector is undeformed at both the algebraic and co-algebraic level, but the coproduct for momenta (defining the star product) is non-coassociative. The Snyder-deformed Poincare group is described by a non-coassociative Hopf algebra. The definition of the interacting theory in terms of a nonassociative star product is thus questionable. We avoid the nonassociativity by the use of a space-time picture based on the concept of the realization of a noncommutative geometry. The two main results we obtain are (i) the generic (namely, for any realization) construction of the co-algebraic sector underlying the Snyder geometry and (ii) the definition of a nonambiguous self-interacting scalar field theory on this space-time. The first-order correction terms of the corresponding Lagrangian are explicitly computed. The possibility to derive Noether charges for the Snyder space-time is also discussed.
Emergence of Lorentzian signature and scalar gravity
Girelli, F.; Liberati, S.; Sindoni, L.
2009-02-15
In recent years, a growing momentum has been gained by the emergent gravity framework. Within the latter, the very concepts of geometry and gravitational interaction are not seen as elementary aspects of nature but rather as collective phenomena associated to the dynamics of more fundamental objects. In this paper we want to further explore this possibility by proposing a model of emergent Lorentzian signature and scalar gravity. Assuming that the dynamics of the fundamental objects can give rise in first place to a Riemannian manifold and a set of scalar fields we show how time (in the sense of hyperbolic equations) can emerge as a property of perturbations dynamics around some specific class of solutions of the field equations. Moreover, we show that these perturbations can give rise to a spin-0 gravity via a suitable redefinition of the fields that identifies the relevant degrees of freedom. In particular, we find that our model gives rise to Nordstroem gravity. Since this theory is invariant under general coordinate transformations, this also shows how diffeomorphism invariance (albeit of a weaker form than the one of general relativity) can emerge from much simpler systems.
General Relativity, Scalar Fields and Cosmic Strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burd, Adrian Benedict
1987-09-01
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis is divided into three, essentially self-contained, parts. In the first part we examine the structure of classical three-dimensional space-times. Here, we review and extend what is known about the gravitational theories in these models. We investigate the non-existence of a Newtonian limit to the relativistic theories showing that in the presence of certain matter terms, Newtonian gravity can be obtained as a suitable weak-field limit. We present a number of new, exact static and non-static solutions to the equations of three-dimensional general relativity with scalar field and perfect fluid sources. We comment on the relationship between the stiff perfect fluid and the scalar field. Motivated by the Kaluza-Klein procedure of dimensional reduction we find some exact scalar field solutions which have analogues in four-dimensions. We also present classification schemes based on the group of motions of homogeneous space-times and on the Cotton -York tensor. The description of the general cosmological solution in the vicinity of the singularity is given in terms of the number of arbitrary spatial functions independently specified on a space-like hypersurface. We also study a series approximation to the space-time in the vicinity of the cosmological singularity. Some conjectures are made concerning the space-time singularities. We present two exact cosmological solutions containing self-interacting scalar fields. The models exhibit an inflationary behaviour. We also present an anisotropic cosmological model. The second part of the thesis contains a study of certain cosmological models which have self-interacting scalar fields obeying an exponential potential. We use the techniques of phase portrait analysis to study the N-dimensional cosmological models as well as certain anisotropic models. The latter involves the analysis of a three-dimensional system of equations and we review the relevant theory
Higgs boson self-coupling from two-loop analysis
Alhendi, H. A.; Barakat, T.; Loqman, I. Gh.
2010-09-01
The scale invariant of the effective potential of the standard model at two loop is used as a boundary condition under the assumption that the two-loop effective potential approximates the full effective potential. This condition leads with the help of the renormalization-group functions of the model at two loop to an algebraic equation of the scalar self-coupling with coefficients that depend on the gauge and the top quark couplings. It admits only two real positive solutions. One of them, in the absence of the gauge and top quark couplings, corresponds to the nonperturbative ultraviolet fixed point of the scalar renormalization-group function and the other corresponds to the perturbative infrared fixed point. The dependence of the scalar coupling on the top quark and the strong couplings at two-loop radiative corrections is analyzed.
Spin-independent interferences and spin-dependent interactions with scalar dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, R.; Ochoa, F.
2016-05-01
We explore mechanisms of interferences under which the spin-independent interaction in the scattering of scalar dark matter with nucleus is suppressed in relation to the spin-dependent one. We offer a detailed derivation of the nuclear amplitudes based on the interactions with quarks in the framework of a nonuniversal U(1)' extension of the standard model. By assuming a range of parameters compatible with collider searches, electroweak observables and dark matter abundance, we find scenarios for destructive interferences with and without isospin symmetry. The model reveals solutions with mutually interfering scalar particles, canceling the effective spin-independent coupling with only scalar interactions, which requires an extra Higgs boson with mass M H > 125 GeV. The model also possesses scenarios with only vector interactions through two neutral gauge bosons, Z and Z', which do not exhibit interference effects. Due to the nonuniversality of the U(1)' symmetry, we distinguish two family structures of the quark sector with different numerical predictions. In one case, we obtain cross sections that pass all the Xenon-based detector experiments. In the other case, limits from LUX experiment enclose an exclusion region for dark matter between 9 and 800 GeV. We examine a third scenario with isospin-violating couplings where interferences between scalar and vector boson exchanges cancel the scattering. We provide solutions where interactions with Xenon-based detectors is suppressed for light dark matter, below 6 GeV, while interactions with Germanium- and Silicon-based detectors exhibit solutions up to the regions of interest for positive signals reported by CoGeNT and CDMS-Si experiments, and compatible with the observed DM relic density for DM mass in the range 8 .3-10 GeV. Spin-dependent interactions become the dominant source of scattering around the interference regions, where Maxwellian speed distribution is considered.
Some advance on the comprehension of SR analysis for estimating the flux of a scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellví, Dr
2009-04-01
the scalar time trace to estimate scalar surface fluxes (Paw U et al., 1995). The analysis consists on determination of the mean ramp-pattern dimensions observed in the trace measured at one height. SR analysis is a simple transilient theory that is Lagrangian in nature and based on the scalar conservation equation. Here, it is shown (indirectly) that for a steady, incompressible and horizontally homogeneous flow, the production term in the budget equation of the mean turbulent variance of a scalar can be expressed in terms of the mean ramp dimensions observed in the trace. Therefore, the budget equation provides a link between the contrasting DM and SR analysis methods for estimating scalar surface fluxes. The dissipation method is based on the finest turbulence scales, whereas the SR analysis is based on canopy-scale coherent structures. By normalizing the budget equation, and invoking similarity, it is shown that DM and SR analysis are closely related (details were given in Castellvi and Snyder, 2008). However, SR analysis avoids the disadvantages of DM and it also overcomes potential problems related with the EC method (such as perfect alignment, rotation of the wind field, sensor separation, shadowing, etc.) because the velocity field (i.e., the sonic anemometer) is not required in SR analysis. The relation between SR analysis and DM allows to better interpret a crucial parameter (originally, denoted as α) involved in SR analysis. The parameter α was implemented to account for three assumptions made to solve the scalar flux conservation equation coupled with the Lagrangian scalar mass conservation equation. Considering an air parcel that suddenly moves down to the surface which volume covers all the vertical extend of the surface sources (sinks), the assumptions made are the following; (1) The air parcel remains in contact with the sources (sinks) for a period during which it has been enriched (depleted) of scalar, (2) During the enrichment phase there is not
A line source in Minkowski for the de Sitter spacetime scalar Green’s function: massive case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Yi-Zen
2015-07-01
For certain classes of space(time)s embeddable in a higher dimensional flat space(time), it appears possible to compute the minimally coupled massless scalar Green’s function in the former by convolving its cousin in the latter with an appropriate scalar charge density. The physical interpretation is that beings residing in the higher dimensional flat space(time) may set up sources to fool the observer confined on the lower dimensional curved submanifold that she is detecting the field generated by a space(time) point source in her own world. In this paper we extend the general formula to include a non-zero mass. We then employ it to derive the Green’s function of the massive wave operator in (d≥slant 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime and that of the Helmholtz differential operator—the Laplacian plus a ‘mass term’—on the (d≥slant 2)-sphere. For both cases, the trajectories of the scalar sources are the same as that of the massless case, while the required scalar charge densities are determined by solving an eigenvalue equation. To source these massive Green’s functions, we show that the (d+1)-dimensional Minkowski/Euclidean experimentalists may choose to use either massive or massless scalar line charges. In de Sitter spacetime, the embedding method employed here leads directly to a manifest separation between the null cone versus tail terms of the Green’s functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xue-Mei; Xie, Yi
2016-02-01
In the work of Hohmann et al. [Phys. Rev. D 88, 084054 (2013)], the authors worked out the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters γ and β of a scalar-tensor theory with an arbitrary coupling function and a generic potential, and they found that these two PPN parameters depend on the radial distance r from the Sun, γ (r ) and β (r ). Based on the assumption that measurements on the PPN parameters can be characterized by the shortest distance to the Sun, the authors obtained their best constraints on the model parameters of the scalar-tenor theory by light deflection observation and the Cassini tracking experiment. However, as the authors stated, this approach might not be rigorous. In the present work, we physically model astronomical observations and physical experiments by calculating the null and timelike geodesics in the scalar-tensor theory. We show that, contrary to the results in the previous work, the light deflection and the Cassini tracking cannot distinguish the scalar-tensor theory from general relativity. We also investigate the additional advances in perihelia caused by the largest correction of the scalar field on the Newtonian potential. Since this correction has a Yukawa-like form, we obtain very much improved lower bounds on the model parameters by using current upper limits on the Yukawa parameters.
Static weak dipole moments of the τ lepton via renormalizable scalar leptoquark interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolaños, A.; Moyotl, A.; Tavares-Velasco, G.
2014-03-01
The weak dipole moments of elementary fermions are calculated at the one-loop level in the framework of a renormalizable scalar leptoquark model that forbids baryon number violating processes and so is free from the strong constraints arising from experimental data. In this model there are two scalar leptoquarks accommodated in a SUL(2)×UY(1) doublet: One of these leptoquarks is nonchiral and has electric charge of 5/3e, whereas the other one is chiral and has electric charge 2/3e. In particular, a nonchiral leptoquark contributes to the weak properties of an up fermion via a chirality-flipping term proportional to the mass of the virtual fermion, and can also induce a nonzero weak electric dipole moment provided that the leptoquark couplings are complex. The numerical analysis is focused on the weak properties of the τ lepton since they offer good prospects for experimental study. The constraints on leptoquark couplings are briefly discussed for a nonchiral leptoquark with nondiagonal couplings to the second and third fermion generations, a third-generation nonchiral leptoquark, and a third-generation chiral leptoquark. It is found that although the chirality-flipping term can enhance the weak properties of the τ lepton via the top quark contribution, such an enhancement would be offset by the strong constraints on the leptoquark couplings. So, the contribution of scalar leptoquarks to the weak magnetic dipole moment of the τ lepton are smaller than the standard model (SM) contributions but can be of similar size to those arising in some SM extensions. A nonchiral leptoquark can also give contributions to the weak electric dipole moment larger than the SM one but well below the experimental limit. We also discuss the case of the off-shell weak dipole moments and, for completeness, analyze the behavior of the τ electromagnetic properties.
Implications of a new light scalar near the bottomonium regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgart, Matthew; Katz, Andrey
2012-08-01
We study the decay modes of a new, light spin-0 particle, arguing that if the mass of the (pseudo)scalar is ~ 11-15 GeV, it can have an appreciable branching ratio into bottomonium, in particular the rare η b s. Using non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD), we calculate its decay rate to bottomonia for mass splittings greater than the typical momentum transfer within the bound state. It can exceed that of decays to other Standard Model fermions under the assumption of couplings proportional to those of the Standard Model. At smaller splittings, where our computational methods break down, we estimate the rate into bottomonia using data-driven methods. When the spin-0 state decays to bottomonia whose mass is too light to produce B-meson pairs, we get a qualitatively new experimental signature, decays to b-quarks invisible to b-tagging. Such a light, spinless particle can arise in extended Higgs sectors, making this channel potentially observable in decay chains initiated by the subdominant decay of a Standard Model-like Higgs to a pair of them.
Singlet scalar resonances and the diphoton excess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDermott, Samuel D.; Meade, Patrick; Ramani, Harikrishnan
2016-04-01
ATLAS and CMS recently released the first results of searches for diphoton resonances in 13 TeV data, revealing a modest excess at an invariant mass of approximately 750 GeV. We find that it is generically possible that a singlet scalar resonance is the origin of the excess while avoiding all other constraints. We highlight some of the implications of this model and how compatible it is with certain features of the experimental results. In particular, we find that the very large total width of the excess is difficult to explain with loop-level decays alone, pointing to other interesting bounds and signals if this feature of the data persists. Finally we comment on the robust Zγ signature that will always accompany the model we investigate.
Gastric cryptosporidiosis in freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).
Murphy, Brian G; Bradway, Daniel; Walsh, Timothy; Sanders, George E; Snekvik, Kevin
2009-09-01
A freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) hatchery experienced variable levels of emaciation, poor growth rates, swollen coelomic cavities, anorexia, listlessness, and increased mortality within their fish. Multiple chemotherapeutic trials had been attempted without success. In affected fish, large numbers of protozoa were identified both histologically and ultrastructurally associated with the gastric mucosa. The youngest cohort of parasitized fish was the most severely affected and demonstrated the greatest morbidity and mortality. The protozoa were morphologically most consistent with Cryptosporidium. All of the protozoan life stages were identified ultrastructurally and protozoal genomic DNA was isolated from parasitized tissue viscera and sequenced. Histological, ultrastructural, genetic, and phylogenetic analyses confirmed this protozoal organism to be a novel species of Cryptosporidium. PMID:19737774
The bifurcation of tracked scalar waves
Glimm, J.; Grove, J.; Lindquist, B.; McBryan, O.A.; Tryggvason, G.
1988-01-01
The dynamic evolution of tracked waves by a front-tracking algorithm may lead on either numerical or physical grounds to intersections. The correct resolution of these intersections is described locally by the solution of Riemann problems and requires a bifurcation of the topology defined by the tracked waves. Here the authors describe an algorithm that is appropriate for the resolution of scalar tracked waves, such as material discontinuities, contact discontinuities in gas dynamics, or constituent concentration waves including oil-water banks in oil reservoirs. Although the algorithm is not fully general, it seems to be adequate provided the front to be untangled is a small perturbation (resulting for example from a single time step in an evolution) of a valid, nonintersecting front. Examples are presented that show that complicated interfaces can be generated automatically from simple ones through successive bifurcations.
Gastric cryptosporidiosis in freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)
Murphy, B.G.; Bradway, D.; Walsh, T.; Sanders, G.E.; Snekvik, K.
2009-01-01
A freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) hatchery experienced variable levels of emaciation, poor growth rates, swollen coelomic cavities, anorexia, listlessness, and increased mortality within their fish. Multiple chemotherapeutic trials had been attempted without success. In affected fish, large numbers of protozoa were identified both histologically and ultrastructurally associated with the gastric mucosa. The youngest cohort of parasitized fish was the most severely affected and demonstrated the greatest morbidity and mortality. The protozoa were morphologically most consistent with Cryptosporidium. All of the protozoan life stages were identified ultrastructurally and protozoal genomic DNA was isolated from parasitized tissue viscera and sequenced. Histological, ultrastructural, genetic, and phylogenetic analyses confirmed this protozoal organism to be a novel species of Cryptosporidium.
Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemens, N. T.; Mungal, M. G.; Hanson, R. K.; Paul, P. H.
1991-01-01
Experiments were conducted in a two-stream planar mixing layer facility at convective Mach numbers of 0.28 and 0.62. Mie scattering from condensed alcohol droplets and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide were used for flow visualization in both the side and plan views. The PLIF signals were approximately proportional to mixture fraction and were used to generate statistical quantities. Visualizations using both the Mie scattering and PLIF indicate the structure is essentially two-dimensional at Mc = 0.28 and three-dimensional at Mc = 0.62. Perspective renderings of side view images show the structures are streamwise ramped at Mc = 0.28 and cross-stream ramped at Mc = 0.62. This difference appears to be associated with decreasing streamwise structure spacings at the higher Mc condition. The statistical analysis suggests that with increasing compressibility, the scalar fluctuations are smaller, and the fraction of mixed fluid is higher.
Scalar modes of the relic gravitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
In conformally flat background geometries the long-wavelength gravitons can be described in the fluid approximation and they induce scalar fluctuations both during inflation and in the subsequent radiation-dominated epoch. While this effect is minute and suppressed for a de Sitter stage of expansion, the fluctuations of the energy-momentum pseudotensor of the graviton fluid lead to curvature perturbations that increase with time all along the post-inflationary evolution. An explicit calculation of these effects is presented for a standard thermal history and it is shown that the growth of the curvature perturbations caused by the long-wavelength modes is approximately compensated by the slope of the power spectra of the energy density, pressure and anisotropic stress of the relic gravitons.
Scalar dark matter: direct vs. indirect detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duerr, Michael; Pérez, Pavel Fileviez; Smirnov, Juri
2016-06-01
We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 92 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.
Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data
VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes
2007-12-06
Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.
A broad-band scalar vortex coronagraph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Errmann, R.; Minardi, S.; Pertsch, T.
2013-10-01
Broad-band coronagraphy with deep nulling and small inner working angle has the potential of delivering images and spectra of exoplanets and other faint objects. In recent years, many coronagraphic schemes have been proposed, the most promising being the optical vortex phase mask coronagraphs. In this paper, a new scheme of broad-band optical scalar vortex coronagraph is proposed and characterized experimentally in the laboratory. Our setup employs a pair of computer-generated phase gratings (one of them containing a singularity) to control the chromatic dispersion of phase plates and achieves a constant peak-to-peak attenuation below 1 × 10-3 over a bandwidth of 120 nm centred at 700 nm. An inner working angle of ˜λ/D is demonstrated along with a raw contrast of 11.5 mag at 2λ/D.
A broadband scalar optical vortex coronagraph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Errmann, Ronnie; Minardi, Stefano; Pertsch, Thomas
2014-07-01
In recent years, new coronagraphic schemes have been proposed, the most promising being the optical vortex phase mask coronagraphs. In our work, a new scheme of broadband optical scalar vortex coronagraph is proposed and characterized experimentally in the laboratory. Our setup employs a pair of computer generated phase gratings (one of them containing a singularity) to control the chromatic dispersion of phase plates and achieves a constant peak-to-peak attenuation below 1:1000 over a bandwidth of 120 nm centered at 700 nm. An inner working angle of λ/D is demonstrated along with a raw contrast of 11.5magnitudes at 2λ/D. A more compact setup achieves a peak-to-peak attenuation below 1:1000 over a bandwidth of 60 nm with the other results remaining the same.
Search for scalar top and bottom quarks at the Tevatron
Calfayan, Philippe
2008-11-23
This document reviews recent results on the search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks in pp-bar collisions at {radical}(s) = 1.96 TeV. The analyses presented are based on data samples with integrated luminosities from 1.0 to 1.9 fb{sup -1} recorded at the Tevatron with the D0 and CDF detectors.
Renormalization group analysis in nonrelativistic QCD for colored scalars
Hoang, Andre H.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro
2006-01-01
The velocity nonrelativistic QCD Lagrangian for colored heavy scalar fields in the fundamental representation of QCD and the renormalization group analysis of the corresponding operators are presented. The results are an important ingredient for renormalization group improved computations of scalar-antiscalar bound state energies and production rates at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic (NNLL) order.
Emission of scalar particles from cylindrical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2013-01-01
We study quantum tunneling of scalar particles from black strings. For this purpose we apply WKB approximation and Hamilton-Jacobi method to solve the Klein-Gordon equation for outgoing trajectories. We find the tunneling probability of outgoing charged and uncharged scalars from the event horizon of black strings, and hence the Hawking temperature for these black configurations.
Bose-Einstein condensates from scalar field dark matter
Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo
2010-12-07
We review the properties of astrophysical and cosmological relevance that may arise from the bosonic nature of scalar field dark matter models. The key property is the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates, but we also consider the presence of non-empty excited states that may be relevant for the description of scalar field galaxy halos and the properties of rotation curves.
On relation between scalar interfaces and vorticity in inviscid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, O. N.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2013-11-01
A great variety of applications like pollutant mixing in the atmosphere, mixing of reactants in combustion highlight the importance of passive scalar dynamics in fluid flows. The other dynamically important variable in the study of fluid flow is the vorticity. Vorticity though, unlike a passive scalar, does affect the fluid motion. The dynamics of scalar (linear) and vorticity (non-linear) are governed by the equations which inherently have different characteristics. This paper addresses the question of the faithfulness of representation of vorticity by scalar marker and the motivation for this comes from the experiment of Head and Bandyopadhyay (1981) which showed the existence of coherent vortices by using smoke flow visualization in a turbulent boundary layer. We will show analytically in regions where the molecular diffusion effects are negligible, the vorticity and scalar gradients are orthogonal to each other. The iso- surface of scalar follows the vorticity in an inviscid situation. Also, we will demonstrate that in the case of unsteady burgers vortex and vortex shedding behind a finite circular cylinder, the scalar gradient is orthogonal to vorticity and inner product of vorticity and scalar gradients is zero in regions away from the wall.
Scalar field dark matter: behavior around black holes
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Guzmán, F. Siddhartha; Lora-Clavijo, Fabio D. E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx
2011-06-01
We present the numerical evolution of a massive test scalar fields around a Schwarzschild space-time. We proceed by using hyperboloidal slices that approach future null infinity, which is the boundary of scalar fields, and also demand the slices to penetrate the event horizon of the black hole. This approach allows the scalar field to be accreted by the black hole and to escape toward future null infinity. We track the evolution of the energy density of the scalar field, which determines the rate at which the scalar field is being diluted. We find polynomial decay of the energy density of the scalar field, and use it to estimate the rate of dilution of the field in time. Our findings imply that the energy density of the scalar field decreases even five orders of magnitude in time scales smaller than a year. This implies that if a supermassive black hole is the Schwarzschild solution, then scalar field dark matter would be diluted extremely fast.
Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Tom; Grosvenor, Kevin T.; Hořava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi
2015-12-01
We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree P in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree P, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree P? To answer this (essentially cohomological) question, we develop a new graph-theoretical technique, and use it to prove several classification theorems. First, in the special case of P = 1 (essentially equivalent to Galileons), we reproduce the known Galileon N-point invariants, and find their novel interpretation in terms of graph theory, as an equal-weight sum over all labeled trees with N vertices. Then we extend the classification to P > 1 and find a whole host of new invariants, including those that represent the most relevant (or least irrelevant) deformations of the corresponding Gaussian fixed points, and we study their uniqueness.
Inflation with non-minimally derivative coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Nan; Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui
2015-10-01
We derive the second order correction to the scalar and tensor spectral tilts for the inflationary models with non-minimally derivative coupling. In the high friction limit, the quartic power law potential is consistent with the observational constraint at 95% CL because the amplitude of the primordial gravitational waves is smaller, and the inflaton excursion is sub-Planckian.
Involvement of prefrontal cortex in scalar implicatures: evidence from magnetoencephalography
Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Gwilliams, Laura
2015-01-01
The present study investigated the neural correlates of the realisation of scalar inferences, i.e., the interpretation of some as meaning some but not all. We used magnetoencephalography, which has high temporal resolution, to measure neural activity while participants heard stories that included the scalar inference trigger some in contexts that either provide strong cues for a scalar inference or provide weaker cues. The middle portion of the lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46) showed an increased response to some in contexts with fewer cues to the inference, suggesting that this condition elicited greater effort. While the results are not predicted by traditional all-or-nothing accounts of scalar inferencing that assume the process is always automatic or always effortful, they are consistent with more recent gradient accounts which predict that the speed and effort of scalar inferences is strongly modulated by numerous contextual factors. PMID:26247054
Interactive Reference Point Procedure Based on the Conic Scalarizing Function
2014-01-01
In multiobjective optimization methods, multiple conflicting objectives are typically converted into a single objective optimization problem with the help of scalarizing functions. The conic scalarizing function is a general characterization of Benson proper efficient solutions of non-convex multiobjective problems in terms of saddle points of scalar Lagrangian functions. This approach preserves convexity. The conic scalarizing function, as a part of a posteriori or a priori methods, has successfully been applied to several real-life problems. In this paper, we propose a conic scalarizing function based interactive reference point procedure where the decision maker actively takes part in the solution process and directs the search according to her or his preferences. An algorithmic framework for the interactive solution of multiple objective optimization problems is presented and is utilized for solving some illustrative examples. PMID:24723795
Physical conditions in the NGC 6334 molecular cloud derived from non-LTE NH3(J,K)=(1,1) transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Vilas-Boas, Jose W. S.
The high signal-to-noise ratio of the NH3(J,K) = (1,1) spectra from NGC 6334 have allowed at a first time a detailed study of departures from LTE conditions in this molecular cloud. Differences in the line shapes have shown that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources in different stages of star formation. Comparison between physical parameters of NGC6334 derived from LTE and non-LTE conditions are presented and discussed here.
The Mysterious Transient ROTSE3 J115649.1+542726 is an Extremely Luminous Type II SN at z = 0.21
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chornock, R.; Miller, A. A.; Perley, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.
2008-08-01
We report on further spectroscopic observations of the transient ROTSE3 J115649.1+542726 discovered by Yuan et al. (ATEL #1515) and followed up by several groups (ATEL #1524, ATEL #1576, ATEL #1578, and ATEL #1593). We observed the object for 840 s using the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS; Oke et al. 1995) on the Keck I 10-m telescope on 2008 Aug 3.25 UT. Our initial observations of this object (ATEL #1576) showed a blue and largely featureless spectrum, but at later epochs several unidentified weak spectral features appeared (ATEL #1576 and ATEL #1593).
Light colored scalar as messenger of up-quark flavor dynamics in grand unified theories
Dorsner, Ilja; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Kosnik, Nejc
2010-11-01
The measured forward-backward asymmetry in the tt production at the Tevatron might be explained by the additional exchange of a colored weak singlet scalar. Such state appears in some of the grand unified theories, and its interactions with the up-quarks are purely antisymmetric in flavor space. We systematically investigate the resulting impact on charm and top quark physics. The constraints on the relevant Yukawa couplings come from the experimentally measured observables related to D{sup 0}-D{sup 0} oscillations, as well as dijet and single-top production measurements at the Tevatron. After fully constraining the relevant Yukawa couplings, we predict possible signatures of this model in rare top quark decays. In a class of grand unified models we demonstrate how the obtained information enables to constrain the Yukawa couplings of the up-quarks at very high energy scale.
Scalar-fluid theories: cosmological perturbations and large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koivisto, Tomi S.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tamanini, Nicola
2015-09-01
Recently a new Lagrangian framework was introduced to describe interactions between scalar fields and relativistic perfect fluids. This allows two consistent generalizations of coupled quintessence models: non-vanishing pressures and a new type of derivative interaction. The implications of these to the formation of cosmological large-scale structure are uncovered here at the linear order. The full perturbation equations in the two cases are derived in a unified formalism and their Newtonian, quasi-static limit is studied analytically. Requiring the absence of an effective sound speed term in the coupled dark matter fluid restricts the Lagrangian to be a linear function of the matter number density. This leaves new potentially viable classes of both algebraically and derivatively interacting models wherein the coupling may impact the background expansion dynamics and imprint new signatures into the large-scale structure.
Frame-covariant formulation of inflation in scalar-curvature theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, Daniel; Karamitsos, Sotirios; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2016-06-01
We develop a frame-covariant formulation of inflation in the slow-roll approximation by generalizing the inflationary attractor solution for scalar-curvature theories. Our formulation gives rise to new generalized forms for the potential slow-roll parameters, which enable us to examine the effect of conformal transformations and inflaton reparameterizations in scalar-curvature theories. We find that cosmological observables, such as the power spectrum, the spectral indices and their runnings, can be expressed in a concise manner in terms of the generalized potential slow-roll parameters which depend on the scalar-curvature coupling function, the inflaton wavefunction, and the inflaton potential. We show how the cosmological observables of inflation are frame-invariant in this generalized potential slow-roll formalism, as long as the end-of-inflation condition is appropriately extended to become frame-invariant as well. We then apply our formalism to specific scenarios, such as the induced gravity inflation, Higgs inflation and F (R) models of inflation, and obtain more accurate results, without making additional approximations to the potential. Our results are shown to be consistent to lowest order with those presented in the literature. Finally, we outline how our frame-covariant formalism can be naturally extended beyond the tree-level approximation, within the framework of the Vilkovisky-DeWitt effective action.
Electromagnetic outflows in a class of scalar-tensor theories: Binary neutron star coalescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponce, Marcelo; Palenzuela, Carlos; Barausse, Enrico; Lehner, Luis
2015-04-01
As we showed in previous work, the dynamics and gravitational emission of binary neutron-star systems in certain scalar-tensor theories can differ significantly from that expected from general relativity (GR) in the coalescing stage. In this work we examine whether the characteristics of the electromagnetic counterparts to these binaries—driven by magnetosphere interactions prior to the merger event—can provide an independent way to test gravity in the most strongly dynamical stages of binary mergers. We find that the electromagnetic flux emitted by binaries in these scalar-tensor theories can show deviations from the GR prediction in particular cases. These differences are quite subtle, thus requiring delicate measurements to differentiate between GR and the type of scalar-tensor theories considered in this work using electromagnetic observations alone. However, if coupled with a gravitational-wave detection, electromagnetic measurements might provide a way to increase the confidence with which GR will be confirmed (or ruled out) by gravitational observations.
Experimental Investigation of Spatially-Periodic Scalar Patterns in an Inline Mixer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baskan, Ozge; Speetjens, Michel F. M.; Clercx, Herman J. H.
2015-11-01
Spatially persisting patterns with exponentially decaying intensities form during the downstream evolution of passive scalars in three-dimensional (3D) spatially periodic flows due to the coupled effect of the chaotic nature of the flow and the diffusivity of the material. This has been investigated in many computational and theoretical studies on 3D spatially-periodic flow fields. However, in the limit of zero-diffusivity, the evolution of the scalar fields results in more detailed structures that can only be captured by experiments due to limitations in the computational tools. Our study employs the-state-of-the-art experimental methods to analyze the evolution of 3D advective scalar field in a representative inline mixer, called Quatro static mixer. The experimental setup consists of an optically accessible test section with transparent internal elements, accommodating a pressure-driven pipe flow and equipped with 3D Laser-Induced Fluorescence. The results reveal that the continuous process of stretching and folding of material creates finer structures as the flow progresses, which is an indicator of chaotic advection and the experiments outperform the simulations by revealing far greater level of detail.
Viscous shock anomaly in a variable-viscosity Burgers flow with an active scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talbot, B.; Mammeri, Y.; Bedjaoui, N.
2015-12-01
This paper examines the effect of viscosity variability on the formation of shocklets (small transient shocks) through the inhomogeneity in composition of the propagating medium. For this purpose, both analytical estimates and numerical spectral method are applied to a Burgers’ equation—where viscosity is a space-time function depending on a coupled advection-diffusion equation for the local mass fraction. The coefficient of viscosity thus behaves as an active scalar. The inhomogeneous shocklet is modeled by a fixed sine wave for the initial velocity profile while different sine waves of higher frequency are used for the initial embedded distribution of scalar. The initial kinematic viscosity ratio {R}ν ={ν }{max}/{ν }{min} ranges from 1 to 4. It is found that, surprisingly, for all conditions at Rν > 1, i.e., for waves becoming more and more viscous on average, there was (1) a steeper maximum gradient in the shock transition zone, and consequently (2) velocity spectra extended toward the finest small scales, and (3) an enhanced energy dissipation rate is observed at the time of peak energy dissipation. These results will be useful to the understanding of small-scale dynamics for one-dimensional shocklets propagating in multi-component gas mixtures where noticeable active scalar effects are present.
Self-interacting dark matter and cosmology of a light scalar mediator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville
2016-01-01
We consider a fermionic dark matter candidate interacting via a scalar mediator coupled with the Standard Model through a Higgs portal. We consider a general setting including both scalar and pseudoscalar interactions between the scalar and fermion, and illustrate the relevant features for dark matter abundance, direct search limits and collider constraints. The case where dark matter has a self-interaction strength ⟨σV⟩ /mψ˜0.1 - 1 cm2/g is strongly constrained, in particular by the big bang nucleosynthesis. We show that these constraints can be alleviated by introducing a new light sterile neutrino N . The allowed region for the extended model consists of two triangles as a function of the mass mN and a sufficiently small sterile-active neutrino mixing angle sin θ <0.007 : first 10 (sin θ )-2 /5 MeV ≲mN≲1 GeV and second 15 (sin θ )-2 /5 keV ≲mN≲1 MeV .
Localization and mass spectra of various matter fields on scalar-tensor brane
Xie, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Zhong, Yi; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Nan
2015-03-10
Recently, a new scalar-tensor braneworld model was presented in [http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.127502]. It not only solves the gauge hierarchy problem but also reproduces a correct Friedmann-like equation on the brane. In this new model, there are two different brane solutions, for which the mass spectra of gravity on the brane are the same. In this paper, we investigate localization and mass spectra of various bulk matter fields (i.e., scalar, vector, Kalb-Ramond, and fermion fields) on the brane. It is shown that the zero modes of all the matter fields can be localized on the positive tension brane under some conditions, and the mass spectra of each kind of bulk matter field for the two brane solutions are different except for some special cases, which implies that the two brane solutions are not physically equivalent. When the coupling constants between the dilaton and bulk matter fields take special values, the mass spectra for both solutions are the same, and the scalar and vector zero modes are localized on the negative tension brane, while the KR zero mode is still localized on the positive tension brane.
New insights into the Ds0 *(2317 ) and other charm scalar mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhi-Hui; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Yao, De-Liang
2015-11-01
Through the scattering of light-pseudoscalar mesons (π ,K ,η ,η' ) off charmed mesons (D ,Ds) , we study the Ds0 *(2317 ) state and other relevant charm scalar mesons in a unitarized chiral effective field theory approach. We investigate the charm scalar meson poles with different strangeness (S ) and isospin (I ) quantum numbers as well as their corresponding residues, which provide the coupling strengths of the charm scalar mesons. Both the light-quark mass and NC dependences of the pole positions of the Ds0 *(2317 ) and the poles with (S ,I )=(0 ,1 /2 ) are analyzed in detail in this work. Interestingly we observe quite similar pion mass trajectories for the resonance pole at around 2.1 GeV with (S ,I )=(0 ,1 /2 ) to those of the f0(500 ) given in the literature. When increasing the values of NC we find that a bound state and a virtual state in the (S ,I )=(1 ,0 ) channel asymmetrically approach the D K threshold for NC<6 , and they meet at this threshold at NC=6 . When NC>6 , the bound and virtual states move into the complex plane on the second Riemann sheet and become a symmetric pair of resonance poles. For large enough values of NC, neither the Ds0 *(2317 ) pole nor the poles with (S ,I )=(0 ,1 /2 ) tend to fall down to the real axis, indicating that they do not behave like a standard quark-antiquark meson at large NC.
Resonant signatures of heavy scalar fields in the cosmic microwave background
Saito, Ryo; Takamizu, Yu-ichi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: nakashima@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2012-11-01
We investigate the possibility that a heavy scalar field, whose mass exceeds the Hubble scale during inflation, could leave non-negligible signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy power spectrum through the parametric resonance between its background oscillations and the inflaton fluctuations. By assuming the heavy scalar field couples with the inflaton derivatively, we show that the resonance can be efficient without spoiling the slow-roll inflation. The primordial power spectrum modulated by the resonance has a sharp peak at a specific scale and could be an origin of the anomalies observed in the angular power spectrum of the CMB. In some values of parameters, the modulated spectrum can fit the observed data better than the simple power-law power spectrum, though the resultant improvement of the fit is not large enough and hence other observations such as non-Gaussianity are necessary to confirm that the CMB anomalies are originated from the resonant effect of the heavy scalar field. The resonant signatures can provide an opportunity to observe heavy degrees of freedom during inflation and improve our understanding of physics behind inflation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Z.; Zhang, Y.
2012-05-01
The temperature anisotropies and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation not only serve as indispensable cosmological probes, but also provide a unique channel to detect relic gravitational waves (RGW) at very long wavelengths. Analytical studies of the anisotropies and polarization improve our understanding of various cosmic processes and help to separate the contribution of RGW from that of density perturbations. We present a detailed analytical calculation of CMB temperature anisotropies αk and polarization βk generated by scalar metric perturbations in synchronous gauge, parallel to our previous work with RGW as a generating source. This is realized primarily by an analytic time integration of Boltzmann’s equation, yielding the closed forms of αk and βk. Approximations, such as the tight-coupling approximation for photons a priori to the recombination and the long-wavelength limit for scalar perturbations, are used. The residual gauge modes in scalar perturbations are analyzed and a proper joining condition of scalar perturbations at the radiation-matter equality is chosen, ensuring the continuity of energy perturbation. The resulting analytic expressions of the multipole moments of polarization aEl and of temperature anisotropies aTl are explicit functions of the scalar perturbations, recombination time, recombination width, photon-free streaming damping factor, baryon fraction, initial amplitude, primordial scalar spectral index and the running index. These results show that a longer recombination width yields higher amplitudes of polarization on large scales and more damping on small scales, and that a late recombination time shifts the peaks of C^{XX^{\\prime }}_l to larger angular scales. Calculations show that aEl is generated in the presence of the quadrupole α2 of temperature anisotropies via scattering, both having similar structures and being smaller than the total aTl, which consists of the contributions from the
The scalar bi-spectrum in the Starobinsky model: the equilateral case
Martin, Jérôme; Sriramkumar, L. E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in
2012-01-01
While a featureless, nearly scale invariant, primordial scalar power spectrum fits the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data rather well, certain features in the spectrum are known to lead to a better fit to the data (although, the statistical significance of such results remains an open issue). In the inflationary scenario, one or more periods of deviations from slow roll are necessary in order to generate features in the scalar perturbation spectrum. Over the last couple of years, it has been recognized that such deviations from slow roll inflation can also result in reasonably large non-Gaussianities. The Starobinsky model involves the canonical scalar field and consists of a linear inflaton potential with a sudden change in the slope. The change in the slope causes a brief period of departure from slow roll which, in turn, results in a sharp rise in power, along with a burst of oscillations in the scalar spectrum for modes that leave the Hubble radius just before and during the period of fast roll. The hallmark of the Starobinsky model is that it allows the scalar power spectrum to be evaluated analytically in terms of the three parameters that describe the model, viz. the two slopes that describe the potential on either side of the discontinuity and the Hubble scale at the time when the field crosses the discontinuity. In this work, we evaluate the bi-spectrum of the scalar perturbations in the Starobinsky model in the equilateral limit. Remarkably, we find that, just as the power spectrum, all the different contributions to the the bi-spectrum too can be evaluated completely analytically and expressed in terms of the three paramaters that describe the model. We show that the quantity f{sub NL}, which characterizes the extent of non-Gaussianity, can be expressed purely in terms of the ratio of the two slopes on either side of the discontinuity in the potential. Further, we find that, for certain values of the parameters, f{sub NL} in the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selle, L. C.; Bellan, Josette
2006-01-01
Transitional databases from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of three-dimensional mixing layers for single-phase flows and two-phase flows with evaporation are analyzed and used to examine the typical hypothesis that the scalar dissipation Probability Distribution Function (PDF) may be modeled as a Gaussian. The databases encompass a single-component fuel and four multicomponent fuels, two initial Reynolds numbers (Re), two mass loadings for two-phase flows and two free-stream gas temperatures. Using the DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF, it is shown, consistent with existing experimental information on single-phase flows, that the Gaussian is a modest approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly poor in the range of the high scalar-dissipation values, which are significant for turbulent reaction rate modeling in non-premixed flows using flamelet models. With the same DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF and making a change of variables, a model of this PDF is proposed in the form of the (beta)-PDF which is shown to approximate much better the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly in the regime of the high scalar-dissipation values. Several types of statistical measures are calculated over the ensemble of the fourteen databases. For each statistical measure, the proposed (beta)-PDF model is shown to be much superior to the Gaussian in approximating the DNS-extracted PDF. Additionally, the agreement between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF even improves when the comparison is performed for higher initial Re layers, whereas the comparison with the Gaussian is independent of the initial Re values. For two-phase flows, the comparison between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF also improves with increasing free-stream gas temperature and mass loading. The higher fidelity approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF by the (beta)-PDF with increasing Re, gas temperature and mass loading bodes well for turbulent reaction rate
Reheating via a generalized nonminimal coupling of curvature to matter
Bertolami, Orfeu; Frazao, Pedro; Paramos, Jorge
2011-02-15
In this work, one shows that a generalized nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an ad hoc scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field {chi}, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a nonstandard kinetic term.
Confinement Driven by Scalar Field in 4d Non Abelian Gauge Theories
Chabab, Mohamed
2007-01-12
We review some of the most recent work on confinement in 4d gauge theories with a massive scalar field (dilaton). Emphasis is put on the derivation of confining analytical solutions to the Coulomb problem versus dilaton effective couplings to gauge terms. It is shown that these effective theories can be relevant to model quark confinement and may shed some light on confinement mechanism. Moreover, the study of interquark potential, derived from Dick Model, in the heavy meson sector proves that phenomenological investigation of tmechanism is more than justified and deserves more efforts.
Creation of quantized particles, gravitons, and scalar perturbations by the expanding universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Leonard
2015-04-01
Quantum creation processes during the very rapid early expansion of the universe are believed to give rise to temperature anisotropies and polarization patterns in the CMB radiation. These have been observed by satellites such as COBE, WMAP, and PLANCK, and by bolometric instruments placed near the South Pole by the BICEP collaborations. The expected temperature anisotropies are well-confirmed. The B-mode polarization patterns in the CMB are currently under measurement jointly by the PLANCK and BICEP groups to determine the extent to which the B-modes can be attributed to gravitational waves from the creation of gravitons in the earliest universe. As the original discoverer of the quantum phenomenon of particle creation from vacuum by the expansion of the universe, I will explain how the discovery came about and how it relates to the current observations. The first system that I considered when I started my Ph.D. thesis in 1962 was the quantized minimally-coupled scalar field in an expanding FLRW (Friedmann, Lemaitré, Robertson, Walker) universe having a general continuous scale factor a(t) with continuous time derivatives. I also considered quantized fermion fields of spin-1/2 and the spin-1 massless photon field, as well as the quantized conformally-invariant field equations of arbitrary integer and half-integer spins that had been written down in the classical context for general gravitational metrics by Penrose. It was during 1962 that I proved that quanta of the minimally-coupled scalar field were created by the general expanding FLRW universe. This was relevant also to the creation of quantized perturbations of the gravitational field, since these perturbations satisfied linear field equations that could be quantized in the same way as the minimally-coupled scalar field equation. In fact, in 1946, E.M. Lifshitz had considered the classical Einstein gravitational field in FLRW expanding universes and had shown that the classical linearized Einstein field
The Non-Perturbative Scalar Yukawa Theory on the Light Front
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Karmanov, Vladimir; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James
2015-04-01
We present a non-perturbative calculation of the scalar Yukawa model in light-front dynamics with a Fock sector dependent renormalization. The Fock space is truncated to four particles and then the ab initio Hamiltonian approach is applied. We compute the electromagnetic form factor and compare it with the results obtained from the lower Fock sector truncations. We find that the one- and two-body contributions dominate the Fock space even in the non-perturbative region. However, the four-body contribution exceeds the three-body one as the coupling constant increases. Nevertheless, the form factor shows a good converge as the number of constituent bosons increases.
Matrix elements of scalar three-electron operators for the atomic f shell
Hansen, J.E.; Judd, B.R.; Crosswhite H.
1996-01-01
Tables are provided for the matrix elements of an orthogonal set of Hermitian three-electron operators t{sub i} for the states of the f shell. The t{sub i} are scalar with respect to the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L, and they are among the effective operators needed to be included in an f-electron Hamiltonian in order to represent the coupling of the ground configuration f{sup N} to excited configurations via the interelectronic Coulomb interaction. 15 refs., 2 tabs.
The anatomy of neutral scalars with FCNCs in the flavour precision era
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buras, Andrzej J.; De Fazio, Fulvia; Girrbach, Jennifer; Knegjens, Robert; Nagai, Minoru
2013-06-01
In many extensions of the Standard Model (SM) flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes can be mediated by tree-level heavy neutral scalars and/or pseudo-scalars H 0( A 0). This generally introduces new sources of flavour violation and CP violation as well as left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) scalar (1 ∓ γ 5) currents. These new physics (NP) contributions imply a pattern of deviations from SM expectations for FCNC processes that depends only on the couplings of H 0( A 0) to fermions and on their masses. In situations in which a single H 0 or A 0 dominates NP contributions stringent correlations between Δ F = 2 and Δ F = 1 observables exist. Anticipating the Flavour Precision Era (FPE) ahead of us we illustrate this by searching for allowed oases in the landscape of a given model assuming significantly smaller uncertainties in CKM and hadronic parameters than presently available. To this end we analyze Δ F = 2 observables in B_{s,d}^0-overline{B}_{s,d}^0 and {K^0}-{{overline{K}}^0} systems and rare B and K decays with charged leptons in the final state including both left-handed and right-handed scalar couplings of H 0 and A 0 to quarks in various combinations. We identify a number of correlations between various flavour observables that could test and distinguish these different scenarios. The prominent role of the decays B s,d → μ + μ - in these studies is emphasized. Imposing the existing flavour constraints, a rich pattern of deviations from the SM expectations in rare B s,d decays emerges provided M H ≤ 1 TeV. NP effects in rare K decays, except for K L → μ + μ -, turn out to be very small. In K L → μ + μ - they can be as large as the SM contributions but due to hadronic uncertainties this is still insufficient to learn much about new scalars from this decay in the context of models considered here. Flavour violating SM Higgs contributions to rare B d and K decays turn out to be negligible once the constraints from Δ F = 2
Self-force on a scalar charge in Kerr spacetime: Circular equatorial orbits
Warburton, Niels; Barack, Leor
2010-04-15
We present a calculation of the scalar-field self-force (SSF) acting on a scalar-charge particle in a strong-field orbit around a Kerr black hole. Our calculation specializes to circular and equatorial geodesic orbits. The analysis is an implementation of the standard mode-sum regularization scheme: We first calculate the multipole modes of the scalar-field perturbation using numerical integration in the frequency domain, and then apply a certain regularization procedure to each of the modes. The dissipative piece of the SSF is found to be consistent with the flux of energy and angular-momentum carried by the scalar waves through the event horizon and out to infinity. The conservative (radial) component of the SSF is calculated here for the first time. When the motion is retrograde this component is found to be repulsive (outward pointing, as in the Schwarzschild case) for any spin parameter a and (Boyer-Lindquist) orbital radius r{sub 0}. However, for prograde orbits we find that the radial SSF becomes attractive (inward pointing) for r{sub 0}>r{sub c}(a), where r{sub c} is a critical a-dependent radius at which the radial SSF vanishes. The dominant conservative effect of the SSF in Schwarzschild spacetime is known to be of third post-Newtonian (3PN) order (with a logarithmic running). Our numerical results suggest that the leading-order PN correction due to the black hole's spin arises from spin-orbit coupling at 3PN order, which dominates the overall SSF effect at large r{sub 0}. In PN language, the change of sign of the radial SSF is attributed to an interplay between the spin-orbit term ({proportional_to}-ar{sub 0}{sup -4.5}) and the Schwarzschild term ({proportional_to}r{sub 0}{sup -5}logr{sub 0}).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agashe, K.; Graesser, M.
1999-01-01
The supersymmetric contributions to the flavor changing neutral current processes may be suppressed by decoupling the scalars of the first and second generations. It is known, however, that the heavy scalars drive the top squark mass squareds negative through the two-loop renormalization group evolution. This tension is studied in detail. Two new items are included in this analysis: the effect of the top quark Yukawa coupling and the QCD corrections to the supersymmetric contributions to ΔmK. Even with Cabibbo-like degeneracy between the squarks of the first two generations, these squarks must be heavier than ~40 TeV to suppress ΔmK. This implies, in the case of a high scale of supersymmetry breaking, that the boundary value of the top squark mass has to be greater than ~7 TeV to keep the top squark mass squared positive at the weak scale. Low-energy supersymmetry breaking at a scale that is of the same order as the mass of the heavy scalars is also considered. In this case the finite parts of the two-loop diagrams are computed to estimate the contribution of the heavy scalar masses to the top squark mass squared. It is found that for Cabibbo-like mixing between the squarks, the top squark mass at the boundary needs to be larger than ~2 TeV. Thus, for both cases, the large boundary value of the top squark masses leads to an unnatural amount of fine tuning to obtain the correct Z mass.
Environmental dependence of masses and coupling constants
Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim
2008-02-15
We construct a class of scalar field models coupled to matter that lead to the dependence of masses and coupling constants on the ambient matter density. Such models predict a deviation of couplings measured on the Earth from values determined in low-density astrophysical environments, but do not necessarily require the evolution of coupling constants with the redshift in the recent cosmological past. Additional laboratory and astrophysical tests of {delta}{alpha} and {delta}(m{sub p}/m{sub e}) as functions of the ambient matter density are warranted.
Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji
2008-02-01
Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.
Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling
Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji
2008-02-15
Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S{sup 3} of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.
Passive scalars in turbulent channel flow at high Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirozzoli, Sergio; Bernardini, Matteo; Orlandi, Paolo
2015-11-01
We study passive scalars in turbulent plane channels at computationally high Reynolds number, which allows to observe previously unnoticed effects. The mean scalar profiles are found to obey a generalized logarithmic law which includes a linear correction term in the whole lower half-channel, and they follow a universal parabolic defect profile in the core region. This is consistent with recent findings regarding the mean velocity profiles in channel flow. The scalar variances also exhibit a near universal parabolic distribution in the core flow, and hints of a sizeable log layer, unlike the velocity variances. The energy spectra highlight the formation of large scalar-bearing eddies spanning each half-channel, which are caused by production excess over dissipation, and which are clearly visible in the flow visualizations. Close correspondence of the velocity and scalar eddies is observed, the main difference being that the latter have more convoluted interfaces, which translates into higher scalar dissipation. Another notable Reynolds number effect is the decreased correlation of the scalar field with the vertical velocity field, which is traced to the reduced effectiveness of ejection events. We acknowledge that the results reported in this paper have been achieved using the PRACE Research Infrastructure resource FERMI based at CINECA, Casalecchio di Reno, Italy.
Reaction enhancement of initially distant scalars by Lagrangian coherent structures
Pratt, Kenneth R. Crimaldi, John P.; Meiss, James D.
2015-03-15
Turbulent fluid flows have long been recognized as a superior means of diluting initial concentrations of scalars due to rapid stirring. Conversely, experiments have shown that the structures responsible for this rapid dilution can also aggregate initially distant reactive scalars and thereby greatly enhance reaction rates. Indeed, chaotic flows not only enhance dilution by shearing and stretching but also organize initially distant scalars along transiently attracting regions in the flow. To show the robustness of this phenomenon, a hierarchical set of three numerical flows is used: the periodic wake downstream of a stationary cylinder, a chaotic double gyre flow, and a chaotic, aperiodic flow consisting of interacting Taylor vortices. We demonstrate that Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), as identified by ridges in finite time Lyapunov exponents, are directly responsible for this coalescence of reactive scalar filaments. When highly concentrated filaments coalesce, reaction rates can be orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted in a well-mixed system. This is further supported by an idealized, analytical model that was developed to quantify the competing effects of scalar dilution and coalescence. Chaotic flows, known for their ability to efficiently dilute scalars, therefore have the competing effect of organizing initially distant scalars along the LCS at timescales shorter than that required for dilution, resulting in reaction enhancement.
Scalar fluctuations in turbulent combustion - An experimental study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballal, D. R.; Chen, T. H.; Yaney, P. P.
1986-01-01
Temperature and velocity fluctuations data were gathered for turbulent premixed combustion to evaluate a model for scalar transport and scalar dissipation. The data were collected using laser Raman spectroscopy and laser Doppler anemometry with a premixed CH4-air flame from a Bunsen burner. Mean temperature profiles were generated and the pdf's temperature fluctuations were calculated. A wrinkled laminar flame structure was noted in the reaction zone, where the scalar field was anisotropic and where the temperature fluctuations exhibited peak values. The Bray, Moss and Libby model (1985) was successful in predicting the temperature fluctuation intensity and the dissipation ratios, the latter reaching peak values in the flame tip region.
Charged scalar perturbations around Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Zhang, Shao-Jun; Wang, Bin
2015-10-01
We examine the stability of the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GHS) black hole under charged scalar perturbations. Employing the appropriate numerical methods, we show that the GHS black hole is always stable against charged scalar perturbations. This is different from the results obtained in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter black holes. Furthermore, we argue that in the GHS black hole background there is no amplification of the incident charged scalar wave to cause the superradiance, so that the superradiant instability cannot exist in this spacetime.
Generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas inspired intermediate standard scalar field inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Mohsaneen, Sidra
2016-08-01
We study the warm intermediate inflationary regime in the presence of generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas and an inflaton decay rate proportional to the temperature. For this purpose, we consider standard scalar field model during weak and strong dissipative regimes. We explore inflationary parameters like spectral index, scalar and tensor power spectra, tensor to scalar ratio and decay rate in order to compare the present model with recent observational data. The physical behavior of inflationary parameters is presented and found that all the results are agreed with recent observational data such as WMAP7, WMAP9 and Planck 2015.
Study of Scalar Mesons and Related Radiative Decays
Deirdre Black; Masayasu Harada; Joseph Schechter
2002-06-01
After a brief review of the puzzling light scalar meson sector of QCD, a brief summary will be given of a paper concerning radiative decays involving the light scalars. There, a simple vector meson dominance model is constructed in an initial attempt to relate a large number of the radiative decays involving a putative scalar nonet to each other. As an application it is illustrated why a{sub 0}(980)-f{sub 0}(980) mixing is not expected to greatly alter the f{sub 0}/a{sub 0} production ratio for radiative {phi} decays.
Fundamental scalar fields and the dark side of the universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mychelkin, Eduard G.; Makukov, Maxim A.
2015-11-01
Starting with geometrical premises, we infer the existence of fundamental cosmological scalar fields. We then consider physically relevant situations in which spacetime metric is induced by one or, in general, by two scalar fields, in accord with the Papapetrou algorithm. The first of these fields, identified with dark energy (DE), has exceedingly small but finite (subquantum) Hubble mass scale ( ≈ 10-33 eV), and might be represented as a neutral superposition of quasi-static electric fields. The second field is identified with dark matter (DM) as an effectively scalar conglomerate composed of primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos in a special tachyonic state.
Analysis and modeling of subgrid scalar mixing using numerical data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence is used to study, analyze and, subsequently, model the role of small (subgrid) scales in the mixing process. In particular, we attempt to model the dissipation of the large scale (supergrid) scalar fluctuations caused by the subgrid scales by decomposing it into two parts: (1) the effect due to the interaction among the subgrid scales; and (2) the effect due to interaction between the supergrid and the subgrid scales. Model comparisons with DNS data show good agreement. This model is expected to be useful in the large eddy simulations of scalar mixing and reaction.
Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wung-Hong
2014-12-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Observational constraints in scalar tensor theory with tachyonic potential
Farajollahi, Hossein; Salehi, Amin; Shahabi, Asieh E-mail: a.salehi@guilan.ac.ir
2011-10-01
We study the dynamics of the scalar tensor cosmological model in the presence of tachyon field. In an alternative approach, in two exponential and power law form of the scalar field functions in the model, field equations are solved by simultaneously best fitting the model parameters with the most recent observational data. This approach gives us an observationally verified interpretation of the dynamics of the universe. We then discuss the best fitted of equation of state parameter, the statefinder parameters and the reconstructed scalar field in the model.
Noninertial effects on the quantum dynamics of scalar bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Luis B.
2016-02-01
The noninertial effect of rotating frames on the quantum dynamics of scalar bosons embedded in the background of a cosmic string is considered. In this work, scalar bosons are described by the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) formalism. Considering the DKP oscillator in this background the combined effects of a rotating frames and cosmic string on the equation of motion, energy spectrum, and DKP spinor are analyzed and discussed in detail. Additionally, the effect of rotating frames on the scalar bosons' localization is studied.
Scalar/Vector potential formulation for compressible viscous unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1985-01-01
A scalar/vector potential formulation for unsteady viscous compressible flows is presented. The scalar/vector potential formulation is based on the classical Helmholtz decomposition of any vector field into the sum of an irrotational and a solenoidal field. The formulation is derived from fundamental principles of mechanics and thermodynamics. The governing equations for the scalar potential and vector potential are obtained, without restrictive assumptions on either the equation of state or the constitutive relations or the stress tensor and the heat flux vector.
Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory
Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-08-15
The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Einstein static universe in scalar-fluid theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhmer, Christian G.; Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew
2015-12-01
A new Lagrangian framework has recently been proposed to describe interactions between relativistic perfect fluids and scalar fields. In this paper we investigate the Einstein static universe in this new class of theories, which have been named scalar-fluid theories. The stability of the static solutions to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous perturbations is analyzed deriving the relevant cosmological perturbation equations at the linear order. We can find several configurations corresponding to an Einstein static universes which are stable against inhomogeneous perturbations, but unstable against homogeneous perturbations. This shows the possible applications of scalar-fluid theories to the inflationary emergent universe scenario.
Synergy among ocean scalars usign their turbulent singularity structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turiel, A.; Umbert, M.; Olmedo, E.; Gonzalez-Gambau, V.; Martínez, J.; Ballabrera, J.
2014-12-01
Despite of the differences in the equations governing the dynamics of different ocean scalars (as SSH, SST, SSS, chlorophyll concentration, or sea roughness), visual inspection of remote sensing maps of these different ocean scalars reveals the existence of many common features. They always correspond with dynamic structures of the oceanic flow, such as eddies, filaments or upwelling areas. That consistent correspondence may be explained by the action of flow advection, which stretches and shears scalars along the most energetic streamlines. Horizontal advection does not only shape structures in scalars. Eddy transport and filament advection carry long away water masses with relatively homogeneous scalar properties, especially at areas of large Eddy Kinetic Energy. The signature of those water masses can be recognised as specific functional relations among the variables when joint histograms are computed. The repeated observation of particular arrangements of values of scalars allows identifying those water masses, similarly to what oceanographers do with T-S diagrams of vertical profiles. But processes at surface are more energetic than in the water column; hence, the value of scalars evolve very fast and there is not a permanent rule linking them, although for a given period one such relation may hold for a specific region.The introduction of singularity analysis has meant a significant advancement in the description and understanding of the dynamic relations at ocean surface. Using singularity analysis, the Singularity Exponents (SE) of any scalar field can be calculated. SE are dimensionless variables linked to the structure of the underlying surface flow and not to the specific properties of the scalar from which they are derived. It has been shown that SE from different remote sensing scalars have very close values. This correspondence can be used to increase the signal to noise ratio of a given scalar, and even to extrapolate it into data gaps, using a
MAGSAT scalar anomaly map of South America
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ridgway, J. R.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.
1985-01-01
A scalar magnetic anomaly map was prepared for South America and adjacent marine areas directly from original MAGSAT orbits. The preparation of the map poses special problems, notably in the separation of external field and crustal anomalies, and in the reduction of data to a common altitude. External fields are manifested in a long-wavelength ring current effect, a medium-wavelength equatorial electrojet, and short-wavelength noise. The noise is reduced by selecting profiles from quiet periods, and since the electrojet is confined primarily to dusk profiles, its effect is minimized by drawing the data set from dawn profiles only. The ring current is corrected through the use of the standard ring current equation, augmented by further filtering with a Butterworth bandpass filter. Under the assumption that the time-variant ring current is best removed when a replication of redundant profiles is achieved, a test set of 25 groups of 3 nearly coincident orbits per group is set up for filtering with a range of long-wavelength cutoffs to determine which cutoff best replicates the residual profiles. Altitude differences are then normalized by an inversion of the profile data onto a grid of equivalent point dipoles, and recalculated at an altitude of 350 km. The resulting map, when compared to the 2 deg averaged map, shows more coherent anomalies, with notable differences in the region affected by the electrojet.
A search for third generation scalar leptoquarks
Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; /Northern Illinois U.
2006-08-01
Leptoquarks (LQ) are particles with both color and lepton number predicted in some gauge theories and composite models. Current theory suggests that leptoquarks would come in three different generations. We report on a search for charge 1/3 third generation leptoquarks produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the D0 detector at Fermilab. Such leptoquarks would decay into a tau-neutrino plus a b-quark with branching fraction B. We present preliminary results on an analysis where both leptoquarks decay into neutrinos giving a final state with missing energy and two b-jets. Using 425(recorded) pb{sup -1} of data, we place limits on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} LQ{ovr LQ})B{sup 2} as a function of the leptoquark mass. Assuming B = 1, we excluded at the 95% confidence level scalar third generation leptoquarks with M{sub LQ} < 219 GeV.
Entanglement entropy in scalar field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertzberg, Mark P.
2013-01-01
Understanding the dependence of entanglement entropy on the renormalized mass in quantum field theories can provide insight into phenomena such as quantum phase transitions, since the mass varies in a singular way near the transition. Here we perturbatively calculate the entanglement entropy in interacting scalar field theory, focusing on the dependence on the field’s mass. We study λϕ4 and gϕ3 theories in their ground state. By tracing over a half space, using the replica trick and position space Green’s functions on the cone, we show that spacetime volume divergences cancel and renormalization can be consistently performed in this conical geometry. We establish finite contributions to the entanglement entropy up to two-loop order, involving a finite area law. The resulting entropy is simple and intuitive: the free theory result in d = 3 (that we included in an earlier publication) ΔS ˜ A m2ln (m2) is altered, to leading order, by replacing the bare mass m by the renormalized mass mr evaluated at the renormalization scale of zero momentum.
DBI scalar field theory for QGP hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastase, Horatiu
2016-07-01
A way to describe the hydrodynamics of the quark-gluon plasma using a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action is proposed, based on the model found by Heisenberg for high energy scattering of nucleons. The expanding plasma is described as a shockwave in a DBI model for a real scalar standing in for the pion, and I show that one obtains a fluid description in terms of a relativistic fluid that near the shock is approximately ideal (η ≃0 ) and conformal. One can introduce an extra term inside the square root of the DBI action that generates a shear viscosity term in the energy-momentum tensor near the shock, as well as a bulk viscosity, and regulates the behavior of the energy density at the shock, making it finite. The resulting fluid satisfies the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation with uμ,ρ ,P ,η defined in terms of ϕ and its derivatives. One finds a relation between the parameters of the theory and the quark-gluon plasma thermodynamics, α /β2=η /(s T ), and by fixing α and β from usual (low multiplicity) particle scattering, one finds T ∝mπ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pappas, T.; Kanti, P.; Pappas, N.
2016-07-01
In this work, we study the propagation of scalar fields in the gravitational background of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as on the projected-on-the-brane four-dimensional background. The scalar fields have also a nonminimal coupling to the corresponding, bulk or brane, scalar curvature. We perform a comprehensive study by deriving exact numerical results for the greybody factors, and study their profile in terms of particle and spacetime properties. We then proceed to derive the Hawking radiation spectra for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole, and we study both bulk and brane channels. We demonstrate that the nonminimal field coupling, which creates an effective mass term for the fields, suppresses the energy emission rates while the cosmological constant assumes a dual role. By computing the relative energy rates and the total emissivity ratio for bulk and brane emission, we demonstrate that the combined effect of a large number of extra dimensions and value of the field coupling gives to the bulk channel the clear domination in the bulk-brane energy balance.
A global fit of the γ-ray galactic center excess within the scalar singlet Higgs portal model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuoco, Alessandro; Eiteneuer, Benedikt; Heisig, Jan; Krämer, Michael
2016-06-01
We analyse the excess in the γ-ray emission from the center of our galaxy observed by Fermi-LAT in terms of dark matter annihilation within the scalar Higgs portal model. In particular, we include the astrophysical uncertainties from the dark matter distribution and allow for unspecified additional dark matter components. We demonstrate through a detailed numerical fit that the strength and shape of the γ-ray spectrum can indeed be described by the model in various regions of dark matter masses and couplings. Constraints from invisible Higgs decays, direct dark matter searches, indirect searches in dwarf galaxies and for γ-ray lines, and constraints from the dark matter relic density reduce the parameter space to dark matter masses near the Higgs resonance. We find two viable regions: one where the Higgs-dark matter coupling is of Script O(10‑2), and an additional dark matter component beyond the scalar WIMP of our model is preferred, and one region where the Higgs-dark matter coupling may be significantly smaller, but where the scalar WIMP constitutes a significant fraction or even all of dark matter. Both viable regions are hard to probe in future direct detection and collider experiments.