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Sample records for 3m espe dental

  1. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    PubMed

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare. PMID:24820427

  2. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    PubMed

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare.

  3. Polymerization shrinkage of a dental resin composite determined by a fiber optic Fizeau interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Gustavo; Noriega, Sergio; Vallo, Claudia; Duchowicz, Ricardo

    2007-03-01

    A fiber optic sensing method based on a Fizeau-type interferometric scheme was employed for monitoring linear polymerization shrinkage in dental restoratives. This technique offers several advantages over the conventional methods of measuring polymerization contraction. This simple, compact, non-invasive and self-calibrating system competes with both conventional and other high-resolution bulk interferometric techniques. In this work, an analysis of the quality of interference signal and fringes visibility was performed in order to characterize their resolution and application range. The measurements of percent linear contraction as a function of the sample thickness were carried out in this study on two dental composites: Filtek P60 (3M ESPE) Posterior Restorer and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) Universal Restorer. The results were discussed with respect to others obtained employing alternative techniques.

  4. Evaluating Soviet ESP technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, W.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper evaluates Soviet ESP technology. The Soviet Union currently produces approximately half of its oil with electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Because of increasing water cuts in most mature fields, due in no small part to poor reservoir management, ESP use will probably continue to rise within the USSR. To meet this demand, the Soviets have developed the largest ESP manufacturing capacity in the world. Soviet ESPs offer some interesting features and are reported to have impressive running lives.

  5. What can ESP do ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Judy

    ESP (English for Specific Purposes) has been the focus of much attention recently but the question arises of “what can ESP do?” Proposed here are three things that are possible with ESP. The first is using ESP as a tool to help students who are not English majors learn how language “works” via the concept of genre texts. The second is using an ESP approach to simulate professional communication contexts in order to raise student interest and motivation. The third is to aim for ESP bilingualism, which is a realistic and attainable goal. All three points will be illustrated with specific examples.

  6. Experiments in ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Stephen M.; Guerin, Clark L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a phenomenon called Extrasensory Perception (ESP) whereby information is gained directly by the mind without the use of the ordinary senses. Experiments in ESP and the basic equipment and methods are presented. Statistical evaluation of ESP experimental results are also included. (HM)

  7. Broadening the ESP Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The fragility of English for Special Purposes (ESP) is examined in the context of a particular British ESP course, European Business Administration. Issues include the characteristic ESP time pressure, the treatment of "hard" terminology in English for Academic Purposes (EAP), the nonlinguistic subject matter of EAP courses, and the use of…

  8. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  9. SUPER ESP: Ultimate electrostatic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Plaks, N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses SUPER ESP, a new electrostatic precipitator (ESP) concept, enabling high collection efficiencies with considerably smaller collection areas than has previously been possible. The new concept allows a major reduction in ESP size by using an alternating sequence of prechargers and short collector sections. The length of the collection section in each precharger/collector pair (module) dominates the optimization. The size reduction is greater for ESPs operating with high resistivity particulate matter than with low resistivity particulate matter. The relationship in number of modules, collector section size, and overall ESP collection is presented and discussed. Comparisons are given of ESP size for both conventional and SUPER ESP technology operating with either high or low resistivity particulate matter. Because of the size reduction, the cost of the SUPER ESP is projected to be lower than that of a conventional ESP of comparable efficiencY. The paper is based on an ESP model, ESPVI 4.0.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions 3-M syndrome 3-M syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description 3-M syndrome is a disorder that causes short ...

  11. Promoting ESP language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    The article focuses on the current problem of teaching English for Specific Purposes(ESP) language vocabulary taking into consideration the ways how learners store and recall words and the influence of their mother tongue. Through incidental learning and explicit vocabulary instructions the elaborated vocabulary learning occurs involving the creation of an affective semantic network.

  12. Teaching Creatively in ESP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkovska, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    Teaching creatively in ESP might in certain cases present some appropriate solutions to the teaching situation and, more importantly, boost students' confidence and motivation towards achieving some of the course objectives. Based on a case study, this paper displays some of the results obtained through a limited scope research conducted with…

  13. ESP - Believe It Or Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes several well documented cases of Extra Sensory Perception (ESP), and discusses ways in which ESP experiments can be conducted in the science classroom to investigate telepathy, pyschokinesis, and clairvoyance. (JR)

  14. Influence of dental resin material composition on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material compositions. Four distinct composite systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional images of different composite-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) imaging system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler compositions affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT imaging of dental resin composites showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our composite systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four composites had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different composite systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.0001). As a result, we demonstrate the importance of understanding how the constituents of composite materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation. PMID:23224001

  15. Influence of dental resin material composition on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material compositions. Four distinct composite systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional images of different composite-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) imaging system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler compositions affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT imaging of dental resin composites showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our composite systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four composites had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different composite systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.0001). As a result, we demonstrate the importance of understanding how the constituents of composite materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation.

  16. Influence of dental resin material composition on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Robert S.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material compositions. Four distinct composite systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional images of different composite-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) imaging system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler compositions affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT imaging of dental resin composites showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our composite systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four composites had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different composite systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.0001). As a result, we demonstrate the importance of understanding how the constituents of composite materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation.

  17. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  18. Fluoride release and recharge abilities of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, Maria; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of five fluoride-releasing restorative materials and three dental adhesives, before and after NaF solution treatment. Five restorative materials (Fuji IX GP, GC Corp.; Ketac N100, 3M ESPE; Dyract Extra, Dentsply; Beautifil II, Shofu Inc.; Wave, SDI) and three dental adhesives (Stae, SDI; Fluorobond II - Shofu Inc.; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) were investigated before and after NaF solution treatment. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was to measure fluoride concentrations. During the 86-day period before NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP released the highest amount of fluoride among the restorative materials while Prime & Bond NT was the highest among the dental adhesives. After NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP again ranked the highest in fluoride release among the restorative materials while Fluorobond II ranked the highest among dental adhesives. It was concluded that the compositions and setting mechanisms of fluoride-containing dental materials influenced their fluoride release and recharge abilities.

  19. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) TRAINING MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual assists engineers in using a computer program, the ESPVI 4.0W, that models all elements of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The program is a product of the Electric Power Research Institute and runs in the Windows environment. Once an ESP is accurately modeled, the...

  20. Language and Content in ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Moya; van Naerssen, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of lecturers of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) establishing channels of communication with content lecturers as content lecturers have the responsibility of introducing students to and training them in a particular profession. Approaches are suggested for moving from the conventional field of ESP and emphasizing…

  1. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  2. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  3. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  4. Combining ESP and baghouse technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, B.; Ganatra, C.P.; Woolston, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present a progressive application in the field of air pollution control technology. The content of this paper should appeal to operators who must operate out-of-compliance electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), or to those who strive for optimal emission control. St. Lawrence Cement Company, a plant in Beauport Canada, has been in operation since 1955. Their two wet process kilns have utilized electrostatic precipitator (ESP) filters since inception. Since 1965, this company has strived to reduce energy consumption by using alternative waste fuel. This, combined with the increased demand of low alkali cement, took its toll on the ESPs, causing the equipment and its performance to deteriorate. Pressure from environmental agencies to lower outlet emissions forced the company to consider ESP modifications. After investigating several alternatives, the optimal modification was to combine the ESP with bag filters. In addition to being the best choice from a performance standpoint, it was also the least expensive. This modification also allowed a reduced alkali dust from the ESP hoppers to be recirculated to the kilns. The latter two-thirds of the ESP were converted to a baghouse, and optimal system performance was achieved by using high efficiency expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane filter bags. Despite the high moisture, submicron particle size, and cohesive nature of the alkaline dust, very low pressure differentials and extremely low emissions were achieved. Most notably, this complex project was completed within nine months, from concept to commissioning. The plant was shut down for only six weeks during the entire retrofit process. This economically attractive idea was readily accepted by St. Lawrence Cement personnel and the permitting agencies. After the first successful kiln/ESP retrofit, the second kiln/ESP conversion was completed the following year.

  5. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  6. "Scrubbing" Data for D3M

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurius, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Data-driven decision-making (D3M) appears to be the new buzz phrase for this century, the information age. On the education front, teachers and administrators are engaging in data-centered dialog in grade-level meetings, lounges, hallways, and classrooms as they brainstorm toward closing the gap in student achievement. Clearly, such discussion…

  7. Influence of curing lights and modes on cross-link density of dental composites.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Soh, M S; Han, Tarian T S; Siow, K S

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of curing lights and modes on the cross-link density of dental composites. Four LED/halogen curing lights (LED-Elipar Freelight [FL], 3M-ESPE and GC e-light [EL], GC; high intensity halogen-Elipar Trilight [TL], 3M-ESPE; very high intensity halogen-Astralis 10 [AS], Ivoclar Vivadent) were selected for this study. Pulse (EL1), continuous (FL1, EL2, TL1), turbo (EL3, AS) and soft-start (FL2, EL4, TL2) curing modes of the various lights were examined. A conventional, continuous cure halogen light (Max [MX], Dentsply-Caulk) was used for comparison. Six composite (Z100, 3M-ESPE) specimens were made for each light-curing mode combination. After polymerization, the specimens were stored in air at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and subjected to hardness testing using a digital microhardness tester (load=500 g; dwell time=15 seconds). The specimens were then placed in 75% ethanol-water solution at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and post-conditioning hardness was determined. Mean hardness (HK)/change in hardness (deltaHK) was computed and the data subjected to analysis using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's test and Independent Samples t-test (p<0.05). Softening upon storage in ethanol (deltaHK) was used as a relative indication of cross-link density. Specimens polymerized with AS, TL2 and all modes of both LED lights were significantly more susceptible to softening in ethanol than specimens cured with MX. No significant difference in cross-link density was observed among the various modes of EL and FL. For TL, curing with continuous mode resulted in specimens with significantly higher cross-link density than curing with the soft-start mode.

  8. Influence of Different Drinks on the Colour Stability of Dental Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Sahinkesen, Gunes; Yamanel, Kivanc; Erdemir, Ugur; Oktay, Elif Aybala; Ersahan, Seyda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the discolouration effects of artificial saliva, granule lemon juice, coffee (without sugar), coca cola, sour cherry juice, fresh carrot juice and red wine on resin-based composite materials that are commonly used in restorative dentistry. Methods Colour of four brands of resin composites (Filtek Z 250 (3M Espe), Filtek Supreme (3M Espe), Quadrant (Cavex), Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer)) of A2 shade was measured after one day of immersion in eight different solutions. Colour measurements were obtained by using a XL-20 Trismus Colourimeter and colour differences (ΔE) were estimated. For statistical evaluation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Dunnett and Tukey tests were used at a significance level of 0.05. Results For the four restorative materials tested, the lowest ΔE values were observed in the artificial saliva, while ΔE values were the highest in red wine group. When comparing the four different restorative materials, Filtek Supreme exhibited the least colour changes whereas Filtek Z250 was the least colour-stable. Conclusions Dental resin composites and drinking solutions were significant factors that may affect the colour stability. After immersion for one day, all materials showed visible colour changes. The red wine solution exhibited more staining than others in three groups. Filtek Supreme showed significantly the least colour change due to its nano particle sizes. PMID:19262731

  9. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites.

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Silva-Júnior, José Ginaldo da; Tonholo, Josealdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of composite resins immersed in alcoholic beverages. Three composite resins were used: Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer), Z250 (3M-ESPE) and Z350 XT (3M-ESPE). The inital surface roughness and microhardness were measured. The samples were divided into four groups (n=30): G1-artificial saliva; G2-beer; G3-vodka; G4-whisky. The samples were immersed in the beverages 3× a day for 15 min and 30 days. The surface roughness and microhardness assays were repeated after immersion period. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test (p<0.05). Surface roughness increased for all composite resins immersed in beer and whisky. Microhardness of all groups decreased after immersion in alcoholic beverages. The effect of these beverages on dental composites is depended upon the chemical composition, immersion time, alcohol content and pH of solutions. PMID:27477228

  10. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites.

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Silva-Júnior, José Ginaldo da; Tonholo, Josealdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of composite resins immersed in alcoholic beverages. Three composite resins were used: Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer), Z250 (3M-ESPE) and Z350 XT (3M-ESPE). The inital surface roughness and microhardness were measured. The samples were divided into four groups (n=30): G1-artificial saliva; G2-beer; G3-vodka; G4-whisky. The samples were immersed in the beverages 3× a day for 15 min and 30 days. The surface roughness and microhardness assays were repeated after immersion period. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test (p<0.05). Surface roughness increased for all composite resins immersed in beer and whisky. Microhardness of all groups decreased after immersion in alcoholic beverages. The effect of these beverages on dental composites is depended upon the chemical composition, immersion time, alcohol content and pH of solutions.

  11. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of Zirconia (Y-TZP) posts with various dental cements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongsoon; Ko, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endodontically treated teeth with insufficient tooth structure are often restored with esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biological effects of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) blocks in combination with several dental cements. Materials and Methods Pairs of zirconia cylinders with medium alone or cemented with three types of dental cement including RelyX U200 (3M ESPE), FujiCEM 2 (GC), and Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) were incubated in medium for 14 days. The cytotoxicity of each supernatant was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IL-6 protein was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were more susceptible to dental cements than L929 fibroblasts. The resin based dental cements increased IL-6 expression in L929 cells, but reduced IL-6 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Zirconia alone or blocks cemented with dental cement showed acceptable biocompatibilities. The results showed resin-modified glass-ionomer based cement less produced inflammatory cytokines than other self-adhesive resin-based cements. Furthermore, osteoblasts were more susceptible than fibroblasts to the biological effects of dental cement. PMID:27508157

  12. Typical errors of ESP users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  13. ESP Methodology for Science Lecturers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Angela; Mulyana, Cukup

    A program designed to teach university science lecturers in Indonesia how to design and teach one-semester courses in English for special purposes (ESP) is described. The program provided lecturers with training in language teaching methodology and course design. The piloting of the teacher training course, focusing on physics instruction, is…

  14. Evaluation of Two ESP Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Fraidan, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluated two ESP textbooks using the evaluation of McDonough and Shaw (2003) based on external and internal evaluation. The first textbook is "Business Objectives" (1996) by Vicki Hollett, and the second textbook is "Business Studies, Second Edition" (2002) by Alain Anderton. To avoid repetition, I will use BO and…

  15. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants Main Content Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants ...

  16. A Study of ESP in Hyperkinetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.; Haight, Maryellen J.

    Evaluated with 10 hyperkinetic Ss (9- to 13-years-old) was whether hyperkinetic children have more extrasensory perception (ESP) than normal children and learn ESP skills more rapidly than other children. Ss were administered the Operational Assessment Tool ESP teaching instrument. Results did not support the hypothesis that hyperkinetic children…

  17. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  18. Research on energy balance test of ESP

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zhenhua; Zhu Jun

    1995-12-31

    Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is a kind of important means in the oilfield mechanical recovery. People used to place the emphasis on calculating the energy losses of every component by piece in the applications, and no test data were established. This paper takes ESP as a system, and gives theoretical analysis on the energy losses of every ESP component. Energy balance test of ESP system is performed in test well for the first time, the pattern of energy-loss distribution is found and some proposals on improving the design, manufacture and application of ESP system are put forward. In addition, the test procedure and calculating method of energy losses for ESP system is offered.

  19. ESP's placed in horizontal lateral increase production

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, A.; Wilson, B.L. ); Marshall, R. )

    1990-06-18

    By design, the electric submersible pump (ESP) is an effective method of lifting fluids from horizontal wells. But this ESP application does have unique installation and operating parameters that need to be considered. ESP's have been used for many years in directional wells. This application provides an experience base for understanding deflection limits on the unit. To avoid damaging the ESP, special equipment may be required in some horizontal installations. This paper discusses how several ESP's have been designed specifically for medium-radius wells. In these applications, the deeper pump setting provides for a significant increase in production rate. In general, to realize the full benefit of a horizontal installation, the ESP should be considered when planning, drilling, and completing the well.

  20. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Ebner, T.G.; Holstein, D.B.

    1991-03-07

    This report describes the results of pilot plant tests to characterize the performance of an electrostatic precipitation (ESP) operating downstream of an in-duct scrubbing system. The test program was conducted at a 1.7 MW duct injection/ESP pilot plant that was located at the Central Illinois Public Service Company's Meredosia Station. The pilot plant was installed during the summer of 1989 and testing was conducted from September, 1989 to October, 1990. In addition to the tests to characterize the ESPs, a parametric evaluation of sulfur dioxide removal by duct sorbent injection was conducted concurrently. Another aspect of this program related to ESP performance was the development of a mathematical model to predict ESP performance at duct injection conditions. Air load and gas load tests were conducted to demonstrate that the ESP was functioning properly. The ESP was then evaluated at flyash conditions to establish baseline operation. A series of tests were than conducted at duct injection conditions. Different humidification configurations were investigated and both lime only and lime with recycle injection were tested. A final set of tests were directed at evaluating different ESP upgrade technologies that could improve performance under duct injection conditions. In addition to the Meredosia pilot plant tests, tests were conducted to characterize the performance of the ESP operating as part of the demonstration of the Coolside Process at the Edgewater plant in Lorrain, Ohio. 41 refs., 97 figs., 43 tabs.

  1. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy, patient management, and periodontics, which is the study of gum disease. High school students interested in becoming dental hygienists should take courses in biology, chemistry, and math. Most dental hygiene programs also require applicants to have completed at ...

  2. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants Are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  3. Recent Materials for the Teaching of ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jo

    1998-01-01

    New textbooks for teaching English for Special Purposes (ESP) are reviewed, including texts for science and technology, computing, engineering, and electronics as well as a guide to general classroom techniques and activities for ESP teachers. Criteria for evaluating and selecting instructional materials are also addressed briefly. (MSE)

  4. Team Teaching: Plus or Minus ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynom, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Describes the practical experience of team teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the same class as a content instructor in engineering at the United Arab Emirates University. Examines classroom dynamics as they evolved and advantages and drawbacks. The team teaching approach enabled instructors to build a bottom up ESP curriculum based…

  5. The Methodological Component in ESP Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markee, Numa

    1984-01-01

    Reviews recent literature in second language acquisition (particularly concerning Krashen's Input Hypothesis) and in English for specific purposes (ESP) to find a firm theoretical basis for the development of communicative approaches to language teaching in ESP contexts. Tries to define the characteristics of noninterference/input strategies that…

  6. Designing an ESP Reading Skills Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Gro

    1982-01-01

    Delineates step-by-step procedure for designing an English for Special Purposes (ESP) reading skills course for a group of students whose interests and academic pursuits are similar. Contends that main difference between a regular ESL reading skills course and this type of ESP course are the use of authentic texts in field of specialization and…

  7. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  8. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain Fixed Bridges Porcelain Veneers Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth- ...

  9. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p<0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p<0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs.

  10. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p<0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p<0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. PMID:27612800

  11. Chemical or microbiological models of secondary caries development around different dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Maristela M; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria B; Pimenta, Luiz André F

    2005-08-01

    This study evaluated artificial secondary caries around restorative materials, induced by means of chemical or microbiological models. The following materials were used randomly to restore 130 dental blocks: (1) zinc-oxide eugenol-free temporary filling: Coltosol (Coltène/Whaledent Inc.; n = 30), (2) silver amalgam: Permite C (SDI Limited, n = 20), (3) composite resin: Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE; n = 20), (4) glass-ionomer cement: Fuji II (GC America Inc.; n = 20), (5) resin-modified glass ionomer: Vitremer (3M ESPE; n = 20), and (6) polyacid modified resin: Dyract AP (Dentsply; n = 20). Ten specimens of Group 1 were kept in humidity, and had no carious formation (NC). Ten specimens of each group were submitted to pH cycling (CG, n = 60), and the others were immersed in a medium containing Streptococcus mutans and sucrose (BG, n = 60). Mineral content was determined by microhardness assessment, and lesion depth was measured in polarized light photomicrographs. In the chemical model (CG), mineral content values in the vicinities of restoration were high for Groups 5 (75.7 +/- 11.9), 4 (70.8 +/- 14.2), and NC (95.4 +/- 3.8); intermediate for Groups 1 (55.8 +/- 18.5), 6 (45.6 +/- 11.0), and 2 (44.3 +/- 11.2); and reduced for Group 3 (34.7 +/- 9.7). In the microbiological model (BG), results were similar to CG, although there was less demineralization. The highest lesion depths were found for Groups 3 (182.3 +/- 33.2) in CG and 6 (126.5 +/- 42.8) in BG, when compared to Group 5 (114.6 +/- 26.0 and 56.2 +/- 33.2, respectively). In both models of caries induction, ionomeric materials showed a superior cariostatic effect when compared to the other restorative materials.

  12. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  13. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  14. ESP Practitioner Professionalization through Apprenticeship of Practice: The Case of Two Iranian ESP Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Batoul; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2012-01-01

    English for specific purposes (ESP), the popular catchphrase of presently English language teaching programs, has been investigated from different perspectives. However, there have been occasional forays in to the role of ESP practitioner as one of the most distinctive features in the literature. In addition to fulfilling the usual role of a…

  15. Operating experience with ESP`s and permanent downhole flowmeters in Wytch Farm extended reach wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, A.; Allan, J.; Hill, G.

    1994-12-31

    One third of the recoverable reserves in BP`s UK onshore oilfield, Wytch Farm, lie in an offshore extension of the field. These reserves, which have until recently been undeveloped, are now being exploited using Electric Submersible Pump`s (ESP`s) in Extended Reach (ER) wells drilled from onshore wellsites. The relatively high productivities achieved, as a result of successful horizontal completions, have pushed ESP technology to the limits in terms of capacity and power requirements. This paper presents a case history of the unique set of problems encountered during and subsequent to start-up of the ESP`s in the first 3 of these wells. The problems, in particular, pump suction blockage problems, were directly attributable to the position of the ESP`s in the near horizontal section (82--85 degrees) of the wells. The paper also describes the innovative permanent downhole flowmeter system which was incorporated in the completion. The system measures and logs flow rate data, pump suction pressure, pump discharge pressure and temperature. Examples are presented which clearly demonstrate how these data have been invaluable in understanding the problems encountered in the initial ER wells and the role the system has played in extending ESP run lives. Finally, completion equipment modifications and operating procedure changes, which were successfully introduced to resolve the problems encountered in the first two wells, and avoid them in subsequent wells, are described.

  16. Quantitative determination of TEGDMA, BHT, and DMABEE in eluates from polymerized resin-based dental restorative materials by use of GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Seiss, Mario; Langer, Christopher; Hickel, Reinhard; Reichl, Franz-Xaver

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the leaching of ingredients from several commercial dental composite resins cured with LED, and immersed in methanol or water for 24 h, respectively. The composites used were: Admira Dentin (VOCO), Artemis Schmelz (Enamel) (Ivoclar Vivadent), Els extra low shrinkage (Saremco Dental), Filtek Supreme XT Dentin (3 M ESPE), Gradia Direct (GC), Venus & Venus flow (Heraeus Kulzer), and XRV Herculite Prodigy Enamel (Kerr). From each dental composite four specimens with defined structure and 100-mg net weight were made. After the polymerization process, according to manufacturer's instructions, the specimens were immersed in either 1 ml water or 1 ml methanol and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Eluted ingredients triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), and 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoicacidethylester (DMABEE) were detected and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The amounts of the detected analytes from 100 mg polymerized composites ranged between the following values: TEGDMA: 0-0.5 mg (water), 0-1.6 mg (methanol); BHT: 0-0.03 μg (water), 0-0.11 mg (methanol); and DMABEE: 0-0.11 mg (water), 0-1.4 mg (methanol). We conclude from the results that the elution rates into methanol and water differ significantly. Furthermore, it is concluded that all the determined amounts eluting from the composites are far below toxic-relevant concentrations. PMID:19771414

  17. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  18. 3M's PPR software criticized, but is research misleading?

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    New research suggests that a popular 3M software program doesn't clearly distinguish differences in care quality. The issue is important because the program is increasingly used to make payments to U.S. hospitals based on readmission rates. 3M says the study is flawed and the conclusion incorrect. The researchers concluded that either PPR flagged cases are not more preventable, or additional data collection is needed. The findings are based on a review of 100 randomly selected cases.

  19. The type III protein translocation system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli involves EspA-EspB protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hartland, E L; Daniell, S J; Delahay, R M; Neves, B C; Wallis, T; Shaw, R K; Hale, C; Knutton, S; Frankel, G

    2000-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), like many bacterial pathogens, use a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins across the bacterial cell wall. In EPEC, four proteins, EspA, EspB, EspD and Tir are known to be exported by a type III secretion system and to be essential for 'attaching and effacing' (A/E) lesion formation, the hallmark of EPEC pathogenicity. EspA was recently shown to be a structural protein and a major component of a large, transiently expressed, filamentous surface organelle which forms a direct link between the bacterium and the host cell. In contrast, EspB is translocated into the host cell where it is localized to both membrane and cytosolic cell fractions. EspA and EspB are required for translocation of Tir to the host cell membrane suggesting that they may both be components of the translocation apparatus. In this study, we show that EspB co-immunoprecipitates with the EspA filaments and that, during EPEC infection of HEp-2 cells, EspB localizes closely with EspA. Using a number of binding assays, we also show that EspB can bind and be copurified with EspA. Nevertheless, binding of EspA filaments to the host cell membranes occurred even in the absence of EspB. These results suggest that following initial attachment of the EspA filaments to the target cells, EspB is delivered into the host cell membrane and that the interaction between EspA and EspB may be important for protein translocation.

  20. Dental Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when children regularly consume fluoride during the teeth-forming years, age 8 and younger. Most dental fluorosis ... over a long period when the teeth are forming under the gums. Only children aged 8 years ...

  1. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A. ); Durham, M.D. ); Sowa, W.A. . Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. ); Mahaffey, W.A. )

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  2. [Access to dental care during prenatal assistance].

    PubMed

    dos Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the self-perceived response to dental care during prenatal assistance in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. 1032 postpartum women were interviewed and 1006 prenatal records copied. Postpartum women's self-perceived response was measured by the Oral Health Index Profile-14. When an impact was identified, dental care rendered in educational, preventive and curative terms was considered adequate. When there was no impact, assistance was considered adequate in educational and preventive terms. The Chi-square test revealed an association between prenatal care and dental care. Oral health impact on quality of life was 14.7%. Dental care received by mothers in educational terms was rated at 41.3%, while in preventive terms it was 21% and in curative terms it was 16.6%. Six or more prenatal appointments coupled with educational activities was closely associated with adequate dental care (p < 0.05). Access to dental care is facilitated when pregnant women attend health services and become involved in educational activities during the prenatal period. Consequently, educational measures appear to indicate an improvement in prenatal care in the SUS.

  3. A SELF-CONSISTENT DEUTSCHIAN ESP MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a new version of the EPA I Southern Research Institute electrostatic precipitator (ESP) model. The primary difference between this and the standard (Revision 3) versions is in the treatment of the particulate space charge. Both models apply the Deutsch equatio...

  4. Student Recommendations for ESP Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Kin'ei

    A bilingual (Japanese/English) electronic mail survey of over 1,100 computer science students at the University of Aizu elicited recommendations for content and design of a curriculum in English for Special Purposes (ESP). Features students preferred included these: a four-skills introductory course during the first year; materials encouraging…

  5. A Reevaluation of Needs Analysis in ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, F.

    1980-01-01

    Proposes use of target situation analysis (TSA) as means of removing superfluous terminology and establishing different levels of need in order to realize value of needs analysis in ESP. TSA goes into situations, collects and analyzes data to establish the communication that occurs. (Author/BK)

  6. Direct spectrometry: a new alternative for measuring the fluorescence of composite resins and dental tissues.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tm; de Oliveira, Hpm; Severino, D; Balducci, I; Huhtala, Mfrl; Gonçalves, Sep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence intensity of different composite resins and compare those values with the fluorescence intensity of dental tissues. Different composite resins were used to make 10 discs (2 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter) of each brand, divided into groups: 1) Z (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE), 2) ES (Esthet-X, Dentsply), 3) A (Amelogen Plus, Ultradent), 4) DVS (Durafill-VS, Heraeus Kulzer) with 2 mm composite resin for enamel (A2), 5) OES ([Esthet-X] opaque-OA [1 mm] + enamel-A2 [1 mm]); 6) ODVSI ([Charisma-Opal/Durafill-VSI], opaque-OM (1 mm) + translucent [1mm]), and 7) DVSI ([Durafill- VSI] translucent [2 mm]). Dental tissue specimens were obtained from human anterior teeth cut in a mesiodistal direction to obtain enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin samples (2 mm). The fluorescence intensity of specimens was directly measured using an optic fiber associated with a spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB 4000) and recorded in graphic form (Origin 8.0 program). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using Dunnet, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Light absorption of the composite resins was obtained in a spectral range from 250 to 450 nm, and that of dental tissues was between 250 and 300 nm. All composite resins were excited at 398 nm and exhibited maximum emissions of around 485 nm. Fluorescence intensity values for all of the resins showed statistically significant differences (measured in arbitrary units [AUs]), with the exception of groups Z and DVS. Group DVSI had the highest fluorescence intensity values (13539 AU), followed by ODVS (10440 AU), DVS (10146 AU), ES (3946 AU), OES (3841 AU), A (3540 AU), and Z (1146 AU). The fluorescence intensity values for the composite resins differed statistically from those of dental tissues (E=1380 AU; D=6262 AU; E/D=3251 AU). The opacity interfered with fluorescence intensity, and group Z demonstrated fluorescence intensity values closest to that of tooth enamel. It is concluded that the

  7. State, Emotionality, Belief, and Absorption in ESP Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gordon; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Incorporated both the state and emotionality aspects of extrasensory perception (ESP) using subjects (N=50) in three groups: hypnotic, relaxed, and control. An ESP sender attempted to transmit highly emotional stimuli. Found no evidence for the occurrence of ESP, and instructional variables and subject characteristics had no effect. (JAC)

  8. Combination gas lift/ESP system increases flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.; Eads, P.T.; Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1990-10-01

    Most ESP systems are installed in high-rate wells, and failure can result in significant downtime and revenue loss. This paper reports that by combining ESP with continuous-flow gas lift in certain wells, a smaller ESP can be used, and the wells can stay on production even with downhole equipment failure.

  9. Replacing ESP controls brings large utility units into compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, P. )

    1994-05-01

    This article examines the effect of retrofitting an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) digital control system on the emissions compliance of a large utility unit. The topics of the article include evaluation of ESP performance, determination of course of action, unit 1 and 2 installation of a digital control system, and results to emissions and performance of the ESP.

  10. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  11. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  12. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  13. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  14. Dental Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in dental assistant education programs in Michigan, describes a task-based curriculum that can help a teacher to develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. It is based on task analysis and reflects the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that employers expect entry-level dental…

  15. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  16. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  17. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  18. New approach towards mini dental implants and small-diameter implants: an option for long-term prostheses.

    PubMed

    Gleiznys, Alvydas; Skirbutis, Gediminas; Harb, Ali; Barzdziukaite, Ingrida; Grinyte, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Mini dental implants (MDI) and small diameter implants (SDI) have been extensively used as temporary or orthodontic anchorage; however there have been studies that proved their availability as a mean for long term prosthodontics. Our aim was to review the indications, advantages of MDI and SDI, and their long-term survival. METHODS. Computerized searches were conducted for clinical studies between year 2000 and 2011 that involved either implants with 3.3 mm diameter or less, used in prosthodontics; or provided a follow up of MDI or SDI duration of at least 4 months following implant placement including survival rate data. All studies about implants used in orthodontics were excluded. The range of available MDI and SDI has been found in cataloges of the companies: 3M ESPE IMTEC, Bicon Dental, Zimmer, Implant Direct, Intra lock, Hiossen, Simpler Implant, KAT Implants, OCO Biomedical, American Dental Implant. RESULTS. 41 studies meeting the above criteria were selected, 22 out of them reviewed survival rates of MDI and SDI. The follow up duration varried from 4 months to 8 years with survival rates between 91.17 and 100%. Nevertheless, the companies showed a big variety of MDI and SDI provided in the market for long term prostheses. CONCLUSIONS. Implants with small diameters can be used successfully in a variety of clinical situations. Less surgical time, less postoperative pain, ability of direct loading after surgery with no harm to bone and cost effectiveness are the advantages. The reduced surface implants require correct treatment planning so that the loading force would not cause bone loss or implant failure. MDI and SDI show high survival rates, but special cautions for bone quality and good oral hygiene should be maintained.

  19. Oral cavity evaluation and dental chart registration of coati (Nasua nasua) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Elisângela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Mendes, Guilherme M; Gioso, Marco A

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a dental evaluate any oral cavity disease, develop gypsum models of the dental arches, and to register the occlusions found in coatis (Nasua nasua) in captivity Formulation of the dental chart was assisted by intraoral radiographs from the head of an adult coati cadaver of the same species with the following dental formula.: I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2. Seven live coatis of the Nasua nasua species were evaluated. Five of the seven coatis presented with various dental abnormalities as follows: dental plaque (71.4 0%), gingivitis (71.4 %), periodontitis (57.1 %), dental stain (42.9 %), dental abrasion (57.1 %), dental fracture (57.1 %), pulp exposure (42.9 %), malocclusion (57.1 %) and supernumerary teeth (14.2 %). PMID:18751661

  20. Biochemical Characterization of the SPATE Members EspPα and EspI

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, André; Kortemeier, David; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The activity of serine proteases is influenced by their substrate specificity as well as by the physicochemical conditions. Here, we present the characterization of key biochemical features of the two SPATE members EspPα and EspI from Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Both proteases show high activity at conditions mimicking the human blood stream. Optimal activities were observed at slightly alkaline pH and low millimolar concentrations of the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ at physiological temperatures indicating a function in the human host. Furthermore, we provide the first cleavage profile for EspI demonstrating pronounced specificity of this protease. PMID:25229188

  1. Wind tunnel tests on a 3 m diameter Musgrove windmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmer, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    A 3 m diameter model of a two bladed Musgrove vertical axis windmill has been tested in the British Aerospace wind tunnel at Filton. Tunnel constraints were kept to a minimum by using a low flow blockage and appropriate corrections were applied to the measurements. The results of these tests demonstrate the good performance of this type of windmill. Comparison of the measured performance with predictions from a simple mathematical model show excellent agreement. Maximum loads measured on the windmill are not well predicted by the mathematical model. In order to reconcile measurement and prediction large induced crossflows must be postulated at some blade rotational positions.

  2. Attitudes toward ride-sharing: 3M Center case study

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, R.A.; Edwards, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    The 3M vanpooling program is examined to find out why it has been successful while carpooling has declined. Employee surveys are used to determine which incentives and disincentives are in effect and which psychological factors are important. Analysis of six factors (personal freedom restriction, longevity, auto ownership and competition, travel cost, interpersonnal relationships, and distance from home to work) is used to break down the survey information and establish the attitudes which determine behavior. The findings can be used to reduce or eliminate most of the objections to carpooling and to emphasize the positive aspects. A personalized matching program is also recommended. 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  3. GAM observation in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanin, V. V.; Askinazi, L. G.; Belokurov, A. A.; Kornev, V. A.; Lebedev, V.; Petrov, A. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Wagner, F.; Yashin, A. Yu

    2016-04-01

    Results of an experimental study of geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. With Doppler backscattering (DBS) the basic properties of the GAM such as frequency, conditions for the GAM existence and the GAM radial location have been identified. The two-frequency Doppler reflectometer system was employed to reveal an interplay between low frequency sheared poloidal rotation, ambient turbulence level and the GAM intensity. Bicoherence analysis of the DBS data evidences the presence of a nonlinear interaction between the GAM and plasma turbulence.

  4. Organic dye penetration quantification into a dental composite resin cured by LED system using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Silva, Maciel E., Jr.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Pelino, José Eduardo P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2007-02-01

    A major characteristic of LEDs systems is the lower heat emission related with the kind of light generation and spectral emission band. Material temperature during photoactivation can promote different photocuring performance. Organic dye penetration could be a trace to identify the efficacy of photocured composite resin. A new method using fluorescent spectroscopy through digital image evaluation was developed in this study. In order to understand if there is a real influence of material temperature during the photoactivation procedure of a dental restorative material, a hybrid composite resin (Z250, 3M-Espe, USA) and 3 light sources, halogen lamp (510 mW/cm2) and two LED systems 470+/-10nm (345 and 1000 mW/cm2) under different temperatures and intensities were used. One thousand and five hundred samples under different associations between light sources and temperatures (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C were tested and immediately kept in 6G rodamin dye solution. Dye penetration was evaluated through fluorescent spectroscopy recorded by digital image data. Pixels in gray scale showed the percentage penetration of organic dye into the composite resin mass. Time and temperature were statistically significant (p<0.05) through the ANOVA statistical test. The lowest penetration value was with 60 seconds and 25 °C. Time and temperature are important factors to promote a homogeneous structure polymerized composite resin more than the light source type, halogen or LEDs system.

  5. Dental practice in Paris.

    PubMed

    Baron, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    This describes dental practice and the availability of dental patent remedies in Paris. Accounts of legal disputes, from original sources, illustrate the status and social history of some of the most wealthy dental practitioners in Paris during the Revolution.

  6. American Dental Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Prevention Summit ADA Find-a-Dentist Health Literacy in Dentistry Volunteer Efforts Dental Benefit Plan Information ... on Sleep Bruxism Rethinking Dental Insurance Oral Health Literacy's Role in Missed Appointments Dental Implant Failure Rate ...

  7. 30 years of ergonomics at 3M: a case study.

    PubMed

    Larson, N; Wick, H

    2012-01-01

    The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.

  8. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  9. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  10. Identification of mutations in CUL7 in 3-M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huber, Céline; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Glaser, Anna; O'Sullivan, James; Brauner, Raja; Wu, Kenneth; Xu, Xinsong; Pearce, Kerra; Wang, Rong; Uzielli, Maria Luisa Giovannucci; Dagoneau, Nathalie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Dos Santos, Heloisa; Mégarbané, André; Morin, Gilles; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hennekam, Raoul; Van der Burgt, Ineke; Black, Graeme C M; Clayton, Peter E; Read, Andrew; Le Merrer, Martine; Scambler, Peter J; Munnich, Arnold; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Winter, Robin; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2005-10-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation is caused by maternal, fetal or placental factors that result in impaired endovascular trophoblast invasion and reduced placental perfusion. Although various causes of intrauterine growth retardation have been identified, most cases remain unexplained. Studying 29 families with 3-M syndrome (OMIM 273750), an autosomal recessive condition characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, we first mapped the underlying gene to chromosome 6p21.1 and then identified 25 distinct mutations in the gene cullin 7 (CUL7). CUL7 assembles an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing Skp1, Fbx29 (also called Fbw8) and ROC1 and promotes ubiquitination. Using deletion analysis, we found that CUL7 uses its central region to interact with the Skp1-Fbx29 heterodimer. Functional studies indicated that the 3-M-associated CUL7 nonsense and missense mutations R1445X and H1464P, respectively, render CUL7 deficient in recruiting ROC1. These results suggest that impaired ubiquitination may have a role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation in humans.

  11. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  12. Dental Wings CAD/CAM system precision: an internal and marginal fit sperimental analisys.

    PubMed

    Sannino, G; Gloria, F; Schiavetti, R; Ottria, L; Barlattani, A

    2009-07-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.: The CAD-CAM technology has been developed to design and manufacture prosthetic structures with constant quality characteristics; in fact procedures are codified, manageable and repeatable. PURPOSE.: The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate the internal and marginal gap of zirconia casts made with a new CAD-CAM systematic that use Dental Wings laser scanner and Yenamak milling machine. MATERIAL AND METHODS.: 6 analogs of solid abutments of Straumann implants were used, fixed in plexiglass bases. The samples were scanned by Dental Wings laser; the file obtained by scanning of each probe was sent to the Yenamak D40 milling machine, then the casts were sintered in Protherm furnace. Then 6 samples were cemented with resin luting agent capsules (Relyx Unicem, 3M ESPE). The samples were incorporated in transparent epoxy resin. After resin hardening, the cylinders obtained were cut with a microtomes. These slices thus obtained were then polished with a Polisher sander with alumina dust decreasing grain. Each section was observed and photographed in reflected light with the aid of an optic microscope type, first at low magnification and then at higher magnification. RESULTS.: The overall average fitting of copings on the abutments was 32,87 μ. No differences were found in marginal fit on buccal and lingual sides, it was easily predictable because of the standard form of the used stumps. The recorded values for the marginal fit were lower than those of axial walls. The accuracy of adaptation was always achieved within the limits of clinical acceptability. CONCLUSIONS.: Within the limitations of this study, the system evaluated represents a valuable alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation techniques.

  13. Dental students--dental advocates.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future.

  14. Dental students--dental advocates.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future. PMID:21314046

  15. Idea Sharing: Professionalizing ESP Teaching to University Students through Modeling Professional Interaction in ESP Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the implementation of the "constructivist approach" in ESP teaching to university students. This approach creates opportunities for students to "construct" their own target language communication skills meant for use in their professional intercourse. The way of achieving such an effect can be seen in…

  16. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  17. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  18. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  19. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  20. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  1. When Myth and Reality Meet: Reflections on ESP in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celani, Maria Antonieta Alba

    2008-01-01

    Within the broad background of English language education in Brazil, this paper intends to discuss two questions. Firstly, where and why a common misconception about ESP being identified as the teaching of reading only originated, and secondly, given the social role of English in the Brazilian context, whether an ESP approach can be seen as more…

  2. Identification and Validation of ESP Teacher Competencies: A Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatraman, G.; Prema, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the research design used for identifying and validating a set of competencies required of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers. The identification of the competencies and the three-stage validation process are also discussed. The observation of classes of ESP teachers for field-testing the validated competencies and…

  3. The Impact of Mobile Learning on ESP Learners' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhezzi, Fahad; Al-Dousari, Wadha

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners' performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning…

  4. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  5. English for Specific Purposes (ESP): A Holistic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Momtazur

    2015-01-01

    English for Specific Purposes, known as acronym-"ESP", has been a distinct activity in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) since 1960s. The flowering period of ESP has been identified due to many incidents like the second world war in 1945, the rapid expansion in scientific, the growth of science and technology, the increased…

  6. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  7. Dental hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R M

    2011-08-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed dental pain and was treated for acute infected pulpitis of her right upper lateral incisor with drilling and filling. The pain continued and was helped by analgesia, sucking ice cubes and drinking cold water. Forty-eight hours later, she became confused and disoriented. She started to vomit and complained of headache. Investigations revealed hyponatraemia with normal serum potassium levels and initially normal urinary sodium excretion. Over the next 24 hours, she passed 5.45 L of urine and her serum sodium rose from 125 to 143 mmol/L. Self-induced water intoxication has been described during drinking games and initiation ceremonies, but this would appear to an unusual cause. Conservative management proved successful in allowing this girl to recover without sequelae. PMID:21873727

  8. Operating experience with ESP`s and permanent downhole flowmeters in Wytch Farm extended-reach wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, A.D.; Hill, G.; Allan, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    One-third of the recoverable reserves in British Petroleum Co.`s U.K. onshore oil field, Wytch Farm, lie in an offshore extension of the field. These reserves, which have been undeveloped until recently, are now being exploited with electric submersible pumps (ESP`s) in extended-reach wells drilled from onshore wellsites. The relatively high productivities achieved as a result of successful horizontal completions have pushed ESP technology to the limits in terms of capacity and power requirements. This paper presents a case history of /the unique set of problems encountered during and subsequent to startup of the ESP`s in the first three wells. The problems, in particular pump-suction-blockage problems, were directly attributable to the position of the ESP`s in the near-horizontal section (82 to 85{degree}) of the wells. The paper also describes the innovative permanent downhole flowmeter system incorporated in the completion. The system measures and logs flow-rate data, pump-suction and -discharge pressures, and temperature. Examples are presented that clearly demonstrate how these data have been invaluable in understanding the problems encountered in the initial extended-reach wells and the role the system has played in extending ESP run lives. Finally, completion-equipment modifications and operating-procedure changes, successfully introduced to resolve the problems encountered in the first two wells and to avoid them in subsequent wells, are described.

  9. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  10. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity and Inclusion ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education What is ADEA CCI? ADEA ... Education, 2016–2017 Beyond the Crossroads: Change and Innovation in Dental Education ADEA Guidelines for Ethical Academic ...

  11. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  12. Dental laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2008-10-01

    Dental technology is rapidly affecting the treatment options available to patients. Dental lasers are an innovative technology for both hard- and soft-tissue treatment applications. The ability to recontour soft tissues efficiently and predictably with immediate hemostatsis and minimal postoperative sequelae is of value to both the dentist and the patient. This article reviews the principles of dental lasers, criteria to consider when selecting a dental laser, and some of their clinical applications.

  13. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  14. Dental records: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Charangowda, B K

    2010-01-01

    Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics. PMID:21189983

  15. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  16. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  17. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  18. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  19. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  20. Space station payload operations scheduling with ESP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kenneth L.; Jaap, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The Mission Analysis Division of the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a system of programs to handle all aspects of scheduling payload operations for Space Station. The Expert Scheduling Program (ESP2) is the heart of this system. The task of payload operations scheduling can be simply stated as positioning the payload activities in a mission so that they collect their desired data without interfering with other activities or violating mission constraints. ESP2 is an advanced version of the Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP) which was developed by the Mission Integration Branch beginning in 1979 to schedule Spacelab payload activities. The automatic scheduler in ESP2 is an expert system that embodies the rules that expert planners would use to schedule payload operations by hand. This scheduler uses depth-first searching, backtracking, and forward chaining techniques to place an activity so that constraints (such as crew, resources, and orbit opportunities) are not violated. It has an explanation facility to show why an activity was or was not scheduled at a certain time. The ESP2 user can also place the activities in the schedule manually. The program offers graphical assistance to the user and will advise when constraints are being violated. ESP2 also has an option to identify conflict introduced into an existing schedule by changes to payload requirements, mission constraints, and orbit opportunities.

  1. The pregnant dental patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Medha

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with a pregnant patient, the dental practitioner should keep in mind the various physiological changes that occur in the pregnant female and the potential effects on the fetus in using various types of local anesthesia. This article reviews the current considerations in the use of local anesthesia in the pregnant dental patient, and the safety of local anesthetics, their dosage, and any adverse effect on mother and fetus. It also discusses various dental procedures and the trimester during which they can be performed. Lastly, this article talks about the complications that can occur with a pregnant dental patient in the dental chair.

  2. Contribution of the enterococcal surface protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Bonten, Marc J M; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L

    2011-12-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 h, less E1162Δesp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans.

  3. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  4. The Future of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The author, a representative of the American Dental Trade Association, identifies major challenges facing dental education in the areas of predoctoral dental education, postdoctoral dental education, and continuing dental education. Ten recommendations address preclinical and clinical courses, licensing examinations, mandatory continuing…

  5. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  6. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations.

  7. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations. PMID:24431749

  8. Flexural strength of dental composite restoratives: comparison of biaxial and three-point bending test.

    PubMed

    Chung, S M; Yap, A U J; Chandra, S P; Lim, C T

    2004-11-15

    This study compared two test methods used to evaluate the flexural strength of resin-based dental composites. The two test methods evaluated were the three-point bending test4 and the biaxial flexural test. Materials used in this investigation were from the same manufacturer (3M ESPE) and included microfill (A110), minifill (Z100 and Filtek Z250), polyacid modified (F2000), and flowable [Filtek Flowable (FF)] composites. Flexural strength was determined with the use of both test methods after 1 week of conditioning in water at 37 degrees C. Data were analyzed with the use of an ANOVA/Scheffe test and an independent-samples t test at significance level 0.05. Mean flexural strength (n = 7) ranged from 66.61 to 147.21 and 67.27 to 182.81 MPa for three-point bending and ball-on-three-ball biaxial test methods, respectively. In both test methods, Z100 was significantly stronger than all other composites evaluated. In the three-point bending test, flexural strength of Z250 was significantly higher than A110, F2000 and FF, and FF was significantly stronger than A110 and F2000. The biaxial test method arrived at the same conclusions except that there was no significant difference between Z250 and FF. Pearson's correlation revealed a significantly (p < 0.01) positive and good correlation (R2 = 0.72) in flexural strength between the two test methods. Although the biaxial test has the advantage of utilizing small specimens, the low reproducibility of this test method does not support the proposition that it is a more reliable test method when compared to the ISO three-point bending test. PMID:15386492

  9. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries

  10. Meeting Dental Health Needs Through Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alvin L.

    1972-01-01

    Dental health needs of the country cannot be met through education of more dentists. Rather, we must educate auxiliaries to perform many of the intraoral procedures now regarded the sole responsibility of dentists. (SB)

  11. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  12. Successful test of new ESP technology for gassy oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, E. M.; Kalas, P.

    1998-07-01

    Problems producing high free-gas fractions through electric-submersible-pump (ESP) systems have been well-documented. When fluid flows through an ESP, gas bubbles tend to lag behind the liquid in the lower-pressure area of the impeller and gas accumulates in that area over a period of time. When the gas forms a long continuous column, the pump no longer generates a discharge pressure and the equipment shuts down because of amperage underload. The amount of gas a pump can handle without gas locking depends on stage designs and sizes. Smaller pumps with radial stages have been known to handle 10 to 15 vol% free gas, and larger pumps with mixed-flow staging can tolerate 20 to 25 vol%. Today many ESP applications require smaller pumps to handle 30 to 50 vol% free gas and larger pumps to handle 40 to 60 vol%. Wells in Lake Maracaibo have high gas/oil ratios, and their production by use of a standard ESP configuration was not considered a feasible option. The wells are currently on gas lift, but their production is declining and gas for gas lift is expensive. If a newly developed advanced gas-handling (AGH) system can enable an ESP to handle at least 40 vol% free gas, it would be a production option for these wells.

  13. Test evaluates high-volume ESP application offshore Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Almazo, S.G.; Riling, G.

    1998-02-16

    An electric submersible pump (ESP) test, although shorter than hoped for, indicated that artificial lift with ESPs had potential for replacing gas-lift operations, offshore Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) recently preformed this test of a high-volume (10,000 b/d) ESP in the Akal reservoir of the Cantarell field, northeast Marina Region in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Marine Region, gas lift is the main artificial lift method; however, to maintain production on gas lift, sweetened gas requirements for the Akal reservoir would have to increase by about 30 MMscfd. The ESP design was complex because the pump would have to handle 20--40% of free gas at its intake. Installed in September 1996, the ESP had to be pulled from the well in November 1997 because of an electrical short. Actual operating time was about 7 months. The paper describes test objectives, pump environment, pump design, downhole equipment, surface equipment, operating history, production history, and an analysis.

  14. Case based dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is quickly becoming integral to the standard of care in veterinary dentistry. This is not only because it is critical for proper patient care, but also because client expectations have increased. Furthermore, providing dental radiographs as a routine service can create significant practice income. This article details numerous conditions that are indications for dental radiographs. As you will see, dental radiographs are often critical for proper diagnosis and treatment. These conditions should not be viewed as unusual; they are present within all of our practices. When you choose not to radiograph these teeth, you leave behind painful pathology. Utilizing the knowledge gained from dental radiographs will both improve patient care and increase acceptance of treatment recommendations. Consequently, this leads to increased numbers of dental procedures performed at your practice. PMID:19410233

  15. [Determination of dental age].

    PubMed

    Willems, Guy

    2005-01-01

    A review of the most commonly used dental age estimating techniques is generated. The most important issue for the forensic odontologist involved in dental age estimation is to employ as many of these methods as possible by performing repetitive measurements and calculations of different age-related parameters. That is the only way in order to try and establish reliable dental age estimations. In particular, a special chapter is attributed to the complex problem of determining the age of majority. PMID:16370435

  16. ESPs: On- and offshore problems and solutions. Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Wells, M.R.; Bearden, J.L.; Wilson, L.; Shepler, R.; Lannom, R.

    1996-03-01

    This is the fourth in a multipart series on the usage of electrical submersible pumps. This installment deals with high temperature, design, power consumption, run life, sweep efficiency and miscellaneous problems. The final installment next month will include a complete list of references. The column heating ``ESPs`` refers to the number of ESPs reported installed. Although all of the topics in this series can be considered ways of increasing run life and solving problems, the Run Life table includes several topics that specifically help to increase run life. Two cases were identified where ESPs are used to increase the sweep efficiency of a flood. The Sweep Efficiency table summarizes case histories where fluids were produced without the production losses that normally plague high volume systems. The Miscellaneous-Overall table includes several solutions that were part of an overall plan to increase run life. These strategies included automation, running and pulling procedures and surveillance.

  17. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  18. Coiled-coil domain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli type III secreted protein EspD is involved in EspA filament-mediated cell attachment and hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Daniell, S J; Delahay, R M; Shaw, R K; Hartland, E L; Pallen, M J; Booy, F; Ebel, F; Knutton, S; Frankel, G

    2001-06-01

    Many animal and plant pathogens use type III secretion systems to secrete key virulence factors, some directly into the host cell cytosol. However, the basis for such protein translocation has yet to be fully elucidated for any type III secretion system. We have previously shown that in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli the type III secreted protein EspA is assembled into a filamentous organelle that attaches the bacterium to the plasma membrane of the host cell. Formation of EspA filaments is dependent on expression of another type III secreted protein, EspD. The carboxy terminus of EspD, a protein involved in formation of the translocation pore in the host cell membrane, is predicted to adopt a coiled-coil conformation with 99% probability. Here, we demonstrate EspD-EspD protein interaction using the yeast two-hybrid system and column overlays. Nonconservative triple amino acid substitutions of specific EspD carboxy-terminal residues generated an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant that was attenuated in its ability to induce attaching and effacing lesions on HEp-2 cells. Although the mutation had no effect on EspA filament biosynthesis, it also resulted in reduced binding to and reduced hemolysis of red blood cells. These results segregate, for the first time, functional domains of EspD that control EspA filament length from EspD-mediated cell attachment and pore formation.

  19. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Durham, M.D.; Sowa, W.A.; Himes, R.M.; Mahaffey, W.A.

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  20. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed

  1. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more. PMID:27587574

  2. Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma.

    PubMed

    Takano, Toru; Miyauchi, Akira; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kuma, Kanji; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-28

    The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a marker for distinguishing thyroid follicular adenomas from carcinomas. However, when measuring the expression level of TFF3 mRNA in fine needle aspiration biopsies, an appropriate internal control mRNA, of which expression is restricted in thyroid epithelial--derived cells, is necessary, since they are often contaminated with a considerable number of blood cells, which do not express TFF3 mRNA. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of molecular-based diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by measuring the relative expression of TFF3 mRNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using galectin-3 mRNA as an internal control. The TFF3/galectin-3 mRNA ratio (T/G ratio) was measured in 54 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas. It was markedly decreased in 7 follicular carcinomas of widely invasive type and with evident distant metastases. When the cutoff point was set at 16.0 by a receiver operator characteristic curve, the TG ratio showed good agreement with the pathological diagnosis [kappa=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.77]. This agreement was better when the pathologically questionable cases were excluded (kappa=0.72; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95). Quantification of the T/G ratio may be a useful tool for the distinction between follicular adenomas and carcinomas, which is the most difficult in thyroid pathology.

  3. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  4. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  5. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  6. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    The Editor-in-Chief of the BDJ has previously raised important questions about dental workforce planning and the implications for dental graduates of recent changes and pressures. It is now time to revisit this issue. Much has changed since the last workforce review in England and Wales, and the rate of change is in all probability set to increase. First, at the time of writing this paper the momentous step of including dental care professionals (DCPs) on General Dental Council (GDC) registers in the United Kingdom has recently been completed. Second, the Scope of Practice of all dental professionals has been under consultation by the General Dental Council, and research evidence suggests that greater use should be made of skill-mix in the dental team. Third, within England, Lord Darzi has just published the 'Final Report of the NHS Next Stage Review', which emphasises 'quality care' and 'team-working' as key features of healthcare; this report was accompanied by an important document entitled 'A High Quality Workforce', in which plans for local workforce planning within the NHS are outlined, placing responsibilities at national, local and regional levels. Fourth, policy makers across the UK are wrestling with addressing oral health needs, promoting health and facilitating access to dental care, all of which have implications for the nature and shape of the dental workforce. Fifth, with the impact of globalisation and European policies we are net gainers of dentists as well as having more in training. Sixth, although there have been reviews and policy initiatives by regulatory, professional and other bodies in support of shaping the dental workforce, there has been little serious consideration of skill-mix and funding mechanisms to encourage team-working. Together, these events demand that we enter a fresh debate on the future dental workforce which should extend beyond professional and national boundaries and inform workforce planning. This debate is of great

  7. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    The Editor-in-Chief of the BDJ has previously raised important questions about dental workforce planning and the implications for dental graduates of recent changes and pressures. It is now time to revisit this issue. Much has changed since the last workforce review in England and Wales, and the rate of change is in all probability set to increase. First, at the time of writing this paper the momentous step of including dental care professionals (DCPs) on General Dental Council (GDC) registers in the United Kingdom has recently been completed. Second, the Scope of Practice of all dental professionals has been under consultation by the General Dental Council, and research evidence suggests that greater use should be made of skill-mix in the dental team. Third, within England, Lord Darzi has just published the 'Final Report of the NHS Next Stage Review', which emphasises 'quality care' and 'team-working' as key features of healthcare; this report was accompanied by an important document entitled 'A High Quality Workforce', in which plans for local workforce planning within the NHS are outlined, placing responsibilities at national, local and regional levels. Fourth, policy makers across the UK are wrestling with addressing oral health needs, promoting health and facilitating access to dental care, all of which have implications for the nature and shape of the dental workforce. Fifth, with the impact of globalisation and European policies we are net gainers of dentists as well as having more in training. Sixth, although there have been reviews and policy initiatives by regulatory, professional and other bodies in support of shaping the dental workforce, there has been little serious consideration of skill-mix and funding mechanisms to encourage team-working. Together, these events demand that we enter a fresh debate on the future dental workforce which should extend beyond professional and national boundaries and inform workforce planning. This debate is of great

  8. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in the cities of the northern region of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontes, André M; Ardisson, Juliana S; Souza, Marco A A; Freitas, Rodrigo R; Pancoto, João A T

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 2 billion people worldwide have already had contact with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 373 million have become chronic carriers. Hepatitis B is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to a large number of deaths annually. Both viral factors and the host immune response have been implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical result of HBV infection. Many Brazilian cities, including the cities of the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo are located in regions with little health infrastructure. Our study performed an epidemiological analysis of cases of Hepatitis B in São Mateus, using methodology of Geographic Information System (GIS), aiming to raise the number of disease cases, establishing preventive measures to control the disease, improving the quality of life of people affected by this pathology. The city of São Mateus had the largest number of reported cases of hepatitis B northern region of Espírito Santo. The age group with the highest number of hepatitis B notifications was 20-49 years, mostly females. The major forms of contact with HBV in these cities were dental treatment, use of injectable medications, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners. PMID:27508989

  9. Principles Involved in Writing an ESP Textbook for Turkish Policemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyel, Ayse; Yalcin, Eileen

    1991-01-01

    Development and use of an English for Special Purposes (ESP) textbook for Turkish police dealing with tourists are described. The textbook and accompanying videotape (not available from ERIC) were designed for use in a course to improve job-specific communicative competence of police officers with a lower-intermediate to intermediate level of…

  10. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  11. Pictures Speak Louder than Words in ESP, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfani, Seyyed Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    While integrating visual features can be among the most important characteristics of English language textbooks, reviewing the current locally-produced English for Specific Purposes (ESP) ones reveals that they lack such a feature. Enjoying a rich theoretical background including Paivio's dual coding theory as well as Sert's educational semiotics,…

  12. ESP Needs Washback and the Fine Tuning of Driving Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiermuth, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace needs are often difficult for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teachers to assess due to a variety of obstacles that can restrict opportunities to analyze the existing needs. Nevertheless, the workers' needs may be recognized by employing techniques aimed at extracting information from the workers themselves. Japanese university…

  13. Some Comments on the Nature of Chinese ESP Coursebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Ann M.

    English for specific purposes (ESP) coursebooks compiled by writers in the People's Republic of China are described. Eight textbooks are examined focusing on their common features in terms of reading passages, reliance upon Chinese language, focus upon the Chinese environment, emphasis upon structural grammar, focus upon vocabulary, rhetorical…

  14. Post graduate ESP curriculum: reading and writing needs.

    PubMed

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Bagherzadeh, Rafat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Hatami, Kamran; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learners' needs is an integral part of any curriculum and course design , namely English for specific purposes (ESP), syllabus design, materials development, teaching methods and testing issues. Critical approach to needs analysis, which is a relatively recent approach, acknowledges the rights of different stakeholders including teachers, students and administrators in the process of needs analysis. However, there has been no formal need analysis for syllabus design at postgraduate level in Medical Universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study, conducted in 2011, was an attempt to assess the reading and writing needs of postgraduate students in ESP courses on the basis of critical approach to needs analysis. The study population consisted of 67 people: 56 postgraduate students, 5 heads of departments, 5 ESP instructors and 1 executive manager at the Ministry of Health in Iran. Ethical and demographic forms, needs analysis questionnaires, and a form of semi-structured interview were the instruments of the study. According to the findings, there was a discrepancy between students' and instructors' perception of learners' needs and the assumed needs appearing in the syllabi prescribed by the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study showed that a call for critical needs analysis in which the rights of different stakeholders are acknowledged is necessary for meeting the requirements of any ESP classes especially at postgraduate level where the instructors and learners are fully aware of learners' needs. PMID:24902023

  15. Use of Authentic Materials in the ESP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavent, Gabriela Torregrosa; Penamaria, Sonsoles Sanchez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Authentic materials are especially important for ESP trainees, since they reproduce an immersion environment and provide a realistic context for tasks that relate to learners' needs. Realia and authentic materials increase learners' motivation but are difficult to adapt to the learner's level of language, especially at the beginning level. It is…

  16. Between the ESP Classroom and the Workplace: Bridging the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzidi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Since the launch of far-reaching higher education reforms several years ago, many institutions across Morocco have begun revamping their English for Special Purposes (ESP) programs to bring them in line with the needs of local employers. These reforms recognize the correlation between what students learn in class and success in their future…

  17. Post graduate ESP curriculum: reading and writing needs.

    PubMed

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Bagherzadeh, Rafat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Hatami, Kamran; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learners' needs is an integral part of any curriculum and course design , namely English for specific purposes (ESP), syllabus design, materials development, teaching methods and testing issues. Critical approach to needs analysis, which is a relatively recent approach, acknowledges the rights of different stakeholders including teachers, students and administrators in the process of needs analysis. However, there has been no formal need analysis for syllabus design at postgraduate level in Medical Universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study, conducted in 2011, was an attempt to assess the reading and writing needs of postgraduate students in ESP courses on the basis of critical approach to needs analysis. The study population consisted of 67 people: 56 postgraduate students, 5 heads of departments, 5 ESP instructors and 1 executive manager at the Ministry of Health in Iran. Ethical and demographic forms, needs analysis questionnaires, and a form of semi-structured interview were the instruments of the study. According to the findings, there was a discrepancy between students' and instructors' perception of learners' needs and the assumed needs appearing in the syllabi prescribed by the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study showed that a call for critical needs analysis in which the rights of different stakeholders are acknowledged is necessary for meeting the requirements of any ESP classes especially at postgraduate level where the instructors and learners are fully aware of learners' needs.

  18. Translating and Revising as Opportunities for ESP Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    This microethnographic case study discusses the effects of translating and revising documents for an English-medium master of science in engineering programme in terms of workload and value for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teacher development, integration, and enculturation. During the changeover from the diploma to bachelor-master…

  19. Autonomous Learning and Metacognitive Strategies Essentials in ESP Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajideh, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    The reform in teaching and curriculum involves not only in the teaching content, but more so in teachers' methodology, the students' learning strategies and the changed relationship between students and teachers in the classroom setting. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that what is needed for ESP is a different orientation to English study…

  20. Pedagogical Applications of Vlogs: An Investigation into ESP Learners' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Shao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study set out to examine the implementation of a video blog (vlog) project in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course that aimed to increase students' opportunities to use the target language. Specifically, it explored students' perceptions towards vlogs and analysed the advantages and disadvantages of vlogs as identified by the…

  1. Genre Awareness in ESP Teaching: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulstad, Aud Solbjorg

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how research on conventional discourse patterns in professional settings provides useful insights into the design of language for specific purposes/English for specific purposes courses (LSP/ESP). Suggests an LSP course should aim at developing students' genre awareness. The question of whether genre conventions should be explicitly…

  2. The ESP Teacher: Role, Development and Prospects. ELT Documents 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A collection of papers on the profession of teaching English for special purposes includes: "Scenes of Endless Science: ESP and Education" (A. Crocker); "Some Problems of a World-Wide Profession" (T. Johns); "The EST Teacher: A Negative View" (G. Greenall); "The Helpful EST Teacher" (W. Robinson); "A Way Forward: A Fusion of Two Cultures" (M.…

  3. Characterization of two virulence proteins secreted by rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, EspA and EspB, whose maximal expression is sensitive to host body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, A; Kenny, B; Stein, M; Finlay, B B

    1997-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and rabbit EPEC (RDEC-1) cause unique histopathological features on intestinal mucosa, including attaching/effacing (A/E) lesions. Due to the human specificity of EPEC, RDEC-1 has been used as an animal model to study EPEC pathogenesis. At least two of the previously identified EPEC-secreted proteins, EspA and EspB, are required for triggering host epithelial signal transduction pathways, intimate adherence, and A/E lesions. However, the functions of these secreted proteins and their roles in pathogenesis have not been characterized. To investigate the function of EspA and EspB in RDEC-1, the espA and espB genes were cloned and their sequences were compared to that of EPEC O127. The EspA proteins showed high similarity (88.5% identity), while EspB was heterogeneous in internal regions (69.8% identity). However, RDEC-1 EspB was identical to that of enterohemorrhagic E. coli serotype O26. Mutations in RDEC-1 espA and espB revealed that the corresponding RDEC-1 gene products are essential for triggering of host signal transduction pathways and invasion into HeLa cells. Complementation with plasmids containing EPEC espA or/and espB genes into RDEC-1 mutant strains demonstrated that they were functionally interchangeable, although the EPEC proteins mediated higher levels of invasion. Furthermore, maximal expression of RDEC-1 and EPEC-secreted proteins occurred at their respective host body temperatures, which may contribute to the lack of EPEC infectivity in rabbits. PMID:9284118

  4. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

  5. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  6. Expression and purification of mouse peptide ESP4 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hirakane, Makoto; Taniguchi, Masahiro; Yoshinaga, Sosuke; Misumi, Shogo; Terasawa, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Pheromones are species-specific chemical signals that regulate a wide range of social and sexual behaviors in many animals. In mice, the male-specific peptide ESP1 (exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1) is secreted into tear fluids and enhances female sexual receptive behavior. ESP1 belongs to the ESP family, a multigene family with 38 genes in mice. ESP1 shares the highest homology with ESP4. ESP1 is expressed in the extraorbital lacrimal gland, whereas ESP4 is expressed in some exocrine glands. Thus, ESP4 is expected to have a function that has not been elucidated yet. Large amounts of the purified ESP4 protein are required for structural and biochemical studies. Here we present an expression and purification scheme for the recombinant ESP4 protein. The N-terminally histidine-tagged ESP4 fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies, which were solubilized and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The histidine tag was cleaved with thrombin and removed by a second nickel affinity chromatography step. The ESP4 protein was isolated with high purity by reversed-phase chromatography. For NMR analyses, we prepared a stable isotope-labeled ESP4 protein. Three repeated freeze-drying steps after the reversed-phase chromatography were required, to remove a volatile contaminating compound and to obtain an NMR spectrum with a homogeneous line shape. AMS-modification and far-UV CD spectroscopic analyses suggested that ESP4 has an intramolecular disulfide bridge and a helical structure, respectively. The present study provides a powerful tool for structural and biochemical studies of ESP4, leading toward the elucidation of the roles of the ESP family members.

  7. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth" ("La Encia y…

  8. Dental journals: yesterday and today.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2012-10-01

    Today's dentists may subscribe to, or receive complimentarily, a number of periodical publications containing technical professional information. Dental journals are the prime example: providing timely, reliable and useful information. The development of dental journals is a component of the evolution of scientific communication. This article reviews the origins and evolution of dental journals, including the Texas Dental Journal. PMID:23311024

  9. Applying the adult Education Framework to ESP Curriculum Development: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifakis, N. C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents recent work in English for specific purposes (ESP)/languages for specific purposes (LSP) and adult education and puts forward an integrative model for ESP curriculum design. Outlines a set of characteristics that identify the ESP learner within the general adult learning framework. (Author/VWL)

  10. A Functional-Notional Approach for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programs, characterized by the special needs of the language learners, are described and a review of the literature on a functional-notional approach to the syllabus design of ESP programs is presented. It is suggested that effective ESP programs should teach the language skills necessary to function and perform…

  11. Evaluation of an ESP Medical Textbook: Instructors and Learners' Perceptions in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Hadi; Khadivar, Zahra; Mehrabi, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is basically a matching process, which concerns matching learners' needs to available solutions. Through analysis and assessment of ESP textbooks, a much more promising and desirable approach to a theory of ESP takes place. To this aim, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ESP medical textbook. To gather the necessary…

  12. Dental student debt.

    PubMed

    Mannion, H; Bedi, R

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this investigation is to provide information about the financial status of dental students enrolled on the Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree course at the University of Birmingham. All undergraduate dental students enrolled during the academic year 1993-94 were asked to participate in the study. The pre-tested questionnaire, which was given to all students, covered personal details, expenditure levels, income, loans, overdrafts, use of government schemes ('top-up loans'), and so on. The questionnaire was completed by 115 dental students (response rate 47%). The results showed that dental students' debts increased each year throughout the course. A top-up loan (range 700 Pounds-850 Pounds) had been taken out by 36% of students. The financial status of 9% of students was severe enough to warrant their eligibility for awards from access funds. Credit cards were possessed by 52% of the surveyed students, and although only half of these owed money, 22% owed between 500 Pounds and 2000 Pounds. Personal overdrafts were held by 56% of respondents. A total of 17% of students engaged in weekly part-time employment. The average debt for final year students was 1200 Pounds. Dental students' estimates of the level of debt they were likely to incur was greater than the actual debt presently experienced by final year students. In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that most dental students incur debt during their undergraduate course and that this debt increases during the course.

  13. Pre- and post-natal growth in two sisters with 3-M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Licia; Bertucci, Emma; Mazza, Vincenzo; Elmakky, Amira; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Neuhaus, Christine; Percesepe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    3-M syndrome (OMIM #273750) is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder characterized by severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction, associated with minor skeletal abnormalities and dysmorphisms. Although the 3-M syndrome is well known as a primordial dwarfism, descriptions of the prenatal growth are missing. We report a family with variable phenotypic features of 3-M syndrome and we describe the prenatal and postnatal growth pattern of two affected sisters with a novel homozygous CUL7 mutation (c.3173-1G>C), showing a pre- and post-natal growth deficiency and a normal cranial circumference. PMID:26850509

  14. Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.

  15. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zakher B, Mitchell JP, Pappas M. Preventing dental caries in children <5 years: systematic review updating USPSTF ... chap 7. Ng MW, Chase I. Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management. Dent Clin ...

  16. Dental mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Paul T

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian teeth harbour mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which contribute to tooth growth and repair. These dental MSCs possess many in vitro features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, including clonogenicity, expression of certain markers, and following stimulation, differentiation into cells that have the characteristics of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Teeth and their support tissues provide not only an easily accessible source of MSCs but also a tractable model system to study their function and properties in vivo In addition, the accessibility of teeth together with their clinical relevance provides a valuable opportunity to test stem cell-based treatments for dental disorders. This Review outlines some recent discoveries in dental MSC function and behaviour and discusses how these and other advances are paving the way for the development of new biologically based dental therapies. PMID:27381225

  17. Glossary of Dental Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... geta poker friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental ... and shape of teeth performed by a general dentist | More Edentulous having lost most or all of ...

  18. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  19. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you and your baby and contain less sugar that can damage your teeth. Water or low-fat milk hydrates you and contains little or no sugar. For More Information American Dental Association: Pregnancy http : / / ...

  20. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Obenschain, Art (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  1. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  2. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  3. 101. JOB NO. 1347F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. JOB NO. 1347-F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ONE-EIGHTH SCALE OF OFFICES - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 115. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; BOILER SETTING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. SAGE III Meteor-3M L2 Solar Event Species Profiles (Native) V003

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-14

    SAGE III Meteor-3M L2 Solar Event Species Profiles (Native) V003 Project Title:  ... Aerosol Extinction Ozone Atmospheric Pressure Water Vapor Nitrogen Dioxide Air Temperature Trace Gases Dust/ash ...

  6. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  7. Dental (Odontogenic) Pain

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a simple overview of acute trigeminal pain for the non dentist. This article does not cover oral mucosal diseases (vesiculobullous disorders) that may cause acute pain. Dental pain is the most common in this group and it can present in several different ways. Of particular interest for is that dental pain can mimic both trigeminal neuralgia and other chronic trigeminal pain disorders. It is crucial to exclude these disorders whilst managing patients with chronic trigeminal pain. PMID:26527224

  8. Dental operatory water lines.

    PubMed

    Beierle, J W

    1993-02-01

    Water samples were collected from dental handpiece and air-water syringe lines at various times during the day and cultured for the presence and prevalence of various microbes. It was found that the longer a dental unit was out of use, the greater the microbial build-up in water lines. However, purging lines for two to three minutes at the start of the day and between patients significantly reduced microbial presence.

  9. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  10. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  11. Understand, solve problems with ESP wide plate spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Grieco, G.J.

    1994-08-01

    Selecting the appropriate type of discharge electrode and the width of the channels formed by the collecting plates is critical to the performance of a high-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). These considerations may be biased toward a supplier's standard discharge electrode designs and the economic pressure to apply wide plate spacing, often, it has turned out, at the expense of the performance of the ESP. As with any system, a change in any one component will impact the performance of all other components. The trend toward wide plate spacings has not always resulted in parametric analysis of the effect on the rest of the components. Discharge electrode configuration, collecting plate spacing, field strength, current density, particulate size and resistivity, and dust loading must all be taken into consideration when optimum precipitator performance is sought. This article provides an understanding of the ESP precipitation process that can provide insights into the proper application of wide plate spacing and discharge-electrodes configuration as well as design changes that can be incorporated to improve performance.

  12. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  13. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  14. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  15. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  16. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  17. DNA sequence variability of IGHG3 alleles associated to the main G3m haplotypes in human populations.

    PubMed

    Dard, P; Lefranc, M P; Osipova, L; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2001-10-01

    The present study investigates the molecular basis of the G3m polymorphism expressed by the heavy constant domains of human immunoglobulins gamma 3 chains. By using a new protocol allowing the specific cloning of IGHG3 genes, a total of 51 full-length IGHG3 genomic sequences (about 2 kb) isolated from African, Siberian, West Asian and European population samples were sequenced. IGHG3 sequences were assigned precise G3m haplotypes on the basis of specific associations between G3m allotypes and IGHG3 RFLPs. Specific DNA substitutions involved in the expression of G3m(5), G3m(6), G3m(15), G3m(16), G3m(21), G3m(24) and G3m(28) allotypes were then deduced, elucidating almost completely the determination of the G3m polymorphism at the DNA level. The molecular evolution of G3m haplotypes was investigated by a maximum likelihood phylogeny of IGHG3 sequences. Sequence clusters are shown to be G3m haplotype-specific, corroborating the Gm molecular model deduced from serology, and showing that populations differentiation is much more recent than G3m haplotypes differentiation. The widely distributed G3m(5,10,11,13,14) haplotype is likely to be ancestral to the other G3m haplotypes presently found at high frequencies in different continental areas.

  18. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  19. An Inter- and Intraprofessional Education Program in Which Dental Hygiene Students Instruct Medical and Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiromi; Kondo, Keiko; Ohara, Yuki; Yasuda, Masayo; Kishimoto, Natsuki; Sunaga, Masayo; Endo, Keiko; Arakawa, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Shinada, Kayoko

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an inter- and intraprofessional education program with a peer support joint practice in which dental hygiene students teach medical and dental students about oral health care for older people requiring long-term care. In 2015 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 22 dental hygiene students in their third year at the School of Oral Health Care Sciences (OH3), 110 students in their third year at the School of Medicine (M3), and 52 students in their third year at the School of Dentistry (D3) participated in this program. The OH3 students practiced with a whole-body-type simulator to learn oral health care for older people and then taught the methods to the M3 and D3 students according to their self-designed teaching plan. All M3 and D3 students experienced being both practitioner and patient. The number of respondents and response rates on the questionnaires after the training were 22 (100%), 102 (92.7%), and 52 (100%) for the OH3, M3, and D3 students, respectively. Self-assessment by the OH3 students indicated that they could supervise other students sufficiently (77-86%), and 91% of them found the preclinical practice with the simulator efficient for the peer support joint practice. Almost all the M3 and D3 students reported that they gained understanding of the methods (99%), significance (100%), and important points of oral health care for older people (97%) in addition to the jobs and roles of dental hygienists (93%) because of this program. The M3 students understood the methods and significance of oral health care more deeply than did the D3 students (p<0.05). This study found that an interprofessional program with a peer support joint practice to cultivate practical clinical ability aided in increasing understanding and cooperation between medicine and dentistry. PMID:27587573

  20. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society. PMID:24046337

  1. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  2. Influence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) on the transport of Enterococcus faecium within saturated quartz sands.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Jennifer J; Feriancikova, Lucia; Xu, Shangping

    2012-02-01

    Enterococcus was selected by US EPA as a Gram-positive indicator microorganism for groundwater fecal contamination. It was recently reported that enterococcal surface protein (esp) was more prevalent in Enterococcus from human sources than in Enterococcus from nonhuman sources and esp could potentially be used as a source tracking tool for fecal contamination (Scott et al., 2005). In this research, we performed laboratory column transport experiments to investigate the transport of Enterococcus faecium within saturated quartz sands. Particularly, we used a wild type strain (E1162) and a mutant (E1162Δesp) to examine the influence of esp on the transport behavior of E. faecium. Our results showed that esp could significantly enhance the attachment of E. faecium cells onto the surface of silica sands and thus lower the mobility of E. faecium within sand packs. Cell surface properties (e.g., zeta potential) were determined and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory was applied to explain the effects of esp on the retention of E. faecium. Overall, our results suggested that E. faecium strains with esp could display lower mobility within saturated sand packs than E. faecium strains without esp. The disparity in the transport behavior of E. faecium with and without esp could limit the effectiveness of esp as a source tracking tool within the groundwater system.

  3. Citrobacter rodentium espB Is Necessary for Signal Transduction and for Infection of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joseph V.; Zabel, Brian A.; Jha, Sharda S.; Schauer, David B.

    1999-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is the causative agent of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia and contains a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) similar to that found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). EPEC espB is necessary for intimate attachment and signal transduction between EPEC and cultured cell monolayers. Mice challenged with wild-type C. rodentium develop a mucosal immunoglobulin A response to EspB. In this study, C. rodentium espB has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. C. rodentium espB was found to have 90% identity to EPEC espB. A nonpolar insertion mutation in C. rodentium espB was constructed and used to replace the chromosomal wild-type allele. The C. rodentium espB mutant exhibited reduced cell association and had no detectable fluorescent actin staining activity on cultured cell monolayers. The C. rodentium espB mutant also failed to colonize laboratory mice following experimental inoculation. The espB mutation could be complemented with a plasmid-encoded copy of the gene, which restored both cell association and fluorescent actin staining activity, as well as the ability to colonize laboratory mice. These studies indicate that espB is necessary for signal transduction and for colonization of laboratory mice by C. rodentium. PMID:10531262

  4. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  5. Dental practice network of U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Monica A; Beeson, Dennis C; Hans, Mark G

    2009-12-01

    As dental schools incorporate training in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into their curricula, students must learn how to critically evaluate systematic reviews and meta-analyses. It is important that dental education in the United States support the American Dental Association's position statement on EBD, which defines "best evidence" as data obtained from all study designs. Given that much evidence is missing when EBD is derived from Cochrane Systematic Reviews' randomized clinical trials, we propose the creation of a dental practice network of U.S. dental schools. We developed an electronic clinical dentistry research database for EBD using Epi-Info (available at www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/downloads.htm). As a free, public use software, Epi-Info provides the foundation for the development of clinical research databases that can increase the research capacity through multisite studies designed to generate outcomes data on the effectiveness of dental treatment. The creation of a dental practice network of dental schools with their large number of patients would expand the research capacity for EBD practice and advance the EBD science regarding the effectiveness of dental treatment. The next step is to link clinical dental researchers/educators at multiple dental schools through a collaborative clinical research network, so that the findings can be applied to the EBD component of problem-based learning curricula of dental education.

  6. Dental Implantology in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavitz, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…

  7. Molecular basis of antigenic polymorphism of EspA filaments: development of a peptide display technology.

    PubMed

    Crepin, Valérie F; Shaw, Robert; Knutton, Stuart; Frankel, Gad

    2005-07-01

    Like many Gram-negative pathogens, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) use a macromolecular type III secretion system (TTSS) to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The membrane-associated needle complex (NC) of the TTSS, which shows broad similarity to the flagellar basal body, is conserved amongst bacterial pathogens. However, the extracellular part of the TTSS of EPEC and EHEC is unique, in that it has a hollow, approximately 12 nm in diameter, filamentous extension to the NC. EspA filaments are homo-polymers made of the translocator protein EspA. The three-dimensional structure of EspA filaments is comparable to that of flagella; the helical symmetry and packing of the subunits forming both filamentous structures are very similar. Like flagella, EspA filaments show antigenic polymorphism as EspA from different EPEC and EHEC clones show no immunological cross-reactivity. In this study, we determined the molecular basis of the antigenic polymorphism of EspA filaments and identified a surface-exposed hypervariable domain that contains the immunodominant EspA epitope. By exchanging the hypervariable domains of EspA(EPEC) and EspA(EHEC) we swapped the antigenic specificity of the EspA filaments. As for the flagellin D3 domain, which is known to tolerate insertions of natural and artificial amino acid sequences, we have inserted short peptides into the surface-exposed, hypervariable domain of EspA. We demonstrated that the inserted peptides are presented on the surface of the recombinant EspA filaments forming a new immunodominant epitope. Accordingly, EspA filaments have a potential to be developed into a novel epitope display system. PMID:15921692

  8. Curriculum Guidelines foe Dental Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' curriculum guidelines for dental nutrition include an overview of the curriculum, primary educational objectives, suggested prerequisites, a core content outline, and suggestions for sequencing and faculty qualifications. (MSE)

  9. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems Page Content Article Body Dental Health Twin ... color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are best ...

  10. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  11. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the LIULIN-3M instrument.

    PubMed

    Dachev, Ts P; Stassinopoulous, E G; Tomov, B T; Dimitrov, Pl G; Matviichuk, Yu N; Shurshakov, V A; Petrov, V M

    2003-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR spacestation during the 1988-1994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used to determine the energy losses in the detector. The final data from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposure time and 256 channels of absorbed dose spectra based on the assumption that the particle flux is normal to the detector. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and had been used for radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. The calibration procedure and some flight results are presented in this paper.

  12. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  13. Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, David R.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

  14. Dental operatory design and equipment.

    PubMed

    Floyd, M

    1993-08-01

    Improving and expanding the dental services of a practice can involve purchasing new equipment and even modifying or expanding the physical plant. Operatory design is important to the efficiency with which dental procedures can be performed. Equipment purchases to outfit the dental operatory should be made based on the specific needs and functions of a practice.

  15. Dental obturation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Elizabeth; Chudej, Lauren; Bilyeu, Brian; Brostow, Witold

    2006-10-01

    During the last decades, people have tried to develop a better material for use in dental obturation materials. This new material should meet the following requirements: durability, wear resistance, biocompatibility and chemical adhesion to dentin enamel. Wear resistance is very important and it is related with the service life of dental replacements. We have obtained aesthetically promising novel nano composites that can be used as dental replacements. The main objective of this work is to study the scratch and wear resistance of these nano composites. To meet this goal, scratch tests are performed using a micro scratch tester machine (CSEM), where a diamond indenter is used to make the scratch and the penetration of this indenter is measured with high resolution (7nm). We will be looking at the penetration depth (Rp) and the residual (or healing) depth (Rh) to calculate the percent recovery. These measurements represent the scratch resistance of the material.

  16. Dental amalgam: An update

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, Kulvinder Kaur; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Chandra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years, despite periods of controversy. The authors review its history, summarize the evidence with regard to its performance and offer predictions for the future of this material. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for dental amalgam featured 8641 articles and 13 publications dealing with recent advances in dental amalgam. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. For the present, amalgam should remain the material of choice for economic direct restoration of posterior teeth. When esthetic concerns are paramount, tooth-colored materials, placed meticulously, can provide an acceptable alternative. All alternative restorative materials and procedures, however, have certain limitations. PMID:21217947

  17. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  18. Dental Implant Complications.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Kevin; Delfini, Ronald H; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants have increased in the last few decades thus increasing the number of complications. Since many of these complications are easily diagnosed on postsurgical images, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with them and to be able to recognize and diagnose them. Radiologists should also have a basic understanding of their treatment. In a pictorial fashion, this article will present the basic complications of dental implants which we have divided into three general categories: biomechanical overload, infection or inflammation, and other causes. Examples of implant fracture, loosening, infection, inflammation from subgingival cement, failure of bone and soft tissue preservation, injury to surround structures, and other complications will be discussed as well as their common imaging appearances and treatment. Lastly, we will review pertinent dental anatomy and important structures that are vital for radiologists to evaluate in postoperative oral cavity imaging.

  19. Dental Support Organizations.

    PubMed

    Dufurrena, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Dental Support Organizations is a recently formed association of 33 companies representing a range of management and support services for dental practices. These organizations do not engage in the practice of dentistry, although in some cases they operate as holding companies for practices that do, thus separating the legal responsibility of providing treatment from the management and flow of funds. This report summarizes some of the recent trends in oral health care and dentists' practice patterns that are prompting the increased prevalence of this model. The general functioning of the DSO model is described, including some common variations, and the core values of ADSO are featured. PMID:26455048

  20. Performance of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E.D.; Silva, N.R.F.A.; Coelho, P.G.; Zhang, Y.; Guess, P.; Thompson, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical success of modern dental ceramics depends on an array of factors, ranging from initial physical properties of the material itself, to the fabrication and clinical procedures that inevitably damage these brittle materials, and the oral environment. Understanding the influence of these factors on clinical performance has engaged the dental, ceramics, and engineering communities alike. The objective of this review is to first summarize clinical, experimental, and analytic results reported in the recent literature. Additionally, it seeks to address how this new information adds insight into predictive test procedures and reveals challenges for future improvements. PMID:21224408

  1. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  2. Dental education: a leadership challenge for dental educators and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Roth, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    By all outward signs, the dental profession is prospering. However, signs of a looming crisis in dental education threaten the future effectiveness of the profession. Transforming dental education through the application of principles espoused by the ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI) is essential for securing the future of the profession. To meet the future oral health needs of the public, dental schools must retain their research mission and prepare students for evidence-based practice. To accomplish this, both the curricular content and the environment and approach to dental education must change. Besides the knowledge and abilities needed to care for a more diverse and aging population, future practitioners must possess tools needed to thrive in the world of small business and have the ethical foundation to conduct themselves as responsible professionals. Ensuring the future of the profession is a leadership challenge to be shared by both dental educators and practitioners.

  3. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to Mexicali... the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7037). At the request of the State Agency,...

  4. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E. Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10−6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5–10, p = 3.3 x 10−6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC. PMID:26372210

  5. A DS106 Thing Happened on the Way to the 3M Tech Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockridge, Rochelle; Levine, Alan; Funes, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates how DS106, a computer science course in Digital Storytelling from the University of Mary Washington (UMW) and accessible as an open course on the web, is being explored in a corporate environment at 3M, an American multinational corporation based in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build community, collaboration, and more…

  6. Improving Job Tenure Outcomes for People with Disabilities: The 3M Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on a three-part job retention model (3M model) containing "match,""maturity," and "mastery" constructs. Proposes that individuals with disabilities are more likely to retain employment when rehabilitation counselors provide retention services compatible with the 3Ms. Counselors can help people with disabilities (a) establish…

  7. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10-6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5-10, p = 3.3 x 10-6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC.

  8. Assessment of zenith tropospheric delay derived from UNB3m model over Asia area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liangke; Xie, Shaofeng; Liu, Lilong; Feng, Haiyang; Jiang, Maofang

    2015-12-01

    The tropospheric delay is one of the main errors for earth observation and a variety of radio navigation technologies, and the UNB3m model can be used to calculate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) without any real measured meteorological data, which taking the major changes in water vapor profiles with latitude into account, and it widely applied in Wide Area Augmentation System in America. However, there are few researches carried out on the assessment of ZTD from UNB3m model over Asia area. In this study, three years of the ZTD data observed from 56 IGS (International GNSS service) sites distributed in Asia area is used to assess the effectiveness and accuracy of ZTD calculated from UNB3m model. The results are: (1) relative to IGS observed ZTD, the bias and root mean square (RMS) for ZTD calculated from UNB3m model are -0.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively. Besides, the bias shows significant periodic characteristics in Asia area. (2) The bias and RMS present seasonal variations, which generally show larger values in summer months. (3) The precision of ZTD calculated from UNB3m model increases with increasing altitude or latitude, and also the bias and RMS show inconsistently in different Asia areas. At last, the best results can be achieved in inland area where presents the mean yearly RMS of 2.4 cm. These results provide a reference for the study of the tropospheric delay correction model and the applications of real-time GNSS navigation and positioning.

  9. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  10. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  11. Review of Spaceflight Dental Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Anil

    2012-01-01

    All exploration class missions--extending beyond earth's orbit--differ from existing orbital missions by being of longer duration and often not having a means of evacuation. If an exploration mission extends beyond a year, then there will be a greater lapse since the crewmembers last terrestrial dental exams, which routinely occur each year. This increased time since professional dental care could increase the chance of a dental emergency such as intractable pain, dental decay requiring a temporary filling, crown replacement, exposed pulp, abscess, tooth avulsion, or toothache. Additionally, any dental emergency will have to be treated in-flight with available resources and personnel who may not have extensive training in dental care. Thus, dental emergencies are an important risk to assess in preparation for exploration missions.

  12. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim.

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 426-432, 2011) have provided an alternative Bayes factor assessment of Bem's data, but their assessment was limited to examining each experiment in isolation. We show here that the variant of the Bayes factor employed by Wagenmakers et al. is inappropriate for making assessments across multiple experiments, and cannot be used to gain an accurate assessment of the total evidence in Bem's data. We develop a meta-analytic Bayes factor that describes how researchers should update their prior beliefs about the odds of hypotheses in light of data across several experiments. We find that the evidence that people can feel the future with neutral and erotic stimuli to be slight, with Bayes factors of 3.23 and 1.57, respectively. There is some evidence, however, for the hypothesis that people can feel the future with emotionally valenced nonerotic stimuli, with a Bayes factor of about 40. Although this value is certainly noteworthy, we believe it is orders of magnitude lower than what is required to overcome appropriate skepticism of ESP. PMID:21573926

  13. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  14. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  15. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... dental school, has extra training in caring for patients with disabilities. The Special Care Dentistry Association is a resource to find a dentist ... for children who grind their teeth, because the risk of the child choking on the mouthguard if it breaks ... Academy of Pediatric Dentistry www.aapd.org Find a dentist at www. ...

  16. Dental Health in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... to occur in nearly 100% of the TSC population. Not all dental pits are cavities; they are just areas where enamel did not form, but can be an area where food can build up and start a cavity. Gums The gums may have small areas of growth called gingival fibromas , which are mostly harmless and ...

  17. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  18. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  19. Ethics of dental health screening.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Taha, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Screening is the detection of disease at a point in its natural history when it is not yet symptomatic. In the natural history of dental caries, for example, the incipient lesions are at a reversible stage, which is a pre-symptomatic or an unrecognised symptomatic disease. Ideally, this is the stage during which screening should identify the risk of dental caries; however, presently, the so-called dental screening employed identifies the clinical cavitation of the tooth, which is very obvious to the individual. The individual already knows that he/she has dental caries and needs treatment, which the screening personnel (dental doctor) explains again during the screening procedure. Is it ethical to call such an event screening? The mushrooming of dental teaching hospitals has promoted regular screening of dental diseases among the communities and schoolchildren through their community dentistry-related activities. More often, it is a dental "check-up" that is carried out on the pretext of screening for dental diseases. Though the basic intention of this activity is to promote awareness of dental diseases and promote good health, there is also a hidden agenda to it. An artificial demand for dental care is created that is easily capitalised on by the dental teaching institutions to enhance its clinical activity. Dental screening is doing more harm than good as patients are made aware of the diseases for which they may not be able to afford treatment. This narrative review gives an account of the scientific evidence on screening for oral diseases, the current practices in screening and the ethical dilemmas of dental screening programmes. PMID:27474698

  20. A Role for the Budding Yeast Separase, Esp1, in Ty1 Element Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Stephanie; Manhas, Savrina; Fang, Nancy; Wang, Kaiqian; Young, Barry; Loewen, Christopher; Mayor, Thibault; Measday, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    Separase/Esp1 is a protease required at the onset of anaphase to cleave cohesin and thereby enable sister chromatid separation. Esp1 also promotes release of the Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus to enable mitotic exit. To uncover other potential roles for separase, we performed two complementary genome-wide genetic interaction screens with a strain carrying the budding yeast esp1-1 separase mutation. We identified 161 genes that when mutated aggravate esp1-1 growth and 44 genes that upon increased dosage are detrimental to esp1-1 viability. In addition to the expected cell cycle and sister chromatid segregation genes that were identified, 24% of the genes identified in the esp1-1 genetic screens have a role in Ty1 element retrotransposition. Retrotransposons, like retroviruses, replicate through reverse transcription of an mRNA intermediate and the resultant cDNA product is integrated into the genome by a conserved transposon or retrovirus encoded integrase protein. We purified Esp1 from yeast and identified an interaction between Esp1 and Ty1 integrase using mass spectrometry that was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Ty1 transposon mobility and insertion upstream of the SUF16 tRNA gene are both reduced in an esp1-1 strain but increased in cohesin mutant strains. Securin/Pds1, which is required for efficient localization of Esp1 to the nucleus, is also required for efficient Ty1 transposition. We propose that Esp1 serves two roles to mediate Ty1 transposition – one to remove cohesin and the second to target Ty1-IN to chromatin. PMID:25822502

  1. Dental Therapy Assistant: Attitudes of Army Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Theodore H.; Bair, Jeffrey H.

    The U. S. Army Dental Corps has implemented a formal program based on the concept that dental care can be more efficiently and effectively provided with treatment teams composed of one dental officer, two dental therapy assistants, one basic assistant, and the shared support of other auxiliary personnel. Such a team will use three dental treatment…

  2. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  8. Dental Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental Association Dental Tourism English 牙科旅行 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental ... NEEG MOB - Hmoob (Hmong) California Dental Association Dental Tourism English Kev Kho Hniav Txawv Teb Chaws - Hmoob ( ...

  9. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  10. Dental extractions using improvised equipment.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2013-12-01

    Extracting a tooth is the final treatment for multiple dental problems. Persons who are not dentists, however, have little experience with tooth extractions. When a remote setting makes it impossible to send a patient for optimal dental treatment, the clinician may need to extract teeth, sometimes using improvised equipment. The following cases of two patients with three carious, painful molars describe such a situation. The non-dental clinicians had to improvise not only appropriate dental tools, but also personal protective equipment, a functional suction machine, medications for a dental block, a dental chair, and dental consent forms and follow-up instructions in the patients' language. In these cases, they also communicated with their patients through a translator. To prepare to do tooth extractions in remote settings, clinicians should learn and practice dental blocks and review extraction techniques before they deploy. If they must do an extraction, clinicians should use the closest approximation available to the appropriate dental tools. When done correctly, a dental extraction can take some time and should not be rushed. PMID:24076092

  11. Ultra Barrier Topsheet Film for Flexible Photovoltaics with 3M Company

    SciTech Connect

    Funkenbusch, Arnie; Ruth, Charles

    2014-12-30

    In this DOE sponsored program, 3M achieved the critical UBT features to enable durable flexible high efficiency modules to be produced by a range of customers who have now certified the 3M UBT and are actively developing said flexible modules. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the work under this program were; Scale-up the current Generation-1 UBT from 12” width, as made on 3M’s pilot line, to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing, while maintaining baseline performance metrics (see table below); This objective was fully met; Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime demanded by the photovoltaic market; Aggressive testing revealed potential failure modes in the Gen 1 UBT. Deficiencies were identified and corrective action taken in the Gen 2 UBT; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance relative to baseline, including higher %T (percent transmission), lower water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) with targets based on what the technology needs for 25 year lifetime, proven lifetime of 25 years in solar module construction in the field, and lower cost; Testing of UBT Gen 2 under a wide range of conditions presented in this report failed to reveal any failure mode. Therefore UBT Gen 2 is known to be highly durable. 3M will continue to test towards statistically validating a 25 year lifetime under 3M funding; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line within three years; and This objective was fully met.

  12. A 3 m. y. record of Pliocene-Pleistocene loess in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.A.; Stemper, B.A. ); Pewe, T.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Many distal tephra beds exist in the thick, fossiliferous loess deposits near Fairbanks interior Alaska. Isothermal plateau fission-track ages, determined on glass shards from tephra beds, in conjunction with tephrostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic techniques, indicate that loess deposition began in the late Pliocene-an antiquity previously unsuspected. Hence, there is the opportunity now to reconstruct a detailed, well-dated record of environmental changes in interior Alaska during the past 3 m.y.

  13. Florida hospital saves 5.3 M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Florida hospital saves 5.3M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing. Surgery cancellations have been slashed from 13% of cases to less than 3%, while emergency department admissions have increased by 20%. Those are just two of the results of a quality improvement project at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL, that focused on using the principles of lean manufacturing to improve patient flow in the five-hospital system

  14. Dental care demand among children with dental insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A; Milgrom, P

    1987-01-01

    As the number of families with dental insurance and expenditures for dental care has increased over the past two decades, so has interest in determining cost-sharing effects on dental demand among insureds. Using a representative sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield children insureds during 1980, we estimate cost-sharing effects on dental demand for basic (diagnostic, preventive, restorative, endodontic, and extraction services) and orthodontic care. Results indicate that cost-sharing has little influence on the probability of using any dental services and basic expenditures. However, the probability of using orthodontic services decreases 2.1 percent when the proportion of orthodontic expenditures paid by the parent increases 10 percent. By reducing the cost of care, cost-sharing reduces social class differences in dental demand common in unisured populations, likely producing public oral health benefits. PMID:2952622

  15. Decreased TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nephropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Cai, X Z; Liu, N; Qiao, Y; Du, S Y; Chen, Y; Chen, D; Yu, S; Jiang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that TIM-1 and TIM-3 in-fluence chronic autoimmune diseases, and their expression levels in immune cells from nephritic patients are still unknown. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to deter-mine expression levels of TIM-1 and TIM-3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 36 patients with minimal change glo-merulopathy (MCG), 65 patients with lupus nephritis (LN), 78 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 55 patients with membranous nephropa-thy (MN), 22 patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), 26 patients with anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN), and 63 healthy controls. TIM-3 mRNA expression significantly decreased in PBMCs from nephritic patients (LN, P < 0.0001; MCG, P < 0.0001; MN, P = 0.0031; CGN, P = 0.0464; IgAN, P = 0.0002; APN, P = 0.0392) com-pared with healthy controls. In contrast, there was no significant differ-ence in TIM-1 mRNA expression between the patients and the healthy controls. Our results suggest that insufficient expression of TIM-3 mRNA may be involved in the pathogenesis of nephropathy.

  16. Dental therapists in general dental practices: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Heffley, Dennis R; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    Dental access disparities are well documented and have been recognized as a national problem. Their major cause is the lack of reasonable Medicaid reimbursement rates for the underserved. Specifically, Medicaid reimbursement rates for children average 40 percent below market rates. In addition, most state Medicaid programs do not cover adults. To address these issues, advocates of better oral health for the underserved are considering support for a new allied provider--a dental therapist--capable of providing services at a lower cost per service and in low-income and rural areas. Using a standard economic analysis, this study estimated the potential cost, price, utilization, and dentist's income effects of dental therapists employed in general dental practices. The analysis is based on national general dental practice data and the broadest scope of responsibility for dental therapists that their advocates have advanced, including the ability to provide restorations and extractions to adults and children, training for three years, and minimum supervision. Assuming dental therapists provide restorative, extraction, and pulpal services to patients of all ages and dental hygienists continue to deliver all hygiene services, the mean reduction in a general practice costs ranges between 1.57 and 2.36 percent. For dental therapists treating children only, the range is 0.31 to 0.47 percent. The effects on price and utilization are even smaller. In addition, the effects on most dentists' gross income, hours of work, and net income are negative. The estimated economic impact of dental therapists in the United States on private dental practice is very limited; therefore, the demand for dental therapists by private practices also would probably be very limited.

  17. ESP Courses at Tertiary Level: A Reflection of Thai Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinhaneti, Kantatip

    A survey on the teaching of English for special purposes (ESP) at universities in the Bangkok (Thailand) metropolitan area is reported. ESP is a concern in higher education due to increased English use in Thai business. The survey involved five public and nine private institutions. It was found that all universities offered compulsory general…

  18. ESP Teaching at the Institutions of Higher Education in Modern Russia: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudnikova, Nadezhda

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses ESP teaching at the institutions of higher education in modern Russia, explains the main problems and suggests the ways of their solving, details the quality control system of the students' progress improvement, presents the complex approach to interactive ESP teaching and views it as an integral part of up-to-date…

  19. Content-Based Internet-Assisted ESP Teaching to Ukrainian University Students Majoring in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the issues of teaching ESP to Ukrainian tertiary students majoring in psychology. The suggested approach is based on teaching English through the content matter of special subjects included in the program of training practical psychologists. The example of an ESP textbook for psychologists is used for demonstrating the…

  20. The ESP Instruction: A Study Based on the Pattern of Autonomous Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous inquiry learning is a kind of learning model, which relies mainly on learners and emphasizes that learners should inquire knowledge actively; moreover, ESP, which emphasizes the combination of language learning and specific purposes learning, is a goal-oriented and well targeted instruction system. Therefore, ESP and autonomous inquiry…

  1. ESP Reading Literacy and Reader Identity: A Narrative Inquiry into a Learner in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Beryl Chinghwa; Chern, Chiou-lan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether English for Specific Purposes (ESP) reading relates to English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' identity and how they relate to each other if there is a link between the two. Via purposeful sampling, an experienced Taiwanese ESP reader in her 40s was recruited and received three life-story interviews.…

  2. Perceived Views of Language Teachers on the Use of Needs Analysis in ESP Materials Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi; Salih, Abdel Rahman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Needs analysis is generally believed to be important in ESP/EAP context because it enables practitioners and materials writers to find out about their real learners' needs. Therefore, this study is set out to investigate EFL teachers' beliefs and views about need analysis use and practices, specifically in the ESP/EAP tertiary context of the…

  3. EFL Teachers' Perception of University Students' Motivation and ESP Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dja'far, Veri Hardinansyah; Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Bashtomi, Yazid

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at examining Indonesian EFL Teachers' perception of students' motivation and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learning achievement. It also explored the strategies applied by teachers based on their perception of students' motivation and ESP learning achievement. This research involved 204 students who took English for…

  4. Introducing Project-Based Instruction in the Saudi ESP Classroom: A Study in Qassim University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh; Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the impact of introducing an integrative pedagogical approach in the ESP classes on developing the English language vocabulary of Computer Science and Information Technology students in the College of Science, Qassim University. The study suggests a framework for an ESP course-design employing students' project…

  5. Prevalence, Biogenesis, and Functionality of the Serine Protease Autotransporter EspP

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, André; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) causes severe diseases in humans worldwide. One of its virulence factors is EspP, which belongs to the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family. In this review we recapitulate the current data on prevalence, biogenesis, structural properties and functionality. EspP has been used to investigate mechanistic details of autotransport, and recent studies indicate that this transport mechanism is not autonomous but rather dependent on additional factors. Currently, five subtypes have been identified (EspPα-EspPε), with EspPα being associated with highly virulent EHEC serotypes and isolates from patients with severe disease. EspPα has been shown to degrade major proteins of the complement cascade, namely C3 and C5 and probably interferes with hemostasis by cleavage of coagulation factor V. Furthermore, EspPα is believed to contribute to biofilm formation perhaps by polymerization to rope-like structures. Together with the proteolytic activity, EspPα might ameliorate host colonization and interfere with host response. PMID:23274272

  6. Structural Mechanism of WASP Activation by the Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli Effector EspFU

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui-Chun; Skehan, Brian M.; Campellone, Kenneth G.; Leong, John M.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    During infection enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) usurp the actin cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells by injecting the EspFU protein into the host cytoplasm1, 2. EspFU controls actin by activating members of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) family1–5. Here we show that EspFU binds the autoinhibitory GTPase binding domain (GBD) in WASP proteins and displaces it from the activity-bearing VCA domain. This interaction potently activates WASP and N-WASP in vitro and induces localized actin assembly in cells. In the solution structure of the GBD-EspFU complex, EspFU forms an amphipathic helix that binds the GBD, mimicking interactions of the VCA in autoinhibited WASP. Thus, EspFU activates by competing directly for the VCA binding site on the GBD. This mechanism is distinct from that used by the eukaryotic activators Cdc42 and SH2 domains, which globally destabilize the GBD fold to release the VCA6–8. Such diversity of mechanism in WASP proteins is distinct from other multi-modular systems, and may result from the intrinsically unstructured nature of the isolated GBD and VCA elements. The structural incompatibility of the GBD complexes with EspFU and Cdc42/SH2, plus high affinity EspFU binding, enable EHEC to potently hijack the eukaryotic cytoskeletal machinery. PMID:18650809

  7. Effects of E-SOx technology on ESP performance. Final report, Aug-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, G.H.; Gooch, J.P.; Faulkner, M.G.

    1992-10-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the E-SOx process at Ohio Edison's Burger Station. Adequate sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and acceptable particulate emission levels from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) were the prime objectives of the investigation. The report describes limited ESP performance testing under both baseline and E-SOx conditions. The ESP data collected under E-SOx conditions, which give the required 50% SO2 removal, show evidence of ESP performance dominated by factors not represented in existing versions of ESP performance models. These analyses and other considerations indicate that the factors which dominate under the conditions tested are a combination of instantaneous reentrainment of low resistivity ash/sorbent particles and deagglomeration of slurry residues within the ESP. These observations may be important to other sorbent injection processes as well as to E-SOx. Improvement of the gas velocity and temperature distributions at the ESP inlet improved the ESP performance, but performance was still dominated by the reentrainment process and was therefore lower than mathematical model predictions.

  8. Sustainability and Local Knowledge: The Case of the Brazilian ESP Project 1980-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; Celani, Maria Antonieta A.

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian ESP Project, this paper discusses why it has been able to sustain itself and develop over such a long period. The analysis focuses on two main areas of decision-making which led to this success: the structure of the project itself and the ESP methodology which was developed. Comparing the…

  9. Understanding Learners and Learning in ESP Genre-Based Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, An

    2006-01-01

    ESP genre research has generated numerous descriptions and explanations of discipline-specific genre exemplars and has produced various pedagogical proposals. However, what learners learn from these genre descriptions and the resulting pedagogical proposals and how they develop as learners and writers of genres in ESP genre-based writing pedagogy…

  10. Flue gas conditioning for enhanced collection of fine particles in ESPs

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Durham, M.D.; Martin, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    Extensive studies on the emission and control of air toxics by the Electric Power Research Institute shows that most of the solid phase particulate air toxics can be controlled by the existing particulate collectors, such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and baghouses. However, there are still many particulate control devices that are not performing at optimum levels because of design flaws or changes in the type of coal fired. One area that has a long history of emission problems are ESPs that operate above 400 F. At these high temperatures, conventional flue gas conditioning is inefficiency or ineffective. With Department of Energy funding, a new flue gas conditioning technology was developed by ADA Technologies, Inc. that is effective at high temperatures. This technology is especially important for hot-side ESPs and cold-side ESPs that operate above 375 F. For hot-side ESPs, ADA`s flue gas conditioning agent reduces the surface resistivity of the particulate layer on the collection plates. This overcomes the detrimental effects of sodium depletion and permits the ESP to operate at designed power levels. For high temperature cold-side ESPs, conditioning reduces resistivity of particles in the flue gas which increases the efficiency of their collection. Results from several full-scale demonstrations lasting two weeks to six weeks will be presented. These will include ESPs collecting flyash from Powder River Basin, low sulfur eastern, and a blend of coals. It is anticipated that results from testing at oil refineries will also be available.

  11. Evaluation of an ESP Course of Qur'anic Sciences and Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Hadi; Davari, Ameneh; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is defined as matching process that matches the needs to available solutions. The present study is an attempt to evaluate English for specific purposes (ESP) course book on "the ESP Course of Qur'anic Sciences and Tradition" taught at some universities in Iran. To achieve this goal, a researcher-made questionnaire and an…

  12. Developing and Integrating Courseware for Oral Presentations into ESP Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) multimedia courseware on oral presentations, and its integration into self-study learning and elective courses for students with different English proficiencies, as one solution to problems in ESP courses in Taiwan. The courseware design is based on Mayer's multimedia…

  13. ESP Learners' Needs Related Learning for the Workplace: A Pragmatic Study for Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Typically, an ESP course is designed to develop students' communication skills not solely for the office, but also for useful in a specific workplace. Unfortunately, ESP for Schools of Business at some South-East Asian universities is not being very effective in promoting students' performance in the workplace. Behind this backdrop, this paper…

  14. The Impact of Task-Based Approach on Vocabulary Learning in ESP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarani, Abdullah; Sahebi, Leila Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the teaching of vocabulary in ESP courses within the paradigm of task-based language teaching, concentrating on Persian literature students at Birjand University in Iran. Two homogenous groups of students who were taking their ESP courses participated in the study as a control and an experimental group. A teacher-made test…

  15. Who Qualifies to Monitor an ESP Course: A Content Teacher or a Language Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid

    2007-01-01

    As it is known, ESP materials are developed in order to respond to the specific needs of English learners. ESP is a branch of applied linguistics in which investigators attempt to put their fingers on the specific needs of individuals or groups of individuals in English in order to design materials related to their specific interests or…

  16. Two ESP Projects under the Test of Time: The Case of Brazil and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labassi, Tahar

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a response to Holmes and Celani's (2006) invitation to learn from the Brazilian ESP experience. It discusses the conditions which sustained this experience, and compares the Brazilian situation to the Tunisian one. The paper also discusses the challenges that ESP projects in EFL environments face, the opportunities that ESP…

  17. A new series of chiral metal formate frameworks of [HONH3][M(II)(HCOO)3] (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mg): synthesis, structures, and properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Shang, Ran; Hu, Ke-Li; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2012-12-17

    We report the synthesis, crystal structures, IR, and thermal, dielectric, and magnetic properties of a new series of ammonium metal formate frameworks of [HONH(3)][M(II)(HCOO)(3)] for M = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mg. They are isostructural and crystallize in the nonpolar chiral orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 7.8121(2)-7.6225(2) Å, b = 7.9612(3)-7.7385(2) Å, c = 13.1728(7)-12.7280(4) Å, and V = 819.27(6)-754.95(4) Å(3). The structures possess anionic metal formate frameworks of 4(9)·6(6) topology, in which the octahedral metal centers are connected by the anti-anti formate ligands and the hydroxylammonium is located orderly in the channels, forming strong O/N-H···O(formate) hydrogen bonds with the framework. HONH(3)(+) with only two non-H atoms favors the formation of the dense chiral 4(9)·6(6) frameworks, instead of the less dense 4(12)·6(3) perovskite frameworks for other monoammoniums of two to four non-H atoms because of its small size and its ability to form strong hydrogen bonding. However, the larger size of HONH(3)(+) compared to NH(4)(+) resulted in simple dielectric properties and no phase transitions. The three magnetic members (Mn, Co, and Ni) display antiferromagnetic long-range ordering of spin canting, at Néel temperatures of 8.8 K (Mn), 10.9 K (Co), and 30.5 K (Ni), respectively, and small spontaneous magnetizations for the Mn and Ni members but large magnetization for the Co member. Thermal and IR spectroscopic properties are also reported. PMID:23214977

  18. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3, mGlu3, GRM3): expression, function and involvement in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P J; Lyon, L; Sartorius, L J; Burnet, P W J; Lane, T A

    2008-05-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) comprise mGluR2 (mGlu2; encoded by GRM2) and mGluR3 (mGlu3; encoded by GRM3) and modulate glutamate neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we review the expression and function of mGluR3 and its involvement in schizophrenia. mGluR3 is expressed by glia and neurons in many brain regions and has a predominantly presynaptic distribution, consistent with its role as an inhibitory autoreceptor and heteroceptor. mGluR3 splice variants exist in human brain but are of unknown function. Differentiation of mGluR3 from mGluR2 has been problematic because of the lack of selective ligands and antibodies; the available data suggest particular roles for mGluR3 in long-term depression, in glial function and in neuroprotection. Some but not all studies find genetic association of GRM3 polymorphisms with psychosis, with the risk alleles also being associated with schizophrenia-related endophenotypes such as impaired cognition, cortical activation and glutamate markers. The dimeric form of mGluR3 may be reduced in the brain in schizophrenia. Finally, preclinical findings have made mGluR3 a putative therapeutic target, and now direct evidence for antipsychotic efficacy of a group II mGluR agonist has emerged from a randomised clinical trial in schizophrenia. Together these data implicate mGluR3 in aetiological, pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of the disorder. PMID:18541626

  19. Predicting dental avoidance among dentally fearful Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Jason M

    2013-06-01

    Dental fear is related to poorer oral health outcomes, and this might be explained by the less frequent dental visiting of many fearful people. The objectives of this study were to investigate differences between dentally fearful people who regularly attend the dentist and fearful people who infrequently visit the dentist. A random sample of 1,082 Australians ≥ 15 yr of age completed a mailed questionnaire (response rate = 71.6%), and 191 dentate, high-fear adults (≥ 18 yr of age) were selected for further analysis. Dental avoidance was recorded if a person was currently avoiding or delaying dental care and if he/she had not been to a dentist in the previous 2 yr. Among the selected dentally fearful adults, dental avoidance was predicted by smoking status, toothbrushing frequency, coping strategy use, perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable and unpredictable, and by anxiety relating to numbness, not knowing what the dentist is going to do, and cost. In a multivariate logistic regression model, smoking, toothbrushing, coping, and anxiety about numbness and cost remained as statistically significant predictors, with the model accounting for 30% of the variance. While several variables were associated with dental avoidance among fearful adults, the nature and causal directions of these associations remain to be established.

  20. How improper pump selection influences ESP cable failure

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.

    1984-10-01

    ESP cable failures can sometimes seem to result from high-temperature damage even though the well temperature is far below the temperature rating of the cable. Recent studies show that the problem is one of low well productivity, either from a pumped-off or a gas-locked condition, and that the excessive heat is generated in the pump. In both cases, the problem is caused by misapplied equipment. In the pumped-off condition the pump is oversized. In the gas-locked condition, a proper gas separator should be used. The importance of proper pump selection is emphasized. Both conditions cause excessive heat buildup in the pump. When flow decreases as in either of these conditions, energy continues to be added to the fluid, but pump efficiency decreases and flow decreases. The losses or inefficiencies of the system are transferred to a lesser weight of fluid, so the fluid temperature rises even more.

  1. Outcome of sterilization by steam autoclaves in Danish dental offices.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, F; Reinholdt, J

    1988-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of autoclaves and the use of biologic indicators for sterilization control, and to look for predictor variables for improperly functioning autoclaves in Danish dental offices. The study population comprised 314 Danish dental offices (participation rate 94%); 177 from the public Child Dental Service (CDS) and 137 from private practice. A minor questionnaire and five biologic indicators (Attest Biological Indicator for Steam Sterilization, 3M) were sent to the participants. CDS offices were found more inclined to use biologic indicators than PP offices (P less than 0.00001). Among CDS autoclaves 2.3% (95% confidence limit: 0.9-5.7%) failed to sterilize compared to 7.3% (95% confidence limit: 4.0-12.9) of the PP autoclaves. This difference is not statistically significant, but the confidence intervals indicate a possible true difference in favor of a better outcome in the CDS offices. Looking at the whole sample no other predictor variable for inadequate sterilization could be determined as differences were statistically insignificant with regard to years of professional experience, age and brand of autoclave, and use of biological control. Recommendations from an official body stating the approved types of sterilization control in dental offices would be of value. PMID:3162602

  2. Validation of the 3M molecular detection system for the detection of listeria in meat, seafood, dairy, and retail environments.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Esther D; David, John; Koeritzer, Bob; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-05-01

    There is a continued need to develop improved rapid methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this project was to evaluate the 3M Molecular Detection System (3M MDS), which uses isothermal DNA amplification, and the 3M Molecular Detection Assay Listeria using environmental samples obtained from retail delicatessens and meat, seafood, and dairy processing plants. Environmental sponge samples were tested for Listeria with the 3M MDS after 22 and 48 h of enrichment in 3M Modified Listeria Recovery Broth (3M mLRB); enrichments were also used for cultural detection of Listeria spp. Among 391 samples tested for Listeria, 74 were positive by both the 3M MDS and the cultural method, 310 were negative by both methods, 2 were positive by the 3M MDS and negative by the cultural method, and one sample was negative by the 3M MDS and positive by the cultural method. Four samples were removed from the sample set, prior to statistical analyses, due to potential cross-contamination during testing. Listeria isolates from positive samples represented L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. seeligeri. Overall, the 3M MDS and culture-based detection after enrichment in 3M mLRB did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) with regard to the number of positive samples, when chi-square analyses were performed for (i) number of positive samples after 22 h, (ii) number of positive samples after 48 h, and (iii) number of positive samples after 22 and/or 48 h of enrichment in 3M mLRB. Among 288 sampling sites that were tested with duplicate sponges, 67 each tested positive with the 3M MDS and the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, further supporting that the 3M MDS performs equivalently to traditional methods when used with environmental sponge samples.

  3. Dental problems in athletes.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Jill; McGrew, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial injuries and diseases occur in athletes, and they may not always have access to dentists. Therefore team physicians should be aware of the common injuries and initial management. Treatment of dental injuries will depend on whether the teeth are primary or permanent. The most common type of fracture is crown fracture, but there are other dental injuries that can lead to future complications if not treated promptly and monitored closely. Tooth avulsions need to be handled properly, and athletes should see a dentist as soon as possible. Despite the urgency of some injuries, other orofacial injuries or diseases, such as lacerations and caries, should not be overlooked. Proper education and use of mouth guards can assist athletes in reducing their risk of orofacial injuries. PMID:25574879

  4. Dental Assisting Education in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    A survey of 22 dental assisting programs showed an average of 1,124 hours of instruction in dental assisting for 15 four-semester, 955 for three three-semester, and 1,042 for four two-semester programs. The average instructional hours for the four-semester programs were 48 in introduction to dental assisting, 179 in the life sciences, 221 in the…

  5. Fluorescence of dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Monsénégo, G; Burdairon, G; Clerjaud, B

    1993-01-01

    This study of the fluorescence of natural enamel and of dental ceramics shows the fluorescence of ceramics not containing rare earths decreases when the color saturation increases; the fluorescence of samples of the same shade guide are not homogenous; some guides show a strong green fluorescence; and two shade guides of the same origin can present completely different fluorescence. The cementing medium can affect the fluorescence of a ceramic prosthesis. PMID:8455155

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: DEVELOPMENT OF GAS CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY (INDIA ESP TRAINING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brief discusses a demonstration of advanced electrostatic precipitator (ESP) diagnostics and technologies in India. Six Indian ESP specialists were selected by Southern Research Institute and their consultants, with the concurrence of EPA's project officer, to attend a course...

  7. Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, P. M.; Manikandan, Ramanathan; Muthumurugan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Sivakumar, Muniapillai

    2015-01-01

    Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion. PMID:26538883

  8. Dental injuries during general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, R G; Lindsay, S M

    1996-04-01

    Although most anaesthetic textbooks cite dental injury as a complication of endotracheal intubation few studies have examined the extent and nature of the problem. Such damage however, formed the basis for one-third of all confirmed or potential anaesthetic claims notified to the Medical Protection Society between 1977 and 1986. This article seeks to explore the extent of the problem, outline predisposing factors, summarise current prophylactic measures and make recommendations to reduce the overall incidence. Increased awareness of the problem, by both anaesthetists and dental surgeons, coupled with appropriate prophylactic measures may result in a reduced incidence of dental injury arising from general anaesthesia. Given the high incidence of dental damage we recommend that all patients undergoing a surgical operation under endotracheal intubation should have a pre-operative dental check wherever possible. Clearly, the first dental examination would be conducted by an anaesthetist familiar with the predisposing factors. Where he/she considers there to be a higher than average risk of dental damage occurring during intubation a more specialised examination should be conducted by a dental surgeon. It may, where appropriate, be possible for remedial dental treatment to be carried out and customised mouth guards to be constructed prior to the operation. Obviously such recommendations have certain financial implications and would have to be subject to controlled cost-benefit analysis before their widespread application. PMID:8935289

  9. Coinsurance effects on dental prices.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A

    1986-01-01

    For many Americans the cost of dental services represents a barrier to receiving regular dental care and maintaining proper oral health. The recent growth of the dental insurance industry, however, may partly offset this price barrier among insureds. Our purpose is to examine the relationship between coinsurance and dental prices for 16 dental services among a sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield (PBS) adult insureds. The dependent price measure is the annual average gross price paid for 16 specific preventive, restorative, periodontic, endodontic, prosthodontic, and surgical dental services. Independent variables in the price model include the insured's age, education, coinsurance rates, time costs, market area, non-wage income, oral health status, area dentist-population ratio and usual source of care. Data sources are 1980 PBS claims and coinsurance rate data and a mail survey of sampled insureds. OLS regression analysis reveals that the model's independent variables explain little dental price variation. No variable is consistently significant across services, but market area, coinsurance rates, and time costs alternately dominate across equations. These results suggest that, among adult insureds, coinsurance and time costs influence dental fees in a minority of dental services. Insurance reduces the patient's sensitivity to money price, and non-price factors correspondingly seem to become more important in patient search.

  10. A new parallel P3M code for very large-scale cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarland, Tom; Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Pichlmeier, Jakob

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a parallel Particle-Particle, Particle-Mesh (P3M) simulation code for the Cray T3E parallel supercomputer that is well suited to studying the time evolution of systems of particles interacting via gravity and gas forces in cosmological contexts. The parallel code is based upon the public-domain serial Adaptive P3M-SPH (http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html) code of Couchman et al. (1995)[ApJ, 452, 797]. The algorithm resolves gravitational forces into a long-range component computed by discretizing the mass distribution and solving Poisson's equation on a grid using an FFT convolution method, and a short-range component computed by direct force summation for sufficiently close particle pairs. The code consists primarily of a particle-particle computation parallelized by domain decomposition over blocks of neighbour-cells, a more regular mesh calculation distributed in planes along one dimension, and several transformations between the two distributions. The load balancing of the P3M code is static, since this greatly aids the ongoing implementation of parallel adaptive refinements of the particle and mesh systems. Great care was taken throughout to make optimal use of the available memory, so that a version of the current implementation has been used to simulate systems of up to 109 particles with a 10243 mesh for the long-range force computation. These are the largest Cosmological N-body simulations of which we are aware. We discuss these memory optimizations as well as those motivated by computational performance. Performance results are very encouraging, and, even without refinements, the code has been used effectively for simulations in which the particle distribution becomes highly clustered as well as for other non-uniform systems of astrophysical interest.

  11. The holistic 3M modality of drug delivery nanosystems for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of human death worldwide. There are many challenges in the treatment of cancer and the rapidly developing area of nanotechnology has shown great potential to open a new era in cancer therapy. This article, rather than being exhaustive, focuses on the striking progress in the drug delivery nanosystems (DDNS) for cancer therapy and selects typical examples to point out the emerging mode of action of DDNS from our perspective. Among the outstanding advances in DDNS for cancer therapy is the development of ``multicomponent delivery systems'', ``multifunctional nanocarriers'' and ``multistage delivery systems''. However, these represent only one aspect of DDNS research. In addition, nature is the best teacher and natural evolution pressure has meant that virions conform to the ``multitarget, multistage and multicomponent'' (3M) mode of action. Amazingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used for over 4000 years in China, also displays the same mode of action. Integrating the previous notable progress in nanoparticle technology, learned from the building mode of natural virions and the action concept of TCM, we propose an integrity-based 3M mode DDNS for cancer therapy: multitarget, multistage and multicomponent, which are not fragmented parts but an interconnected integrity. Based on the physiological multitarget and the pharmacokinetic multistage, multicomponent DDNS are rationally designed, where different components with individual specific functions act in a synergistic manner against each target at each disposition stage to maximize the targeted delivery effectiveness. In this article, we introduce each component of 3M DDNS in detail and describe some typical cases to realize the tumor-homing purposes.

  12. L2,3M1 satellites in soft x-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Steven; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1988-12-01

    A systematic study of the L2,3M1 (3s-2p) transition in elements from Cl to Cr reveals a satellite of unusually large intensity (~30% of parent line). Previous work on some of these elements led to the suggestion that the satellite is due to a two-electron shakeup (configuration-interaction) process. We compare our measurements of position, width, and intensity of the satellite as a function of atomic number with the predictions of this model and extend the theory to explain the apparent disappearance of the satellite outside this range.

  13. Theoretical study of 'Mixed' ligands superhalogens: Cl-M-NO3 (M = Li, Na, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinghua; Liu, Weihui; Wang, Jiesheng; Li, Chun; Yuan, Guang

    2016-08-01

    MCl2-, M(NO3)2-, and (Cl-M-NO3)- (M = Li, Na, K) species are systematically investigated using the density functional theory. In all the cases studied, the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) exceed the electron affinity of chlorine atom, leading to the conclusion that MCl2-, M(NO3)2- and (Cl-M-NO3)- are superhalogens. The VDEs of (Cl-M-NO3)- are between that of MCl2- and M(NO3)2-, showing that replacing one ligand with a larger electronegative ligand leads to the higher VDE. Superhalogens with suitable VDEs can be built by using different ligands.

  14. 78 FR 8193 - In the Matter of Virginia Electric and Power Company, and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; ESP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... entitled, Approval of Transfer of Early Site Permit (ESP) and Conforming Amendment, Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna ESP Site, was published in the Federal Register on September 10, 2012 (77 FR... for North Anna ESP Site; Order Approving Direct Transfer of Early Site Permit and Approving...

  15. Teaching Aviation English in the Chinese Context: Developing ESP Theory in a Non-English Speaking Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiguo, Wang

    2007-01-01

    This note introduces readers to the development of English for specific purposes (ESP) teaching and research in China and, more specifically, aviation English curriculum development in the Chinese context, so that ESP professionals can be acquainted with the recent development of ESP theory and practice in a non-English speaking country like…

  16. Influence of light guide tip used in the photo-activation on degree of conversion and hardness of one nanofilled dental composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, M. R.; Costa, S. X. S.; Victorino, K. R.; Ribeiro, A. A.; Menezes, F. C. H.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Andrade, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion and hardness of a dental composite resin Filtek™ Z-350 (3M ESPE, Dental Products St. Paul, MN) photo-activated for 20 s of irradiation time with two different light guide tips, metal and polymer, coupled on blue LED Ultraled LCU (Dabi Atlante, SP, Brazil). With the metal light tip, power density was of 352 and with the polymer was of 456 mW/cm2, respectively. Five samples (4 mm in diameter and 2mm in thickness—ISO 4049), were made for each Group evaluated. The measurements for DC (%) were made in a Nexus-470 FT-IR, Thermo Nicolet, E.U.A. Spectroscopy (FTIR). Spectra for both uncured and cured samples were analyzed using an accessory of reflectance diffuse. The measurements were recorded in absorbance operating under the following conditions: 32 scans, 4 cm-1 resolution, 300-4000 cm-1 wavelength. The percentage of unreacted carbon double bonds (% C=C) was determined from the ratio of absorbance intensities of aliphatic C=C (peak at 1637 cm-1) against internal standard before and after curing of the sample: aromatic C-C (peak at 1610 cm-1). The Vickers hardness measurements (top and bottom surfaces) were performed in a universal testing machine (Buehler MMT-3 digital microhardness tester Lake Bluff, Illinois USA). A 50 gf load was used and the indenter with a dwell time of 30 s. The data were submitted to the test t Student at significance level of 5%. The mean values of degree of conversion for the polymer and metal light guide tip no were statistically different ( p = 0.8389). The hardness mean values were no statistically significant different among the light guide tips ( p = 0.6244), however, there was difference between top and bottom surfaces ( p < 0.001). The results show that so much the polymer light tip as the metal light tip can be used for the photo-activation, probably for the low quality of the light guide tip metal.

  17. Application of the S3M and Mcnpx Codes in Particle Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovič, Márius; Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Strašík, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Semiconductor detectors can be used to detect neutrons if they are covered by a conversion layer. Some neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen via elastic nuclear scattering in the conversion layer, and protons are produced as recoils. These protons enter the sensitive volume of the detector and are detected. In the process of detector development, Monte Carlo computer codes are necessary to simulate the detection process. This paper presents the main features of the S3M code (SRIM Supporting Software Modules) and shows its application potential. Examples are given for the neutron detectors with a conversion layer and for CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detectors for beam-condition monitors at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Special attention is paid to the S3M statistical modules that can be of interest also for other application areas like beam transport, accelerators, ion therapy, etc. The results are generated by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) simulations used to optimize the thickness of the HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer.

  18. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  19. Far-Infrared Laser Interferometry Measurements on the STP-3(M) Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio

    1994-04-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 µm was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of ˜10% for both chords during the current rising phase and ˜5% and ˜15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a ˜30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m=0 magnetic fluctuations, and a ˜90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M).

  20. Far-infrared laser interferometry measurements on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio

    1993-09-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 micro m was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of approx. 10% for both chords during the current rising phase and approx. 5% and approx. 15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a approx. 30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m = 0 magnetic fluctuations, and a approx. 90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M).

  1. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3′ UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3′ extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3–aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis. PMID:24889622

  2. The Costs of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eustachio, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    This brief statement offers 10 questions for consideration by American Dental Association (ADA) officials and others concerned with the burdensome indebtedness graduates often incur for their dental education. Questions ask for assessments in such areas as school operating costs, tuition, school support, loan forgiveness, and how the ADA can help…

  3. Dosimetric considerations in dental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goble, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The integration of the Lixiscope into dental procedures was studied and compared with conventional dental radiographic techniques. It was found that through the use of intraoral sealed sources in conjunction with microchannel plate technology, the Lixiscope gives increased diagnostic information with decreased radiation dosage.

  4. Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

  5. [Biomechanics of single dental implants].

    PubMed

    Zagorskiĭ, V A; Zagorskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissues of human skull, jawbones and hard dental tissues were formed formed by the influence of chewing loads which are functional irritants used for maintaining their physical qualities. Knowledge of tensions and deformations in bony structures allows to increase their joint work with dental implants installed.

  6. Dental Assisting Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Beverly; And Others

    This document contains dental assisting competencies and competency-based performance objectives, learning activities, resources, and evaluation procedures for each competency that was adapted and developed by instructors of dental assisting to suit the needs and legal parameters of Pennsylvania. The competencies and associated elements are…

  7. Dental Laboratory Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental laboratory technology curriculum for both diploma programs and associate degree programs in technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the dental laboratory technology field. The general information section contains the…

  8. Emerging Dental Specialties and Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Mashni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses ethical dimensions related to the formal recognition of emerging dental specialties. It explores several issues related to the potential emergence of several new dental specialty areas. There are good reasons that dentistry should open the door to these new specialties, and patients would benefit. The ethical considerations for and against formal acceptance are examined.

  9. Emerging Dental Specialties and Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Mashni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses ethical dimensions related to the formal recognition of emerging dental specialties. It explores several issues related to the potential emergence of several new dental specialty areas. There are good reasons that dentistry should open the door to these new specialties, and patients would benefit. The ethical considerations for and against formal acceptance are examined. PMID:26697653

  10. Teaching Photography in Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Ted A.; Hummel, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    Two surveys investigated the extent of photography instruction in dental schools. The first survey of 53 schools revealed that 36% had formal dental photography programs. Of 21 photography instructors surveyed in the second study, 67% had no formal training, many knew little about texts or resources, and techniques and knowledge varied. (MSE)

  11. Health Instruction Packages: Dental Assisting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnery, Paula

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules to instruct dental assisting students in various office skills. The first module, "Dental Office Telephone Techniques," examines the qualities of a good telephone voice and demeanor and provides guidelines for taking a message and handling various telephone…

  12. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  13. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  14. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... after breakfast and before bedtime n Using a tooth-paste with fluoride in it n Flossing daily n Using a tongue scraper or brushing the tongue daily Dental Health | 1 n ... reporting any bleeding gums, tooth or jaw pain or tooth sensitivity Routine dental ...

  15. Dental visits, dental health status and need for dental treatment in a Danish industrial population.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the utilization of dental services, the distribution of dental diseases and treatment needs in a Danish industrial population. The study covered the male population at a Danish shipyard, and a sample of 988 workers and clerical and managerial staff was drawn by stratified random sampling. 841 persons were interviewed regarding dental visits and attitudes towards dental health services and data on dental health and treatment needs were collected. 61% of the participants aged 15-64 years made regular dental visits at least once a year. The percentages of regular visitors varied according to age and occupation, from 68 to 82% among clerical staff to 34 to 51% among workers. The mean DMF-T increased from 16.6 in the age group 15-24 to 27.0 among the 55-64-year-olds. Untreated dental decay was predominant among workers and persons never seeing a dentist, whereas there were more filled teeth and fewer missing teeth among staff and regular visitors. The periodontal status was less satisfactory in the older age groups and among workers, and most denture wearers were found in the age group 35-64 and among workers. Concordant to the findings on dental health status, dental treatment needs due to caries and periodontal disease as well as prosthetic treatment needs varied according to age, occupation and dental visits. More radical treatment types were needed in the older age groups, among workers and non-regular visitors. The present study seems to indicate that dental diseases in the adult Danish population are not under control.

  16. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (p<0.001). Dental students also had the least positive attitudes about clinical interactions between dental hygiene and dental students (p<0.001) and perceived the fewest benefits of dental hygiene student peer teaching (p<0.001) before experiencing peer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about

  17. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (p<0.001). Dental students also had the least positive attitudes about clinical interactions between dental hygiene and dental students (p<0.001) and perceived the fewest benefits of dental hygiene student peer teaching (p<0.001) before experiencing peer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about

  18. Biostatistical consultation for dental research.

    PubMed

    Clive, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Dental science researchers do not really need a detailed, ready-at-hand knowledge of statistics to design and perform high quality scientific research. Although the acquisition and utilization of such knowledge by dental researchers is not discouraged, it is proposed that it is more important for dental researchers to be committed to developing and maintaining a long term, ongoing, interactive consulting relationship with a biostatistician. The nature of this relationship will depend in large part on the complexity of the dental research being conducted. While the statistical consultant will assist in interpreting analytic results for the dental researcher, the latter will need to provide extensive input in assisting in the estimation of sample size and power, and for expressing scientific hypotheses in statistical terms so that the appropriate data analytic methodology can be specified.

  19. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  20. Current trends in dental implants.

    PubMed

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L

    2014-04-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants.

  1. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  2. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  3. Antibacterial dental composites with chlorhexidine and mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J F; Wu, R; Fan, Y; Liao, S; Wang, Y; Wen, Z T; Xu, X

    2014-12-01

    One of the leading causes for the failure of dental composite restorations is secondary caries. Effectively inhibiting cariogenic biofilms and reducing secondary caries could extend the service life of composite restorations. Dental composites releasing antibacterial agents such as chlorhexidine (CHX) have shown biofilm-inhibitory efficacy, but they usually have poor physical and mechanical properties. Herein, we present a study of a new method to encapsulate and release CHX from dental composite using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). SBA-15 MSNs were synthesized according to a reported procedure. CHX (62.9 wt%) was encapsulated into dried MSN from 0.3 M CHX ethanol solution. The dental composites containing 0% (control), 3%, 5%, and 6.3% CHX or the same amounts of CHX entrapped in MSN (denoted as CHX@MSN) were fabricated with methacrylate monomers and silanized glass fillers (CHX or CHX@MSN + glass filler particle = 70 wt%). The monomer mixture consisted of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA), hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA), ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), and urethane dimethacrylates (UEDMA) at a weight ratio of 40:30:20:10. The composites were tested for CHX release and recharge, flexural strength and modulus (at 24 hr and 1 mo), surface roughness, in vitro wear, and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei (in both planktonic growth and biofilm formation). The results showed that the composites with CHX@MSN largely retained mechanical properties and smooth surfaces and showed controlled release of CHX over a long time. In contrast, the composites with directly mixed CHX showed reduced mechanical properties, rough surfaces, and burst release of CHX in a short time. The composites with CHX either directly mixed or in MSN showed strong inhibition to S. mutans and L. casei. This research has demonstrated the successful application of MSNs as a novel nanotechnology in dental materials to inhibit

  4. Antibacterial Dental Composites with Chlorhexidine and Mesoporous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.F.; Wu, R.; Fan, Y.; Liao, S.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Z.T.; Xu, X.

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes for the failure of dental composite restorations is secondary caries. Effectively inhibiting cariogenic biofilms and reducing secondary caries could extend the service life of composite restorations. Dental composites releasing antibacterial agents such as chlorhexidine (CHX) have shown biofilm-inhibitory efficacy, but they usually have poor physical and mechanical properties. Herein, we present a study of a new method to encapsulate and release CHX from dental composite using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). SBA-15 MSNs were synthesized according to a reported procedure. CHX (62.9 wt%) was encapsulated into dried MSN from 0.3 M CHX ethanol solution. The dental composites containing 0% (control), 3%, 5%, and 6.3% CHX or the same amounts of CHX entrapped in MSN (denoted as CHX@MSN) were fabricated with methacrylate monomers and silanized glass fillers (CHX or CHX@MSN + glass filler particle = 70 wt%). The monomer mixture consisted of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA), hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA), ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), and urethane dimethacrylates (UEDMA) at a weight ratio of 40:30:20:10. The composites were tested for CHX release and recharge, flexural strength and modulus (at 24 hr and 1 mo), surface roughness, in vitro wear, and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei (in both planktonic growth and biofilm formation). The results showed that the composites with CHX@MSN largely retained mechanical properties and smooth surfaces and showed controlled release of CHX over a long time. In contrast, the composites with directly mixed CHX showed reduced mechanical properties, rough surfaces, and burst release of CHX in a short time. The composites with CHX either directly mixed or in MSN showed strong inhibition to S. mutans and L. casei. This research has demonstrated the successful application of MSNs as a novel nanotechnology in dental materials to inhibit

  5. Antibacterial dental composites with chlorhexidine and mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J F; Wu, R; Fan, Y; Liao, S; Wang, Y; Wen, Z T; Xu, X

    2014-12-01

    One of the leading causes for the failure of dental composite restorations is secondary caries. Effectively inhibiting cariogenic biofilms and reducing secondary caries could extend the service life of composite restorations. Dental composites releasing antibacterial agents such as chlorhexidine (CHX) have shown biofilm-inhibitory efficacy, but they usually have poor physical and mechanical properties. Herein, we present a study of a new method to encapsulate and release CHX from dental composite using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). SBA-15 MSNs were synthesized according to a reported procedure. CHX (62.9 wt%) was encapsulated into dried MSN from 0.3 M CHX ethanol solution. The dental composites containing 0% (control), 3%, 5%, and 6.3% CHX or the same amounts of CHX entrapped in MSN (denoted as CHX@MSN) were fabricated with methacrylate monomers and silanized glass fillers (CHX or CHX@MSN + glass filler particle = 70 wt%). The monomer mixture consisted of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA), hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA), ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), and urethane dimethacrylates (UEDMA) at a weight ratio of 40:30:20:10. The composites were tested for CHX release and recharge, flexural strength and modulus (at 24 hr and 1 mo), surface roughness, in vitro wear, and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei (in both planktonic growth and biofilm formation). The results showed that the composites with CHX@MSN largely retained mechanical properties and smooth surfaces and showed controlled release of CHX over a long time. In contrast, the composites with directly mixed CHX showed reduced mechanical properties, rough surfaces, and burst release of CHX in a short time. The composites with CHX either directly mixed or in MSN showed strong inhibition to S. mutans and L. casei. This research has demonstrated the successful application of MSNs as a novel nanotechnology in dental materials to inhibit

  6. Dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence.

  7. Dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence. PMID:24006720

  8. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  9. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  10. The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety in Patients of a University Dental Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodmansey, Karl F.

    2005-01-01

    Dental anxiety remains a pervasive barrier to dental treatment for many individuals, including college-age patients. In this article, the author reviews dental anxiety and examines the usefulness of assessment instruments for identifying dental anxiety. Using 2 unique assessment instruments, he examines the prevalence of dental anxiety in his…

  11. Dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, V. V.; Stepanov, K. N.; Tarasov, M. I.; Sitnikov, D. A.

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical investigations of oscillatory and wave phenomena observed in the edge region in the U-3M torsatron during plasma creation and heating by an RF discharge in the ICR frequency range, accompanied by a transition to improved confinement. The main results are reported of diagnostic measurements of the spectral composition of oscillations, as well as of how the phase and amplitude relationships depend on time and on the RF power during its injection into the plasma. The measurements were carried out with electrostatic probes positioned at the edge of the plasma confinement region. The experimental results are interpreted using the kinetic theory of the electron-ion parametric instability of a plasma in the ion cyclotron frequency range and are compared with the results of numerical simulations.

  12. Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.

  13. Theoretical study of substitution effect in superalkali OM3 (M = Li, Na, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jing; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Wu, Zhi-Jian

    2013-06-01

    A class of superalkalies OM3 (M = Li, Na, K) and their corresponding cations OM3+ were theoretically investigated. The OM3 molecules possess very low adiabatic ionization potentials (AIPs) of 2.842-3.558 eV at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df) level. It was found that the ionization potentials of OM3 depend on the nature of the peripheral ligand atom and can be efficiently decreased upon replacing the M atom with the more electropositive one. Such superalkalies characterized by lower ionization potentials add candidates to the research on superatoms and can be used in the synthesis of new nontraditional salts where strong reducers are involved.

  14. Lattice relaxation and ferromagnetic character of (LaVO3)m/SrVO3superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Cosima; Lüders, Ulrike; Frésard, Raymond; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-08-01

    The experimental observation that vanadate superlattices (LaVO3)m/SrVO3 show ferromagnetism up to room temperature (Lüders U. et al., Phys. Rev. B, 80 (2009) 241102(R)) is investigated by means of density functional theory, and the band structure for m = 5 and 6 is calculated. A buckling of the interface VO2 layers is found in both cases, but subtle differences in bond length lead to very different properties for even and odd values of m: in the even case, the two interface VO2 layers effectively decouple from the adjacent LaO layers due to a strong bond length enhancement. This results into a local inversion of the orbital occupancy and to the confinement of the charge carriers. In the odd case, the amplitude of the bond length variation is smaller, so that the charge carriers spill into the deeper-lying VO2 layers, and spin-polarised interfaces are obtained.

  15. Save our secondary: recovering a broken 1.3-m mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Probst, Ronald G.; Poczulp, Gary; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Montané, Andrés.; DeVries, Joseph; Harris, Ronald C.; Elias, Jonathan; Martinez, Manuel; Saa, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    In an inauspicious start to the ultimately very successful installation of the Dark Energy Camera on the V. M. Blanco 4- m telescope at CTIO, the light-weighted Cer-Vit 1.3-m-diameter secondary mirror suffered an accident in which it fell onto its apex. This punched out a central plug of glass and destroyed the focus and tip/tilt mechanism. However, the mirror proved fully recoverable, without degraded performance. This paper describes the efforts through which the mirror was repaired and the tip/tilt mechanism rebuilt and upgraded. The telescope re-entered full service as a Ritchey- Chrétien platform in October of 2013.

  16. Determination of the first hydrolysis constant of Europium (3) in 3 M of ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirezbernal, Maria Elena

    The first hydrolysis constant of Eu(sup 3+) has been determined at 303 K and 3 M (NaCl) ionic strength. A solvent extraction method was used, the extractant was dibenzoylmethane in benzene and di glycolate anion in the aqueous phase provided competitive complexation. The tracer solution was (sup 152m1) Eu (III) in water. The radioactive solution of europium was obtained by neutron irradiation of europium nitrate solutions at pH 3.0, in a TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor at a neutron flux of 1 x 10(exp 13) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1). The half life of the produced isotope, (sup 152m1) Eu (9.3 h), was verified by means of a Ge H detector and no interfering radiations were observed in the spectra.

  17. Special stoker, ESP design mark multi-fuel biomass units

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article describes a cogeneration plant slated to operate during two distinct seasons with respect to the availability of primary fuels. Once it begins commercial operation later this year, the Okeelanta cogeneration plant, South Bay, Fla, reportedly will be one of the largest biomass cogen plants in the world. Located in the heart of the state`s sugar-cane region, the facility is jointly owned and operated by US Generating Co, Bethesda, Md, and Flo-Sun Inc, one of the world`s largest producers of sugar-cane-based products. The plant will burn bagasse--a residual of the sugar-cane process--and wood-waste, producing 74.9 MW of electricity and 1.3-million lb/hr of steam. The electricity will be sold to Florida Power and Light Co under a long-term contract, while the steam will be exported to nearby Okeelanta Corp`s sugar mill. Special features have been designed into the plant`s stoker-fired boilers and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) to accommodate these fuels.

  18. Modeling the hydrothermal circulation and the hydrogen production at the Rainbow site with Cast3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Charlou, J.; Jean-baptiste, P.

    2012-12-01

    On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Rainbow venting site is described as an ultramafic-hosted active hydrothermal site and releases high fluxes of methane and hydrogen [1, 2]. This behavior has first been interpreted as the result of serpentinization processes. But geochemical reactions involving olivine and plagioclase assemblages, and leading to chlorite, tremolite, talc and magnetite assemblages, could contribute to the observed characteristics of the exiting fluid [2]. The predominance of one of these geochemical reactions or their coexistence strongly depend on the hydrothermal fluid circulation. We developed and validated a 2D/3D numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in the framework of the Cast3M code [3, 4]. We also developed a numerical model for hydrogen production and transport that is based on experimental studies of the serpentinization processes [5-6]. This geochemical model takes into account the exothermic and water-consuming behavior of the serpentinization reaction and it can be coupled to our thermo-hydrogeological model. Our simulations provide temperatures, mass fluxes and venting surface areas very close to those estimated in-situ [7]. We showed that a single-path model [8] was necessary to simulate high values such as the in-situ measured temperatures and estimated water mass fluxes of the Rainbow site [7]. This single-path model will be used to model the production and transport of hydrogen at the Rainbow hydrothermal site. References [1]Charlou et al. (2010) AGU Monograph series. [2]Seyfried et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 1574-1593. [3]http://www-cast3m.cea.fr. [4]Martin & Fyfe (1970) Chem. Geol. 6, 185-202. [5] Marcaillou et al. (2011) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 303, 281-290. [6]Malvoisin et al. (2012) JGR, 117, B01104. [7]Perez et al. (2012) submited to Computational Geosciences. [8]Lowell & Germanovich (2004) AGU, Washington DC, USA.

  19. Dental biometrics: alignment and matching of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Jain, Anil K

    2005-08-01

    Dental biometrics utilizes dental radiographs for human identification. The dental radiographs provide information about teeth, including tooth contours, elative positions of neighboring teeth, and shapes of the dental work (e.g., crowns, fillings, and bridges). The proposed system has two main stages: feature extraction and matching. The feature extraction stage uses anisotropic diffusion to enhance the images and a Mixture of Gaussians model to segment the dental work. The matching stage has three sequential steps: tooth-level matching, computation of image distances, and subject identification. In the tooth-level matching step, tooth contours are matched using a shape registration method, and the dental work is matched on overlapping areas. The distance between the tooth contours and the distance between the dental work are then combined using posterior probabilities. In the second step, the tooth correspondences between the given query (postmortem) radiograph and the database (antemortem) radiograph are established. A distance based on the corresponding teeth is then used to measure the similarity between the two radiographs. Finally, all the distances between the given postmortem radiographs and the antemortem radiographs that provide candidate identities are combined to establish the identity of the subject associated with the postmortem radiographs.

  20. [Dental prostheses and dental impressions from a hygienic viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, J P

    1986-12-01

    Dentures, dental impressions, removable orthodontic appliances and all dental technical devices, which are part of any dental treatment are parts as well of a potential crosscontamination chain in dental treatment. Most of those items do not tolerate heat as a sure sterilization medium. For disinfection, chemical disinfectant solutions may be used as far as they work properly and as they are tolerated by the materials in question. Though, one can report some progress in disinfection of dentures and impressions, there are still questions open depending on safety and/or compatibility of the particular materials. For disinfection of removable dentures chlorine-yielding preparations such as Maranon can be recommended. Peracid preparations, such as Sekusept, Sekusept steril and Dentavon may be useful for disinfection of dental impressions. To do the possible means to reduce the infection risk for all persons involved in the dental treatment, patient, dentist, dental technician and all auxiliary persons. This includes both, active hygiene provisions as sterilization and disinfection, as well as possible passive self protection.

  1. Undergraduate dental English education in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed

    Rodis, Omar M M; Matsumura, Seishi; Kariya, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Toshiko

    2013-05-01

    Dental schools in Japan are among many worldwide whose medium of instruction is not in English. With advances in science, technology, and communication, the demand for the globalization of professions increases. At present, dental schools in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe have started revising their dental curricula to either include English courses for dentistry or offer a full English dental curriculum. In Japan, dental English courses started to be introduced into curricula in the early 1990s. However, a survey conducted in 1999 found that English courses were not offered in Japan's twenty-nine dental schools and there was no consensus as to what such courses should include or when and how they should be taught. Ten years after that survey, the survey results reported in this article found that the problems reported in the 1999 survey still exist. Additionally, there are still differences among schools offering English courses in terms of the timing and contents of the courses. Since teachers and school officials will have an important role in curriculum development, this article recommends that a fact-finding meeting with educators, school, and education officials be initiated to discuss, develop, and implement a core curriculum for these dental English courses.

  2. Trends in Dentistry and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valachovic, Richard W.; Weaver, Richard G.; Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Haden, N. Karl

    2001-01-01

    Compiled from many of the surveys that the American Dental Education Association routinely publishes, along with data from surveys conducted by the American Dental Association and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, presents statistical tables and descriptive text on trends among dental patients, among dental practitioners, and in dental…

  3. Dental Therapy Assistant: Effect on Team Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Theodore H.

    The U.S. Army Dental Corps has implemented a formal program based on the concept that dental care can be more efficiently and effectively provided with treatment teams composed of one dental officer, two dental therapy assistants (DTAs), one basic assistant, and the shared support of other auxiliary personnel. Such a team will use three dental…

  4. Sources of Dental Health Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Jean H.

    1982-01-01

    Sources of dental health education teaching aids which are available for free or at minimal cost include: (1) The American Dental Health Association; (2) state and local departments of public health; (3) schools of dentistry, dental hygiene, and dental assisting; and (4) the Educator's International Guide. (JN)

  5. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a device composed of mercury intended for use as a component of amalgam alloy in the restoration of...

  9. Developing core dental public health competencies for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Atchison, Kathryn Ann

    2015-01-01

    Dental professionals are an "underutilized" workforce, when it comes to advocating for prevention and wellness in populations. The goal of this HRSA-funded project is to develop dental public health (DPH) competencies and curriculum for US predoctoral dental and dental hygiene programs. These competencies and accompanying curriculum are designed to better prepare the oral health workforce to meet the needs of the entire population, including the chronically underserved, those challenged by poor health literacy, or communities encountering barriers to accessing oral health care. By increasing the DPH competency of all graduating dental providers, in population-based approaches to preventing oral diseases rather than the existing exclusive focus on treatment, the number of providers who can respond to a population or the public's unmet needs and challenges, both in private practices and publicly supported clinics, will increase. This paper describes the competency development process and the eight competencies that were identified. PMID:26630639

  10. Developing core dental public health competencies for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Atchison, Kathryn Ann

    2015-01-01

    Dental professionals are an "underutilized" workforce, when it comes to advocating for prevention and wellness in populations. The goal of this HRSA-funded project is to develop dental public health (DPH) competencies and curriculum for US predoctoral dental and dental hygiene programs. These competencies and accompanying curriculum are designed to better prepare the oral health workforce to meet the needs of the entire population, including the chronically underserved, those challenged by poor health literacy, or communities encountering barriers to accessing oral health care. By increasing the DPH competency of all graduating dental providers, in population-based approaches to preventing oral diseases rather than the existing exclusive focus on treatment, the number of providers who can respond to a population or the public's unmet needs and challenges, both in private practices and publicly supported clinics, will increase. This paper describes the competency development process and the eight competencies that were identified.

  11. Revisiting the STEC Testing Approach: Using espK and espV to Make Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Detection More Reliable in Beef

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D.; Ison, Sarah A.; Webb, Hattie E.; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of “false positive” results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC strains of greater clinical significance in industrialized countries. Of the 1739 beef enrichments tested, 180 were positive for both stx and eae genes. Ninety (50%) of these tested negative for espK, espV, ureD, and Z2098, but 12 out of these negative samples were positive for the CRISPRO26:H11 gene marker specific for a newly emerging virulent EHEC O26:H11 French clone. We show that screening for stx, eae, espK, and espV, in association with the CRISPRO26:H11 marker is a better approach to narrow down the EHEC screening step in beef enrichments. The number of potentially positive samples was reduced by 48.88% by means of this alternative strategy compared to the European and American reference methods, thus substantially improving the discriminatory power of EHEC screening systems. This approach is in line with the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) opinion on pathogenic STEC published in 2013. PMID:26834723

  12. Sugars and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva; van Loveren, Cor

    2003-10-01

    A dynamic relation exists between sugars and oral health. Diet affects the integrity of the teeth; quantity, pH, and composition of the saliva; and plaque pH. Sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates, after being hydrolyzed by salivary amylase, provide substrate for the actions of oral bacteria, which in turn lower plaque and salivary pH. The resultant action is the beginning of tooth demineralization. Consumed sugars are naturally occurring or are added. Many factors in addition to sugars affect the caries process, including the form of food or fluid, the duration of exposure, nutrient composition, sequence of eating, salivary flow, presence of buffers, and oral hygiene. Studies have confirmed the direct relation between intake of dietary sugars and dental caries across the life span. Since the introduction of fluoride, the incidence of caries worldwide has decreased, despite increases in sugars consumption. Other dietary factors (eg, the presence of buffers in dairy products; the use of sugarless chewing gum, particularly gum containing xylitol; and the consumption of sugars as part of meals rather than between meals) may reduce the risk of caries. The primary public health measures for reducing caries risk, from a nutrition perspective, are the consumption of a balanced diet and adherence to dietary guidelines and the dietary reference intakes; from a dental perspective, the primary public health measures are the use of topical fluorides and consumption of fluoridated water.

  13. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  14. Nanoindentation of dental composites.

    PubMed

    Drummond, James L

    2006-07-01

    The intent of this project was to evaluate the elastic modulus and hardness of four composites with different fillers, a microfill, a hybrid, a dental resin cement, and a fiber filler, using nanoindentation. An indentation load of 0.001 N was used and 100 indents per specimen were taken. The elastic modulus measured for the Choice composite was 30.2-30.3 GPa, 15.9-16.0 GPa for Micronew, 24.6-27.1 GPa for Renew, and 36.4-47.1 GPa for Restolux. The statistical analysis indicated a significant difference in the elastic modulus for all four composites. Micronew had the lowest hardness (1.2-1.3 GPa) followed by Renew (1.6-1.8 GPa), Choice (2.6-2.8 GPa), and Restolux (2.7-4.0 GPa). The statistical analysis indicated a significant difference between Choice and Restolux from Micronew and Renew, with Renew and Micronew not being significantly different from each other. Nanoindentation of dental composites, using a 10 x 10 matrix of indentations, resulted in a wide range of measured values for the elastic modulus and hardness because of the size of the filler particle, the location of the indenter within the filler particle, the composition of the filler particles, and the location of the indenter within the filler/resin matrix.

  15. Nanotechnology and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Lavenus, Sandrine; Louarn, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The long-term clinical success of dental implants is related to their early osseointegration. This paper reviews the different steps of the interactions between biological fluids, cells, tissues, and surfaces of implants. Immediately following implantation, implants are in contact with proteins and platelets from blood. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells will then condition the peri-implant tissue healing. Direct bone-to-implant contact is desired for a biomechanical anchoring of implants to bone rather than fibrous tissue encapsulation. Surfaces properties such as chemistry and roughness play a determinant role in these biological interactions. Physicochemical features in the nanometer range may ultimately control the adsorption of proteins as well as the adhesion and differentiation of cells. Nanotechnologies are increasingly used for surface modifications of dental implants. Another approach to enhance osseointegration is the application of thin calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. Bioactive CaP nanocrystals deposited on titanium implants are resorbable and stimulate bone apposition and healing. Future nanometer-controlled surfaces may ultimately direct the nature of peri-implant tissues and improve their clinical success rate.

  16. Nanotechnology and Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Lavenus, Sandrine; Louarn, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The long-term clinical success of dental implants is related to their early osseointegration. This paper reviews the different steps of the interactions between biological fluids, cells, tissues, and surfaces of implants. Immediately following implantation, implants are in contact with proteins and platelets from blood. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells will then condition the peri-implant tissue healing. Direct bone-to-implant contact is desired for a biomechanical anchoring of implants to bone rather than fibrous tissue encapsulation. Surfaces properties such as chemistry and roughness play a determinant role in these biological interactions. Physicochemical features in the nanometer range may ultimately control the adsorption of proteins as well as the adhesion and differentiation of cells. Nanotechnologies are increasingly used for surface modifications of dental implants. Another approach to enhance osseointegration is the application of thin calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. Bioactive CaP nanocrystals deposited on titanium implants are resorbable and stimulate bone apposition and healing. Future nanometer-controlled surfaces may ultimately direct the nature of peri-implant tissues and improve their clinical success rate. PMID:21253543

  17. Thesis/Dissertation Writing for EFL Students: An ESP Course Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rebecca T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an intensive English for Specific Purposes (ESP) thesis-writing course. The course focuses on total discourse learning needs and uses an interactive model of needs analysis to target the learning needs of students. (Author/CB)

  18. Cyclone as a precleaner to ESP--a need for Indian coal based thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Manjunath, S; Rao, C V Chalapati; Bopche, A M

    2003-11-01

    Almost all coal based thermal power plants (CTPP) in India use electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for reduction of particulate matter (PM) in flue gas generated due to the combustion of Indian coal. This coal is characterized by high ash content, low calorific value and low sulfur content resulting in the generation of a very large amount of highly electrically-resistive fly-ash; thereby requiring a very large size ESP to minimize the fly-ash emissions. However, the flue-gas particle size distribution analysis showed that 60% of the particles are above 15 microm size, which can be conveniently removed using a low-cost inertial separator such as a cyclone separator. It is proposed that a cyclone be used, as a pre-cleaner to ESP so that the large size fraction of fly-ash can be removed in the pre-cleaning and the remaining flue-gas entering the ESP will then contain only small size particles with low dust loading, thereby requiring a small ESP, and improving overall efficiency of dust removal. A low efficiency (65%), high throughput cyclone is considered for pre-cleaning flue gas and the ESP is designed for removal of the remaining 35% fly-ash from the flue gas. It is observed that with 100% dust load, the ESP requires six fields per pass, whereas with cyclone as a pre-cleaner, it requires only five fields per pass. Introducing cyclone into the flue gas path results in additional head loss, which needs to be overcome by providing additional power to induced draft (ID) fan. The permissible head loss due to the cyclone is estimated by comparing the power requirement in the bag filter control unit and cyclone-ESP combined unit. It is estimated that a head loss of 10 cm of water can be permitted across the cyclone so as to design the same for 65% efficiency.

  19. Randomized Clinical Trial of Implant-Supported Ceramic-Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Fixed Dental Prostheses: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F.; Clark, Arthur E.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the survival rates over time of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic prostheses as a function of core-veneer thickness ratio, gingival connector embrasure design, and connector height. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study involving 55 patients missing three teeth in either one or two posterior areas. These patients (34 women; 21 men; age range 52–75 years) were recruited for the study to receive a 3-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Two implants were placed for each of the 72 FDPs in the study. The implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech), which were made of titanium, were grit blasted. A gold-shaded, custom-milled titanium abutment (Atlantis, Astra Tech), was secured to each implant body. Each of the 72 FDPs in 55 patients were randomly assigned based on one of the following options: (1) A. Material: ceramic-ceramic (Yttria-stabilized zirconia core, pressable fluorapatite glass-ceramic, IPS e.max ZirCAD and ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent) B. metal-ceramic (palladium-based noble alloy, Capricorn, Ivoclar Vivadent, with press-on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic veneer, IPS InLine POM, Ivoclar Vivadent); (2) occlusal veneer thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm); (3) curvature of gingival embrasure (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mm diameter); and (4) connector height (3, 4, and 5 mm). FDPs were fabricated and cemented with dual-cure resin cement (RelyX, Universal Cement, 3M ESPE). Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. FDPs were examined for cracks, fracture, and general surface quality. Results Recall exams of 72 prostheses revealed 10 chipping fractures. No fractures occurred within the connector or embrasure areas. Two-sided Fisher’s exact tests showed no significant correlation between fractures and type of material system (p = 0.51), veneer thickness (p = 0.75), radius of curvature of gingival embrasure

  20. Initial dental needs and a projection of needed dental capacity in the Iowa Department of Corrections.

    PubMed

    Ringgenberg, Wendy J

    2011-04-01

    The dental health data for the Iowa Department of Corrections (IDOC) inmate population were analyzed to better understand dental health issues experienced by inmates and IDOC's system for responding to those dental needs. Each inmate is given a dental health assessment upon admission to Iowa's prison system. These data were analyzed for frequency of dental health needs and frequency of dental health services. In addition, emergency dental health services were analyzed. The findings show that each inmate has approximately 7.6 dental codes, including the initial exam, dental services provided, and dental needs not yet addressed. When reviewing only dental needs (and not the initial exam), 32% (5,110) identified dental needs were completed and 66% (10,572) were not.

  1. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) from Fasciola hepatica induce tolerogenic properties in myeloid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Cristian; Carranza, Franco; Martínez, Fernando F; Knubel, Carolina P; Masih, Diana T; Motrán, Claudia C; Cervi, Laura

    2010-09-15

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth trematode that migrates through the host tissues until reaching bile ducts where it becomes an adult. During its migration the parasite releases different excretory-secretory products (ESP), which are in contact with the immune system. In this study, we focused on the effect of ESP on the maturation and function of murine bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (DC). We found that the treatment of DC with ESP failed to induce a classical maturation of these cells, since ESP alone did not activate DC to produce any cytokines, although they impaired the ability of DC to be activated by TLR ligands and also their capacity to stimulate an allospecific response. In addition, using an in vitro ovalbumin peptide-restricted priming assay, ESP-treated DC exhibited a capacity to drive Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization of CD4(+) cells from DO11.10 transgenic mice. This was characterized by increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-beta production and the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells. Our results support the hypothesis that ESP from F. hepatica modulate the maturation and function of DC as part of a generalized immunosuppressive mechanism that involves a bias towards a Th2 response and Treg development.

  2. Roughness Measurement of Dental Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Roussev, Ilia; Karpuzov, Simeon; Stoilov, Georgi; Ignatova, Detelina; See, Constantin von; Mitov, Gergo

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a roughness measurement of zirconia ceramics, widely used for dental applications. Surface roughness variations caused by the most commonly used dental instruments for intraoral grinding and polishing are estimated. The applied technique is simple and utilizes the speckle properties of the scattered laser light. It could be easily implemented even in dental clinic environment. The main criteria for roughness estimation is the average speckle size, which varies with the roughness of zirconia. The algorithm used for the speckle size estimation is based on the normalized autocorrelation approach.

  3. Head and neck cancer, dental implants, and dental oncology.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Guez, Ghislaine

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is a real presence in the dental-implant world--patients who undergo surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation often seek the assistance of dental-implant practitioners to restore them to better function; other patients who have had implants in place for years will return with questions regarding how their treatment will be affected by the presence of their dental implant. As oral-cancer treatment modalities are rapidly changing, practitioners struggle to keep up with the literature surrounding this important subset of the dental-implant population. This month, we look at the numbers of patients suffering from oral cancers, consider the different treatment options for patients with oral cancers, and investigate the role that implants play in improving therapeutic outcomes or changing treatment course.

  4. Increasing dental student diversity through the UNLV Dental Prospects Program.

    PubMed

    McClain, Mildred A; Jones, Francis R; McClain, Clifford R; Curd, Francis M

    2013-05-01

    Adequately providing for the health care of the growing minority population in the United States requires increased racial and ethnic diversity of the health care workforce. Long-term diversity in the dental profession depends on a more diverse student population in dental schools. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine's (UNLV SDM) Dental Prospects Club is a predental education program that has increased the number of underrepresented minority and disadvantaged students in the school by concentrating on outreach, recruitment, and retention initiatives. The approaches used by the club members and faculty advisors to increase the number of underrepresented minority students recruited to and enrolled in the UNLV SDM are discussed in this report. Also described are the strategies, methods, internal infrastructure, and organizational support used to increase the number of underrepresented minority students at the school.

  5. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  6. WATER AND WASTEWATER POLISHING USING 3M SELECTIVE SEPARATION REMEDIATION CARTRIDGE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, K. M.; Scanlan, T. J.; Seely, D. C.

    2002-02-25

    3M has developed technology for selectively removing trace levels of dissolved contaminant materials from liquids using systems operating at flow rates up to 50 gallons per minute. This technology combines active particle chemistries with a particle-loaded membrane to achieve a new medium for liquid waste processing--a spiral wound filter cartridge. This technology has shown success by generating high decontamination factors and reducing contaminants to part per trillion levels. The spiral wound cartridge offers simplified installation, convenient replacement, and clean, easy disposal of a concentrated waste. By incorporating small, high surface area particles (5 to 80 microns) into a sturdy, yet porous, membrane greater removal efficiencies of even trace contaminants can be achieved at higher flow rates than with conventional column systems. In addition, the captive-particle medium prevents channeling of liquids and insures uniform flow across the sorbing particle surface. The cartridges fit into standard, commercially-available housings and whole system capital costs are substantially lower than those of column or reverse osmosis systems. Developmental work at high degrees of water polishing have included removal of mercury from contaminated wastewater, various radionuclides from process water, and organometallic species from surface water discharges. Laboratory testing and on-site demonstration data of these applications show the levels of success that have been achieved thus far.

  7. 3M Petrifilm enterobacteriaceae count plate method for enumeration of enterobacteriaceae in selected foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The practice of detecting and enumerating all oxidase-negative, glucose-fermenting-Gram-negative rods (i.e., the family Enterobacteriaceae) is used to indicate unsanitary or inadequate food processing conditions. The objective of this interlaboratory collaborative study was to evaluate and compare the methods described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) and the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (Compendium) with a commercial product, the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate, for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in foods. Six foods--cheddar cheese, milk, flour, frozen prepared meals, frozen broccoli, and nut pieces--were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test portions consisting of a control test portion and 3 levels of inoculated test portion, each in duplicate. Each test portion was tested by the Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate method as well as the SMEDP or Compendium methods. The precision estimates (repeatability or within-laboratory variation, and reproducibility or between-laboratory variation) were calculated with standard statistical techniques.

  8. GRACOS: Scalable and Load Balanced P3M Cosmological N-body Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, Alexander; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The GRACOS (GRAvitational COSmology) code, a parallel implementation of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (P3M) algorithm for distributed memory clusters, uses a hybrid method for both computation and domain decomposition. Long-range forces are computed using a Fourier transform gravity solver on a regular mesh; the mesh is distributed across parallel processes using a static one-dimensional slab domain decomposition. Short-range forces are computed by direct summation of close pairs; particles are distributed using a dynamic domain decomposition based on a space-filling Hilbert curve. A nearly-optimal method was devised to dynamically repartition the particle distribution so as to maintain load balance even for extremely inhomogeneous mass distributions. Tests using 800(3) simulations on a 40-processor beowulf cluster showed good load balance and scalability up to 80 processes. There are limits on scalability imposed by communication and extreme clustering which may be removed by extending the algorithm to include adaptive mesh refinement.

  9. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  10. Performance of 3M/house cochlear implant users on tests of speech perception.

    PubMed

    Danhauer, J L; Ghadialy, F B; Eskwitt, D L; Mendel, L L

    1990-10-01

    This report documents both closed- and open-set speech recognition performance for 18 adult experienced users of the 3M/House single-channel cochlear implant. The stimuli included tape-recorded, standard word and sentence recognition tests, an environmental-sound test, nonsense syllables, and sentences presented in auditory (implant-only), visual, and auditory-visual modes. All subjects were tested individually in a single session using their own cochlear implants, set to typical comfort use settings for running speech. Subjects' oral responses to the stimuli were transcribed by the experimenters and scored for percent correct. The results revealed considerable individual differences among the subjects and their performance on different tests. All subjects scored better than chance on the closed-set tests. Although they performed considerably poorer on the open-set tests, approximately half of these subjects demonstrated at least some open-set word recognition, a finding not previously reported in the literature for this device. All subjects performed better on the auditory-visual sentences than on either the auditory or visual conditions alone. These results contribute to the database on speech perception by cochlear implant users and show that open-set word recognition performance was somewhat better for these subjects using this implant than would have been predicted from the literature.

  11. Understanding the spin-driven polarizations in Bi MO3 (M = 3 d transition metals) multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kc, Santosh; Lee, Jun Hee; Cooper, Valentino R.

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) , a promising multiferroic, stabilizes in a perovskite type rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c) at room temperature. Recently, it has been reported that in its ground state it possess a huge spin-driven polarization. To probe the underlying mechanism of this large spin-phonon response, we examine these couplings within other Bi based 3 d transition metal oxides Bi MO3 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) using density functional theory. Our results demonstrate that this large spin-driven polarization is a consequence of symmetry breaking due to competition between ferroelectric distortions and anti-ferrodistortive octahedral rotations. Furthermore, we find a strong dependence of these enhanced spin-driven polarizations on the crystal structure; with the rhombohedral phase having the largest spin-induced atomic distortions along [111]. These results give us significant insights into the magneto-electric coupling in these materials which is essential to the magnetic and electric field control of electric polarization and magnetization in multiferroic based devices. Research is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program (V.R.C) and used computational resources at NERSC.

  12. Nonlinear pulsations of stars with initial mass 3 {M_⊙} on the asymptotic giant branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.

    2016-10-01

    Pulsation period changes in Mira type variables are investigated using the stellar evolution and nonlinear stellar pulsation calculations. We considered the evolutionary sequence of stellar models with initial mass {M_{ZAMS}} = 3{M_⊙} and population I composition. Pulsations of stars in the early stage of the asymptotic giant branch are shown to be due to instability of the fundamental mode. In the later stage of evolution when the helium shell source becomes thermally unstable the stellar oscillations occur in either the fundamental mode (for the stellar luminosuty L < 5.4 × {10^3}{L_⊙}) or the first overtone (L > 7 × {10^3}{L_⊙}). Excitation of pulsations is due to the κ-mechanism in the hydrogen ionization zone. Stars with intermediate luminosities 5.4 × {10^3}{L_⊙} < L < 7 × {10^3}{L_⊙} were found to be stable against radial oscillations. The pulsation period was determined as a function of evolutionary time and period change rates dot Π were evaluated for the first ten helium flashes. The period change rate becomes the largest in absolute value (dot Π/Π ≈ - {10^{ - 2}}y{r^{ - 1}}) between the helium flash and the maximum of the stellar luminosity. Period changes with rate | {dot Π/Π } | ≥slant - {10^{ - 3}}y{r^{ - 1}} take place during ≈500 yr, that is nearly one hundredth of the interval between helium flashes.

  13. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C.; Engle, S.; Guinan, E.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  14. Astrometric and Photometric Accuracy of the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope on Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Carini, M. T.; Engle, S. G.; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E. F.; Laney, D.; Strolger, L.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    The 1.3 m (50 inch) telescope on Kitt Peak has been refurbished and provided with an autonomous scheduler. It is operated by The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) consortium whose members are: South Carolina State, Villanova and Western Kentucky Universities. The facility possesses 5 board (UBVRI) and 11 narrow-band filters. Attached to the RCT camera is a 2048 x 2048 SITe SI-424A back-illuminated CCD with 24 micrometer pixels. We used over 7,000 star measurements from 37, 198s R-images to compute the astrometric and photometric accuracy. The difference of the J2000 coordinates computed from the RCT images and the J2000 Nomad catalog coordinate values in right ascension peaks at 0.058”, while the declination peaks at -0.125”. We obtained these astrometric results using the simplest assumptions: linear relationship between standard coordinates and measured coordinates, no color or magnitude dependency and no differential refraction (all images taken in the zenith). We express the photometric accuracy in the following manner: The Signal-to-Noise-Ratio as a function of apparent magnitude shows that the RCT is not noise dominated at m < 20 magnitude.

  15. 3M Empore(R)-Membrane Filter Technology: Cesium Removal from Fuel Storage Water Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-07-15

    This paper describes results from a seven-day demonstration of the use of 3M Empore(R) membrane filter loaded with ion exchange material (potassium cobalt hexacynoferrate) for cesium uptake from the R-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site. The goal of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of the Process Absorber Development unit, a water pre-filtration /CoHex configuration on a skid, to remove cesium from R-Disassembly Basin at a linear processing flow rate of 22.9 liters per minute (1,204 liters/minute/m2). Over 210,000 liters of R-Disassembly Basin water was processed through the PADU without a cesium breakthrough, that is, the effluent after treatment with CoHex, contained less than detectable amounts of radioactive cesium. Some of the observed advantages of the Empore(R) membrane filter technology over conventional packed column ion exchange systems include rapid flow rates without channeling effects, low volume secondary waste and fast extraction or rapid kinetics per unit of flow.

  16. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Landreth, Ronald

    2001-09-21

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete . The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PAC sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPAC injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H- on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PAC injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PAC on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PAC (or H-PAC) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PAC in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection would continue as part of the long-term test. The injection of

  17. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  18. Dental Erosion in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Cate, H. J. Ten Bruggen

    1968-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty-five acid workers were examined between March 1962 and October 1964. One hundred and seventy-six (31·7%) were affected by industrial dental erosion at the first examinations. In 33 cases (6·0%) the dentine was affected. During the period of the survey, 66 (20·4%) of 324 workers examined more than once showed evidence that erosion was progressing. The prevalence and incidence of erosion were highest among battery formation workers, lower among picklers, and least among other processes covered by the survey. The age of workers did not appear to influence their susceptibility to erosion. The habit of working with the lips slightly parted had little effect. Erosion superimposed upon attrition predisposed to more severe loss of tooth structure than either operating alone. Little inconvenience or functional disability was suffered by acid workers due to erosion. Twenty-seven (23·7%) of 114 erosions were considered to be disfiguring. Regular dental treatment was sought less by acid workers than by controls, and the oral hygiene of the latter was superior. There was no evidence to show any difference between caries experience among acid workers and controls. Calculus and periodontal disease were more prevalent among acid workers than among controls, but it was not possible to attribute this to the working environment. Black staining in iron picklers was considered to be due to the working environment. The use of closed acid containers or lip extraction on open acid vats prevented significant atmospheric contamination and diminished the prevalence of erosion. The use of wall fans and detergent foaming agents was helpful. Images PMID:5723349

  19. Processing dental claims electronically.

    PubMed

    Mylan, V

    1996-01-01

    A reduction of healthcare costs is an important part of the reform our society is demanding. We cannot ignore this. Lowering administrative costs is a particularly good way to reduce health care expenditures since this decreases the cost without compromising the quality of services. Implementing an EDI structure for submitting claims and receiving claim remittance advice is one way to significantly reduce the cost of health care by lowering administrative costs. EDI allows the consumer to receive the same level of health care at a lower cost. To accomplish this goal, the industry must accept some standardization. While providers, dental software vendors, and clearinghouses request an electronic claims system that is uniform-payers (insurance companies, State-administered Medicaid programs, etc.) often insist on proprietary formats that fit their own requirements. This impedes the implementation of a successful electronic interchange of data. Under the leadership of the Canadian Dental Association, payers and dentists in Canada were able to create a superior electronic claim processing network, CDAnet. Providers and payers using CDAnet agree that the system works very well. The Canadian dentist does not pay for this service, and insurance companies benefit significantly. Dentists in the USA do not have a universal electronic claim processing network. A USA dentist who wants to send claims electronically has limited selections and often pays additional fees. Organized dentistry has the best opportunity of establishing electronic data interchange between providers and payers in the USA. The first step is creating a universal electronic claim processing system. This system must protect confidentiality by maintaining data that keeps anonymous provider and patient data. It is the dentist who produces the claim. Dentists must become involved in the decisions affecting electronic claim processing. The proper guidance from organized dentistry will enable providers, payers

  20. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  1. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    PubMed

    Toor, Ravi S S; Jindal, R

    2011-01-01

    Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008) focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  2. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is a two- ... Exams Dental Cone Beam CT X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety About this Site ...

  3. Electronic Dental Records System Adoption.

    PubMed

    Abramovicz-Finkelsztain, Renata; Barsottini, Claudia G N; Marin, Heimar Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The use of Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and management software has become more frequent, following the increase in prevelance of new technologies and computers in dental offices. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the use of EDRs by the dental community in the São Paulo city area. A quantitative case study was performed using a survey on the phone. A total of 54 offices were contacted and only one declinedparticipation in this study. Only one office did not have a computer. EDRs were used in 28 offices and only four were paperless. The lack of studies in this area suggests the need for more usability and implementation studies on EDRs so that we can improve EDR adoption by the dental community.

  4. Dental aid in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Rylands, V

    1992-03-01

    From January to July of 1991, I worked on a dental project in Dharamsala, Northern India whose aim was to leave the Tibetan community there dentally self-sufficient. Since 1959, following the Chinese invasion of Tibet, India and Nepal have become home to thousands of Tibetan refugees. Dharamsala is home to His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibet, and also of the largest Tibetan refugee communities (approximately 15,000).

  5. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam].

    PubMed

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P

    1989-01-01

    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.

  6. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  7. Dental home: Patient centered dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Girish Babu, K. L.; Doddamani, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood dental caries occurs in all racial and socioeconomic groups; however, it tends to be more prevalent in children in families belonging to the low-income group, where it is seen in epidemic proportions. Dental caries results from an overgrowth of specific organisms that are a part of normally occurring human flora. Human dental flora is site specific, and an infant is not colonized until the eruption of the primary dentition at approximately 6 to 30 months of age. The most likely source of inoculation of an infant's dental flora is the mother, or another intimate care provider, shared utensils, etc. Decreasing the level of cariogenic organisms in the mother's dental flora at the time of colonization can significantly impact the child's redisposition to caries. To prevent caries in children, high-risk individuals must be identified at an early age (preferably high-risk mothers during prenatal care), and aggressive strategies should be adopted, including anticipatory guidance, behavior modifications (oral hygiene and feeding practices), and establishment of a dental home by 1 year of age for children deemed at risk. PMID:24478960

  8. Initial operation and checkout of stratospheric aerosol gas experiment and Meteor-3M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, Leonid; Chu, William P.; Salikhov, Rashid; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Trepte, Charles R.; Cisewski, Michael S.

    2003-04-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10, 2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M(1) satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. This paper presents the process and approach deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational

  9. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  10. Qualification Of Kapton Pretreatment Process Using 3M Scotch Weld 2216 For Solar Panel Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, B. R.; Krishna, Priya G.; Venkatesh, K.; Nagendra, H. R.; Nanjundaswamy, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    Substrates for solar arrays intended to be used on satellite systems are generally made of aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) face skin. Two mil thick KaptonTM sheets are co cured on one side of the aluminum /CFRP composite structure while realizing the substrate panels. This Kapton sheet would serve as an insulator over which solar cell blankets are bonded with suitable adhesive for the satellite solar panels. The satellite solar panels demands highest degree of quality and reliability and one of the prime factors in this regards is the bond strength of adhesive which is used to bond the solar cell blankets. Various methods of pretreatments of Kapton surface are in use for increasing the surface energy, which in turn results in improved bond strengths. These methods generally provide roughened surface of the Kapton which is achieved either by abrasive means like scrubbing the surface using fine silica chip, or plasma etching or alternatively by an additive process wherein suitable polyester, phenolic or other resins are coated on to the Kapton surface to achieve the desired results. For spacecraft solar panel applications at ISRO, polyester resin coating on to the Kapton surface was used as pretreatment prior to adhesive application. This process had provided adequate bond strengths between the solar cells and Kapton. Due to issues related to the supply of the polyester resin material from the vendor alternative methods of pretreatments were explored. In this paper, a novel process developed for Kapton pretreatment is described along with results of relevant qualifications for the satellite solar panel application. This newly developed pretreatment process for Kapton successfully adopts an epoxy based material 3M Scotch weld 2216 which is widely used in spacecraft electronic hardware.

  11. Dome flat-field system for 1.3-m Araki Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuji; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ichizawa, Shunsuke; Arai, Akira; Isogai, Mizuki; Yonehara, Atsunori; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2012-09-01

    We report the system/optics design and performance of the dome flat-field system for the Araki Telescope, a 1.3- m optical/near-infrared telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Japan. A variety of instruments are attached to the telescope. The optical imager, which is intended to search for exoplanets, requires an illumination flatness within 1% on the focal plane over the 17-arcmin FOV. Illumination flatness at both the pupil plane and the focal plane of the telescope is essential for calibration of the transmittance of the optical system. We devised an optical design for the flat-field system that satisfies illumination flatness at both the focal and pupil planes using the non-sequential ray tracing software LightTools. We considered far-field illumination pattern of the lamps, scattering surface reflectance distribution of the screen, telescope structure, primary/secondary mirrors, and mirror baffles. We achieved a flat illumination distribution of 0.9% at the focal plane. The systems performance was tested by comparison with a cloud-flat frame, which was derived by imaging cloud cover illuminated by city lights. The calibration data for the dome flat-field system agree well with the cloud-flat frame within 1% for the g' and i' bands of the imager, but the r0 band data does not meet the requirement (less than or equal to 2). Moreover, various instruments require a focal plane illuminance ranging over three orders of magnitude. We used six high-power (60W) halogen lamps; the output power is remotely controlled by a thyristor-driven dimmer and a bypass circuit to an autotransformer.

  12. Modifications to Langley 0.3-m TCT adaptive wall software for heavy gas test medium, phase 1 studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    The scheme for two-dimensional wall adaptation with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as test gas in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) is presented. A unified version of the wall adaptation software has been developed to function in a dual gas operation mode (nitrogen or SF6). The feature of ideal gas calculations for nitrogen operation is retained. For SF6 operation, real gas properties have been computed using the departure function technique. Installation of the software on the 0.3-m TCT ModComp-A computer and preliminary validation with nitrogen operation were found to be satisfactory. Further validation and improvements to the software will be undertaken when the 0.3-m TCT is ready for operation with SF6 gas.

  13. Requirements of Operational Verification of the NWSRFS-ESP Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, B.; Werner, K.; Hartmann, H.; Sorooshian, S.; Pritchard, E.

    2006-12-01

    Forecast verification is the process of determining the quality of forecasts. This requires the utilization of quality measures that summarize one or more aspects of the relationship between forecasts and observations. Technically, the three main objectives of forecast verification are (a) monitoring, (b) improving, and (c) comparing the quality of different forecasting systems. However, users of forecast verification results range from administrators, who want to know the value of investing in forecast system improvement to forecasters and modelers, who want to assess areas of improving their own predictions, to forecast users, who weigh their decision based not only on the forecast but also on the perceived quality of such forecast. Our discussions with several forecasters and hydrologists in charge at various River Forecast Centers (RFCs) indicated that operational hydrologists view verification in a broader sense than their counterparts within the meteorological community. Their view encompasses verification as a possible tool in determining whether a forecast is ready for issuance as an "official" product or that it needs more work. In addition to the common challenges associated with verification of monthly and seasonal probabilistic forecasts. which include determining and obtaining the appropriate size of "forecast-observation" pairs data set, operational verification also requires the consideration of verification strategies for short-term forecasts. Under such condition, the identification of conditional verification (i.e., similar conditions) samples, tracking model states, input, and output, relative to their climatology, and the establishment of links between the forecast issuance, verification, and simulation components of the forecast system become important. In this presentation, we address the impacts of such view on the potential requirements of an operational verification system for the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) component of the

  14. Dental Fear and Delayed Dental Care in Appalachia-West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The people of Appalachia-West Virginia are culturally unique and are known to have oral health disparities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental fear in relation to delayed dental care as a factor influencing oral health behaviors within this culture. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. Participants were urgent care patients in a university dental clinic. The sample included 140 adults over age 18 years. The Dental Fear Survey was used to determine dental fear level. Self-report of delayed dental care was provided by the participants. The Dental Fear Survey was dichotomized at score 33, with higher scores indicating dental fear. Results The prevalence of dental fear was 47.1% (n=66). There was a significant association of dental fear and dental delay. The unadjusted odds ratio was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.17, 7.04; p=0.021). The adjusted odds ratio was 3.83 (95%CI: 1.14, 12.82; p=0.030), controlling for tobacco use, perceived oral health status, pain, and last dental visit. A difference in dental delay between men and women was not present in this sample. The only significant variable in delayed dental care was dental fear. Conclusion In Appalachia-West Virginia , there remains a high level of dental fear, despite advances in dental care, techniques, and procedures. PMID:26304952

  15. ORO-DENTAL PATTERN IN MENTALLY RETARDED

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Pradeep; Jha, Sanjeev; Tandon, Ragini; Sondhi, Deepak; Chandra, Mahesh; Trivedi, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was carried out in 25 mentally retarded children and compared with equal number of normal children. They were subjected to detailed psychiatric evaluation and dental examination. The dental anomalies were corroborated with cephalometric analysis of lateral cephalograms. It was concluded that all mentally retarded children had some dental abnormality in them in form of dental malocclusion, wide inter dental spaces, absence of teeth etc. We suggest early dental management for such patients for reinforcing their neuromuscular coordination modifying the mastication power, swallowing, speech, stomatognathic function and above all their facial profile for better social acceptance. PMID:21927451

  16. Detergents enhance EspB secretion from Escherichia coli strains harboring the locus for the enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Noboru; Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ogura, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    The effects of detergents (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40) on the secretion of EspB from the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene-positive Escherichia coli strains were examined. Clinical isolates of eight EPEC strains and seven STEC strains were used to detect EspB after they had been cultivated in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing one of the detergents. When the bacteria were cultured in LB broth supplemented with one of the detergents, the amount of EspB produced was increased by 2-32-fold depending on the detergent and the strain used. EspB was detected in all strains when they were cultured in LB broth containing all of the detergents. The results obtained in this study can be applied to immunological diagnostic methods for detecting EspB and also to the production of EspB for research purposes.

  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp degrades specific proteins associated with Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and host-pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Iwamoto, Takeo; Takada, Koji; Okuda, Ken-Ichi; Tajima, Akiko; Iwase, Tadayuki; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus exhibits a strong capacity to attach to abiotic or biotic surfaces and form biofilms, which lead to chronic infections. We have recently shown that Esp, a serine protease secreted by commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis, disassembles preformed biofilms of S. aureus and inhibits its colonization. Esp was expected to degrade protein determinants of the adhesive and cohesive strength of S. aureus biofilms. The aim of this study was to elucidate the substrate specificity and target proteins of Esp and thereby determine the mechanism by which Esp disassembles S. aureus biofilms. We used a mutant Esp protein (Esp(S235A)) with defective proteolytic activity; this protein did not disassemble the biofilm formed by a clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain, thereby indicating that the proteolytic activity of Esp is essential for biofilm disassembly. Esp degraded specific proteins in the biofilm matrix and cell wall fractions, in contrast to proteinase K, which is frequently used for testing biofilm robustness and showed no preference for proteolysis. Proteomic and immunological analyses showed that Esp degrades at least 75 proteins, including 11 biofilm formation- and colonization-associated proteins, such as the extracellular adherence protein, the extracellular matrix protein-binding protein, fibronectin-binding protein A, and protein A. In addition, Esp selectively degraded several human receptor proteins of S. aureus (e.g., fibronectin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin) that are involved in its colonization or infection. These results suggest that Esp inhibits S. aureus colonization and biofilm formation by degrading specific proteins that are crucial for biofilm construction and host-pathogen interaction.

  18. Dental Therapy Assistant: Quality of Restorations Placed and Finished.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Theodore H.; Bair, Jeffrey H.

    The U.S. Army Dental Corps has implemented a new concept of dental care delivery, formally identified as the Improved Dental Care Delivery System. The concept is based on the conservation of professional manpower resources through the use of dental treatment teams employing expanded duty dental assistants. Dental Therapy Assistant (DTA) is the…

  19. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthetic crowns. The dentin and pulp were best visualized at the level of the neck of the teeth. The dentin was hypoechoic, and the superficial layer comprising the cementum and the pulp spaces were hyperechoic. Dental ultrasound is feasible with general purpose sonographic machines. The buccal surfaces of all teeth are accessible with a compact (hockey stick) probe. Visualization and differentiation of dental pulp spaces, dentin and the superficial layer comprising cementum is possible in the portions of teeth not covered by the alveolar bone or prosthetic crowns. The dental pulp spaces are best seen at the level of the tooth neck. Pulp and endodontic fillings can be distinguished on ultrasound.

  20. Component analysis of dental porcelain for assisting dental identification.

    PubMed

    Aboshi, H; Takahashi, T; Komuro, T

    2006-12-01

    The fluorescence of porcelain crowns recovered from the mouth of an unknown murder victim, and several control porcelain samples, were examined by fluorescent examination lamps. The fluorescence from two of the control samples was quite similar to that from the porcelain crowns recovered from the victim. To increase the objectivity of the results by quantitative analysis, the composition of each porcelain crown and control sample was also evaluated by wave dispersion X-ray microanalyser. The elements detected from the porcelain crowns of the victim matched those of two of the porcelain samples. Later, the antemortem dental records and radiographs of the victim were obtained through a dentist, who had recognized the name of the porcelain manufacturer in a postmortem dental information request placed on the Japanese Dental Association web page. Although component analysis of dental porcelain may be an effective means of assisting dental identification, a more rapid and non-destructive analysis for detecting the elements is required. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer was used for a pilot study of identification of porcelain composition.

  1. Costing dental restorations in public sector dental clinics.

    PubMed

    Khairiyah, Abdul Muttalib; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Raja-Latifah, Raja Jalludin; Tan, Bee Siew; Norain, Abu Talib; Noor-Aliyah, Ismail; Natifah, Che Salleh; Rauzi, Ismail

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to share cost analysis methodology and to obtain cost estimates for posterior restorations in public sector dental clinics. Two urban and 2 rural dental clinics in Selangor state were selected. Only cases of 1 posterior restoration per visit by dental officers were included over 6 months. One capsulated amalgam type, 1 capsulated tooth-colored, and 1 non-capsulated tooth-colored material were selected. A clinical pathway form was formulated to collect data per patient. Annual capital and recurrent expenditures were collected per clinic. The mean cost of an amalgam restoration was RM 30.96 (sdRM 7.86); and tooth-colored restorations ranged from RM 33.00 (sdRM 8.43) to RM 41.10 (sdRM 10.61). Wherein 1 USD = RM 2.8. Restoration costs were 35% to 55% higher in clinics in rural areas than in urban areas. The findings demonstrate economy of scale for clinic operation and restoration costs with higher patient load. Costs per restoration were higher in rural than in urban dental clinics. More studies are recommended to address the dearth of dental costs data in Malaysia.

  2. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthetic crowns. The dentin and pulp were best visualized at the level of the neck of the teeth. The dentin was hypoechoic, and the superficial layer comprising the cementum and the pulp spaces were hyperechoic. Dental ultrasound is feasible with general purpose sonographic machines. The buccal surfaces of all teeth are accessible with a compact (hockey stick) probe. Visualization and differentiation of dental pulp spaces, dentin and the superficial layer comprising cementum is possible in the portions of teeth not covered by the alveolar bone or prosthetic crowns. The dental pulp spaces are best seen at the level of the tooth neck. Pulp and endodontic fillings can be distinguished on ultrasound. PMID:24170803

  3. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-10-16

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280-320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6-7 subunits.

  4. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli haemolysin is cleaved and inactivated by serine protease Esp

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Jens; Aldick, Thomas; Soltwisch, Jens; Zhang, Wenlan; Tarr, Philip I; Weiss, André; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Müthing, Johannes; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge

    2011-01-01

    The haemolysin from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC-Hly) and the serine protease EspPα are putative virulence factors of EHEC. We investigated the interplay between these secreted factors and demonstrate that EspPα cleaves the 107 kDa large EHEC-Hly. Degradation was observed when purified EspPα was added to a growing culture of an EHEC-Hly-expressing strain, with isolated proteins and with coexpressing strains, and was independent of the EHEC serotype. EHEC-Hly breakdown occurred as a multistage process with the formation of characteristic fragments with relative molecular masses of ∼82 kDa and/or ∼84 kDa and ∼34 kDa. The initial cleavage occurred in the N-terminal hydrophobic domain of EHEC-Hly between Leu235 and Ser236 and abolished its haemolytic activity. In a cellular infection system, the cytolytic potential of EHEC-Hly-secreting recombinant strains was abolished when EspPα was coexpressed. EHEC in contact with human intestinal epithelial cells simultaneously upregulated their EHEC-Hly and EspP indicating that both molecules might interact under physiological conditions. We propose the concept of bacterial effector molecule interference (BEMI), reflecting the concerted interplay of virulence factors. Interference between effector molecules might be an additional way to regulate virulence functions and increases the complexity of monomolecular phenotypes. PMID:21352460

  5. Health promotion and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  6. Structural and Functional Studies Indicate That the EPEC Effector, EspG, Directly Binds p21-Activated Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Germane, Katherine L.; Spiller, Benjamin W.

    2011-09-20

    Bacterial pathogens secrete effectors into their hosts that subvert host defenses and redirect host processes. EspG is a type three secretion effector with a disputed function that is found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Here we show that EspG is structurally similar to VirA, a Shigella virulence factor; EspG has a large, conserved pocket on its surface; EspG binds directly to the amino-terminal inhibitory domain of human p21-activated kinase (PAK); and mutations to conserved residues in the surface pocket disrupt the interaction with PAK.

  7. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, A.; Chincoli, A.; de Gennaro, A. C.; DʼAddario, V.; Cicinelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk. PMID:27453585

  8. Sealants and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Jean A.; Modesto, Adriana; Oakley, Marnie; Polk, Deborah E.; Valappil, Benita; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a qualitative study of private-practice dentists in their offices by using vignette-based interviews to assess barriers to the use of evidence-based clinical recommendations in the treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. Methods The authors recruited 22 dentists as a convenience sample and presented them with two patient vignettes involving noncavitated carious lesions. Interviewers asked participants to articulate their thought processes as they described treatment recommendations. Participants compared their treatment plans with the American Dental Association’s recommendations for sealing noncavitated carious lesions, and they described barriers to implementing these recommendations in their practices. The authors recorded and transcribed the sessions for accuracy and themes. Results Personal clinical experience emerged as the determining factor in dentists’ treatment decisions regarding noncavitated carious lesions. Additional factors were lack of reimbursement and mistrust of the recommendations. The authors found that knowledge of the recommendations did not lead to their adoption when the recommendation was incongruent with the dentist’s personal experience. Conclusions The authors found that ingrained practice behavior based on personal clinical experience that differed substantially from evidence-based recommendations resulted in a rejection of these recommendations. Practical Implications Attempts to improve the adoption of evidence-based practice must involve more than simple dissemination of information to achieve a balance between personal clinical experience and scientific evidence. PMID:23543700

  9. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  10. Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports and Evaluations Basic Health Program State Resources Innovation Accelerator Program Medicaid State Technical Assistance Medicaid and ... Individual State Reports ADA Guide to Medicaid Dental Innovations AAPD State EPSDT Dental Periodicity Schedules State Medicaid ...

  11. FastStats: Oral and Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Oral and Dental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... States, 2015, table 60 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Dental visits Percent of children aged 2-17 with ...

  12. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  13. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Proposal Submissions Open for 2017 More news... Dental Sleep Medicine: An area of dental practice that focuses ... the use of oral appliance therapy to treat sleep-disordered breathing, including snoring and obstructive sleep apnea ( ...

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Effective Dental Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieb, Barry R.

    1991-01-01

    Considered are aspects of effective dental automation, including integrating "islands of computing"; definition of a dental record; common nomenclature; an enabling architecture; capturing data at its source; computer-assisted software engineering; and system security. (DB)

  15. Differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis made by undergraduate dental students

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Lilian; Lodi, Leodinei; Garbin, Raíssa Rigo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To check knowledge of undergraduate dental students to make diagnosis of dental fluorosis with varying degrees of severity and choose its appropriate treatment. Methods Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire addressing knowledge of undergraduates based on ten images of mouths presenting enamel changes. Results Only three images were correctly diagnosed by most undergraduates; the major difficulty was in establishing dental fluorosis severity degree. Conclusion Despite much information about fluorosis conveyed during the Dentistry training, as defined in the course syllabus, a significant part of the students was not able to differentiate it from other lesions; they did not demonstrate expertise as to defining severity of fluorosis and indications for treatment, and could not make the correct diagnosis of enamel surface changes. PMID:26761552

  16. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  17. [Websites of dental practices evaluated].

    PubMed

    Poorterman, J H G; Tjiook, S P; Moeijes, S F S; Brand, H S

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, a dental practice without a website is almost unthinkable. Using a sample of309 dentists drawn from the list of members of the Dutch Dental Association in 2012, a study was carried out to find out whether the dental practice of the general dental practitioner had a website. The content of each website was subsequently inventoried using a questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the dental practices had a website. The content of the websites, however, varied enormously. An element such as the professional registration number with a reference to the professional register were absent in 73% of the websites and the date of the most recent update of the website was mentioned only once. The name of the dentist, his or her professional qualification and an email address were missing on respectively 9%, 20% and 9% of the websites. Contracts of the practice with insurance companies were rarely clearly indicated. The websites of many practices would benefit considerably from a significant improvement. PMID:24881254

  18. Sedation in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299

  19. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  20. Aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Ninawe, Nupur

    2013-05-22

    Significant numbers of patients visiting the paediatric dental clinics have aesthetically objectionable brown stains and desire treatment for them. Intrinsic tooth discolouration can be a significant aesthetic, and in some instances, functional, problem. Dental fluorosis, tetracycline staining, localised and chronological hypoplasia, and both amelogenesis and dentinogenesis imperfecta can all produce a cosmetically unsatisfactory dentition. The aetiology of intrinsic discolouration of enamel may sometimes be deduced from the patient's history, and one factor long associated with the problem has been a high level of fluoride intake. Optimal use of topical fluorides leads to a decrease in the caries prevalence but may show an increase in the prevalence of fluorosis staining because of metabolic alterations in the ameloblasts, causing a defective matrix formation and improper calcification. A 12-year-old male patient was screened at the dental clinic for routine dental care. He wanted us to remove and/or minimise the noticeable brown/yellow staining of his teeth. He requested the least invasive and most cost-effective treatment to change his smile. Various treatment modalities are present for the treatment of fluorosis stains. This report discusses the microabrasion technique in the patient having dental fluorosis.

  1. Aesthetic management of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Ninawe, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    Significant numbers of patients visiting the paediatric dental clinics have aesthetically objectionable brown stains and desire treatment for them. Intrinsic tooth discolouration can be a significant aesthetic, and in some instances, functional, problem. Dental fluorosis, tetracycline staining, localised and chronological hypoplasia, and both amelogenesis and dentinogenesis imperfecta can all produce a cosmetically unsatisfactory dentition. The aetiology of intrinsic discolouration of enamel may sometimes be deduced from the patient's history, and one factor long associated with the problem has been a high level of fluoride intake. Optimal use of topical fluorides leads to a decrease in the caries prevalence but may show an increase in the prevalence of fluorosis staining because of metabolic alterations in the ameloblasts, causing a defective matrix formation and improper calcification. A 12-year-old male patient was screened at the dental clinic for routine dental care. He wanted us to remove and/or minimise the noticeable brown/yellow staining of his teeth. He requested the least invasive and most cost-effective treatment to change his smile. Various treatment modalities are present for the treatment of fluorosis stains. This report discusses the microabrasion technique in the patient having dental fluorosis. PMID:23704468

  2. Belongingness in undergraduate dental education.

    PubMed

    Radford, D R; Hellyer, P

    2016-05-27

    Objective To undertake a detailed educational evaluation into dental students' experience of the concept of belongingness and their development as 'safe beginners' on an outreach placement at the University of Portsmouth Dental Academy (UPDA).Method The participants were asked two questions: Did you feel belongingness at UPDA?; and When in your year rotation did you feel this? They completed the educational evaluation anonymously in their last week of attendance. The quantitative data was handled with descriptive statistics and the qualitative data was analysed for recurring themes.Results A 95% response rate was achieved. Eighty six percent of respondents strongly agreed to feeling belongingness and 56% felt it after their first two weeks. Four themes were identified: 'Interaction with the preexisting people environment' (1a. Initial welcoming and warmth 1b. Continued interest in me as an individual); 'Developing collegiality' (2a. My group of fellow students 2b. Working with the dental team as a dentist 2c. The team of everyone at UPDA); 'In the clinical environment' (3a. Being a dentist with responsibility and respect 3b. The physical environment 3c. Becoming a reflective independent practitioner); and 'Leadership'.Conclusion Belongingness in dental education should be defined as:- a deeply personal and contextually mediated experience in which a student becomes an essential and respected part of the dental educational environment where all are accepted and equally valued by each other and which allows each individual student to develop autonomy, self-reflection and self-actualisation as a clinician. PMID:27228935

  3. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery.

  4. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-04-25

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries in dentistry students.

    PubMed

    Pavleova, G; Vesela, S; Stanko, P

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates dental caries prevalence in dentistry students. They represent a sample of individuals with good dental status, socio-economical level and access to dental care. The values of teeth number with decay and filling and values of surfaces of teeth with decay and filling indices in group with lower caries incidence give the information as to what could be achieved by systemic care and prevention of dental caries in whole population (Tab. 4. Ref. 25).

  6. The evolution of dental group practices.

    PubMed

    Guay, Albert Henry

    2013-12-01

    Dentists and the dental profession are changing. One significant change in the deliver of dental care is the evolution of group practices to include networks of dental practices with central management by various service organizations that are owned or financed by private equity firms. This article discusses their evolution and potential advantages and disadvantages for dentists who join them. The article concludes with a prediction about the future heterogeneity of the dental care system. PMID:24597018

  7. Preventing dental caries in children: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Marya, C M; Dahiya, V; Bhatia, H P; Dhingra, S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in developing countries like India is increasing to an alarming level in contrast to developed countries where it has decreased because of variety of preventive measures at the community and individual level. There is no State or Centre funded programs for prevention of dental diseases in India. The present review enlists the targeted prevention of dental caries in permanent teeth of 6 to 16 years old children presenting for dental care.

  8. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, J.; Plötzing, T.; Rohe, D.; Pieranski, P.

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay “dry”. This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  9. [Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].

    PubMed

    González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther

    2013-07-01

    Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries.

  10. Dental Education at the Crossroads--Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1995

    1995-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine study concerning dental education's future is summarized. Eight principles guiding the study are outlined, and findings/recommendations in each area (oral health status, dental education's mission, focus on health outcomes, research role, patient care, dental school's role in the university, accreditation, dental…

  11. Reforming the mission of public dental services.

    PubMed

    Wright, F A C; List, P F

    2012-10-01

    Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services. PMID:22998313

  12. Reforming the mission of public dental services.

    PubMed

    Wright, F A C; List, P F

    2012-10-01

    Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services.

  13. Dental amalgam: A review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, D.W.

    1989-09-01

    Since the 1800s, dental amalgam has been the most commonly used dental restorative material. Each year, dentistry in the United States uses over 100 tons of mercury, continuing a controversy regarding mercury's safety for patients and dental personnel. 65 references.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1)...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1)...

  18. Dental Assisting Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in dental assisting, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to prepare the student to assist the dentist at the chairside in the dental operatory, to perform reception and clerical functions, and to carry out selected dental laboratory work. The course covers an introduction to the…

  19. First-Aid Algorithms in Dental Avulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…

  20. 42 CFR 483.55 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dental services. 483.55 Section 483.55 Public... Care Facilities § 483.55 Dental services. The facility must assist residents in obtaining routine and 24-hour emergency dental care. (a) Skilled nursing facilities. A facility (1) Must provide or...

  1. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.100 Dental services. (a) “Dental services” means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  2. 38 CFR 52.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dental services. 52.170... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.170 Dental services. (a) Program... (2) By arranging for transportation to and from the dental services. (b) Program management...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5820 - Dental protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental protector. 868.5820 Section 868.5820 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5820 Dental protector. (a) Identification. A dental protector is a device intended to protect a patient's teeth during manipulative procedures...

  4. Developing Teaching Expertise in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to develop a baseline model of expertise in dental education utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum of skill acquisition. The goal was the development of a baseline model of expertise, which will contribute to the body of knowledge about dental faculty skill acquisition and may enable dental schools to…

  5. 21 CFR 868.5820 - Dental protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental protector. 868.5820 Section 868.5820 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5820 Dental protector. (a) Identification. A dental protector is a device intended to protect a patient's teeth during manipulative procedures...

  6. 42 CFR 483.55 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dental services. 483.55 Section 483.55 Public... Care Facilities § 483.55 Dental services. The facility must assist residents in obtaining routine and 24-hour emergency dental care. (a) Skilled nursing facilities. A facility (1) Must provide or...

  7. 42 CFR 483.55 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dental services. 483.55 Section 483.55 Public... Care Facilities § 483.55 Dental services. The facility must assist residents in obtaining routine and 24-hour emergency dental care. (a) Skilled nursing facilities. A facility (1) Must provide or...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5820 - Dental protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental protector. 868.5820 Section 868.5820 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5820 Dental protector. (a) Identification. A dental protector is a device intended to protect a patient's teeth during manipulative procedures...

  9. 42 CFR 483.55 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dental services. 483.55 Section 483.55 Public... Care Facilities § 483.55 Dental services. The facility must assist residents in obtaining routine and 24-hour emergency dental care. (a) Skilled nursing facilities. A facility (1) Must provide or...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5820 - Dental protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental protector. 868.5820 Section 868.5820 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5820 Dental protector. (a) Identification. A dental protector is a device intended to protect a patient's teeth during manipulative procedures...

  11. 42 CFR 483.55 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dental services. 483.55 Section 483.55 Public... Care Facilities § 483.55 Dental services. The facility must assist residents in obtaining routine and 24-hour emergency dental care. (a) Skilled nursing facilities. A facility (1) Must provide or...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5820 - Dental protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental protector. 868.5820 Section 868.5820 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5820 Dental protector. (a) Identification. A dental protector is a device intended to protect a patient's teeth during manipulative procedures...

  13. Utilization of dental care: An Indian outlook

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Brar, Prabhleen; Singh, Gurminder; Sofat, Anjali; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequate knowledge of the way the individuals use health services and the factors predictive of this behavior is essential. The interest in developing models explaining the utilization of dental services has increased; issues like dental anxiety, price, income, the distance a person had to travel to get care, and preference for preservation of teeth are treated as barriers in regular dental care. Published materials which pertain to the use of dental services by Indian population have been reviewed and analyzed in depth in the present study. Dental surgeons and dental health workers have to play an adequate role in facilitating public enlightenment that people may appreciate the need for regular dental care and make adequate and proper use of the available dental care facilities. PMID:24082719

  14. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Winer, J N; Arzi, B; Leale, D M; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Maxillae and/or mandibles from 76 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired between 1932 and 2014. Forty-five specimens (59.2%) were from male animals, 29 (38.2%) from female animals and two (2.6%) from animals of unknown sex, with 58 adults (76.3%) and 18 young adults (23.7%) included in this study. The number of teeth available for examination was 830 (33.6%); 18.5% of teeth were absent artefactually, 3.3% were deemed to be absent due to acquired tooth loss and 44.5% were absent congenitally. The theoretical complete dental formula was confirmed to be I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2, while the most probable dental formula is I 1/0, C 1/1, P 3/3, M 0/0; none of the specimens in this study possessed a full complement of theoretically possible teeth. The majority of teeth were normal in morphology; only five teeth (0.6% of available teeth) were malformed. Only one tooth had an aberrant number of roots and only one supernumerary tooth was encountered. No persistent deciduous teeth were found in any of the young adult or adult specimens, nor were any specimens affected by enamel hypoplasia. The majority of teeth (85.5%) displayed attrition/abrasion. Of the adult and young adult specimens, 90.8% showed some degree of attrition/abrasion on at least one tooth. Tooth fractures were noted in eight walruses, affecting 10.5% of specimens and 1.3% of the total number of teeth, nearly three-quarters of which were maxillary canine teeth (tusks). Three specimens (3.9%), all adult males, displayed overt periapical disease. The majority (99.2%) of dental alveoli did not have bony changes indicative of periodontitis, with only five specimens (6.6%) affected by periodontitis. Lesions consistent with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) were found in 46 specimens (60.5%) and TMJ-OA was significantly more common in adults than young adults and males than females. Although the clinical

  15. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Winer, J N; Arzi, B; Leale, D M; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Maxillae and/or mandibles from 76 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired between 1932 and 2014. Forty-five specimens (59.2%) were from male animals, 29 (38.2%) from female animals and two (2.6%) from animals of unknown sex, with 58 adults (76.3%) and 18 young adults (23.7%) included in this study. The number of teeth available for examination was 830 (33.6%); 18.5% of teeth were absent artefactually, 3.3% were deemed to be absent due to acquired tooth loss and 44.5% were absent congenitally. The theoretical complete dental formula was confirmed to be I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2, while the most probable dental formula is I 1/0, C 1/1, P 3/3, M 0/0; none of the specimens in this study possessed a full complement of theoretically possible teeth. The majority of teeth were normal in morphology; only five teeth (0.6% of available teeth) were malformed. Only one tooth had an aberrant number of roots and only one supernumerary tooth was encountered. No persistent deciduous teeth were found in any of the young adult or adult specimens, nor were any specimens affected by enamel hypoplasia. The majority of teeth (85.5%) displayed attrition/abrasion. Of the adult and young adult specimens, 90.8% showed some degree of attrition/abrasion on at least one tooth. Tooth fractures were noted in eight walruses, affecting 10.5% of specimens and 1.3% of the total number of teeth, nearly three-quarters of which were maxillary canine teeth (tusks). Three specimens (3.9%), all adult males, displayed overt periapical disease. The majority (99.2%) of dental alveoli did not have bony changes indicative of periodontitis, with only five specimens (6.6%) affected by periodontitis. Lesions consistent with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) were found in 46 specimens (60.5%) and TMJ-OA was significantly more common in adults than young adults and males than females. Although the clinical

  16. The Coupling of ESP-R and Genopt: A Simple Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, Leen; D'haeseleer, William; Ferguson, Alex; Wetter, Michael

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates how to use the optimization program GenOpt with the building energy simulation program ESP-r. GenOpt, a generic optimization program, minimises an objective function that is evaluated by an external simulation program. It has been developed for optimization problems that are computationally expensive and that may have nonsmooth objective functions. ESP-r is a research oriented building simulation program that is well validated and has been used to conduct various building energy analysis studies. In this paper, the necessary file preparations are described and a simple optimization example is presented.

  17. ESP - Data From Restarted Life Tests of Various Silicone Materials - 2009

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Schneider

    2010-02-24

    Enhanced Surveillance Project (ESP) funding has allowed the restart of testing of various silicone materials placed in Life Tests or Aging Studies from past efforts. Some of these materials have been in test since 1982, with no testing for approximately 10 years, until ESP funding allowed the restart in FY97. This report will provide data on materials used on various programs and on experimental materials not used in production. Charts for the various materials at different thickness, compression, and temperature combinations illustrate trends for the load-bearing properties of the materials.

  18. Dried fruit and dental health.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  19. CED-4 is an mRNA-binding protein that delivers ced-3 mRNA to ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao-xing; Itoh, Masanori; Li, Shimo; Hida, Yoko; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Miki; Nishida, Emika; Ueda, Masashi; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-29

    Cell death abnormal (ced)-3 and ced-4 genes regulate apoptosis to maintain tissue homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apoptosome formation and CED-4 translocation drive CED-3 activation. However, the precise role of CED-4 translocation is not yet fully understood. In this study, using a combination of immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods in cells and a glutathione-S-transferase pull down assay in a cell-free system, we show that CED-4 binds ced-3 mRNA. In the presence of ced-3 mRNA, CED-4 protein is enriched in the microsomal fraction and interacts with ribosomal protein L10a in mammalian cells, increasing the levels of CED-3. These results suggest that CED-4 forms a complex with ced-3 mRNA and delivers it to ribosomes for translation.

  20. Dental health in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Majid, Z A

    1984-12-01

    Three epidemiological surveys have been carried out in Malaysia since 1971. All showed a high level of caries prevalence. Ninety per cent of school children between the ages of 6 and 18 suffered from dental caries, with a DMFT of approximately 3 and a dft of approximately 2. Ninety-five per cent of the adult population had caries experience, with the mean DMFT being 13.2. Approximately 55 per cent of children showed the presence of gingivitis with the mean number of inflamed gingival units per child ranging from 1.9 to 2.8, while 72.4 per cent of adults had some form of periodontal disease with 29 per cent having pockets deeper than 3 mm. The OHI-S score for adults was 2.2 and 81 per cent used toothbrushes to clean their teeth. A further 5.1 per cent used twigs and fingers with powdered charcoal or salt. One-third of the child population needed orthodontic treatment, with 0.3 per cent examined in peninsular Malaysia having cleft lip or palate or both. In the adult population 10.4 per cent of those examined required some form of orthodontic treatment. Twenty per cent of the children in the survey were in need of dentures; 54.7 per cent of the adults were either in need of dentures or were wearing dentures. Of these 25 per cent had complete dentures. The smoking habit was most commonly associated with pre-cancerous/cancerous lesions with alcohol consumption a close competitor; 114 adults, that is 1.3 per cent of those examined, suffer from leukoplakia but only one case of oral cancer was detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  2. In vivo left ventricular assist induced coagulation derangements. Comparison of Sarns-3M and St. Jude Medical circuits.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J J; Wagner-Mann, C C; Mann, F A; Demmy, T L; Walls, J T; Schmaltz, R A

    1997-01-01

    An in vitro comparison of centrifugal pumping systems manufactured by Sarns-3M and St. Jude Medical revealed a difference in blood cell derangement. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of 96 hr of left ventricular assist (LVA) on indexes of coagulopathy, hemolysis, and complement activation. Two groups of calves (each: n = 5) were instrumented with identical left atrial to thoracic aorta centrifugal pumping circuits using either Sarns-3M or St. Jude centrifugal pumps. Laboratory evaluations were performed pre-assist and at 1, 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr during LVA. Platelet counts dropped significantly by 24 hr (Sarns-3M: 28%; St. Jude: 30%); no significant change in function was noted. Activated clotting time increased slightly (p > 0.05). Prothrombin time increased at 4 and 24 hr of LVA, returning to baseline by 96 hr (p < 0.05). Activated partial thromboplastin time increased with the St. Jude device from 24 to 96 hr on LVA (p < 0.05); the increase with the Sarns-3M device never reached significance. No significant changes in lactate dehydrogenase or plasma free hemoglobin were detected. Complement fraction C5a rose by 1 hr of LVA (p < 0.05), peaking at 4 hr and returning to baseline by 96 hr with both pumps. No significant difference was detected between pump groups for any of the parameters. It was concluded that 1) 96 hr Sarns-3M and St. Jude LVA caused coagulation derangement in calves, 2) neither pump demonstrated an advantage regarding coagulation and complement parameters, 3) hemolysis observed with the Sarns-3M pump in vitro was not evidenced in vivo, and 4) in vitro evidenced centrifugal pump differences may not be realized in vivo.

  3. [Autism-friendly dental care].

    PubMed

    Kind, L S; van Gemert-Schriks, M C M; Elhorst, J H

    2016-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occurs in approximately 1% of the Dutch population. Among the group of patients with this disorder, there is a substantial diversity regarding skills, intelligence and treatability. However, there are also common characteristics; people with ASD often have difficulty with social interaction, communication, and exhibit typical patterns of behaviour. Therefore, problems may arise in the various areas of development, such as language development and responding to sensory stimuli. Dental practitioners will also be confronted with individuals with ASD. Care can be significantly improved, considering that negative experiences and dental anxiety are widespread at this time.

  4. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  5. Drug and dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Maller, Sudhakara V; Karthik, K S; Maller, Udita S; Abraham, Mathew C; Kumar, Rachuri Narendra; Manikandan, R

    2012-08-01

    Guidelines to prevent cross contamination with infectious agents have been instituted for dental clinical and laboratory procedures. However, compliance by dental offices and clinics in disinfecting impression material has not been universal. Techniques for disinfecting impression materials are spraying or immersing impression materials. These techniques can reduce the surface detail and dimensional accuracy of impressions; most disinfectants are irritants. This study reviewed whether antimicrobial activity can be achieved by mixing certain drugs with the impression material and their effects on the disinfection are achieved through such additions.

  6. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Biryukova, T.; Sukhinina, A.; Vdovin, Yu

    2010-11-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 - 645 nm and 340 - 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy.

  7. Mercury toxicity and dental amalgam

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, M.; Osborne, J.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    There is adequate evidence that dental amalgam restorations, during and after placement, results in the release of Hg into the patients's body. Whether the Hg released from amalgam is due to placement procedures, surface abrasion, or later corrosion breakdown, there is evidence that a low level Hg release continues for years. With new and more accurate techniques of measuring Hg levels, especially in tissue and blood, additional studies are necessary to relate blood-Hg levels with dental amalgam restorations. Studies must relate existing restorations as well as the placement of new restorations to body-Hg levels. It is possible that we have accepted a potentially dangerous material as being safe.

  8. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

  9. Tensile creep of dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Greener, E H; Szurgot, K; Lautenschlager, E P

    1982-04-01

    Rather than the usual compressive dental creep, various types of one week old dental amalgams were continuously monitored in tensile creep. Testing was done at 37, 45 and 50 degrees C, in a specially designed apparatus capable of 0 to 60 degrees C while maintaining a constant true tensile stress of 17 MPa. For the first time, the classical four stages of creep were observed at elevated temperatures in the low Cu amalgams, including creep rupture. The high Cu systems displayed only transient creep up to 50 degrees C and no rupture. Approximately one half the stress was needed in tension to provide the equivalent creep in compression. PMID:7082735

  10. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  11. Effects of Early Dental Office Visits on Dental Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R. Gary; Preisser, John S.; Stearns, Sally C.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. Methods. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999–2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005–2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n = 11 394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Results. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81, 0.95; IRR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Conclusions. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years. PMID:24134364

  12. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate.

    PubMed

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate.

  13. Dental Stem Cells and their Applications in Dental Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lymperi, S; Ligoudistianou, C; Taraslia, V; Kontakiotis, E; Anastasiadou, E

    2013-01-01

    Tooth loss or absence is a common condition that can be caused by various pathological circumstances. The replacement of the missing tooth is important for medical and aesthetic reasons. Recently, scientists focus on tooth tissue engineering, as a potential treatment, beyond the existing prosthetic methods. Tooth engineering is a promising new therapeutic approach that seeks to replace the missing tooth with a bioengineered one or to restore the damaged dental tissue. Its main tool is the stem cells that are seeded on the surface of biomaterials (scaffolds), in order to create a biocomplex. Several populations of mesenchymal stem cells are found in the tooth. These different cell types are categorized according to their location in the tooth and they demonstrate slightly different features. It appears that the dental stem cells isolated from the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament are the most powerful cells for tooth engineering. Additional research needs to be performed in order to address the problem of finding a suitable source of epithelial stem cells, which are important for the regeneration of the enamel. Nevertheless, the results of the existing studies are encouraging and strongly support the belief that tooth engineering can offer hope to people suffering from dental problems or tooth loss.

  14. DENTAL HEALTH STATUS AND DENTAL HEALTH SERVICES FOR RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DONNELLY, CHARLES J.

    ALTHOUGH DENTAL PROBLEMS ARE COMMON IN BOTH RURAL AND URBAN AREAS, RURAL CHILDREN SEEM TO HAVE MORE DIFFICULTIES. THE REASONS FOR THIS APPEAR TO BE THAT THERE ARE FEWER DENTISTS PER CAPITA IN RURAL AREAS, AND THAT THE RURAL CHILD IS USUALLY EXPOSED TO A WATER SYSTEM LACKING FLUORIDATION, WHICH IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY OF ADMINISTERING FLUORIDES.…

  15. EspG of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli binds the Golgi matrix protein GM130 and disrupts the Golgi structure and function.

    PubMed

    Clements, Abigail; Smollett, Katherine; Lee, Sau Fung; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Lowe, Martin; Frankel, Gad

    2011-09-01

    The enteric pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Shigella flexneri all translocate at least one effector protein of the EspG protein family into host cells via a type III secretion system (T3SS). The EspG family comprises EspG, EspG2 and VirA. From a Y2H screen, we identified the Golgi matrix protein GM130 as a potential binding partner of EspG. We confirmed EspG:GM130 protein interaction by affinity co-purification. In co-immunoprecipitation experiments EspG was co-precipitated with GM130 while both GM130 and tubulins were co-precipitated with EspG. When expressed ectopically in HeLa cells, the EspG protein family all localized to the Golgi and induced fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. All EspG family proteins were also able to disrupt protein secretion to a greater extent than the T3SS effector NleA/EspI, which has previously been shown to localize to the Golgi and interact with SEC24 to disrupt COPII vesicle formation. We hypothesize that EspG:GM130 interaction disrupts protein secretion either through direct disruption of GM130 function or through recruitment of other EspG interacting proteins to the Golgi.

  16. ESP Teacher Education at the Interface of Theory and Practice: Introducing a Model of Mediated Corpus-Based Genre Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttner, Julia; Smit, Ute; Mehlmauer-Larcher, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    One of the effects of the growing importance of global English in professional contexts has been the rise of ESP teaching at all levels. Despite the concurrently increasing demand for ESP teachers, pre-service teacher education programmes in Europe have so far largely neglected this important area. In order to address the professional needs of…

  17. In a Strange and Uncharted Land: ESP Teachers' Strategies for Dealing with Unpredicted Problems in Subject Knowledge during Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, HuiDan; Badger, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has largely ignored one of its most distinctive features: many ESP teachers have to teach subject-specific texts from areas outside their primary areas of expertise. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the teaching practices and cognitions of three teachers of maritime English in a…

  18. ESP v2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product includes both a presentation and an extended abstract. We describe the Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method, version 2.0. ESP is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year em...

  19. Components of Task-Based Needs Analysis of the ESP Learners with the Specialization of Business and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poghosyan, Naira

    2016-01-01

    In the following paper we shall thoroughly analyze the target learning needs of the learners within an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) context. The main concerns of ESP have always been and remain with the needs analysis, text analysis and preparing learners to communicate effectively in the tasks prescribed by their study or work situation.…

  20. Teaching Specialized Vocabulary by Integrating a Corpus-Based Approach: Implications for ESP Course Design at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Hsiao-I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how to integrate two in-house specialized corpora into a university-level English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course for nonnative speakers of English. The ESP course was an introductory level of wine tasting for Applied English Department students at a university specializing in hospitality in Taiwan.…

  1. Health maintenance facility: Dental equipment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to test the effectiveness of the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) dental suction/particle containment system, which controls fluids and debris generated during simulated dental treatment, in microgravity; to test the effectiveness of fiber optic intraoral lighting systems in microgravity, while simulating dental treatment; and to evaluate the operation and function of off-the-shelf dental handheld instruments, namely a portable dental hand drill and temporary filling material, in microgravity. A description of test procedures, including test set-up, flight equipment, and the data acquisition system, is given.

  2. Prevention of dental disease versus surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    The members of the Minnesota legislature have debated methods by which access to dental care and treatment of dental disease can be improved at a cost lower than that of present delivery systems. This review sheds light on some significant aspects of what the dental profession has learned over the last century that has proven significantly beneficial to the overall health of the American populace. Recommendations are made in the use of cost-effective dental public health interventions that could be used to provide better access and improved dental health at lower cost.

  3. Quality considerations in dental education in India.

    PubMed

    Virdi, Mandeep S

    2012-03-01

    Undergraduate dental education programs have grown tremendously in India over the last five to six decades, mainly in the private sector, putting significant pressure on resources including faculty. This has raised concerns about the quality of dental education in the country. This article examines the concept of quality as applicable to higher education. It provides a roadmap for application of quality concepts, including steps for improving the effectiveness of teaching and applying Total Quality Management to dental education. It also makes suggestions for college-level and structural-level changes to meet the requirement of improved quality, which includes the addition of dental education as a subject in postgraduate dental programs.

  4. Disparities in unmet dental need and dental care received by pregnant women in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, A Isabel; Adams, Amy B; Cheng, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To examine prenatal dental care needs, utilization and oral health counseling among Maryland women who delivered a live infant during 2001-2003 and identify the factors associated with having a dental visit and having an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System is an ongoing population based surveillance system that collects information of women's attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to model dental visits and unmet dental need using predictor variables for Maryland 2001-2003 births. Less than half of all women reported having a dental visit and receiving oral health advice during pregnancy. Twenty-five percent of women reported a need for dental care, of which 33 % did not receive dental care despite their perceived need. Multivariate modeling revealed that racial minorities, women who were not married and those with annual income <$40,000 were least likely to have a dental visit. Women who were not married, had low annual income, were older than 40 years of age, had an unintended pregnancy and received prenatal care later than desired were most likely to have an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Despite reported needs and existing recommendations to include oral health as a component of prenatal care, less than half of pregnant women have a dental visit during their pregnancy. One-third of women with a dental problem did not have a dental visit highlighting the unmet need for dental care during pregnancy.

  5. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.

  6. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity. PMID:26960108

  7. Crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insights into its product specificity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Wenhe; Liu, Zihe; Xie, Yongchao; Wang, Hao; Mu, Yajuan; Huang, Yao; Feng, Yue

    2016-09-16

    Specifier proteins are important components of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, which mediate plant defense against herbivory and pathogen attacks. Upon tissue disruption, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to instable aglucones by myrosinases, and then aglucones will rearrange to form defensive isothiocyanates. Specifier proteins can redirect this reaction to form other products, such as simple nitriles, epithionitriles and organic thiocyanates instead of isothiocyanates based on the side chain structure of glucosinolate and the type of the specifier proteins. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the different product spectrums of various specifier proteins was not fully understood. Here in this study, we solved the crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtESP) at 2.3 Å resolution. Structural comparisons with the previously solved structure of thiocyanate forming protein, TFP from Thlaspi arvense (TaTFP) reveal that AtESP shows a dimerization pattern different from TaTFP. Moreover, AtESP harbors a slightly larger active site pocket than TaTFP and several residues around the active site are different between the two proteins, which might account for the different product spectrums of the two proteins. Together, our structural study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of specifier proteins and shed light on the basis of their different product spectrums. PMID:27498030

  8. An Experiment in Systematized Course Design for ESP at the Universidad Simon Bolivar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Dolores N.; And Others

    In order to bring about some continuity and coherence among the various English for Special Purposes (ESP) courses at the Universidad Simon Bolivar, a systematization project was undertaken. The purpose was to provide general guidelines for the production and future revision of materials while taking into account the specific characteristics of…

  9. Study on the Theoretical Foundation of Business English Curriculum Design Based on ESP and Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature on ESP and needs analysis, this paper is intended to offer some theoretical supports and inspirations for BE instructors to develop BE curricula for business contexts. It discusses how the theory of need analysis can be used in Business English curriculum design, and proposes some principles of BE curriculum…

  10. Electronic Submersible Pump (ESP) Technology and Limitations with Respect to Geothermal Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    The current state of geothermal technology has limitations that hinder the expansion of utility scale power. One limitation that has been discussed by the current industry is the limitation of Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) technology. With the exception of a few geothermal fields artificial lift technology is dominated by line shaft pump (LSP) technology. LSP's utilize a pump near or below reservoir depth, which is attached to a power shaft that is attached to a motor above ground. The primary difference between an LSP and an ESP is that an ESP motor is attached directly to the pump which eliminates the power shaft. This configuration requires that the motor is submersed in the geothermal resource. ESP technology is widely used in oil production. However, the operating conditions in an oil field vary significantly from a geothermal system. One of the most notable differences when discussing artificial lift is that geothermal systems operate at significantly higher flow rates and with the potential addition of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) even greater depths. The depths and flow rates associated with geothermal systems require extreme horsepower ratings. Geothermal systems also operate in a variety of conditions including but not limited to; high temperature, high salinity, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), and non-condensable gases.

  11. Effect of temperature on carbon nanoparticle collection efficiency using photoelectric ESP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woojin; Jung, Jae Hee; Song, Dong Keun; Kim, Hakjoon; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-03-01

    The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technique is a promising method for enhancing the particulate matter (PM) emission reduction efficiency of diesel engines, and is much better than the diesel particulate filter (DPF) technique. However, the ESP's low efficiency in collecting PM with diameters less than several tens of nanometers remains a problem because the particle charging efficiency decreases as the size of the nanoparticles decreases. To improve the collection efficiency of nanosized PM, we used a photoelectric charger to increase the charging efficiency of nanoparticles ahead of the ESP system. Carbon nanoparticles produced using a spark discharge generator were used to evaluate the collection efficiency of the combined photoelectric charger and ESP system. The particle sizes were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer system at various experimental temperatures similar to the temperature of DPF systems commonly used in diesel engines. We succeeded in obtaining improved collection efficiencies at increased inner temperatures of the photoelectric charging chamber. As the temperature increased from 694 degrees C to 839 degrees C at the inlet of the photoelectric chamber, the efficiency of PM collection improved significantly to 28.5% for a particle diameter of 18.4 nm.

  12. Business English: An Individualised Learning Programme -- An Effective but Defective ESP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Gui-min

    2008-01-01

    Business English is the core course for ESP (English for Specific Purposes) programs which empathizes the effectiveness and pragmatism. Feasibility is the crucial element for business English programs especially for in-services business people. Business English-An individualised learning programme is an effective and radical business English…

  13. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) for Jordanian Tourist Police in Their Workplace: Needs and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldohon, Hatem Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global tourism industry, designing ESP-based curricula is now more vitally needed than ever. To work towards this goal, analyzing learners' problems and needs has become merely unavoidable. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 46 tourist police serving in different…

  14. Use of the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to Simulate Complex Waste Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, G. T.; Ho, Q. T.; Berger, S. R. K.

    2003-02-26

    The Environmental Simulation Program is a process simulator designed for aqueous based chemical processes. ESP, which is produced by OLI Systems, Inc., utilizes sophisticated activity coefficient models and predictive equations that result in the ability to simulate very complex electrolyte systems (OLI, 2002). The software comes with databanks of regressed parameters for a large number of aqueous, vapor, and solid species covering most of the elements. ESP has been used extensively at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site to predict nuclear waste slurry vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium. It has and is being used to model leaching and washing of nuclear waste sludges, evaporation of nuclear waste solutions, crystallization of salts, precipitation of plutonium and other metals from waste solutions, and other processing of dilute and concentrated aqueous solutions, sludges, and slurries. The software is also used extensively to rationalize the characterization of nuclear wastes using limited data from analyses of waste samples. The OLI provided databanks suffer from a legacy interaction model that limits the accuracy when neutral solutes are important. Also, the nitrate-nitrite systems typically found in nuclear wastes are not properly parameterized in ESP databases because of the existence of sodium nitrate and nitrite ion pairs. Properties databanks for ESP have been developed at Flour Federal Services that eliminate the legacy model and provide more accurate simulation results than the OLI supplied databases for such concentrated solutions and slurries.

  15. Vocational E.S.P. Planning System. Planning Vocational Education for Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Donald W.; And Others

    This guide for implementing the Vocational Education for Special Populations (ESP) Planning System is designed to assist states in modifying their planning procedures to be more responsive to the needs of special populations. Chapter 1 briefly describes the historical evolution of the concern for those with special needs and the emergence of…

  16. Why Do Chinese College Students Learn ESP: An Analysis of Language Learning Motivations within SDT Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liangxing

    2016-01-01

    This study mainly investigates the motivational characteristics of Chinese college students learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP). By critically examining and comparing Gardner's (1985) Integrative-Instrumental model and the Self-determination Theory (SDT) by Deci and Ryan(1985), the researcher finds out that the latter one is more…

  17. Utilising Multimedia ESP Programme in Enhancing Flight Attendants' Safety Knowledge and Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani-Salameh, Zakaria A.; Kabilan, Muhammad K.; Bani-Salalmeh, Lina

    2011-01-01

    A multimedia English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programme was developed to train flight attendants. The programme comprised of two units. Unit one is listening comprehension, which provides the flight attendants' with specific information of Airbus A340. Unit two is reading comprehension, which provides the flight attendants with the emergency…

  18. Engineering Discourse in the Structure of the ESP Training at Southern Federal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidelnik, Ellina; Melnik, Olga; Burenko, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the essentials of engineering discourse in the structure of the ESP training at Southern Federal University (SFU) (Taganrog, Russia). The purpose of this paper is to justify critical rethinking of existing programs of technical students training in foreign languages at SFU taking into account the increasing role of engineering…

  19. A Study of an ESP Curriculum for Airline Agents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Qi

    2008-01-01

    English for specific purpose (ESP) has for about 30 years been a separate branch of English language Teaching (ELT). Recent years in China, with the development of international trade and foreign exchange, more and more in-service and pre-service staffs are expected to learn practical al and useful English language in order to adapt to the new…

  20. Integration of Multimedia Courseware into ESP Instruction for Technological Purposes in Higher Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on integrating ESP (English for specific purposes) multimedia courseware for semiconductor technology into instruction of three different language programs in higher education by using it as a silent partner. It focuses primarily on techniques and tools to motivate retention of under-prepared students in an EFL setting. The…