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Sample records for 3m hydrochloric acid

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is generally recognized...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  12. Venus clouds: a dirty hydrochloric Acid model.

    PubMed

    Hapke, B

    1972-02-18

    The spectral and polarization data for Venus are consistent with micrometer-sized aerosol cloud particles of hydrochloric acid with soluble and insoluble iron compounds, whose source could be volcanic or crustal dust. The yellow color of the clouds could be due to absorption bands in the near ultraviolet involving ferric iron and chlorine complexes. The ultraviolet features could arise from variations in the concentrations of iron and hydrochloric acid in the cloud particles.

  13. Venus clouds - A dirty hydrochloric acid model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1972-01-01

    The spectral and polarization data for Venus are consistent with micrometer-sized aerosol cloud particles of hydrochloric acid with soluble and insoluble iron compounds, whose source could be volcanic or crustal dust. The yellow color of the clouds could be due to absorption bands in the near UV involving ferric iron and chlorine complexes. It is pointed out that the UV features could arise from variations in the concentrations of iron and hydrochloric acid in the cloud particles.

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  15. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  16. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  18. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  19. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  3. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  4. Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Marcel D.; Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-03

    For strong acids, like hydrochloric acid, the complete dissociation into an excess proton and conjugated base as well as the formation of independent solvated charged fragments is assumed. The existence of a chloride-Hyronium (Cl-H3O+) contact ion pairs even in moderate concentration hydrochloric acid (2.5 m) demonstrates that the counter ions do not behave merely as spectators. Through the use of modern extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements in conjunction with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we are able to obtain an unprecedented view into the molecular structure of medium to high concentrated electrolytes. Here we report that the Cl-H3O+ contact ion pair structure persists throughout the entire concentration range studied and that these structures differ significantly from moieties studied in micro-solvated hydrochloric acid clusters. Characterizing distinct populations of these ion pairs gives rise to a novel molecular level description of how to think about the activity of the proton that impacts our picture of the pH scale. Funding for CJM, GKS, and JLF was provided by DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Funding for MDB was provided throught the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MB was funded through Argonne National Laboratory.

  5. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  6. Process and apparatus for electrolysis of hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, F.; Wiechers, H.

    1980-12-02

    In the production of chlorine and hydrogen from hydrochloric acid by electrolysis in an electrolysis cell comprising a plurality of vertically arranged bipolar electrodes, a diaphragm arranged between each two electrodes to divide the electrolysis chambers formed between them into an anolyte chamber and a catholyte chamber, and outlet and inlet devices for the electrolyte, the improvement which comprises electrolyzing the hydrochloric acid in at least two successive stages, and degassing the hydrochloric acid. Advantageously the hydrochloric acid moves from bottom to top, first through an upper stage and then through a lower stage. As a result less electrode surface is needed, a higher current density and/or voltage is possible so existing apparatus can be modified to connect more bipolar electrodes in series.

  7. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars. PMID:26899601

  8. Hydrochloric acid-pumice treatment of fluorosis-stained enamel.

    PubMed

    Jagger, R G; al Rayes, S A

    1990-02-01

    The management of dark staining of teeth caused by dental fluorosis is discussed. The results of treatment of 20 patients with dental fluorosis by a hydrochloric acid-pumice technique are described. All patients showed considerable improvement in colour which was maintained for review periods of (up to) two years.

  9. Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Rezaei, B.; Movahedinia, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juice and pharmaceuticals. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolourisation of Methyl Orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The linearity range of the calibration graph depends on bromate concentration. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.6×10 -6 M and calibration rang is 8×10 -6-1.2×10 -3 M ascorbic acid. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determinations of 8×10 -6 and 2×10 -5 M ascorbic acid was 2.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  10. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  11. Kinetic study of free fatty acid esterification reaction catalyzed by recoverable and reusable hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Hung

    2013-02-01

    The catalytic performance and recoverability of several homogeneous acid catalysts (hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids) for the esterification of enzyme-hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol were studied. Although all tested catalysts drove the reaction to a high yield, hydrochloric acid was the only catalyst that could be considerably recovered and reused. The kinetics of the esterification reaction catalyzed by hydrochloric acid was investigated under varying catalyst loading (0.1-1M), reaction temperature (303-343K), and methanol/FFA molar ratio (1:1-20:1). In addition, a pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model incorporating the above factors was developed. A good agreement (r(2)=0.98) between the experimental and calculated data was obtained, thus proving the reliability of the model. Furthermore, the reusability of hydrochloric acid in FFA esterification can be predicted by the developed model. The recoverable hydrochloric acid achieved high yields of FFA esterification within five times of reuse.

  12. An ellipsometric study of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenbury, W. R. E.; Grzeskowiak, R.

    1986-04-01

    An ellipsometric study has been made on mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions, in a situation where film growth is not expected. The results are considered to be due to roughening and have been interpreted in terms of a Fenstermaker-McCrackin type roughening model. It appears that the ellipsometer is sensitive mainly to a small scale roughening consisting of etch pits of a few nanometers in dimensions rather than the larger roughened features easily seen by microscopic examination.

  13. Efficient regioselective O3-monodesilylation by hydrochloric acid in cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiamin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Qifang; Chen, Tieyu; Ling, Chang-Chun

    2015-06-17

    An efficient O3-monodesilylation method has been developed for the derivatization of per-3-O-silylated cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. Using hydrochloric acid as a reagent, the O3-monodesilylation was found to be regioselective, mild, practical and general as it can be applied to all α-, β- and γ-CDs. The advantage of the methodology is that the acid-catalyzed O3-desilylation can be carried out in a stepwise manner so that different types of functional groups can be introduced to a CD molecule at different stage of the O3-desilylations. This makes the current methodology flexible and versatile. This current methodology constitutes one of the few methodologies available for the regioselective modification of CDs at the secondary face.

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  19. Thallium Transfer from Hydrochloric Acid Media into Pure Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tereshatov, Evgeny E; Boltoeva, Maria Yu; Mazan, Valerie; Volia, Merinda F; Folden, Charles M

    2016-03-10

    Pure hydrophobic ionic liquids are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. In this work we have systematically investigated thallium (Tl) extraction from aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions into six pure fluorinated ionic liquids, namely imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)-imide anions. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. Tl concentrations were on the order of picomolar (analyzed using radioactive tracers) and millimolar (analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The extraction of the cationic thallium species Tl(+) is higher for ionic liquids with more hydrophilic cations, while for the TlX(z)(3-z) anionic species (where X = Cl(-) and/or Br(-)), the extraction efficiency is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. The highest distribution value of Tl(III) was approximately 2000. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the coextraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. PMID:26769597

  20. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hydrochloric... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric...

  2. The effectiveness of a modified hydrochloric acid-quartz-pumice abrasion technique on fluorosis stains: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, G

    1998-02-01

    Endemic dental fluorosis is a form of enamel hypoplasia characterized by moderate-to-severe staining of the tooth surface. Since 1916, numerous investigators have used hydrochloric acid alone on fluorosis stains. More recently, 18% hydrochloric acid-pumice microabrasion has been used to achieve color modification. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the high concentration and low viscosity of hydrochloric acid, which can cause damage to oral and dental tissues. To eliminate this problem, quartz particles can be mixed with the hydrochloric acid. The quartz particles prevent the hydrochloric acid from flowing uncontrollablely by altering it to a gel-like form. A modified 18% hydrochloric acid-quartz-pumice abrasion technique was used to remove fluorine stains from vital teeth in a teenager.

  3. Kinetics of Hydrochloric Acid Leaching of Titanium from Titanium-Bearing Electric Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Chen, Feng; Guo, Yufeng; Jiang, Tao; Travyanov, Andrew Yakovlevich; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2016-05-01

    The hydrochloric acid leaching of titanium from titanium-bearing electric furnace slag was investigated under different experimental conditions. The results indicate that particle size, hydrochloric acid concentration and reaction temperature were of significance to the leaching kinetics. Specifically, reaction temperature was the most important factor followed by hydrochloric acid concentration and particle size. The shrinking core model was used to describe the leaching process which was controlled by surface chemical reaction. The kinetic equation was obtained and the activation energy was found to be 43.16 kJ/mol. Iron and calcium species were almost completely dissolved in the acid when the extraction degree of titanium reached 99.84%. MgO (19.34 wt.%) and Al2O3 (32.45 wt.%) in the spinel were still in the leaching residue and SiO2 (43.53 wt.%) in the form of quartz remained in the leaching residue.

  4. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions. PMID:20355630

  5. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  6. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.2 are subject to the standards for cadmium and lead, the standards for arsenic, beryllium, and... acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards...

  11. Model Experiment of Thermal Runaway Reactions Using the Aluminum-Hydrochloric Acid Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabayashi, Suguru; Nakano, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Kazuyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for the education of students about thermal runaway reactions based on the reaction between aluminum and hydrochloric acid as a model reaction is proposed. In the introductory part of the exercise, the induction period and subsequent thermal runaway behavior are evaluated via a simple observation of hydrogen gas evolution and…

  12. The hydrochloric acid-pumice microabrasion technique in the treatment of post-orthodontic decalcification.

    PubMed

    Welbury, R R; Carter, N E

    1993-08-01

    A significant number of patients exhibit white spots of enamel decalcification after orthodontic treatment, despite the use of preventive regimes. The hydrochloric acid-pumice micro-abrasion technique offers a method for improving the appearance of these lesions where they are cosmetically unacceptable. The clinical procedure is described and the effects of the technique upon the dental structures are discussed.

  13. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  14. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  15. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  16. Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

    2015-04-15

    Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM).

  17. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  18. Interaction of Benzimidazoles and Benzotriazole: Its Corrosion Protection Properties on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, K.; Mohan, Revathi; Joseph, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic hydrogen-bonded interaction of alkyl benzimidazoles and 1,2,3-benzotrizole and its corrosion protection properties on mild steel in hydrochloric acid at different temperatures have been studied using polarization, EIS, adsorption, surface studies, and computational methods. The extent of synergistic interaction increases with temperature. Quantum chemical approach is used to calculate some electronic properties of the molecules and to ascertain the synergistic interaction, inhibitive effect, and molecular structures. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies and the global chemical reactivity relate to some parameters, such as total energy, E HOMO, E LUMO, and gap energy (Δ E). 1,2,3-Benzotrizole interacts with benzimidazoles derivatives up to a bond length of approximately 1.99 Å. This interaction represents the formation of a hydrogen bond between the 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazoles. This synergistic interaction of 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazole derivatives offers extended inhibition efficiency toward mild steel in hydrochloric acid.

  19. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone.

    PubMed

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2015-11-01

    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples.

  20. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by lime.

    PubMed

    Zu, Shuai; Li, Wen-zhi; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Zihong; Wang, Ziyu; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a two stage process was evaluated to increase the sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with diluted hydrochloric acid to maximize the xylose yield, and then the residue was treated with lime to alter the lignin structure and swell the cellulose surface. The optimal condition was 120 °C and 40 min for diluted hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by lime pretreatment at 60 °C for 12h with lime loading at 0.1 g/g of substrate. The glucose and xylose yield was 78.0% and 97.0%, respectively, with cellulase dosage at 5 FPU/g of substrate. The total glucose yield increased to 85.9% when the cellulase loading was increased to 10 FPU/g of substrate. This two stage process was effective due to the swelling of the internal surface, an increase in the porosity and a decrease in the degree of polymerization.

  1. Anion-exchange separation techniques with methanol-water solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acids.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R J

    1966-09-01

    Mixed methanol-water systems were shown to be of use in the analysis of samples containing 500-mg amounts of metallic impurities for rare earths and actinides. Detailed study of the hydrochloric acid-methanol system led to improved separation of einsteinium and californium from americium and curium as well as to lanthanideactinide separations. Comparisons of elution orders are also drawn between these systems and the corresponding lithium salt systems, with emphasis on ion-hydration theories.

  2. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  3. Chemical reduction of europium(III) in hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasyants, A.G.; Gurinov, Yu.S.; Sofenina, E.V.

    1988-07-10

    The authors have devised a method for use at set pH and temperature, in which the volume of hydrogen produced is recorded and samples are taken for europium(II) analysis. The solution is poured into a glass cell with a thermostatic jacket; argon is passed through a capillary tube 2 for 0.5 h before the reduction is started, with the bubbling rate determined from the change in level in a burette. This burette is also used to record the hydrogen volume. The europium(II) concentration is determined by titration with potassium dichromate by a standard method. Europium is reduced by zinc in acid solution. The zinc consumption in hydrogen production can be reduced by operating at pH 2-3, with the precipitant introduced after the reaction starts.

  4. Energy-saving regeneration of hydrochloric acid pickling liquor: NICE3 steel project fact sheet (NICE3 2000 award winners)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-19

    This is a fact sheet written for the NICE3 [National Industrial Competititveness through Energy, Environment, and Economics] Program on a new process for reusing hydrochloric acid from steel pickling operations.

  5. Sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid-catalyzed triacetone triperoxide (TATP) reaction mixtures: an aging study.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Mark; Bilusich, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The organic peroxide explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is regularly encountered by law enforcement agents in various stages of its production. This study utilizes solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to examine sulfuric acid-, hydrochloric acid-, and nitric acid-catalyzed TATP syntheses during the initial 24 h of these reactions at low temperatures (5-9°C). Additionally, aging of the reaction mixtures was examined at both low and ambient temperatures (19-21°C) for a further 9 days. For each experiment, TATP could be readily identified in the headspace above the reaction mixture 1 h subsequent to the combination of reagents; at 24 h, TATP and diacetone diperoxide (DADP) were prominent. TATP degraded more rapidly than DADP. Additionally, chlorinated acetones chloroacetone and 1,1,-dichloroacetone were identified in the headspace above the hydrochloric acid-catalyzed TATP reaction mixture. These were not present when the catalyst was sulfuric acid or nitric acid. PMID:21595692

  6. Phase equilibria and distribution constants of metal ions in diantipyryl alkane-organic acid-hydrochloric acid-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtev, M. I.; Popova, O. N.; Yuminova, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability of antipyrine and its derivatives (diantipyryl alkanes) to form separating systems in the presence of salicylic (sulfosalicylic) acid and hydrochloric acid and water is studied. The optimum volume of the organic phase, the composition of complexes, and the mechanism for the distribution of metal ions are determined, depending on the concentrations of the main components and the salting-out agent. The complex distribution and extraction constants are calculated.

  7. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  8. Effect of beverages on bovine dental enamel subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Amoras, Dinah Ribeiro; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (p<0.00001) in the enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness. PMID:23207851

  9. Effect of beverages on bovine dental enamel subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Amoras, Dinah Ribeiro; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (p<0.00001) in the enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness.

  10. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. PMID:27451111

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated with zinc chloride and hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.F.; Gong, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel, was dissolved in a concentrated solution of ZnCl/sub 2/ and 0.5% hydrochloric acid followed by heating at 145/sup 0/C for 6 min. after cooling, cellulose in its amorphous form was precipitated by the addition of acetone. The resulting cellulose was hydrolyzed by cellulase derived from Trichoderma viride. At concentrations of 20% cellulose and 1% cellulase, cellulose was hydrolyzed completely for form a solution of 19% glucose and 1% cellobiose within 72 h of incubation. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  12. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials.

  13. A Method for Monitoring Organic Chlorides, Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorine in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. E.; Menichelli, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    While not commonly presented in nonurban atmospheres, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid and chlorine are significant in industrial air pollution and industrial hygiene. Based on a microcoulometer, a much more sensitive method than has heretofore been available has been developed for monitoring these air impurities. The method has a response time (90%) of about twenty seconds, requires no calibration, is accurate to +/- 2.5%, and specific except for bromide and iodide interferences. The instrument is portable and has been operated unattended for 18 hours without difficulty.

  14. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  15. Hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous hydrogen chloride partitioning in a cloud contaminated by solid rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Partitioning of hydrogen chloride between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in the lower atmosphere was experimentally investigated in a solid rocket exhaust cloud diluted with humid ambient air. Airborne measurements were obtained of gaseous HCl, total HCl, relative humidity and temperature to evaluate the conditions under which aerosol formation occurs in the troposphere in the presence of hygroscopic HCl vapor. Equilibrium predictions of HCl aerosol formation accurately predict the measured HCl partitioning over a range of total HCl concentrations from 0.6 to 16 ppm.

  16. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution.

  17. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  18. A simple hydrothermal preparation of TiO 2 nanomaterials using concentrated hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Phan, Thuy-Duong; Pham, Hai-Dinh; Viet Cuong, Tran; Jung Kim, Eui; Kim, Sunwook; Woo Shin, Eun

    2009-12-01

    A TiO 2 nanostructure was synthesized via a simple method using only concentrated hydrochloric acid as the morphological/crystallographic controlling agent. Microscopy images showed that the texture of the TiO 2 powder could be easily engineered and tuned by tailoring the HCl volume, creating cuboid, flower, cauliflower, and ball-shaped particles. Three-dimensional TiO 2 microparticles resulted from the self-assembly of nanostructured sub-units including nanocubes, nanoprisms, and nanorods. The crystalline anatase and rutile phases were also identified depending on the acidic medium. HCl played a key role in orchestrating the structures and morphologies of the TiO 2 nanoscale materials. The phase transformation and morphological changes were strongly related to the crystal growth mechanism of the TiO 2 nanostructure.

  19. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  20. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  1. Hydrochloric acid/pumice microabrasion technique for the removal of enamel pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, N M; Welbury, R R

    1993-04-01

    Products for lightening teeth are appearing on the market with ever-increasing frequency. Heavy advertising, coupled with heightened public awareness and expectations of an aesthetically pleasing smile, have resulted in increased patient demand for treatment to improve all types of tooth discoloration. Although it is the role of the dental profession to provide the services demanded by the consumer, it is also our duty to be discerning and to re-assess continually the techniques we use, for both efficacy and safety. To do this, long-term follow up of clinical techniques is essential. This paper contains the clinical results of teeth treated over 4.5 years using the hydrochloric acid/pumice microabrasion technique to remove enamel opacities and pigmentation. The subject under discussion is that of enamel discoloration: intrinsic staining with its origins in dentine, such as that caused by the ingestion of tetracycline antibiotics during odontogenesis, is not amenable to this form of surface treatment.

  2. Effect of Strip Velocity on Pickling Rate of Hot-Rolled Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. M.; Warning, C. J.

    1982-02-01

    The combined effect of strip velocity with other parameters on pickling rate of hot-rolled low-carbon steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions was determined. At temperatures from 150 to200°F(66 to 93°), the time required for pickling decreased substantially as strip velocity was increased from 0 to about 250 fpm (76 mpm); no further decrease in time resulted when velocities were increased to 800 fpm (244 mpm). Other pickling variables were studied with a velocity of 400 fpm (122 mpm). Pickling times decrease with increases in HCl concentrations, CHCl, and temperature, TF, according to prediction equations of the form log t = A + B log CHCl + D(459 + TF)-1. At 200°F, temper-mill scalebreaking decreased pickling times by about 5 sec; at lower temperatures, a larger magnitude effect was noted for one steel in the group tested.

  3. Empirical Modeling of Iron Oxide Dissolution in Sulphuric and Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmelmann, Jan C.; Xu, Hao; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    A new approach is presented to an empirical modeling of chemical pickling processes, based on the activation energy of oxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The model allows us to calculate pickling times as a function of definite parameters. The main oxide layers on hot-rolled materials are magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), and wustite (FeO). On the laboratory scale, the activation energy of each oxide has been determined. FeO is a metastable oxide and has been produced based on magnetite powder in a H2/H2O atmosphere. The oxide powders used for the experimental procedure have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction to insure the proper stoichiometry and composition. The model allows us to calculate the time of oxide dissolution based on the parameters temperature, acid concentration, and the composition of the oxide layer. Calculated values are verified by surface potential measurement on industrial oxide layers. The hot-rolled material used for verification is low carbon steel. A comparison between calculated pickling times and experimental data will be presented.

  4. A simple procedure for preparing chitin oligomers through acetone precipitation after hydrolysis in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kazami, Nao; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Mizutani, Daisuke; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Wakita, Satoshi; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao; Sugahara, Yasusato

    2015-11-01

    Chitin oligomers are of interest because of their numerous biologically relevant properties. To prepare chitin oligomers containing 4-6 GlcNAc units [(GlcNAc)4-6], α- and β-chitin were hydrolyzed with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. The reactant was mixed with acetone to recover the acetone-insoluble material, and (GlcNAc)4-6 was efficiently recovered after subsequent water extraction. Composition analysis using gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that (GlcNAc)4-6 could be isolated from the acetone-insoluble material with recoveries of approximately 17% and 21% from the starting α-chitin and β-chitin, respectively. The acetone precipitation method is highly useful for recovering chitin oligomers from the acid hydrolysate of chitin. The changes in the molecular size and higher-order structure of chitin during the course of hydrolysis were also analyzed, and a model that explains the process of oligomer accumulation is proposed.

  5. Surface Chemical Compositions and Dispersity of Starch Nanocrystals Formed by Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were −23.1 and −5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to −32.3 and −10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to −24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample. PMID:24586246

  6. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  7. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch.

  8. On-line dilution and determination of the amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid in the final products from a hydrochloric acid production plant using a sequential injection titration system.

    PubMed

    van Staden, J Koos F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-12-01

    An on-line sequential injection titration system for the determination of the concentration of concentrated hydrochloric acid as final product from a hydrochloric acid production plant is described. The system involves on-line dilution of the concentrated hydrochloric acid solution to an acceptable range for direct measurement by merging the sample stream with a de-ionized water diluent stream, followed by mixing in a dilution coil, before aspiration into the sequential injection system. Concentrated standard solutions were treated in exactly the same way as the samples. The system was evaluated for reproducibility, linearity, accuracy, and sample throughput. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of acid concentration was found in the range 5.934-8.995 mol l(-1) and a concentration of 0.005 mol l(-1) NaOH solution was used as titrant. Samples from the production plant showed excellent agreement when compared with the manual and automated batchwise titrations. The relative standard deviation was found to be less than 0.4% with a sample frequency of 30 samples per hour.

  9. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Scatena, Camila; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey's test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness. PMID:26247516

  10. Carbon nanodots sensitized chemiluminescence on peroxomonosulfate-sulfite-hydrochloric acid system and its analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Xing, Gaowa; Chen, Hui; Ogawa, Nobuaki; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-09-15

    In the present work, new water-soluble fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) were prepared in a facile microwave pyrolysis approach in minutes by combining glycine and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements showed that the resulting C-dots had diameters of about 3 nm. (13)C NMR spectra further confirmed the presence of carbons (sp(2) and sp(3)) indicating a nanocrystalline core of the resulting C-dots with hydroxyl of PEG 200 covered outside. It was discovered that the prepared C-dots could dramatically enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of potassium peroxomonosulfate-sodium sulfite-hydrochloric acid (PSHA) reactions. UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the C-dots sensitized enhancements originated from their energy transfer and electron-transfer annihilation effects on the CL system. When the concentration of C-dots was 4×10(-5) M, and those of KHSO(5), Na(2)SO(3) and HCl were 1×10(-2) M, an excellent performance was obtained. The C-dots sensitized CL system was successfully applied to the determination of aliphatic primary amines in real water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:22967581

  11. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. PMID:27289269

  12. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu

    2015-12-15

    A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu2Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L(-1) HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol(-1), indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process.

  13. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  14. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  15. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-02-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource.

  16. Microabrasion of human enamel in vitro using hydrochloric acid and pumice.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, W F; Johnston, W M; Schumann, S; Schikowski, E

    1989-12-01

    The rubbing application of a hydrochloric acid-pumice mixture has been advocated for the removal of fluorotic-like areas of permanent teeth. However, there have been no previous reports as to the amount of enamel removed during this process. The objective of this project was to measure the amount of enamel lost during successive rubbing applications of an 18% HCl-pumice mixture. Nine extracted permanent molars were mounted in die stone, and each was subjected to 10 sequential 5-sec rubbing applications of an 18% HCl-pumice mixture. After rubbing for 5 sec, the teeth were rinsed with water for 10 sec and then thoroughly dried. Enamel loss was measured to the nearest micron utilizing a measuring microscope with 3-dimensional digital stage positioning. Measurements were taken at the consistent x,y coordinates of three points on the tooth surface after each application. The change in the z coordinate, representing the spatial change in the location of the enamel surface, was recorded for each point after each application on the tooth. Regression analysis revealed enamel loss of 12 microns after the initial application, and an average of 26 microns of enamel loss after each successive application. The regression coefficient was significant at P less than 0.001.

  17. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource. PMID:26848031

  18. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research. PMID:26726020

  19. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Scatena, Camila; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey's test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  20. Preserving ground water samples with hydrochloric acid does not result in the formation of chloroform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Pankow, James F.; Barbash, Jack E.; Price, Curtis V.; Zogorski, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often preserved with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to inhibit the biotransformation of the analytes of interest until the chemical analyses can he performed. However, it is theoretically possible that residual free chlorine in the HCl can react with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to form chloroform via the haloform reaction. Analyses of 1501 ground water samples preserved with HCl from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program indicate that chloroform was the most commonly detected VOC among 60 VOCs monitored. The DOC concentrations were not significantly larger in samples with detectable chloroform than in those with no delectable chloroform, nor was there any correlation between the concentrations of chloroform and DOC. Furthermore, chloroform was detected more frequently in shallow ground water in urban areas (28.5% of the wells sampled) than in agricultural areas (1.6% of the wells sampled), which indicates that its detection was more related to urban land-use activities than to sample acidification. These data provide strong evidence that acidification with HCl does not lead to the production of significant amounts of chloroform in ground water samples. To verify these results, an acidification study was designed to measure the concentrations of all trihalomethanes (THMs) that can form as a result of HCl preservation in ground water samples and to determine if ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) could inhibit this reaction if it did occur. This study showed that no THMs were formed as a result of HCl acidification, and that ascorbic acid had no discernible effect on the concentrations of THMs measured.

  1. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time. PMID:17415952

  2. Hydrochloric acid alters the effect of L-glutamic acid on cell viability in human neuroblastoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Di Cecca, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2013-07-15

    l-Glutamic acid (l-glutamate) is used to induce excitotoxicity and test neuroprotective compounds in cell cultures. However, because l-glutamate powder is nearly insoluble in water, many manufacturers recommend reconstituting l-glutamate in hydrochloric acid (HCl) prior to successive dilutions. Nevertheless, HCl, even at low concentrations, may alter the pH of the cell culture medium and interfere with cell activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the reconstitution of l-glutamate powder in HCl alters its capacity to induce neurotoxicity in different human neuroblastoma cell lines. SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-BE(2) cells were exposed to various concentrations of l-glutamate, which was either reconstituted in HCl (1M) or post re-equilibrated to the pH of the culture medium (7.5). After 24 and 48h of incubation, changes in the cell viability of treated versus untreated cells were evaluated. The effect of an identical amount of HCl present in the l-glutamate dilutions on neuroblastoma cell survival was also investigated. Our data showed that the neurotoxicity of glutamate reconstituted in HCl was comparable to that of HCl alone. Moreover, the pH variations induced by glutamate or HCl in the culture medium were similar. When the pH of the glutamate stock solution was re-equilibrated, l-glutamate induced variation in cell viability to a lower extent and after a longer incubation time. This study demonstrated that HCl used to reconstitute l-glutamate powder might alter the effect of glutamate itself in neuroblastoma cell cultures. Thus, this information might be useful to scientists who use l-glutamate to induce excitotoxicity or to test neuroprotective agents.

  3. Surface layer erosion of natural caries lesions with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid gels in preparation for resin infiltration.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S; Kielbassa, A M

    2007-01-01

    The infiltration of proximal enamel lesions with low-viscosity light curing resins could be a viable approach to stop lesion progression. However, penetration of sealant might be hampered by the comparatively highly mineralized surface layers of natural lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three different etching gels in removing the surface layer in various etching times. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spot lesions were cut across the demineralized areas. Ninety-six lesions expected from visual examination to be confined to the outer enamel (C1) were selected. The cut surface and half of each lesion were varnished, thus serving as control. Subsequently, the lesions were etched with either phosphoric (37%) or hydrochloric (5 or 15%) acid gel for 30-120 s (n = 8/group). Specimens were examined using confocal microscopy and transversal microradiography. Surface layer reduction was significantly increased in lesions etched with 15% HCl gel for 90 and 120 s compared to those etched with H(3)PO(4) gel for 30-120 s (p < 0.05). No significant differences regarding the depths of erosion in the lesions compared to sound enamel could be observed (p > 0.05). An effective reduction in the surface layer of natural enamel caries can be achieved by etching with 15% hydrochloric acid gel for 90-120 s.

  4. Dianils: New and effective corrosion inhibitors for oil-well steel (N-80) and mild steel in boiling hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Jamal, D.

    2000-02-01

    Selected condensation products of aromatic aldehydes and p-phenylenediamine have been synthesized and evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel (MS) and oil-well steel (N-80) in 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 105 C {+-} 2 C by the weight loss method. All the condensation products showed excellent performance. 2,4-dicinnamyledene aminophenylene (DCAP) was found to be the best corrosion inhibitor. It exhibited 99.75% inhibition efficiency (IE) for MS and 99.12% for N-80 steel at 5,000 ppm of inhibitor concentration. The potentiodynamic polarization studies carried out at room temperature on MS in 15% HCl containing 500 ppm of condensation products showed that all the investigated compounds were mixed type inhibitors, whereas 500 ppm DCAP on N-80 steel behaved predominantly as anodic inhibitors. The adsorption of all the condensation products was found to obey Temkin's adsorption isotherm.

  5. Hydrodechlorination of Silicon Tetrachloride to Trichlorosilane Over Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Catalysts: Effect of Pretreatment of Oxygen and Hydrochloric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Do-Hwan; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kim, Ji Man; Yang, O Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the catalytic reaction for the conversion of silicon tetrachloride (STC) to trichlorosilane (TCS) over pretreated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) catalysts by oxygen (denoted as OMC-O2) and hydrochloric acid (denoted as OMC-HCl) at 300 degrees C under N2 atmosphere. The OMC-O2 shows significantly improved the surface area (1341.2 m2/g) and pore volume (1.65 cm3/g), which results in the highest conversion rate of 7.3% as compared to bare OMC (4.3%) and OMC-HCI (5.7%). It is found that the conversion rate of STC to TCS is proportional to the number of Si-O bond over OMC catalysts, which suggests that Si-O-C bond formation is crucial to the reaction as active sites. The O2 pretreatment seems to promote the generation of oxygenated species for the formation of Si-O-C. PMID:27433674

  6. The effect of some triazole derivatives as inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengtao; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Weihua; Hou, Baorong

    2009-05-01

    Corrosion inhibition by some new triazole derivatives on mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated by weight loss test, electrochemical measurement, scanning electronic microscope analysis and quantum chemical calculations. The results indicate that these compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions and do not change the mechanism of either hydrogen evolution reaction or mild steel dissolution. The studied compounds following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. The effect of molecular structure on the inhibition efficiency has been investigated by ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, energy gap (LUMO-HOMO), dipole moment and molecular orbital densities were calculated.

  7. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (T m) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The T m of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing T m values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in T m value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased T m values were measured. The T m changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased T m). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  8. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of {approximately} 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO{sub 2} dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 {micro}m) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions.

  9. Interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of normal rice starch.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuting; Wei, Benxi; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during the 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid (1-butanol-HCl) hydrolysis of normal rice starch. The interaction model between amylose and 1-butanol was proposed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), (13)C cross polarization and magic angle spinning NMR analysis ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA). GC-MS data showed that another form of 1-butanol existed in 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed normal rice starch, except in the form of free molecules absorbed on the starch granules. The signal of 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed starch at 100.1 ppm appeared in the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectrum, indicating that the amylose-1-butanol complex was formed. DSC and TGA data also demonstrated the formation of the complex, which significantly affected the thermal properties of normal rice starch. These findings revealed that less dextrin with low molecular weight formed might be attributed to resistance of this complex to acid during 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis.

  10. Growth and survival of various strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in hydrochloric and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    McKellar, R C; Knight, K P

    1999-12-01

    Nineteen strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and foods were examined for their ability to grow and survive at low pH in organic (acetic) and mineral (HCl) acids. Strains were subcultured in tryptic soy broth adjusted to various pH values (3.75 to 4.75 for HCl and 4.75 to 5.75 for acetic acid) and incubated for 72 h at 37 degrees C to determine the minimum growth pH value. Minimum pH values for growth of 4.25 and 5.5 were found for HCl and acetic acid, respectively. Strains were also exposed to pH 2.0 (HCl) and pH 4.0 (acetic acid) for up to 24 h at 37 degrees C to assess their ability to survive. HCl was a more effective inhibitor after 6 h of exposure, whereas acetic acid was more effective after 24 h. Outbreak strains survived acid treatment significantly (P < or = 0.05) better than strains isolated from fermented or high-pH foods or animal or human isolates. Significant (P < or = 0.05) differences among serotypes and between O157:H7 and other serotypes were apparent after 3 or 6 h of exposure to acids. PMID:10606153

  11. X-ray microtomography of hydrochloric acid propagation in carbonate rocks.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Oliveira, T J L; Cruz, F B; Lopes, R T; Lima, I

    2015-02-01

    Acid treatments are used in the oil and gas industry, to increase the permeability of the carbonate reservoirs by creating preferential channels, called wormholes. Channels formation is strongly influenced by acid type and injection rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate some characteristics of the microporous system of carbonate rocks, before and after acidizing. For that purpose X-ray high-resolution microtomography was used. The results show that this technique can be used as a reliable method to analyze microstructural characteristics of the wormholes.

  12. Experimental and Quantum Studies on Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Imidazole Derivatives on N80 Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Kumar, Sumit; Sharma, Dipti; Yadav, P. N.

    2013-12-01

    The inhibition effect of synthesized N‧-(phenylmethylidene)-2-(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazides, N‧-(4-methylphenylmethylidene)-2-(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazides, and N‧-(4-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-2-(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazides on the corrosion behaviour of N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using weight loss, potentiostatic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The inhibition efficiency increased as the concentration of the inhibitors was increased. The effect of temperature on corrosion inhibition was investigated by weight loss method and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements show that all the three studied inhibitors act as mixed inhibitor. The adsorption of inhibitors on N80 steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The structure of inhibitors was optimized using semiemperical AM1 method. Theoretical parameters such as the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) energy levels, energy gap (ΔE = ELUMO - EHOMO), dipole moment (μ), global hardness (γ), softness (σ), binding energy, molecular surface area and the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN) were calculated and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the surface marphology of the N80 steel.

  13. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  14. Magnesium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent for radioactive hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.J.; Fife, K.W.

    1995-10-01

    The current technology at Los Alamos for removing actinides from acidic chloride waste streams is precipitation with approximately 10 M potassium hydroxide. Although successful, there are many inherent drawbacks to this precipitation technique which will be detailed in this paper. Magnesium hydroxide (K{sub sp} = 1.3 x 10{sup -11}) has limited solubility in water and as a result of the common ion effect, cannot generate a filtrate with a pH greater than 9. At a pH of 9, calcium (K{sub sp} = 5.5 x 10{sup -6}) will not coprecipitate as the hydroxide. This is an important factor since many acidic chloride feeds to hydroxide precipitation contain significant amounts of calcium. In addition, neutralization with Mg(OH){sub 2} produces a more filterable precipitate because neutralization occurs as the Mg(OH){sub 2} is dissolved by the acid rather than as a result of the much faster liquid/liquid reaction of KOH with the waste acid. This slower solid/liquid reaction allows time for crystal growth to occur and produces more easily filterable precipitates. On the other hand, neutralization of spent acid with strong KOH that yields numerous hydroxide ions in solution almost instantaneously forming a much larger volume of small crystallites that result in gelatinous, slow-filtering precipitates. Magnesium hydroxide also offers a safety advantage. Although mildly irritating, it is a weak base and safe and easy to handle. From a waste minimization perspective, Mg(OH){sub 2} offers many advantages. First, the magnesium hydroxide is added as a solid. This step eliminates the diluent water used in KOH neutralizations. Secondly, because the particle size of the precipitate is larger, more actinides are caught on the filter paper resulting in a smaller amount of actinide being transferred to the TA-50 Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Third, the amount of solids that must be reprocessed is significantly smaller resulting in less waste generation from the downstream processes.

  15. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved. PMID:26674548

  16. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved.

  17. Effect of hydrochloric acid on sound absorption and relaxation frequency in magnesium sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F. H.

    2002-05-01

    The epic work of Kurtze and Tamm on sound absorption spectroscopy in divalent sulfate electrolyte solutions (1953) from the low-kHz region up to over 200 MHz revealed astonishing variability at frequencies below 10 MHz and a common relaxation frequency at about 200 MHz. For magnesium sulfate [Epsom salts] solutions, the salt producing 30× the absorption of fresh water below the 100-kHz region in the oceans at low concentrations [~0.02 moles/liter], Kurtze and Tamm investigated the effects of adding HC1 or H2SO4. They found that as formal pH increased, the results were different for these acids in reducing the sound absorption. Fisher (1983) found that if the absorption was plotted against free hydrogen, ion concentration was the same. We used the 100-liter titanium sphere, a spare ballast tank from the WHOI submarine ALVIN. With precise temperature control, we found an increase in the relaxation frequency as HC1 was added in conjunction with the reduction in sound absorption. The results will be presented and an explanation will be proposed in the context of the Eigen and Tamm multistate dissociation model for MgSO4 (1962) which explains the effects of pressure on both absorption and conductance. [Work supported by ONR.] The author acknowledges C. C. Hsu for his work on this project.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Binti Kassim, Fatin A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10(-3) M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The effect of te perature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10(-3) M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl. PMID:26795066

  19. Molecular simulation of aqueous electrolyte solubility. 3. Alkali-halide salts and their mixtures in water and in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Moučka, Filip; Lísal, Martin; Smith, William R

    2012-05-10

    We extend the osmotic ensemble Monte Carlo (OEMC) molecular simulation method (Moučka et al. J. Phys Chem. B 2011, 115, 7849-7861) for directly calculating the aqueous solubility of electrolytes and for calculating their chemical potentials as functions of concentration to cases involving electrolyte hydrates and mixed electrolytes, including invariant points involving simultaneous precipitation of several solutes. The method utilizes a particular semigrand canonical ensemble, which performs simulations of the solution at a fixed number of solvent molecules, pressure, temperature, and specified overall electrolyte chemical potential. It avoids calculations for the solid phase, incorporating available solid chemical potential data from thermochemical tables, which are based on well-defined reference states, or from other sources. We apply the method to a range of alkali halides in water and to selected examples involving LiCl monohydrate, mixed electrolyte solutions involving water and hydrochloric acid, and invariant points in these solvents. The method uses several existing force-field models from the literature, and the results are compared with experiment. The calculated results agree qualitatively well with the experimental trends and are of reasonable accuracy. The accuracy of the calculated solubility is highly dependent on the solid chemical potential value and also on the force-field model used. Our results indicate that pairwise additive effective force-field models developed for the solution phase are unlikely to also be good models for the corresponding crystalline solid. We find that, in our OEMC simulations, each ionic force-field model is characterized by a limiting value of the total solution chemical potential and a corresponding aqueous concentration. For higher values of the imposed chemical potential, the solid phase in the simulation grows in size without limit.

  20. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from space shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy space center, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-07-01

    Observations of damage to vegetation, acute reductions in surface water pH, and kills of small fish prompted the Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the John F. Kennedy Space Center to initiate intensive environmental evaluations of possible acute and long-term chronic impacts that may be produced by repeated launches of the space shuttle. An important step in this evaluation was the identification of deposition patterns and the quantification of ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents from the solid rocket motors (SRMs) in the area of the launch pad. These constituents are primarily aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). During three launches of the space transportation system (STS-11, 13, and 14) up to 100 bulk deposition collectors, 83 mm in diameter containing 100 ml of deionized water, were deployed in a grid pattern covering 12.6 ha north of launch pad 39-A. Estimates of HCl and particulate deposition levels were made based on laboratory measurements of items entrained in the collectors. Captured particulates consisted of a variety of items including Al2O3, sand grains, sea shell fragments, paint chips, and other debris ablated from the launch pad surface by the initial thrust of the SRMs. Estimated ranges of HCl and particulate deposition in the study area were 0-127 g/m2 and 0-246 g/m2, respectively. Deposition patterns were highly influenced by wind speed and direction. These measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, up to 7.1 × 103 kg of particulates and 3.4 × 103 kg of HCl can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence.

  1. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading. PMID:27543312

  2. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na2SO3 microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yanmin; Liu, Fei; Shang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yanzhao

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl(4)(-)CTAB(+). The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol(-1) and -84.87 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E%>99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach.

  3. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed.

  4. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed. PMID:17570579

  5. Technical note: Synergistic effect of iodide ions on inhibitive performance of substituted dithiobiurets during corrosion of mild steel in hot hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M.

    1999-10-01

    Four substituted dithiobiurets (i.e., 1,5-diphenyl-2,4-dithiobiuret [DPDTB]; 1-anisidyl-5-phenyl 2,4-dithiodiuret [APDTB]; 1-tolyl-5-phenyl 2,4-dithiobiuret [TPDTB]; and 1-chlorophenyl-5-phenyl 2,4-dithiobiuret [CPDTB]) were synthesized to study their inhibiting effect on mild steel (MS) corrosion in 5 N hot hydrochloric acid (HCl). The synergistic effect of these compounds with potassium iodide (KI) was studied at different concentrations, temperatures, and immersion periods by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. All compounds showed good inhibition efficiency (IE) at all temperatures and showed the enhancement in IE with the addition of small amounts of KI. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that APDTB and DPDTB are predominantly cathodic inhibitors, whereas TPDTB and CPDTB are mixed inhibitors. The adsorption of all these compounds followed Temkin's adsorption isotherm.

  6. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    PubMed Central

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos® IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L−1 Na2SO3 receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]+ [AuCl4]− H+ [PO2]− where [P]+ and [PO2]− represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO3)2]3− in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry. PMID:26670259

  7. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    PubMed

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  8. Action of hydrochloric acid on aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide gels and magaldrate: 27Al NMR and pH-stat studies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G E; Falzone, C J; Johnson, R; Lee, H K

    1985-10-01

    Neutralization of mixtures of aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide gels and of magaldrate by hydrochloric acid were studied by 27Al NMR under conditions of both equilibrium and kinetic control. Under conditions where equilibrium has been attained, an aluminum NMR signal is detectable for suspensions of the mixed gels and magaldrate only after enough acid has been added to exhaust the acid-neutralizing capacity of the magnesium hydroxide. Mixed gels seem to form several soluble aluminum-containing species as neutralization proceeds. Under the conditions of the modified Beekman neutralization procedure, in which the species concentrations reflect neutralization kinetics, mixed gels show a sharp burst of the hexaaquoaluminum cation as acid is added followed by a slow loss of that cation from solution and an accompanying slow rise in pH. Magaldrate shows a steady increase in the hexaaquoaluminum cation with added acid. Differences between magaldrate and mixed gels are also apparent in pH-stat titrations in which magaldrate displays a biphasic response, contrasting to the two burst phases with an intervening lag phase observed for mixed gels. The results of the 27Al NMR and pH-stat titrations are consistent with the hypotheses that magaldrate is a homogeneous substance with a hydrotalcite-like structure and that mixed gels consist of a magnesium hydroxide core surrounded by aluminum hydroxide.

  9. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and discussion.…

  10. Double-stranded helical twisted beta-sheet channels in crystals of gramicidin S grown in the presence of trifluoroacetic and hydrochloric acids.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M; Overhand, Mark; van Raaij, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    Gramicidin S is a nonribosomally synthesized cyclic decapeptide antibiotic with twofold symmetry (Val-Orn-Leu-D-Phe-Pro)(2); a natural source is Bacillus brevis. Gramicidin S is active against Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. However, its haemolytic toxicity in humans limits its use as an antibiotic to certain topical applications. Synthetically obtained gramicidin S was crystallized from a solution containing water, methanol, trifluoroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. The structure was solved and refined at 0.95 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains 1.5 molecules of gramicidin S, two trifluoroacetic acid molecules and ten water molecules located and refined in 14 positions. One gramicidin S molecule has an exact twofold-symmetrical conformation; the other deviates from the molecular twofold symmetry. The cyclic peptide adopts an antiparallel beta-sheet secondary structure with two type II' beta-turns. These turns have the residues D-Phe and Pro at positions i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. In the crystals, the gramicidin S molecules line up into double-stranded helical channels that differ from those observed previously. The implications of the supramolecular structure for several models of gramicidin S conformation and assembly in the membrane are discussed.

  11. Minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors in a pickling process with high-concentration hydrochloric acid solutions: mechanism and evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Su, Wen; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fenglian; Yu, Guojun; Zhang, Jianyin

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to propose a strategy for minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors through the synergistic corrosion inhibition of OP-10 and potassium iodide, thus facilitating a cleaner production process for acid pickling of metals with a high-concentration solution (6.0 mol/l) of hydrochloric acid. Results obtained with the methods of weight loss and electrochemical polarization showed that adding KI and OP-10 could enhance the energy barrier of the corrosion reaction and improved the corrosion inhibition for mild steel in high concentration of HCl solutions. A synergistic effect was identified when KI and OP-10 were present in suitable proportions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that the complex inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor and it formed a compact film on the metal surface, thus providing an effective protection for the metal in the aggressive solutions, which significantly minimized the creation of spent pickling liquors. A simple and convenient method was also proposed for the quantificational evaluation of the inhibition degree in the creation of spent pickling liquors. PMID:22266479

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanjuan; Li, Nan; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Li, Xiaotian; Yan, Xiao

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S{sub 2}{sup 2−}. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS{sub 2} is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS{sub 2} is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS{sub 2} catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}.

  13. Hydrochloric acid modification process for fabricating Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x THz oscillator stack on-chip coupled to THz detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikata, Tsubasa; Kato, Takahiro; Kotaki, Yukio; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Kawakami, Akira; Yasui, Kanji

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) integrating of an oscillator and a detector by double side photolithography and material modification with a dilutehydrochloric acid solution (pH = 1.65) within a monolithic Bi-2212 crystal. The dilute hydrochloric solution modifies Bi-2212 to insulating BiOCl. Various lateral dimensions of the oscillator IJJ from 45 × 8 to 95 × 30 µm2 were formed; all of the detectors were about 15 × 10 to 15 × 30 µm2 in lateral dimensions. These stacks have 180-416 junctions. Zero voltage current for the detector stack was measured at 77 K while sweeping a bias voltage in the oscillator stack. The zero voltage current of the detector stack was strongly suppressed when a kink structure in the current-voltage curve of the oscillator stacks appeared. This indicates that the oscillator stack emits radiation at this voltage. From the Josephson voltage-frequency relation, it is found that the voltage corresponds to about 0.5-1 THz.

  14. Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/nanofibers bilayer film on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lixin; Du, Pingfan; Shao, Xiaoli; Cao, Houbao; Hui, Quan; Xiong, Jie

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/TiO{sub 2} nanofibers bilayer film was fabricated for DSSC. ► The effects of HCl treated TiO{sub 2} on the performance of DSSC were investigated. ► The potential methods of improving conversion efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/nanofibers bilayer film has been fabricated via spin coating and electrospinning followed by calcination. The TiO{sub 2} bilayer film with thickness of about 6.0 μm is composed of anatase TiO{sub 2} phase. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were assembled by hydrochloric acid (HCl) treated TiO{sub 2} film. The results of the photocurrent action spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and I–V curves showed that each photovoltaic parameter of DSSC increased with the concentration of HCl increasing, and reached a maximum value and afterwards decreased. The maximum incident monochromatic photo-to-electron conversion efficiency (at 350 nm) and maximum overall conversion efficiency (η) of 0.05 M HCl treated TiO{sub 2} based DSSC were enhanced to 48.0% and 4.75%, which were respectively increased by 14% and 6.3% than those of DSSC based on untreated TiO{sub 2} film.

  15. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M). PMID:24953939

  16. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M).

  17. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  18. Trapping of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid at vacancies on and underneath the ice I(h) basal-plane surface.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Moreira, Pedro Augusto Franco; de Koning, Maurice

    2013-10-31

    We investigate the uptake of HCl and HF at lattice vacancies in ice Ih as a function of their distance to the basal-plane surface layer using density-functional theory calculations. The results for HCl display large dispersions in the binding-energy results due to the appearance of distinct dissociation states. The layer-averaged results suggest that the uptake of HCl is most favorable in the two layers just below the surface, which is consistent with available experimental indications. The behavior of HF is found to be manifestly different due to the fact that it is a weaker acid. The dispersion in the binding-energy values is significantly less compared to the case of HCl, and the average values are essentially equal to the bulk value, regardless of layer position. This suggests that, in contrast to the case of HCl, there should not be any tendency for accumulation of HF near the surface.

  19. Extraction of Zr(IV) from hydrochloric acid with tri-octyl amine and Cyanex 921 in kerosene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Bhikari Charan; Panda, Nandita; Mishra, Sujata

    2013-09-01

    This article reports the extraction of zirconium (IV) from aqueous HCl solution by tri-octyl amine (TOA), Cyanex 921, and their binary mixture using kerosene as the diluent. The effect of some parameters on the extraction of Zr(IV) was investigated such as equilibration time, aqueous phase acidity, extractant molarity, chloride ion concentration, nature of diluents, and temperature. The extraction of Zr(IV) was found to be 99% from 7.5 M HCl using the mixture of extractants containing 0.1 M TOA and 0.02 M Cyanex 921 in kerosene. Kerosene was found to be the effective diluent for the extraction of Zr(IV) with the binary mixture of TOA and Cyanex 921. The positive enthalpy change and positive entropy change in the binary extraction system show the endothermic process with an increase in entropy. Stripping of Zr(IV) from the loaded organic phase containing the mixture of TOA (0.1 M) and Cyanex 921 (0.02 M) indicates that HNO3 and Na2CO3 are the best stripping agents.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10−3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10−3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl. PMID:26795066

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10-3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10-3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  2. Comparison of the response using ICR mice derived from three different sources to ethanol/hydrochloric acid-induced gastric injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Choi, Kyung Min; Kim, Hae Deun; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Kil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Animal models for gastric ulcers produced by physical, pharmacological and surgical methods have been widely employed to evaluate therapeutic drugs and investigate the mechanism of action of this disease. ICR mice were selected to produce this model, even though several mice and rats have been widely used in studies of gastric ulcers. To compare the responses of ICR mice obtained from three different sources to gastric ulcer inducers, alterations in gastric injury, histopathological structure, and inflammation were measured in Korl:ICR (Korea NIFDS source), A:ICR (USA source) and B:ICR (Japan source) treated with three concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (50, 70, and 90%) in 150 mM hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Firstly, the stomach lesion index gradually increased as the EtOH concentration increased in three ICR groups. Moreover, a significant increase in the level of mucosal injury, edema and the number of inflammatory cells was similarly detected in the EtOH/HCl treated group compared with the vehicle treated group in three ICR groups. Furthermore, the number of infiltrated mast cells and IL-1β expression were very similar in the ICR group derived from three different sources, although some differences in IL-1β expression were detected. Especially, the level of IL-1β mRNA in 50 and 90EtOH/HCl treated group was higher in Korl:ICR and A:ICR than B:ICR. Overall, the results of this study suggest that Korl:ICR, A:ICR and B:ICR derived from different sources have an overall similar response to gastric ulcer induced by EtOH/HCl administration, although there were some differences in the magnitude of their responses. PMID:27051443

  3. Comparison of the response using ICR mice derived from three different sources to ethanol/hydrochloric acid-induced gastric injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Choi, Kyung Min; Kim, Hae Deun; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2016-03-01

    Animal models for gastric ulcers produced by physical, pharmacological and surgical methods have been widely employed to evaluate therapeutic drugs and investigate the mechanism of action of this disease. ICR mice were selected to produce this model, even though several mice and rats have been widely used in studies of gastric ulcers. To compare the responses of ICR mice obtained from three different sources to gastric ulcer inducers, alterations in gastric injury, histopathological structure, and inflammation were measured in Korl:ICR (Korea NIFDS source), A:ICR (USA source) and B:ICR (Japan source) treated with three concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (50, 70, and 90%) in 150 mM hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Firstly, the stomach lesion index gradually increased as the EtOH concentration increased in three ICR groups. Moreover, a significant increase in the level of mucosal injury, edema and the number of inflammatory cells was similarly detected in the EtOH/HCl treated group compared with the vehicle treated group in three ICR groups. Furthermore, the number of infiltrated mast cells and IL-1β expression were very similar in the ICR group derived from three different sources, although some differences in IL-1β expression were detected. Especially, the level of IL-1β mRNA in 50 and 90EtOH/HCl treated group was higher in Korl:ICR and A:ICR than B:ICR. Overall, the results of this study suggest that Korl:ICR, A:ICR and B:ICR derived from different sources have an overall similar response to gastric ulcer induced by EtOH/HCl administration, although there were some differences in the magnitude of their responses. PMID:27051443

  4. Citrate enhances in vitro metastatic behaviours of PC-3M human prostate cancer cells: status of endogenous citrate and dependence on aconitase and fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Mycielska, Maria E; Broke-Smith, Timothy P; Palmer, Christopher P; Beckerman, Rachel; Nastos, Theodoros; Erguler, Kamil; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2006-01-01

    Prostate is a unique organ that produces and releases large amounts of citrate. This is reduced significantly in cancer and it is possible that citrate is (re)taken up and used as a metabolite to enhance cellular activity. The main purpose of this study was to determine how cytosolic citrate might affect in vitro metastatic cell behaviours (lateral motility, endocytosis and adhesion). Normal (PNT2-C2) and metastatic (PC-3M) human prostate cancer cells were used in a comparative approach. As regards intermediary metabolic enzymes, aconitase and fatty acid synthase, already implicated in prostate cancer, were evaluated. The level of intracellular citrate was significantly higher in PNT2-C2 cells under both control conditions and following preincubation in extracellular citrate. Supply of exogenous citrate enhanced endocytosis, lateral motility, decreased cell adhesion of PC-3M cells but failed to produce any effect on normal cells. Real-time PCR measurements showed that the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and fatty acid synthase were significantly higher in PC-3M cells. Correspondingly, aconitase activity was also higher in PC-3M cells. Using cerulenin (an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase), oxalomalate and fluorocitrate (inhibiting aconitases), we investigated the dependence of citrate-induced down-regulation of cellular adhesion on aconitase and fatty acid synthase activities. It was concluded: (1) that strongly metastatic PC-3M cells stored less/utilised more cytosolic citrate than the normal PNT2-C2 cells and (2) that cancer cells could metabolise cytoplasmic citrate via aconitase and fatty acid synthase to enhance their metastatic behaviour. PMID:16798056

  5. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  6. Length and Amino Acid Sequence of Peptides Substituted for the 5-HT3A Receptor M3M4 Loop May Affect Channel Expression and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Nicole K.; Bali, Moez; Akabas, Myles H.

    2012-01-01

    5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4) and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-An = 2–7). Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT). The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A2, 5-HT3A-A4, 5-HT3A-A6, and 5-HT3A-A7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A3 and 5-HT3A-A5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function. PMID:22539982

  7. Survival of Salmonella strains differing in their biofilm-formation capability upon exposure to hydrochloric and acetic acid and to high salt.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akio; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2011-09-01

    Acidic and osmotic treatments are part of hurdle systems to control pathogens such as Salmonella in food. In the current study, Salmonella enterica isolates previously shown to differ in their ability to form biofilms were grown in diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) (1:5 dilution in distilled water) and subsequently exposed to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl, PBS adjusted to pH 3.9 with acetic acid or rice vinegar diluted 1:15 with distilled water (pH 3.9). Cells grown in diluted TSB were also exposed to distilled water, pH 7.6, containing 5 M NaCl. No differences in survival upon exposure to PBS adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl or distilled water containing high salt were observed between the isolates; however, exposure to acetic acid and rice vinegar resulted in lower survival levels of isolates previously shown to be poor biofilm formers. The numbers (log(10) cfu/ml) of surviving cells after exposure for 36 hr to acetic acid and rice vinegar were 4.43 ± 0.24 vs. 2.27 ± 0.87 (P<0.05) and 5.19 ± 0.12 vs. 2.33 ± 0.93 (P<0.05) for isolates with a high vs. low biofilm-forming ability. The survival data could be fitted with the Weibull model. The data suggest that the ability of Salmonella strains to survive in the presence of acetic acid and rice vinegar parallels their ability to form biofilms. Thus, Salmonella with a high biofilm-formation capability might be more difficult to kill with acetic acid found in foods or cleaning solutions.

  8. Newly synthesized salicylidene-4,4‧-dimorpholine (SDM) assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) and its inhibitive effect on mild steel in 2 N hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwani, Poonam M.; Panchal, Vikram K.; Shah, Nisha K.

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by salicylidene-4,4‧-dimorpholine (SDM) and SDM assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) has been studied with gravimetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. While studying the temperature effect on corrosion behaviour of SDM and SDM assembled on NiONPs, the inhibition efficiency decreases for SDM only but increases for SDM assembled on NiONPs. The adsorption of both the inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energy as well as other thermodynamic parameters (ΔH* and ΔS*) for the inhibition process was calculated. EIS analysis results showed that the capacitive loops for SDM assembled on NiONPs were far away from blank when compared with SDM only. Polarization curve shows that the inhibitors are of mixed type. Further, the protective layer formation was confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. Various methods such as EIS-MS, 1H NMR, XRD, FTIR, and DLS were performed for the confirmation of the structure, interaction of SDM with NiONPs and size of NiONPs.

  9. Determination of inorganic arsenic in marine food samples by hydrochloric acid distillation and flow-injection hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oygard, J K; Lundebye, A K; Julshamn, K

    1999-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and reliable method was developed for determination of inorganic As in biological samples such as fish fillet. Inorganic AS was distilled from the sample as AsCl3 with HCl. The separated inorganic AS was determined by flow-injection hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry after prereduction with KI and HCl. The influences of various concentrations of KI, ascorbic acid, and HCl in the prereduction stage; NaBH4 as the reductant; and HCl as the carrier solution on analytical results were studied. Digestion was performed in a Kjeldahl digestion system for 75 min with 4 mL nitric acid and 1 mL sulfuric acid at 380 degrees C. The concentrations of inorganic As in samples were less than 0.1 mg/kg dry weight for fish fillet and somewhat higher for crustaceans and bivalve molluscs. The total and inorganic As contents of various marine biological samples and certified reference materials were determined.

  10. Structure of Hydronium (H3O+)/Chloride (Cl-) Contact Ion Pairs in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solution: A Zundel-like Local Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    2010-09-15

    Details of the H3O+ and H2O structure in the first solvation shell about Cl- in aqueous HCl solutions are reported from x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. Results show increasing degrees of contact ion pairing between Cl- and H3O+ as the HCl concentration increases from 6.0 m, 10.0 m and finally 16.1 m HCl (concentrated acid). At the highest acid concentration there are on average, approximately 1.6 H3O+ ions and 4.2 H2O’s in the first shell about Cl-. The structure of the Cl-/H3O+ contact ion pair is distinctly different than that of the H2O structure about Cl-. The Cl-O bond length (2.98Å) for Cl-/H3O+ is approximately 0.16 Å shorter than the Cl-/H2O bond. The bridging proton resides at an intermediate position between Cl and O at 1.60 Å from the Cl- and approximately 1.37 Å from the O of the H3O+. The bridging-proton structure of this contact ion pair, [Cl-H-OH2], is similar to structure of the water Zundel ion, [H2O-H-OH2]+. In both cases there is a shortened Cl-O or O-O bond and the intervening proton bond distances are substantially longer than for the covalent bonds of either HCl or H2O. The results further our understanding of the interaction H3O+ with Cl- that is of interest to fundamental physical chemistry and that has consequences in biochemical, geochemical and atmospheric processes.

  11. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  12. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  13. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  14. Formation of the bisulfite anion (HSO(3) (-) , m/z 81) upon collision-induced dissociation of anions derived from organic sulfonic acids.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Freneil B; Wood, Ryan E; Nishshanka, Upul; Attygalle, Athula B

    2012-04-01

    In the negative-ion collision-induced dissociation mass spectra of most organic sulfonates, the base peak is observed at m/z 80 for the sulfur trioxide radical anion (SO(3) (-·) ). In contrast, the product-ion spectra of a few sulfonates, such as cysteic acid, aminomethanesulfonate, and 2-phenylethanesulfonate, show the base peak at m/z 81 for the bisulfite anion (HSO(3) (-) ). An investigation with an extensive variety of sulfonates revealed that the presence of a hydrogen atom at the β-position relative to the sulfur atom is a prerequisite for the formation of the bisulfite anion. The formation of HSO(3) (-) is highly favored when the atom at the β-position is nitrogen, or the leaving neutral species is a highly conjugated molecule such as styrene or acrylic acid. Deuterium-exchange experiments with aminomethanesulfonate demonstrated that the hydrogen for HSO(3) (-) formation is transferred from the β-position. The presence of a peak at m/z 80 in the spectrum of 2-sulfoacetic acid, in contrast to a peak at m/z 81 in that of 3-sulfopropanoic acid, corroborated the proposed hydrogen transfer mechanism. For diacidic compounds, such as 4-sulfobutanoic acid and cysteic acid, the m/z 81 ion can be formed by an alternative mechanism, in which the negative charge of the carboxylate moiety attacks the α-carbon relative to the sulfur atom. Experiments conducted with deuterium-exchanged and deuterium-labeled analogs of sulfocarboxylic acids demonstrated that the formation of the bisulfite anion resulted either from a hydrogen transfer from the β-carbon, or from a direct attack by the carboxylate moiety on the α-carbon.

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  18. Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, B.; Sasirekha, N.R.; Chen, Y.-W.

    2008-03-04

    The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] ratio and particle size of titania was observed.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions 3-M syndrome 3-M syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description 3-M syndrome is a disorder that causes short ...

  20. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-06-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  1. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-09-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  2. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  3. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  4. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  5. Hydrochloric Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C.; May, R.; Jaegle, L.; Hu, H.; Sander, S.; Gunson, M.; Toon, G.; Russell, J., III; Stimpfle, R.; Koplow, J.; Salawitch, R.; Michelsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of hc1 measured in the lower stratosphere in 1993 by the ALIAS instrument on the ER-2 aircraft reveal that only 40% of inorganic chlorine (CL sub y, inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorinated source gases) is present as HC1, significantly lower than model predictions.

  6. Atmospheric scavenging of hydrochloric acid. [from rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, E. O.; Fenton, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The scavenging of hydrogen chloride from a solid rocket exhaust cloud was investigated. Water drops were caused to fall through a confined exhaust cloud and then analyzed to determine the amount of HCl captured during fall. Bubblers were used to measure HCl concentration within the chamber. The measured chamber HCl concentration, together with the measured HCl deposition on the chamber walls, accounted for 81 to 94% of the theoretical HCl. It was found that the amount of HCl captured was approximately one-half of that predicted by the Frossling correlation. No effect of humidity was detected through a range of 69-98% R.H.. The scavenging of HCl from a solid rocket exhaust cloud was calculated using an idealized Kennedy Space Center rain cycle. Results indicate that this cycle would reduce the cloud HCl concentration to 20.6% if its value in the absence of rain.

  7. Hydrochloric acid and the chlorine budget of the lower statosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Jaegle, L.; Hu, H.; Sander, S. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Toon, G. C.; Russell, J. M., III; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of HCl measurements in the lower stratosphere in 1993 by the ALIAS instrument on the ER-2 aircraft reveal that only 40% of inorganic chlorine (Cl(y), inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorinated sources gases) is present as HCl, significantly lower than model predictions. Although the sum of measured HCl, ClO and ClONO2, the latter inferred from measurements of ClO and NO2 equals Cl(y) to within the incertainty of measurement, it is systematically less than Cl(y) by 30-50%. This discrepancy suggests that concentrations of ClONO2 may exceed those of HC; near 20 km altitude, consistent with a slower photolysis rate for ClONO2 than calculated using recommended cross sections. Comparison of profiles of HCl measured during 1992 and 1193 at mid-latitudes by balloon (BLISS and MARKIV), space shuttle (ATMOS), and satellite (HALOE) instruments with the aircraft data reveal an apparent pressure dependence to the HCl to Cl(y) ratio, consistent with a factor of 3-10 reduction in the photolysis rate for ClONO2 at ER-2 altitudes. However, the diurnal variation of ClO is well-simulated by models using the recommended photolysis rate, and simulations measurements of ClONO2 and HCl at mid-latitudes by ATMOS and MARKIV report HCl (HCL+ ClONO2) ratios greater than or equal to 50%. Premliminary measurements by ALIAS in the southern hemisphere report HCl/Cl(y) values of about 75%.

  8. "Scrubbing" Data for D3M

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurius, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Data-driven decision-making (D3M) appears to be the new buzz phrase for this century, the information age. On the education front, teachers and administrators are engaging in data-centered dialog in grade-level meetings, lounges, hallways, and classrooms as they brainstorm toward closing the gap in student achievement. Clearly, such discussion…

  9. Calcium binding to an aquatic fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxéus, Nicklas; Wedborg, Margareta

    The degree of binding of calcium to aquatic fulvic acid from the Göta River was estimated from potentiometric titrations. A pH-glass electrode and a calcium-selective electrode were used to monitor the free concentrations of the competing, central ions. The ionic strength and the temperature were maintained constant at 0.1 M and 25°C. The total concentration of fulvic acid was maintained at approximately 1 g 1-1, while the total calcium concentration was varied within the range 0-10-3 M. Two types of titrations were carried out: (1) back titration with hydrochloric acid from basic solution, roughly within the pH range 10.5-2.5; (2) titration with calcium chloride at a constant total hydrogen ion concentration. The model applied for the calcium binding was an extension of our previous model for the acid-base behaviour.

  10. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  11. 3M's PPR software criticized, but is research misleading?

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    New research suggests that a popular 3M software program doesn't clearly distinguish differences in care quality. The issue is important because the program is increasingly used to make payments to U.S. hospitals based on readmission rates. 3M says the study is flawed and the conclusion incorrect. The researchers concluded that either PPR flagged cases are not more preventable, or additional data collection is needed. The findings are based on a review of 100 randomly selected cases.

  12. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  13. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  14. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  15. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  16. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  17. Use of (high temperature) ammoniated citric acid for boiler chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Georgia Power`s primary boiler cleaning solvent in the past has been hydrochloric acid. Citric acid has recently been used on two boilers in an effort to move to a safer and more environmentally acceptable cleaning solvent. As with any change, there is a learning curve and the (new) cleaning process has to be proven with regard to process consistency and cleaning effectiveness. This paper describes our experiences with citric acid along with comparisons of past hydrochloric acid cleanings.

  18. Wind tunnel tests on a 3 m diameter Musgrove windmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmer, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    A 3 m diameter model of a two bladed Musgrove vertical axis windmill has been tested in the British Aerospace wind tunnel at Filton. Tunnel constraints were kept to a minimum by using a low flow blockage and appropriate corrections were applied to the measurements. The results of these tests demonstrate the good performance of this type of windmill. Comparison of the measured performance with predictions from a simple mathematical model show excellent agreement. Maximum loads measured on the windmill are not well predicted by the mathematical model. In order to reconcile measurement and prediction large induced crossflows must be postulated at some blade rotational positions.

  19. Attitudes toward ride-sharing: 3M Center case study

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, R.A.; Edwards, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    The 3M vanpooling program is examined to find out why it has been successful while carpooling has declined. Employee surveys are used to determine which incentives and disincentives are in effect and which psychological factors are important. Analysis of six factors (personal freedom restriction, longevity, auto ownership and competition, travel cost, interpersonnal relationships, and distance from home to work) is used to break down the survey information and establish the attitudes which determine behavior. The findings can be used to reduce or eliminate most of the objections to carpooling and to emphasize the positive aspects. A personalized matching program is also recommended. 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  20. GAM observation in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanin, V. V.; Askinazi, L. G.; Belokurov, A. A.; Kornev, V. A.; Lebedev, V.; Petrov, A. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Wagner, F.; Yashin, A. Yu

    2016-04-01

    Results of an experimental study of geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. With Doppler backscattering (DBS) the basic properties of the GAM such as frequency, conditions for the GAM existence and the GAM radial location have been identified. The two-frequency Doppler reflectometer system was employed to reveal an interplay between low frequency sheared poloidal rotation, ambient turbulence level and the GAM intensity. Bicoherence analysis of the DBS data evidences the presence of a nonlinear interaction between the GAM and plasma turbulence.

  1. 30 years of ergonomics at 3M: a case study.

    PubMed

    Larson, N; Wick, H

    2012-01-01

    The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.

  2. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  3. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  4. Identification of mutations in CUL7 in 3-M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huber, Céline; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Glaser, Anna; O'Sullivan, James; Brauner, Raja; Wu, Kenneth; Xu, Xinsong; Pearce, Kerra; Wang, Rong; Uzielli, Maria Luisa Giovannucci; Dagoneau, Nathalie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Dos Santos, Heloisa; Mégarbané, André; Morin, Gilles; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hennekam, Raoul; Van der Burgt, Ineke; Black, Graeme C M; Clayton, Peter E; Read, Andrew; Le Merrer, Martine; Scambler, Peter J; Munnich, Arnold; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Winter, Robin; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2005-10-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation is caused by maternal, fetal or placental factors that result in impaired endovascular trophoblast invasion and reduced placental perfusion. Although various causes of intrauterine growth retardation have been identified, most cases remain unexplained. Studying 29 families with 3-M syndrome (OMIM 273750), an autosomal recessive condition characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, we first mapped the underlying gene to chromosome 6p21.1 and then identified 25 distinct mutations in the gene cullin 7 (CUL7). CUL7 assembles an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing Skp1, Fbx29 (also called Fbw8) and ROC1 and promotes ubiquitination. Using deletion analysis, we found that CUL7 uses its central region to interact with the Skp1-Fbx29 heterodimer. Functional studies indicated that the 3-M-associated CUL7 nonsense and missense mutations R1445X and H1464P, respectively, render CUL7 deficient in recruiting ROC1. These results suggest that impaired ubiquitination may have a role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation in humans.

  5. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  6. Separation of calcium-48 isotope by crown ether chromatography using ethanol/hydrochloric acid mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Shin; Umehara, Saori; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Masao; Kaneshiki, Toshitaka; Ozawa, Masaki; Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    Benzo-18-crown-6 ether resin embedded in porous silica beads was synthesized and used as the packing material for chromatographic separation of (48)Ca isotope. The aim of the present work is to develop efficient isotope enrichment process for double β decay nuclide (48)Ca. To this end, ethanol/HCl mixed solvent was selected as the medium for the chromatographic separation. Adsorption of calcium on the resin was studied at different HCl concentrations and different ethanol mixing ratios in batch-wise experiments. A very interesting phenomenon was observed; Ca adsorption is controlled not by the overall HCl concentration of the mixed solvent, but by the initial concentration of added HCl solution. Calcium break-through chromatography experiments were conducted by using 75v/v% ethanol/25v/v% 8M HCl mixed solvent at different flow rates. The isotope separation coefficient between (48)Ca and (40)Ca was determined as 3.8×10(-3), which is larger than that of pure HCl solution system. Discussion is extended to the chromatographic HETP, height equivalent to a theoretical plate. PMID:26358563

  7. Sorption of uranium(VI) ions from hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride solutions by anion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Pakholkov, V.S.; Denisova, L.A.; Rychkov, V.N.; Kurnosenko, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The sorption of macroscopic quantities of uranium from solutions of UO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ containing HCl and NH/sub 4/Cl in concentrations from 0.0 to 6.0 M by the AV-17 x 8, AV-16G, EDE-10P, AN-31, AN-2F, AN22, and AN-251 anion exchangers has been investigated under static conditions. The sorption isotherms are described by an equation similar to Freundlich's equation: K/sub d/ = K tilde x C/sub eq/sup 1/z/ or log K/sub d/ = log K tilde + 1/z x log C/sub eq/. Equations describing the dependence of the sorbability (or K/sub d/) on the equilibrium concentration of uranium in the solution have been obtained with the aid of the least-squares method. Conclusions regarding the chemistry of the exchange of uranium ions on anion exchangers in chloride solutions have been drawn on the basis of the UV spectra of the original solutions and the IR spectra of the ion exchangers obtained in this work, as well as the established general laws governing sorption.

  8. Temperature and collision energy effects on dissociation of hydrochloric acid on water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Lauri; Murdachaew, Garold; Gerber, R Benny; Halonen, Lauri

    2016-05-21

    Collisions of HCl at the air-water interface modelled by a 72 molecule water slab are studied for a range of various impact energies and temperatures using ab initio molecular dynamics with density functional theory. A range of short-timescale events can follow the collision, from direct scattering to nondissociative trapping on the surface. In most cases, HCl dissociation occurs within a few picoseconds, followed by the formation of a solvent-separated ion pair, or rarely, the reformation of HCl. With increasing impact energy and/or system temperature, dissociation occurs more rapidly, with Cl(-) tending to diffuse deeper into the slab. At temperatures corresponding to the frozen water regime, dissociation is seen only once out of the five thermal collisions, but with the addition of a total of 4kT or more of kinetic energy to HCl, it occurs in all our trajectories within a few ps. PMID:27126973

  9. Application of extraction chromatography to actinide decontamination of hydrochloric acid effluent streams

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; McKee, S.D.; Salazar, R.R.

    1996-05-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in effluent steams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feed stream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and would lower the quantity and reduce the hazard of the associated solid waste. The extraction of Pu and Am from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Inert supports included silica and polymer beads of differing mesh sizes. The support material was coated with either n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O-CMPO) or di-(4-t-butylphenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (D-CMPO) as an extractant, and using either tributyl phosphate (TBP) or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) as a diluent. Solutions tested were effluent streams generated by ion exchange and solvent extraction recovery of Pu. A finer mesh silica support material demonstrated advantages in removal of trivalent Am in some tests, but also showed a tendency toward plugging and channeling as column sizes and flow rates were increased. Larger bead sizes showed better physical properties as the process was scaled up to removal of gram quantities of Am from large effluent volumes. The ratio of extractant to diluent also appeared to play a role in the retention of Am. In direct comparative studies, when loaded on identical supports and diluent conditions, D-CMPO demonstrated better Am retention than O-CMPO from HCl process effluents.

  10. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  11. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  12. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  13. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  14. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  15. ON THE USE OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FOR DETERMINING SOLID-PHASE ARSENIC PARTITIONING IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. Results from a field study at a Superfund...

  16. The Effects of Thermal Pretreatment on Leaching of Yunnan Ilmenite with Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song-Li; Xiang, Jun-Yi

    2016-04-01

    The effects of thermal pretreatment on the leaching of Yunnan ilmenite ores were investigated from two aspects: the dissolution of iron and titanium, and the proportion of fine precipitations. The results indicate that high-temperature reduction or oxidization produces phase and structure transformations on ilmenite that facilitate the dissolution of iron, reduce the dissolution of titanium, and facilitate the hydrolysis of dissolved titanium. The results further indicate that oxidation at temperatures ranging from 1023 K (750 °C) to 1273 K (1000 °C) can significantly decrease the proportion of fine products. It is believed that the structure of oxidized ilmenite played an important role in minimizing the proportion of fine materials.

  17. Anion-exchange separation of Pt and Pd using perchloric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, R.K.; Morgan, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    On Biorad Ag-1X8 anion-exchange resin (200-400 mesh), Pd and Pt may be separated from one another by elution with 0.2M HClO4, and 5M HClO4, respectively. If present, Au may be retained by making the elutriants 0.003M in HCl. Alternatively, reduction by H2SO3 enables elution of Pt2+ with 6M HCl before recovery of Pd2+ with 0.2M HClO4??Ir4+ is reduced to Ir3+ by H2SO3 and may be eluted ahead of Pt2+ by 2M HCl. ?? 1982 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  18. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  19. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES PRESERVED WITIH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as TBA. Because alcohols tend to stay with the water samples, they are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for separation and analysis. A common tec...

  20. Feasibility study of the application of existing techniques to remotely monitor hydrochloric acid in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwick, H.; Ward, V.; Beaudette, L.

    1973-01-01

    A critical evaluation of existing optical remote sensors for HCl vapor detection in solid propellant rocket plumes is presented. The P branch of the fundamental vibration-rotation band was selected as the most promising spectral feature to sense. A computation of transmittance for HCl vapor, an estimation of interferent spectra, the application of these spectra to computer modelled remote sensors, and a trade-off study for instrument recommendation are also included.

  1. Determination of the Efficiency of Mixed-Acid Digestions of Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta Vazquez, Alejandra I.; Gill, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-acid digestion is a method often used for the determination of elemental analysis of sediment samples. It is crucial that efficiency details associated with the digestion method be well understood on an element by element basis. Battelle’s Marine Sciences Laboratory Standard Operating Procedure for Sediment Mixed-Acid Digestions was modified to identify conditions which produce optimal recovery of elements. The parameters that were adjusted for testing were mass of sediment, mixed-acid volume, mixed-acid composition and digestion time. Digestion involves treatment of the sediment sample with mixed-acid mixtures at 135º C ± 10º in a Teflon® digestion bomb. Typical analytical methods include Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Initial experiments involved determining the optimal ratio of acid volume to mass of sediment. Experiments were designed to identify the point at which insufficient acid was used to effectively digest a given mass of sediment. When the mass of sediment was varied between 0.2 and 1.0 gram using a 4 mL aqua regia acid mixture (3 mL hydrochloric acid and 1 mL nitric acid), there was no effect on the recovery of the elements Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The next experiments focused on a time study to resolve the shortest digestive time for optimal elemental recovery. Two masses of sediment were investigated, 0.25 and 0.7 g, again utilizing aqua regia digestion (4 mL). Maximum recovery was reached after 4 hours of digestion; additional digestion time released no or only minimal amounts of elements from the sediments. The final set of experiments was designed to identify optimal conditions for the total digestion of sediment using a mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and boric acid. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal volume of hydrofluoric acid

  2. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  3. Method for the separation of acid from acid-laden vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.J.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method for the removal of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid from vapor laden with the acid. It comprises: contacting the acid-laden vapors with packing materials in a zone containing the packing materials wherein the packing materials are formed of polyester resin containing from about 5 to 40 weight percent aluminum sulfate crystals.

  4. Steel--Project Fact Sheet: Recycling Acid and Metal Salts from Pickling Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.; Recca, L.

    1999-01-14

    Regenerating hydrochloric acids from metal finishing pickling baths reduces costs, wastes, and produces a valuable by-product--ferrous sulfate. Order your copy of this OIT project fact sheet and learn more about how your company can benefit.

  5. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  6. Insights into How Students Learn the Difference between a Weak Acid and a Strong Acid from Cartoon Tutorials Employing Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Akaygun, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes an investigation into how Flash-based cartoon video tutorials featuring molecular visualizations affect students' mental models of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions and how the acids respond when tested for electrical conductance. Variation theory served as the theoretical framework for examining how students…

  7. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  8. Rise of [Ca²⁺]i and apoptosis induced by M-3M3FBS in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liou, Wen-Chin; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Lin, Ko-Long; Lu, Ti; Lu, Yi-Chau; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2014-02-28

    M-3M3FBS (2,4,6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide is a presumed phospholipase C activator which induced Ca²⁺ movement and apoptosis in different cell models. How- ever, the effect of m-3M3FBS on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells is unclear. This study explored whether m-3M3FBS elevated basal [Ca²⁺]i levels in suspended cells by using fura-2 as a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye. M-3M3FBS at concentrations between 5-50 μM increased [Ca²⁺]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca²⁺ signal was reduced by half by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. M-3M3FBS-induced Ca²⁺ influx was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, aristolochic acid, and GF109203X. In Ca²⁺-free medium, 50 μM m-3M3FBS pretreatment inhibited the [Ca²⁺]i rise induced by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin. Conversely, pretreatment with thapsigargin partly reduced m-3M3FBS-induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. Suppression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production with U73122 did not change m-3M3FBS- induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. At concentrations between 25 and 50 μM m-3M3FBS killed cells in a concentration- dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of m-3M3FBS was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with acetoxy-methyl ester of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that m-3M3FBS induced apoptosis at 25 and 50 μM. M-3M3FBS also increased levels of superoxide. Together, in human gastric cancer cells, m-3M3FBS induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing phospholipase C-independent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ channels. M-3M3FBS induced cell death that might involve apoptosis via reactive oxygen species production.

  9. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  10. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  11. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  12. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-ENG). ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  14. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-ENG). ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  15. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pickling subcategory. 420.90 Section 420.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pickling Subcategory § 420.90 Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory. The provisions... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-522). ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-522). ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  18. Biperiden hydrochlorate ameliorates dystonia of rats produced by microinjection of sigma ligands into the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takahashi, H; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Shimizu, T

    2000-11-01

    It has been reported that the imbalance of anticholinergic and antidopaminergic activity of each neuroleptic drug correlates with the capacity to produce neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia (NAD) and the major focus of NAD is thought to be the striatum. Anticholinergic drugs are highly effective on NAD, but they are partially effective on neuroleptic-induced tardive dystonia and their effect on idiopathic dystonia is disappointing. Recently, it has been reported that the unilateral microinjection of sigma (sigma) ligands into the red nucleus induces torticollis of rats. This animal model appears to be a model of dystonia, but it is not clear whether it is suitable for NAD in man. To clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of an anticholinergic drug, biperiden hydrochlorate (BH), on this animal model. This study revealed that BH dose-dependently ameliorated dystonia of rats induced by two sigma ligands, whether each sigma ligand had dopaminergic affinity or not. This animal model of dystonia appears to be a model of NAD in man from the viewpoint of treatment-response. The results also suggest that not only dopaminergic and cholinergic systems but also sigma system, and not only the striatum but also the red nucleus, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of NAD.

  19. N- and O-linked glycosylation site profiling of the human basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Piras, Valentina; Liori, Barbara; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Vincenzoni, Federica; Cordaro, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213. PMID:26991339

  20. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  1. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  2. Reactivity of clay minerals with acids and alkalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.; Starkey, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    One-g samples of a montmorillonite, a metabentonite, an illite, two kaolinites, and three halloysites were treated with 50 ml of hydrochloric acid (6??45 N, 1:1), acetic acid (4??5 N, 1:3), sodium hydroxide (2??8 N), sodium chloride solution (pH 6??10; Na = 35???; Cl = 21??5???), and natural sea water (pH 7??85; Na = 35??5???; Cl = 21??5???) for a 10-day period in stoppered plastic vials. The supernatant solutions were removed from the clay minerals and analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and K2O. All the solutions removed some SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 from the samples, but the quantities were small. Sodium hydroxide attacked the kaolin group minerals more strongly than it did montmorillonite, metabentonite, or illite. Halloysite was more strongly attacked by hydrochloric acid than was any of the other experimental minerals. Hydrochloric acid removed iron oxide coatings from soil clay minerals, but acetic acid did not remove them completely. The samples most strongly attacked by HCl and NaOH were examined by X-ray diffraction. Acid treatment did not destroy the structure of the clays, but the halloysite structure was partially destroyed. Sodium hydroxide attacked the halloysite structure, as shown by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. These experiments show that treatment in dilute acids has no harmful effect in the preparation of clays for X-ray diffraction. Acetic acid is preferred to hydrochloric acid for this purpose. Hydrochloric acid cleans clay minerals by removing free iron oxide from the surface; acetic acid is less effective. ?? 1971.

  3. Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma.

    PubMed

    Takano, Toru; Miyauchi, Akira; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kuma, Kanji; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-28

    The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a marker for distinguishing thyroid follicular adenomas from carcinomas. However, when measuring the expression level of TFF3 mRNA in fine needle aspiration biopsies, an appropriate internal control mRNA, of which expression is restricted in thyroid epithelial--derived cells, is necessary, since they are often contaminated with a considerable number of blood cells, which do not express TFF3 mRNA. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of molecular-based diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by measuring the relative expression of TFF3 mRNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using galectin-3 mRNA as an internal control. The TFF3/galectin-3 mRNA ratio (T/G ratio) was measured in 54 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas. It was markedly decreased in 7 follicular carcinomas of widely invasive type and with evident distant metastases. When the cutoff point was set at 16.0 by a receiver operator characteristic curve, the TG ratio showed good agreement with the pathological diagnosis [kappa=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.77]. This agreement was better when the pathologically questionable cases were excluded (kappa=0.72; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95). Quantification of the T/G ratio may be a useful tool for the distinction between follicular adenomas and carcinomas, which is the most difficult in thyroid pathology.

  4. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  5. Pre- and post-natal growth in two sisters with 3-M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Licia; Bertucci, Emma; Mazza, Vincenzo; Elmakky, Amira; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Neuhaus, Christine; Percesepe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    3-M syndrome (OMIM #273750) is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder characterized by severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction, associated with minor skeletal abnormalities and dysmorphisms. Although the 3-M syndrome is well known as a primordial dwarfism, descriptions of the prenatal growth are missing. We report a family with variable phenotypic features of 3-M syndrome and we describe the prenatal and postnatal growth pattern of two affected sisters with a novel homozygous CUL7 mutation (c.3173-1G>C), showing a pre- and post-natal growth deficiency and a normal cranial circumference. PMID:26850509

  6. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Obenschain, Art (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  7. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  8. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  9. 101. JOB NO. 1347F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. JOB NO. 1347-F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ONE-EIGHTH SCALE OF OFFICES - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 115. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; BOILER SETTING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. SAGE III Meteor-3M L2 Solar Event Species Profiles (Native) V003

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-14

    SAGE III Meteor-3M L2 Solar Event Species Profiles (Native) V003 Project Title:  ... Aerosol Extinction Ozone Atmospheric Pressure Water Vapor Nitrogen Dioxide Air Temperature Trace Gases Dust/ash ...

  12. Catalytic destruction of perchlorate in ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution with control of temperature, pressure and chemical reagents

    DOEpatents

    Gu, Baohua; Cole, David R.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2004-10-05

    A method is described to decompose perchlorate in a FeCl.sub.3 /HCl aqueous solution such as would be used to regenerate an anion exchange resin used to remove perchlorate. The solution is mixed with a reducing agent, preferably an organic alcohol and/or ferrous chloride, and can be heated to accelerate the decomposition of perchlorate. Lower temperatures may be employed if a catalyst is added.

  13. Quinoxaline derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium: Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Kabanda, Mwadham M.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2016-02-01

    The corrosion inhibition potential of four quinoxaline derivatives namely, 1-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Me-4-PQPB), 1-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)butan-1-one (Mt-4-PQPB), 1-[3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Mt-3-PQPB) and 1-[3-(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Oxo-1,3-PQPB) was studied for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution using electrochemical, spectroscopic techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results of both potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies revealed that the compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and the order of corrosion inhibition efficiency at 100 ppm is Me-4-PQPB>Mt-3-PQPB>Oxo-1,3-PQPB>Mt-4-PQPB. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of chemical interactions between the inhibitors and mild steel surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on mild steel surface was found to be both physisorption and chemisorption but predominantly chemisorption. The experimental data obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of protective films of the inhibitors on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical parameters obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations support experimental results.

  14. Studies on Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibitive Properties of Indoline Compounds on N80 Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Sarkar, T. K.; Purkait, Taniya

    2015-12-01

    Corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized indoline compounds, namely, 3'-(4-(1-acetyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl)spiro[indoline-3,2'-thiazolidine]-2,4'-dione (MPIT ) and 1-(4-(1-acetyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl)spiro[imidazolidine-2,3'-indoline]-2',5-dione (MPII) on N80 steel in 15% HCl solution was studied using weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Polarization studies showed that both studied inhibitors were of mixed type in nature. The adsorption of inhibitors on the N80 steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The potential of zero charge ( E PZC) for the N80 steel was determined by EIS method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology of uninhibited and inhibited N80 steel specimens. The density functional theory was employed for theoretical calculations.

  15. Evaporation Behavior of Phosphorus from Metallurgical Grade Silicon via Calcium-Based Slag Treatment and Hydrochloric Acid Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liuqing; Lai, Huixian; Lu, Chenghao; Fang, Ming; Ma, Wenhui; Xing, Pengfei; Luo, Xuetao; Li, Jintang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus removal from metallurgical grade silicon by CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 slag treatment, HCl leaching, and vacuum refining was investigated. The effect of different compositions of slag was evaluated. The calcium concentration in slag-treated silicon increased with increasing CaO/SiO2 mass ratio of slag, decreasing the evaporation efficiency of phosphorus in molten silicon. The total phosphorus removal efficiency changed from 93.0% to 98.3% when the slag-treated silicon was treated with HCl before vacuum refining. The final concentration of phosphorus in silicon was 0.43 ppmw. This is because phosphorus was removed from metallurgical-grade silicon as follows: Phosphorus reacts with slag at the silicon/slag interface and forms Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3P2, most of which diffuse from the interface to the slag phase. The remaining Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3P2 reduce the phosphorus removal efficiency by altering the activity coefficient of phosphorus in molten silicon. HCl leaching enhanced the phosphorus removal efficiency by removing the remaining Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3P2. Therefore, the mass transfer of phosphorus from metallurgical-grade silicon was accelerated.

  16. Corrosion Inhibition by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract for 304 SS in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, S.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The inhibition effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract on the corrosion phenomena of 304 SS in 1 M HCl has been studied by polarization potentiodynamic. The powder of T. diversifolia was extracted by demineralized water which was cultivated in East Java, Indonesia. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer. The presence of T. diversifolia can inhibit the corrosion rate of 304 SS. The efficiency inhibition value of 2 g/L T. diversifolia leaves extract reached up to 77.27% at room temperature.

  17. Experimental and computational studies of naphthyridine derivatives as corrosion inhibitor for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, K. R.; Quraishi, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    The inhibition effect of three naphthyridine derivatives namely 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-1), 2-amino-4-(4-methylphenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-2) and 2-amino-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-3) as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% HCl by using gravimetric, electrochemical techniques (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization), SEM, EDX and quantum chemical calculation. The order of inhibition efficiency is ANC-1>ANC-2>ANC-3. Potentiodynamic polarization reveals that these inhibitors are mixed type with predominant cathodic control. Studied inhibitors obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The quantum calculation is in good agreement with experimental results.

  18. [Influence of cryotherapy in the inhibition of collagenase activity in experimental corneal burns by hydrochloric acid. Doctoral thesis summary].

    PubMed

    Zalewski, S

    1994-12-01

    Investigations were carried-out on corneas of rabbit eyes burned with 1N HCl and then treated with low temperature. It was found that cryotherapy has advantageous influence on collagenase activity. In early period after burn cryotherapy could prevent collagenolysis and later inhibited collagenase activity. PMID:7715156

  19. DNA sequence variability of IGHG3 alleles associated to the main G3m haplotypes in human populations.

    PubMed

    Dard, P; Lefranc, M P; Osipova, L; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2001-10-01

    The present study investigates the molecular basis of the G3m polymorphism expressed by the heavy constant domains of human immunoglobulins gamma 3 chains. By using a new protocol allowing the specific cloning of IGHG3 genes, a total of 51 full-length IGHG3 genomic sequences (about 2 kb) isolated from African, Siberian, West Asian and European population samples were sequenced. IGHG3 sequences were assigned precise G3m haplotypes on the basis of specific associations between G3m allotypes and IGHG3 RFLPs. Specific DNA substitutions involved in the expression of G3m(5), G3m(6), G3m(15), G3m(16), G3m(21), G3m(24) and G3m(28) allotypes were then deduced, elucidating almost completely the determination of the G3m polymorphism at the DNA level. The molecular evolution of G3m haplotypes was investigated by a maximum likelihood phylogeny of IGHG3 sequences. Sequence clusters are shown to be G3m haplotype-specific, corroborating the Gm molecular model deduced from serology, and showing that populations differentiation is much more recent than G3m haplotypes differentiation. The widely distributed G3m(5,10,11,13,14) haplotype is likely to be ancestral to the other G3m haplotypes presently found at high frequencies in different continental areas.

  20. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  1. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  2. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the LIULIN-3M instrument.

    PubMed

    Dachev, Ts P; Stassinopoulous, E G; Tomov, B T; Dimitrov, Pl G; Matviichuk, Yu N; Shurshakov, V A; Petrov, V M

    2003-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR spacestation during the 1988-1994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used to determine the energy losses in the detector. The final data from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposure time and 256 channels of absorbed dose spectra based on the assumption that the particle flux is normal to the detector. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and had been used for radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. The calibration procedure and some flight results are presented in this paper.

  3. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E. Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10−6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5–10, p = 3.3 x 10−6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC. PMID:26372210

  4. A DS106 Thing Happened on the Way to the 3M Tech Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockridge, Rochelle; Levine, Alan; Funes, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates how DS106, a computer science course in Digital Storytelling from the University of Mary Washington (UMW) and accessible as an open course on the web, is being explored in a corporate environment at 3M, an American multinational corporation based in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build community, collaboration, and more…

  5. Improving Job Tenure Outcomes for People with Disabilities: The 3M Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on a three-part job retention model (3M model) containing "match,""maturity," and "mastery" constructs. Proposes that individuals with disabilities are more likely to retain employment when rehabilitation counselors provide retention services compatible with the 3Ms. Counselors can help people with disabilities (a) establish…

  6. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10-6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5-10, p = 3.3 x 10-6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC.

  7. Assessment of zenith tropospheric delay derived from UNB3m model over Asia area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liangke; Xie, Shaofeng; Liu, Lilong; Feng, Haiyang; Jiang, Maofang

    2015-12-01

    The tropospheric delay is one of the main errors for earth observation and a variety of radio navigation technologies, and the UNB3m model can be used to calculate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) without any real measured meteorological data, which taking the major changes in water vapor profiles with latitude into account, and it widely applied in Wide Area Augmentation System in America. However, there are few researches carried out on the assessment of ZTD from UNB3m model over Asia area. In this study, three years of the ZTD data observed from 56 IGS (International GNSS service) sites distributed in Asia area is used to assess the effectiveness and accuracy of ZTD calculated from UNB3m model. The results are: (1) relative to IGS observed ZTD, the bias and root mean square (RMS) for ZTD calculated from UNB3m model are -0.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively. Besides, the bias shows significant periodic characteristics in Asia area. (2) The bias and RMS present seasonal variations, which generally show larger values in summer months. (3) The precision of ZTD calculated from UNB3m model increases with increasing altitude or latitude, and also the bias and RMS show inconsistently in different Asia areas. At last, the best results can be achieved in inland area where presents the mean yearly RMS of 2.4 cm. These results provide a reference for the study of the tropospheric delay correction model and the applications of real-time GNSS navigation and positioning.

  8. Incorporation of stratospheric acids into water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Scott; Turco, Richard P.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are absorbed within the water ice lattice at mole fractions maximizing below 0.00001 and 0.0001 in a variety of solid impurity studies. The absorption mechanism may be substitutional or interstitial, leading in either case to a weak permeation of stratospheric ices by the acids at equilibrium. Impurities could also inhabit grain boundaries, and the acid content of atmospheric ice crystals will then depend on details of their surface and internal microstructures. Limited evidence indicates similar properties for the absorption of HNO3. Water ice lattices saturated with acid cannot be a significant local reservoir for HCl in the polar stratosphere.

  9. Ultra Barrier Topsheet Film for Flexible Photovoltaics with 3M Company

    SciTech Connect

    Funkenbusch, Arnie; Ruth, Charles

    2014-12-30

    In this DOE sponsored program, 3M achieved the critical UBT features to enable durable flexible high efficiency modules to be produced by a range of customers who have now certified the 3M UBT and are actively developing said flexible modules. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the work under this program were; Scale-up the current Generation-1 UBT from 12” width, as made on 3M’s pilot line, to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing, while maintaining baseline performance metrics (see table below); This objective was fully met; Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime demanded by the photovoltaic market; Aggressive testing revealed potential failure modes in the Gen 1 UBT. Deficiencies were identified and corrective action taken in the Gen 2 UBT; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance relative to baseline, including higher %T (percent transmission), lower water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) with targets based on what the technology needs for 25 year lifetime, proven lifetime of 25 years in solar module construction in the field, and lower cost; Testing of UBT Gen 2 under a wide range of conditions presented in this report failed to reveal any failure mode. Therefore UBT Gen 2 is known to be highly durable. 3M will continue to test towards statistically validating a 25 year lifetime under 3M funding; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line within three years; and This objective was fully met.

  10. A 3 m. y. record of Pliocene-Pleistocene loess in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.A.; Stemper, B.A. ); Pewe, T.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Many distal tephra beds exist in the thick, fossiliferous loess deposits near Fairbanks interior Alaska. Isothermal plateau fission-track ages, determined on glass shards from tephra beds, in conjunction with tephrostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic techniques, indicate that loess deposition began in the late Pliocene-an antiquity previously unsuspected. Hence, there is the opportunity now to reconstruct a detailed, well-dated record of environmental changes in interior Alaska during the past 3 m.y.

  11. Florida hospital saves 5.3 M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Florida hospital saves 5.3M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing. Surgery cancellations have been slashed from 13% of cases to less than 3%, while emergency department admissions have increased by 20%. Those are just two of the results of a quality improvement project at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL, that focused on using the principles of lean manufacturing to improve patient flow in the five-hospital system

  12. Formation of Linear Polyenes in Thermal Dehydration of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.

  13. Decreased TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nephropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Cai, X Z; Liu, N; Qiao, Y; Du, S Y; Chen, Y; Chen, D; Yu, S; Jiang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that TIM-1 and TIM-3 in-fluence chronic autoimmune diseases, and their expression levels in immune cells from nephritic patients are still unknown. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to deter-mine expression levels of TIM-1 and TIM-3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 36 patients with minimal change glo-merulopathy (MCG), 65 patients with lupus nephritis (LN), 78 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 55 patients with membranous nephropa-thy (MN), 22 patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), 26 patients with anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN), and 63 healthy controls. TIM-3 mRNA expression significantly decreased in PBMCs from nephritic patients (LN, P < 0.0001; MCG, P < 0.0001; MN, P = 0.0031; CGN, P = 0.0464; IgAN, P = 0.0002; APN, P = 0.0392) com-pared with healthy controls. In contrast, there was no significant differ-ence in TIM-1 mRNA expression between the patients and the healthy controls. Our results suggest that insufficient expression of TIM-3 mRNA may be involved in the pathogenesis of nephropathy.

  14. A new series of chiral metal formate frameworks of [HONH3][M(II)(HCOO)3] (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mg): synthesis, structures, and properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Shang, Ran; Hu, Ke-Li; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2012-12-17

    We report the synthesis, crystal structures, IR, and thermal, dielectric, and magnetic properties of a new series of ammonium metal formate frameworks of [HONH(3)][M(II)(HCOO)(3)] for M = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mg. They are isostructural and crystallize in the nonpolar chiral orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 7.8121(2)-7.6225(2) Å, b = 7.9612(3)-7.7385(2) Å, c = 13.1728(7)-12.7280(4) Å, and V = 819.27(6)-754.95(4) Å(3). The structures possess anionic metal formate frameworks of 4(9)·6(6) topology, in which the octahedral metal centers are connected by the anti-anti formate ligands and the hydroxylammonium is located orderly in the channels, forming strong O/N-H···O(formate) hydrogen bonds with the framework. HONH(3)(+) with only two non-H atoms favors the formation of the dense chiral 4(9)·6(6) frameworks, instead of the less dense 4(12)·6(3) perovskite frameworks for other monoammoniums of two to four non-H atoms because of its small size and its ability to form strong hydrogen bonding. However, the larger size of HONH(3)(+) compared to NH(4)(+) resulted in simple dielectric properties and no phase transitions. The three magnetic members (Mn, Co, and Ni) display antiferromagnetic long-range ordering of spin canting, at Néel temperatures of 8.8 K (Mn), 10.9 K (Co), and 30.5 K (Ni), respectively, and small spontaneous magnetizations for the Mn and Ni members but large magnetization for the Co member. Thermal and IR spectroscopic properties are also reported. PMID:23214977

  15. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3, mGlu3, GRM3): expression, function and involvement in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P J; Lyon, L; Sartorius, L J; Burnet, P W J; Lane, T A

    2008-05-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) comprise mGluR2 (mGlu2; encoded by GRM2) and mGluR3 (mGlu3; encoded by GRM3) and modulate glutamate neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we review the expression and function of mGluR3 and its involvement in schizophrenia. mGluR3 is expressed by glia and neurons in many brain regions and has a predominantly presynaptic distribution, consistent with its role as an inhibitory autoreceptor and heteroceptor. mGluR3 splice variants exist in human brain but are of unknown function. Differentiation of mGluR3 from mGluR2 has been problematic because of the lack of selective ligands and antibodies; the available data suggest particular roles for mGluR3 in long-term depression, in glial function and in neuroprotection. Some but not all studies find genetic association of GRM3 polymorphisms with psychosis, with the risk alleles also being associated with schizophrenia-related endophenotypes such as impaired cognition, cortical activation and glutamate markers. The dimeric form of mGluR3 may be reduced in the brain in schizophrenia. Finally, preclinical findings have made mGluR3 a putative therapeutic target, and now direct evidence for antipsychotic efficacy of a group II mGluR agonist has emerged from a randomised clinical trial in schizophrenia. Together these data implicate mGluR3 in aetiological, pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of the disorder. PMID:18541626

  16. Validation of the 3M molecular detection system for the detection of listeria in meat, seafood, dairy, and retail environments.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Esther D; David, John; Koeritzer, Bob; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-05-01

    There is a continued need to develop improved rapid methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this project was to evaluate the 3M Molecular Detection System (3M MDS), which uses isothermal DNA amplification, and the 3M Molecular Detection Assay Listeria using environmental samples obtained from retail delicatessens and meat, seafood, and dairy processing plants. Environmental sponge samples were tested for Listeria with the 3M MDS after 22 and 48 h of enrichment in 3M Modified Listeria Recovery Broth (3M mLRB); enrichments were also used for cultural detection of Listeria spp. Among 391 samples tested for Listeria, 74 were positive by both the 3M MDS and the cultural method, 310 were negative by both methods, 2 were positive by the 3M MDS and negative by the cultural method, and one sample was negative by the 3M MDS and positive by the cultural method. Four samples were removed from the sample set, prior to statistical analyses, due to potential cross-contamination during testing. Listeria isolates from positive samples represented L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. seeligeri. Overall, the 3M MDS and culture-based detection after enrichment in 3M mLRB did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) with regard to the number of positive samples, when chi-square analyses were performed for (i) number of positive samples after 22 h, (ii) number of positive samples after 48 h, and (iii) number of positive samples after 22 and/or 48 h of enrichment in 3M mLRB. Among 288 sampling sites that were tested with duplicate sponges, 67 each tested positive with the 3M MDS and the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, further supporting that the 3M MDS performs equivalently to traditional methods when used with environmental sponge samples.

  17. CONDUCTIVITY TITRATION OF GELATIN SOLUTIONS WITH ACIDS.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, D I

    1923-11-20

    Titrations have been made, by the conductivity method, of gelatin solutions with hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. The results indicate an end-point at about 8.6 cc. of N/10 acid per gm. of gelatin, or a combining weight of about 1,160. These results are in fair agreement with those previously obtained by the hydrogen electrode method. Better agreement between the two methods was found in the case of deaminized gelatin. The data are in accord with a purely chemical conception of the combination between protein and acid.

  18. A new parallel P3M code for very large-scale cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarland, Tom; Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Pichlmeier, Jakob

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a parallel Particle-Particle, Particle-Mesh (P3M) simulation code for the Cray T3E parallel supercomputer that is well suited to studying the time evolution of systems of particles interacting via gravity and gas forces in cosmological contexts. The parallel code is based upon the public-domain serial Adaptive P3M-SPH (http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html) code of Couchman et al. (1995)[ApJ, 452, 797]. The algorithm resolves gravitational forces into a long-range component computed by discretizing the mass distribution and solving Poisson's equation on a grid using an FFT convolution method, and a short-range component computed by direct force summation for sufficiently close particle pairs. The code consists primarily of a particle-particle computation parallelized by domain decomposition over blocks of neighbour-cells, a more regular mesh calculation distributed in planes along one dimension, and several transformations between the two distributions. The load balancing of the P3M code is static, since this greatly aids the ongoing implementation of parallel adaptive refinements of the particle and mesh systems. Great care was taken throughout to make optimal use of the available memory, so that a version of the current implementation has been used to simulate systems of up to 109 particles with a 10243 mesh for the long-range force computation. These are the largest Cosmological N-body simulations of which we are aware. We discuss these memory optimizations as well as those motivated by computational performance. Performance results are very encouraging, and, even without refinements, the code has been used effectively for simulations in which the particle distribution becomes highly clustered as well as for other non-uniform systems of astrophysical interest.

  19. The holistic 3M modality of drug delivery nanosystems for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of human death worldwide. There are many challenges in the treatment of cancer and the rapidly developing area of nanotechnology has shown great potential to open a new era in cancer therapy. This article, rather than being exhaustive, focuses on the striking progress in the drug delivery nanosystems (DDNS) for cancer therapy and selects typical examples to point out the emerging mode of action of DDNS from our perspective. Among the outstanding advances in DDNS for cancer therapy is the development of ``multicomponent delivery systems'', ``multifunctional nanocarriers'' and ``multistage delivery systems''. However, these represent only one aspect of DDNS research. In addition, nature is the best teacher and natural evolution pressure has meant that virions conform to the ``multitarget, multistage and multicomponent'' (3M) mode of action. Amazingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used for over 4000 years in China, also displays the same mode of action. Integrating the previous notable progress in nanoparticle technology, learned from the building mode of natural virions and the action concept of TCM, we propose an integrity-based 3M mode DDNS for cancer therapy: multitarget, multistage and multicomponent, which are not fragmented parts but an interconnected integrity. Based on the physiological multitarget and the pharmacokinetic multistage, multicomponent DDNS are rationally designed, where different components with individual specific functions act in a synergistic manner against each target at each disposition stage to maximize the targeted delivery effectiveness. In this article, we introduce each component of 3M DDNS in detail and describe some typical cases to realize the tumor-homing purposes.

  20. L2,3M1 satellites in soft x-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Steven; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1988-12-01

    A systematic study of the L2,3M1 (3s-2p) transition in elements from Cl to Cr reveals a satellite of unusually large intensity (~30% of parent line). Previous work on some of these elements led to the suggestion that the satellite is due to a two-electron shakeup (configuration-interaction) process. We compare our measurements of position, width, and intensity of the satellite as a function of atomic number with the predictions of this model and extend the theory to explain the apparent disappearance of the satellite outside this range.

  1. Theoretical study of 'Mixed' ligands superhalogens: Cl-M-NO3 (M = Li, Na, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinghua; Liu, Weihui; Wang, Jiesheng; Li, Chun; Yuan, Guang

    2016-08-01

    MCl2-, M(NO3)2-, and (Cl-M-NO3)- (M = Li, Na, K) species are systematically investigated using the density functional theory. In all the cases studied, the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) exceed the electron affinity of chlorine atom, leading to the conclusion that MCl2-, M(NO3)2- and (Cl-M-NO3)- are superhalogens. The VDEs of (Cl-M-NO3)- are between that of MCl2- and M(NO3)2-, showing that replacing one ligand with a larger electronegative ligand leads to the higher VDE. Superhalogens with suitable VDEs can be built by using different ligands.

  2. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  3. Application of the S3M and Mcnpx Codes in Particle Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovič, Márius; Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Strašík, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Semiconductor detectors can be used to detect neutrons if they are covered by a conversion layer. Some neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen via elastic nuclear scattering in the conversion layer, and protons are produced as recoils. These protons enter the sensitive volume of the detector and are detected. In the process of detector development, Monte Carlo computer codes are necessary to simulate the detection process. This paper presents the main features of the S3M code (SRIM Supporting Software Modules) and shows its application potential. Examples are given for the neutron detectors with a conversion layer and for CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detectors for beam-condition monitors at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Special attention is paid to the S3M statistical modules that can be of interest also for other application areas like beam transport, accelerators, ion therapy, etc. The results are generated by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) simulations used to optimize the thickness of the HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer.

  4. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  5. Far-Infrared Laser Interferometry Measurements on the STP-3(M) Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio

    1994-04-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 µm was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of ˜10% for both chords during the current rising phase and ˜5% and ˜15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a ˜30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m=0 magnetic fluctuations, and a ˜90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M).

  6. Far-infrared laser interferometry measurements on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio

    1993-09-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 micro m was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of approx. 10% for both chords during the current rising phase and approx. 5% and approx. 15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a approx. 30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m = 0 magnetic fluctuations, and a approx. 90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M).

  7. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3′ UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3′ extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3–aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis. PMID:24889622

  8. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  9. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  10. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  11. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is cMX = (1/2)∑ci (ci = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/cMX)1/2 = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. PMID:25733975

  12. An intracellular redox sensor for reactive oxygen species at the M3-M4 linker of GABAAρ1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Gasulla, Javier; Calvo, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally involved in cell oxidative stress but also play a role as cellular messengers in redox signalling; for example, modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, the direct actions of ROS on GABAA receptors were not previously demonstrated. In the present work, we studied the effects of ROS on GABAAρ1 receptor function. Experimental Approach GABAAρ1 receptors were expressed in oocytes and GABA-evoked responses electrophysiologically recorded in the presence or absence of ROS. Chemical protection of cysteines by selective sulfhydryl reagents and site-directed mutagenesis studies were used to identify protein residues involved in ROS actions. Key Results GABAAρ1 receptor-mediated responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by H2O2. Potentiating effects were attenuated by a free radical scavenger, lipoic acid or an inhibitor of the Fenton reaction, deferoxamine. Each ρ1 subunit contains only three cysteine residues, two extracellular at the Cys-loop (C177 and C191) and one intracellular (C364) at the M3-M4 linker. Mutant GABAAρ1 receptors in which C364 was exchanged by alanine were completely insensitive to modulation, implying that this site, rather than a cysteine in the Cys-loop, is essential for ROS modulation. Conclusion and Implications Our results show that the function of GABAAρ1 receptors is enhanced by ROS and that the intracellular C364 is the sensor for ROS actions. PMID:24428763

  13. Mucosal acid causes gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Chono, Koji; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Kimoto, Aishi; Sasamata, Masao

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress gastric mucosal blood flow is not fully understood, although the depletion of mucosal prostaglandin E2 has been proposed as one possible explanation. We investigated the role of gastric acid on gastric mucosal blood flow in NSAID-treated rats. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and gastric mucosal blood flow was measured sequentially in a 5-mm2 area of the gastric corpus using a scanning laser Doppler perfusion image system. Results showed that diclofenac (5 mg/kg s.c.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow, although both strongly decreased mucosal prostaglandin E2 when saline was instilled into the gastric chamber. On replacement of the saline in the chamber with 100 mM hydrochloric acid, these drugs caused a decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow levels within 30 min. The specific cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors celecoxib (50 mg/kg s.c.) and rofecoxib (25 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, nor did they decrease gastric mucosal blood flow, even when hydrochloric acid was added to the chamber. Furthermore, measurement of vasoconstrictive factors present in the mucosa showed that endothelin-1 levels increased after administration of diclofenac s.c. in the presence of intragastric hydrochloric acid. This indicates that the presence of mucosal hydrochloric acid plays an important role in the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, while the COX-1-derived basal prostaglandin E2, which is unlikely to control gastric mucosal blood flow itself, protects microcirculatory systems from mucosal hydrochloric acid.

  14. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  15. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  16. Enamel opacities removal using two different acids: an in vivo comparison.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Otero, Simone Auxiliadora Moraes; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Ayrton de Toledo, Orlando

    2005-01-01

    Computerized analysis assessed quantitatively the efficacy of microabrasion using 37% phosphoric and 18% hydrochloric acids with pumice on removal of enamel opacities. Baseline and after one month photos were taken and analyzed by Paint Shop Pro 7 software and Image Pro Express 4.0. Nonparametric tests were used. Results depicted significant differences immediately versus one month post treatment for both acids. It was concluded that both acids can be used, and as time passes enamel color improvement occurs. PMID:15719920

  17. Dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, V. V.; Stepanov, K. N.; Tarasov, M. I.; Sitnikov, D. A.

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical investigations of oscillatory and wave phenomena observed in the edge region in the U-3M torsatron during plasma creation and heating by an RF discharge in the ICR frequency range, accompanied by a transition to improved confinement. The main results are reported of diagnostic measurements of the spectral composition of oscillations, as well as of how the phase and amplitude relationships depend on time and on the RF power during its injection into the plasma. The measurements were carried out with electrostatic probes positioned at the edge of the plasma confinement region. The experimental results are interpreted using the kinetic theory of the electron-ion parametric instability of a plasma in the ion cyclotron frequency range and are compared with the results of numerical simulations.

  18. Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.

  19. Theoretical study of substitution effect in superalkali OM3 (M = Li, Na, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jing; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Wu, Zhi-Jian

    2013-06-01

    A class of superalkalies OM3 (M = Li, Na, K) and their corresponding cations OM3+ were theoretically investigated. The OM3 molecules possess very low adiabatic ionization potentials (AIPs) of 2.842-3.558 eV at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df) level. It was found that the ionization potentials of OM3 depend on the nature of the peripheral ligand atom and can be efficiently decreased upon replacing the M atom with the more electropositive one. Such superalkalies characterized by lower ionization potentials add candidates to the research on superatoms and can be used in the synthesis of new nontraditional salts where strong reducers are involved.

  20. Lattice relaxation and ferromagnetic character of (LaVO3)m/SrVO3superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Cosima; Lüders, Ulrike; Frésard, Raymond; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-08-01

    The experimental observation that vanadate superlattices (LaVO3)m/SrVO3 show ferromagnetism up to room temperature (Lüders U. et al., Phys. Rev. B, 80 (2009) 241102(R)) is investigated by means of density functional theory, and the band structure for m = 5 and 6 is calculated. A buckling of the interface VO2 layers is found in both cases, but subtle differences in bond length lead to very different properties for even and odd values of m: in the even case, the two interface VO2 layers effectively decouple from the adjacent LaO layers due to a strong bond length enhancement. This results into a local inversion of the orbital occupancy and to the confinement of the charge carriers. In the odd case, the amplitude of the bond length variation is smaller, so that the charge carriers spill into the deeper-lying VO2 layers, and spin-polarised interfaces are obtained.

  1. Save our secondary: recovering a broken 1.3-m mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Probst, Ronald G.; Poczulp, Gary; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Montané, Andrés.; DeVries, Joseph; Harris, Ronald C.; Elias, Jonathan; Martinez, Manuel; Saa, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    In an inauspicious start to the ultimately very successful installation of the Dark Energy Camera on the V. M. Blanco 4- m telescope at CTIO, the light-weighted Cer-Vit 1.3-m-diameter secondary mirror suffered an accident in which it fell onto its apex. This punched out a central plug of glass and destroyed the focus and tip/tilt mechanism. However, the mirror proved fully recoverable, without degraded performance. This paper describes the efforts through which the mirror was repaired and the tip/tilt mechanism rebuilt and upgraded. The telescope re-entered full service as a Ritchey- Chrétien platform in October of 2013.

  2. Determination of the first hydrolysis constant of Europium (3) in 3 M of ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirezbernal, Maria Elena

    The first hydrolysis constant of Eu(sup 3+) has been determined at 303 K and 3 M (NaCl) ionic strength. A solvent extraction method was used, the extractant was dibenzoylmethane in benzene and di glycolate anion in the aqueous phase provided competitive complexation. The tracer solution was (sup 152m1) Eu (III) in water. The radioactive solution of europium was obtained by neutron irradiation of europium nitrate solutions at pH 3.0, in a TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor at a neutron flux of 1 x 10(exp 13) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1). The half life of the produced isotope, (sup 152m1) Eu (9.3 h), was verified by means of a Ge H detector and no interfering radiations were observed in the spectra.

  3. Modeling the hydrothermal circulation and the hydrogen production at the Rainbow site with Cast3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Charlou, J.; Jean-baptiste, P.

    2012-12-01

    On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Rainbow venting site is described as an ultramafic-hosted active hydrothermal site and releases high fluxes of methane and hydrogen [1, 2]. This behavior has first been interpreted as the result of serpentinization processes. But geochemical reactions involving olivine and plagioclase assemblages, and leading to chlorite, tremolite, talc and magnetite assemblages, could contribute to the observed characteristics of the exiting fluid [2]. The predominance of one of these geochemical reactions or their coexistence strongly depend on the hydrothermal fluid circulation. We developed and validated a 2D/3D numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in the framework of the Cast3M code [3, 4]. We also developed a numerical model for hydrogen production and transport that is based on experimental studies of the serpentinization processes [5-6]. This geochemical model takes into account the exothermic and water-consuming behavior of the serpentinization reaction and it can be coupled to our thermo-hydrogeological model. Our simulations provide temperatures, mass fluxes and venting surface areas very close to those estimated in-situ [7]. We showed that a single-path model [8] was necessary to simulate high values such as the in-situ measured temperatures and estimated water mass fluxes of the Rainbow site [7]. This single-path model will be used to model the production and transport of hydrogen at the Rainbow hydrothermal site. References [1]Charlou et al. (2010) AGU Monograph series. [2]Seyfried et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 1574-1593. [3]http://www-cast3m.cea.fr. [4]Martin & Fyfe (1970) Chem. Geol. 6, 185-202. [5] Marcaillou et al. (2011) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 303, 281-290. [6]Malvoisin et al. (2012) JGR, 117, B01104. [7]Perez et al. (2012) submited to Computational Geosciences. [8]Lowell & Germanovich (2004) AGU, Washington DC, USA.

  4. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  5. Anticancer Effect of a Novel Proteasome Inhibitor, YSY01A, via G2/M Arrest in PC-3M Cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Xia; Xu, Bo; Guo, Wei; Ran, Fu-Xiang; Li, Run-Tao; Cui, Jing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    YSY01A is a new tripeptideboronic acid and an analog of PS341. However, YSY01A's antitumor effects and mechanism have not yet been elucidated. This study demonstrates that YSY01A inhibited proteasome activity by combining with the chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) site (β5i/β5), the post-glutamyl peptide hydrolase (PGPH) site (β1i/β1) and the trypsin-like (T-L) site (β2i/β2) in special fluorgonic substrates and proteasome probe tests. We explored the anticancer effect using methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) or sulforhodamine B (SRB), and PC-3M cells were sensitive to YSY01A among the four cancer cell types tested. The YSY01A antiproliferative effect was stronger than that of PS341. In vivo, YSY01A (1.25, 2.25, and 3.25 mg/kg) inhibited PC-3M cell xenograft tumor growth, and the tumor volume inhibition rate was approximately 40% to 60%. YSY01A arrested PC-3M cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometry (FCM). Many proteins related to the cell cycle were analyzed using western blot, and YSY01A was shown to increase p21, p27, cyclinB1, P-cdc2 (tyr15) and wee1 protein expression in both cells and tumor tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. YSY01A, a proteasome inhibitor, exerts anticancer effects on PC-3M cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of the YSY01A-mediated antitumor effect is that the cell cycle is arrested at the G2/M stage. This study suggests that YSY01A may be a novel therapeutic agent for prostate cancer. PMID:26185531

  6. Reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Vyshinskaya, L.I.; Vasil'eva, G.A.

    1987-12-10

    As a result of the reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with dibasic organic acids high yields were obtained of new thermally stable titanium(III) complexes: phenyltitanium(III)carboxylates. Under the action of proton-active reagents (hydrochloric acid, cyclopentadiene, methanol) the latter break down with the breakage of titanium-phenyl bond. The proposed structure was based on IR- and ESR-spectral data. The dinuclear structure of the complexes was established on the basis of a study of the triplet structure of the ESR spectra, which showed the existence of intermolecular titanium-titanium exchange through methylene groups of the dicarboxylate bridges.

  7. Kinetics of the catalytic esterification of diglycerin with capric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Trufanova, T.N.; Nechesnyuk, G.P.; Bumina, N.A.; Kruchinin, V.A.; Slapygina, O.L.

    1988-06-10

    The object of this investigation was a further study of the rate of esterification of polyglycerins with fatty acids in the presence of acids, organometallic compounds, and metal salts. The catalytic effects of the following substances were studied (in wt. % of the reaction mixture): potassium, magnesium, copper, and zinc sulfates (analytical grade) first dried by calcination, 1%; pure grade tetrabutoxytitanate, 0.5-1%; and pure grade p-toluenesulfonic acid, recrystallized from concentrated hydrochloric acid, 1.0-3%. Samples taken after measured time intervals were analyzed by titration with an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. The investigation was carried out in the kinetic regime.

  8. Automated protein hydrolysis delivering sample to a solid acid catalyst for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akiko; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we developed an automatic protein hydrolysis system using strong cation-exchange resins as solid acid catalysts. Examining several kinds of inorganic solid acids and cation-exchange resins, we found that a few cation-exchange resins worked as acid catalysts for protein hydrolysis when heated in the presence of water. The most efficient resin yielded amounts of amino acids that were over 70% of those recovered after conventional hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and resulted in amino acid compositions matching the theoretical values. The solid-acid hydrolysis was automated by packing the resin into columns, combining the columns with a high-performance liquid chromatography system, and heating them. The amino acids that constitute a protein can thereby be determined, minimizing contamination from the environment.

  9. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  10. Acid effects on the measurement of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adeloju, S.B.; Mann, T.F.

    1987-07-01

    The influence of nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids on the measurement of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. Small pre-reduction peaks associated with the instability of mercury were observed in solutions containing less than or equal to 12.5, < 2 and less than or equal to 12.5% v/v of each acid, respectively. Mercury was found to be most stable in greater than or equal to 2% v/v hydrochloric acid and the measured absorbance was not greatly influenced by varying concentration of the acid. The mercury absorbance measurements were more sensitive in solutions containing less than or equal to 6.3% v/v hydrochloric acid than in similar concentrations of nitric and sulfuric acids. The use of the three acids as a digestion mixture result in serious interference from nitrogen oxides. The interference was removed by use of expelling agents such as urea and sulfamic acid or overcome by use of excess stannous chloride, prior to the reduction of mercury(II) ions. The determination of mercury in NBS albacore tuna using both of these approaches to overcome the interference problem proved to be successful.

  11. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  12. WATER AND WASTEWATER POLISHING USING 3M SELECTIVE SEPARATION REMEDIATION CARTRIDGE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, K. M.; Scanlan, T. J.; Seely, D. C.

    2002-02-25

    3M has developed technology for selectively removing trace levels of dissolved contaminant materials from liquids using systems operating at flow rates up to 50 gallons per minute. This technology combines active particle chemistries with a particle-loaded membrane to achieve a new medium for liquid waste processing--a spiral wound filter cartridge. This technology has shown success by generating high decontamination factors and reducing contaminants to part per trillion levels. The spiral wound cartridge offers simplified installation, convenient replacement, and clean, easy disposal of a concentrated waste. By incorporating small, high surface area particles (5 to 80 microns) into a sturdy, yet porous, membrane greater removal efficiencies of even trace contaminants can be achieved at higher flow rates than with conventional column systems. In addition, the captive-particle medium prevents channeling of liquids and insures uniform flow across the sorbing particle surface. The cartridges fit into standard, commercially-available housings and whole system capital costs are substantially lower than those of column or reverse osmosis systems. Developmental work at high degrees of water polishing have included removal of mercury from contaminated wastewater, various radionuclides from process water, and organometallic species from surface water discharges. Laboratory testing and on-site demonstration data of these applications show the levels of success that have been achieved thus far.

  13. 3M Petrifilm enterobacteriaceae count plate method for enumeration of enterobacteriaceae in selected foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The practice of detecting and enumerating all oxidase-negative, glucose-fermenting-Gram-negative rods (i.e., the family Enterobacteriaceae) is used to indicate unsanitary or inadequate food processing conditions. The objective of this interlaboratory collaborative study was to evaluate and compare the methods described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) and the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (Compendium) with a commercial product, the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate, for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in foods. Six foods--cheddar cheese, milk, flour, frozen prepared meals, frozen broccoli, and nut pieces--were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test portions consisting of a control test portion and 3 levels of inoculated test portion, each in duplicate. Each test portion was tested by the Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate method as well as the SMEDP or Compendium methods. The precision estimates (repeatability or within-laboratory variation, and reproducibility or between-laboratory variation) were calculated with standard statistical techniques.

  14. GRACOS: Scalable and Load Balanced P3M Cosmological N-body Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, Alexander; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The GRACOS (GRAvitational COSmology) code, a parallel implementation of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (P3M) algorithm for distributed memory clusters, uses a hybrid method for both computation and domain decomposition. Long-range forces are computed using a Fourier transform gravity solver on a regular mesh; the mesh is distributed across parallel processes using a static one-dimensional slab domain decomposition. Short-range forces are computed by direct summation of close pairs; particles are distributed using a dynamic domain decomposition based on a space-filling Hilbert curve. A nearly-optimal method was devised to dynamically repartition the particle distribution so as to maintain load balance even for extremely inhomogeneous mass distributions. Tests using 800(3) simulations on a 40-processor beowulf cluster showed good load balance and scalability up to 80 processes. There are limits on scalability imposed by communication and extreme clustering which may be removed by extending the algorithm to include adaptive mesh refinement.

  15. Performance of 3M/house cochlear implant users on tests of speech perception.

    PubMed

    Danhauer, J L; Ghadialy, F B; Eskwitt, D L; Mendel, L L

    1990-10-01

    This report documents both closed- and open-set speech recognition performance for 18 adult experienced users of the 3M/House single-channel cochlear implant. The stimuli included tape-recorded, standard word and sentence recognition tests, an environmental-sound test, nonsense syllables, and sentences presented in auditory (implant-only), visual, and auditory-visual modes. All subjects were tested individually in a single session using their own cochlear implants, set to typical comfort use settings for running speech. Subjects' oral responses to the stimuli were transcribed by the experimenters and scored for percent correct. The results revealed considerable individual differences among the subjects and their performance on different tests. All subjects scored better than chance on the closed-set tests. Although they performed considerably poorer on the open-set tests, approximately half of these subjects demonstrated at least some open-set word recognition, a finding not previously reported in the literature for this device. All subjects performed better on the auditory-visual sentences than on either the auditory or visual conditions alone. These results contribute to the database on speech perception by cochlear implant users and show that open-set word recognition performance was somewhat better for these subjects using this implant than would have been predicted from the literature.

  16. Understanding the spin-driven polarizations in Bi MO3 (M = 3 d transition metals) multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kc, Santosh; Lee, Jun Hee; Cooper, Valentino R.

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) , a promising multiferroic, stabilizes in a perovskite type rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c) at room temperature. Recently, it has been reported that in its ground state it possess a huge spin-driven polarization. To probe the underlying mechanism of this large spin-phonon response, we examine these couplings within other Bi based 3 d transition metal oxides Bi MO3 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) using density functional theory. Our results demonstrate that this large spin-driven polarization is a consequence of symmetry breaking due to competition between ferroelectric distortions and anti-ferrodistortive octahedral rotations. Furthermore, we find a strong dependence of these enhanced spin-driven polarizations on the crystal structure; with the rhombohedral phase having the largest spin-induced atomic distortions along [111]. These results give us significant insights into the magneto-electric coupling in these materials which is essential to the magnetic and electric field control of electric polarization and magnetization in multiferroic based devices. Research is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program (V.R.C) and used computational resources at NERSC.

  17. Nonlinear pulsations of stars with initial mass 3 {M_⊙} on the asymptotic giant branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.

    2016-10-01

    Pulsation period changes in Mira type variables are investigated using the stellar evolution and nonlinear stellar pulsation calculations. We considered the evolutionary sequence of stellar models with initial mass {M_{ZAMS}} = 3{M_⊙} and population I composition. Pulsations of stars in the early stage of the asymptotic giant branch are shown to be due to instability of the fundamental mode. In the later stage of evolution when the helium shell source becomes thermally unstable the stellar oscillations occur in either the fundamental mode (for the stellar luminosuty L < 5.4 × {10^3}{L_⊙}) or the first overtone (L > 7 × {10^3}{L_⊙}). Excitation of pulsations is due to the κ-mechanism in the hydrogen ionization zone. Stars with intermediate luminosities 5.4 × {10^3}{L_⊙} < L < 7 × {10^3}{L_⊙} were found to be stable against radial oscillations. The pulsation period was determined as a function of evolutionary time and period change rates dot Π were evaluated for the first ten helium flashes. The period change rate becomes the largest in absolute value (dot Π/Π ≈ - {10^{ - 2}}y{r^{ - 1}}) between the helium flash and the maximum of the stellar luminosity. Period changes with rate | {dot Π/Π } | ≥slant - {10^{ - 3}}y{r^{ - 1}} take place during ≈500 yr, that is nearly one hundredth of the interval between helium flashes.

  18. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C.; Engle, S.; Guinan, E.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  19. Astrometric and Photometric Accuracy of the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope on Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Carini, M. T.; Engle, S. G.; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E. F.; Laney, D.; Strolger, L.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    The 1.3 m (50 inch) telescope on Kitt Peak has been refurbished and provided with an autonomous scheduler. It is operated by The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) consortium whose members are: South Carolina State, Villanova and Western Kentucky Universities. The facility possesses 5 board (UBVRI) and 11 narrow-band filters. Attached to the RCT camera is a 2048 x 2048 SITe SI-424A back-illuminated CCD with 24 micrometer pixels. We used over 7,000 star measurements from 37, 198s R-images to compute the astrometric and photometric accuracy. The difference of the J2000 coordinates computed from the RCT images and the J2000 Nomad catalog coordinate values in right ascension peaks at 0.058”, while the declination peaks at -0.125”. We obtained these astrometric results using the simplest assumptions: linear relationship between standard coordinates and measured coordinates, no color or magnitude dependency and no differential refraction (all images taken in the zenith). We express the photometric accuracy in the following manner: The Signal-to-Noise-Ratio as a function of apparent magnitude shows that the RCT is not noise dominated at m < 20 magnitude.

  20. 3M Empore(R)-Membrane Filter Technology: Cesium Removal from Fuel Storage Water Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-07-15

    This paper describes results from a seven-day demonstration of the use of 3M Empore(R) membrane filter loaded with ion exchange material (potassium cobalt hexacynoferrate) for cesium uptake from the R-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site. The goal of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of the Process Absorber Development unit, a water pre-filtration /CoHex configuration on a skid, to remove cesium from R-Disassembly Basin at a linear processing flow rate of 22.9 liters per minute (1,204 liters/minute/m2). Over 210,000 liters of R-Disassembly Basin water was processed through the PADU without a cesium breakthrough, that is, the effluent after treatment with CoHex, contained less than detectable amounts of radioactive cesium. Some of the observed advantages of the Empore(R) membrane filter technology over conventional packed column ion exchange systems include rapid flow rates without channeling effects, low volume secondary waste and fast extraction or rapid kinetics per unit of flow.

  1. Initial operation and checkout of stratospheric aerosol gas experiment and Meteor-3M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, Leonid; Chu, William P.; Salikhov, Rashid; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Trepte, Charles R.; Cisewski, Michael S.

    2003-04-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10, 2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M(1) satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. This paper presents the process and approach deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational

  2. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  3. Qualification Of Kapton Pretreatment Process Using 3M Scotch Weld 2216 For Solar Panel Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, B. R.; Krishna, Priya G.; Venkatesh, K.; Nagendra, H. R.; Nanjundaswamy, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    Substrates for solar arrays intended to be used on satellite systems are generally made of aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) face skin. Two mil thick KaptonTM sheets are co cured on one side of the aluminum /CFRP composite structure while realizing the substrate panels. This Kapton sheet would serve as an insulator over which solar cell blankets are bonded with suitable adhesive for the satellite solar panels. The satellite solar panels demands highest degree of quality and reliability and one of the prime factors in this regards is the bond strength of adhesive which is used to bond the solar cell blankets. Various methods of pretreatments of Kapton surface are in use for increasing the surface energy, which in turn results in improved bond strengths. These methods generally provide roughened surface of the Kapton which is achieved either by abrasive means like scrubbing the surface using fine silica chip, or plasma etching or alternatively by an additive process wherein suitable polyester, phenolic or other resins are coated on to the Kapton surface to achieve the desired results. For spacecraft solar panel applications at ISRO, polyester resin coating on to the Kapton surface was used as pretreatment prior to adhesive application. This process had provided adequate bond strengths between the solar cells and Kapton. Due to issues related to the supply of the polyester resin material from the vendor alternative methods of pretreatments were explored. In this paper, a novel process developed for Kapton pretreatment is described along with results of relevant qualifications for the satellite solar panel application. This newly developed pretreatment process for Kapton successfully adopts an epoxy based material 3M Scotch weld 2216 which is widely used in spacecraft electronic hardware.

  4. Dome flat-field system for 1.3-m Araki Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuji; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ichizawa, Shunsuke; Arai, Akira; Isogai, Mizuki; Yonehara, Atsunori; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2012-09-01

    We report the system/optics design and performance of the dome flat-field system for the Araki Telescope, a 1.3- m optical/near-infrared telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Japan. A variety of instruments are attached to the telescope. The optical imager, which is intended to search for exoplanets, requires an illumination flatness within 1% on the focal plane over the 17-arcmin FOV. Illumination flatness at both the pupil plane and the focal plane of the telescope is essential for calibration of the transmittance of the optical system. We devised an optical design for the flat-field system that satisfies illumination flatness at both the focal and pupil planes using the non-sequential ray tracing software LightTools. We considered far-field illumination pattern of the lamps, scattering surface reflectance distribution of the screen, telescope structure, primary/secondary mirrors, and mirror baffles. We achieved a flat illumination distribution of 0.9% at the focal plane. The systems performance was tested by comparison with a cloud-flat frame, which was derived by imaging cloud cover illuminated by city lights. The calibration data for the dome flat-field system agree well with the cloud-flat frame within 1% for the g' and i' bands of the imager, but the r0 band data does not meet the requirement (less than or equal to 2). Moreover, various instruments require a focal plane illuminance ranging over three orders of magnitude. We used six high-power (60W) halogen lamps; the output power is remotely controlled by a thyristor-driven dimmer and a bypass circuit to an autotransformer.

  5. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  6. Modifications to Langley 0.3-m TCT adaptive wall software for heavy gas test medium, phase 1 studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    The scheme for two-dimensional wall adaptation with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as test gas in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) is presented. A unified version of the wall adaptation software has been developed to function in a dual gas operation mode (nitrogen or SF6). The feature of ideal gas calculations for nitrogen operation is retained. For SF6 operation, real gas properties have been computed using the departure function technique. Installation of the software on the 0.3-m TCT ModComp-A computer and preliminary validation with nitrogen operation were found to be satisfactory. Further validation and improvements to the software will be undertaken when the 0.3-m TCT is ready for operation with SF6 gas.

  7. Low-cost silica, calcite and metal sulfide scale control through on-site production of sulfurous acid from H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Kitz, K.

    1997-12-31

    UNOCAL Corporation currently utilizes brine pH modification technology to control scale deposition. Acids utilized in commercial operations include, sulfuric and hydrochloric. A new process reduces costs by producing acid on-site by burning hydrogen sulfide or elemental sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide in non-condensible gas emissions is reduced by oxidization to sulfurous acid. Brine or condensate is treated with sulfurous acid to control scale deposition, mitigate corrosion and improve gas partitioning in condensers.

  8. FIA acid-base titrations with a new flow-through pH detector.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, H; Pörksen, J R; Behnert, J; Scholz, F

    2005-08-01

    A pH-sensitive detector for flow-through potentiometry based on a graphite/quinhydrone composite electrode was applied for flow-injection analysis (FIA) titrations. Hydrochloric acid and acetic acid were titrated by injection of samples into a sodium hydroxide carrier solution. System conditions were optimised by variation of flow rate, injection volume and titrant concentration. The parameters sampling frequency, residence time and dispersion coefficient were determined. The evaluation of peak width (time between the two inflection points on each side of the peak), peak area and slope of the raising edge of the peak lead were studied with respect to their use for calibration. Hydrochloric acid and acetic acid could be titrated down to a concentration of 2 x 10(-4) mol L(-1) using 150-microL injection volumes, which is almost ten times lower than can be achieved using colour indicators and a spectrophotometric detection.

  9. Ethanol Conversion on Cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Fang, Zongtang; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-03-06

    Oxides of molybdenum and tungsten are an important class of catalytic materials with applications ranging from isomerization of alkanes and alkenes, partial oxidation of alcohols, selective reduction of nitric oxide and metathesis of alkeness.[1-10] While many studies have focused on the structure - function relationships, the nature of high catalytic activity is still being extensively investigated. There is a general agreement that the activity of supported MOx (M = W, Mo) catalysts is correlated with the presence of acidic sites, where the catalytic activity is strongly affected by the type of oxide support, delocalization of electron density, structures of tungsten oxide domains and presence of protons

  10. Structure and hydrolysis of p-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)- benzenesulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kukalenko, S.S.; Frolov, S.I.; Lim, I.K.; Putsykina, E.B.; Vasil'ev, A.F.

    1987-11-20

    With the aid of vibrational and PMR spectra of p-(2-oso-1-pyrrolidinyl)benzenesulfonic acid it was shown that in the solid state it exists as an O-protonated dipolar ion in which the protonated amide cation and sulfonate ion are intermolecularly linked by a very strong hydrogen bond. In concentrated hydrochloric acid the dipolar ion is an intermediate link in the chain of processes in the hydrolysis of the amide bond of the lactam ring.

  11. On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

  12. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, A.; Chincoli, A.; de Gennaro, A. C.; DʼAddario, V.; Cicinelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk. PMID:27453585

  13. Shear bond strength of resin to acid/pumice-microabraded enamel.

    PubMed

    Royer, M A; Meiers, J C

    1995-01-01

    The effect of enamel microabrasion techniques consisting of either 18% hydrochloric acid in pumice or a commercially available abrasive/10% hydrochloric acid mixture, PREMA, on composite/enamel shear bond strengths was investigated. Sixty extracted third molars had the bonding surface flattened and were divided into six treatment groups (n=10) with the enamel treated prior to bonding as follows: Group 1-- untreated; Group 2--37% phosphoric acid etched for 30 seconds; Group 3--18% hydrochloric acid/pumice mixture applied for five 20-second treatments; Group 4--similar to Group 3 with additional 37% phosphoric acid etch; Group 5--treated with PREMA compound applied for five 20-second treatments; Group 6--similar to Group 5 treatment with additional 37% phosphoric acid. Herculite XR composite resin was then bonded to all samples using a VLC unit. Samples were tested in shear, and fractured enamel surfaces were evaluated using light microscopy to determine the enamel-to-resin failures. Resin bond strengths to microabraded and H3PO4-etched enamel were similar to bond strengths of untreated H3PO4-etched enamel and were significantly better than bond strengths to PREMA-treated or unetched enamel.

  14. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, J.; Plötzing, T.; Rohe, D.; Pieranski, P.

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay “dry”. This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  15. CED-4 is an mRNA-binding protein that delivers ced-3 mRNA to ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao-xing; Itoh, Masanori; Li, Shimo; Hida, Yoko; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Miki; Nishida, Emika; Ueda, Masashi; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-29

    Cell death abnormal (ced)-3 and ced-4 genes regulate apoptosis to maintain tissue homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apoptosome formation and CED-4 translocation drive CED-3 activation. However, the precise role of CED-4 translocation is not yet fully understood. In this study, using a combination of immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods in cells and a glutathione-S-transferase pull down assay in a cell-free system, we show that CED-4 binds ced-3 mRNA. In the presence of ced-3 mRNA, CED-4 protein is enriched in the microsomal fraction and interacts with ribosomal protein L10a in mammalian cells, increasing the levels of CED-3. These results suggest that CED-4 forms a complex with ced-3 mRNA and delivers it to ribosomes for translation.

  16. In vivo left ventricular assist induced coagulation derangements. Comparison of Sarns-3M and St. Jude Medical circuits.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J J; Wagner-Mann, C C; Mann, F A; Demmy, T L; Walls, J T; Schmaltz, R A

    1997-01-01

    An in vitro comparison of centrifugal pumping systems manufactured by Sarns-3M and St. Jude Medical revealed a difference in blood cell derangement. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of 96 hr of left ventricular assist (LVA) on indexes of coagulopathy, hemolysis, and complement activation. Two groups of calves (each: n = 5) were instrumented with identical left atrial to thoracic aorta centrifugal pumping circuits using either Sarns-3M or St. Jude centrifugal pumps. Laboratory evaluations were performed pre-assist and at 1, 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr during LVA. Platelet counts dropped significantly by 24 hr (Sarns-3M: 28%; St. Jude: 30%); no significant change in function was noted. Activated clotting time increased slightly (p > 0.05). Prothrombin time increased at 4 and 24 hr of LVA, returning to baseline by 96 hr (p < 0.05). Activated partial thromboplastin time increased with the St. Jude device from 24 to 96 hr on LVA (p < 0.05); the increase with the Sarns-3M device never reached significance. No significant changes in lactate dehydrogenase or plasma free hemoglobin were detected. Complement fraction C5a rose by 1 hr of LVA (p < 0.05), peaking at 4 hr and returning to baseline by 96 hr with both pumps. No significant difference was detected between pump groups for any of the parameters. It was concluded that 1) 96 hr Sarns-3M and St. Jude LVA caused coagulation derangement in calves, 2) neither pump demonstrated an advantage regarding coagulation and complement parameters, 3) hemolysis observed with the Sarns-3M pump in vitro was not evidenced in vivo, and 4) in vitro evidenced centrifugal pump differences may not be realized in vivo.

  17. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; comparison of a nitric acid in-bottle digestion procedure to other whole-water digestion procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, John R.; Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrochloric acid in-bottle digestion procedure is used to partially digest wholewater samples prior to determining recoverable elements by various analytical methods. The use of hydrochloric acid is problematic for some methods of analysis because of spectral interference. The inbottle digestion procedure has been modified to eliminate such interference by using nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in the digestion. Implications of this modification are evaluated by comparing results for a series of synthetic whole-water samples. Results are also compared with those obtained by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) (USEPA) Method 200.2 total-recoverable digestion procedure. Percentage yields that use the nitric acid inbottle digestion procedure are within 10 percent of the hydrochloric acid in-bottle yields for 25 of the 26 elements determined in two of the three synthetic whole-water samples tested. Differences in percentage yields for the third synthetic whole-water sample were greater than 10 percent for 16 of the 26 elements determined. The USEPA method was the most rigorous for solubilizing elements from particulate matter in all three synthetic whole-water samples. Nevertheless, the variability in the percentage yield by using the USEPA digestion procedure was generally greater than the in-bottle digestion procedure, presumably because of the difficulty in controlling the digestion conditions accurately.

  18. Surface modification of MAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors to enhance water resistance by combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Suqing; Xue, Zhiping; Yang, Qu; Liu, Yingliang; Lei, Bingfu; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao

    2013-10-01

    A facile combustion method was introduced into surface modification of MAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors to improve their water resistance. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), pH measurements and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry were used to characterize the phosphors before and after modification, respectively. Experimental results showed that compact layer of MAl2B2O7 (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) substance was formed on the surface of aluminate phosphors by direct chemical reaction between aluminate and boracic acid. MAl2B2O7 (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) substance is chemically stable in water and could improve water resistance of aluminate phosphors effectively with little influence of luminescence property. It was considered that the versatility of combustion method for surface modification of aluminate phosphors has been confirmed.

  19. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes.

  20. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Wet Hydrofluoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Hydrofluoric acid is a water solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF). Hydrofluoric acid is used widely in diverse types of industrial applications; traditionally, it is used in pickling solutions in the metal industry, in the fabrication of chlorofluorocarbon compounds, as an alkylation agent for gasoline and as an etching agent in the industry of glass. In recent years, hydrofluoric acid has extensively been used in the manufacture of semiconductors and microelectronics during the wet chemical cleaning of silicon wafers. Hydrofluoric acid can be considered a reducing acid and although it is chemically classified as weaker than, for example, sulfuric or hydrochloric acids, it is extremely corrosive. This acid is also particularly toxic and poses greater health hazard than most other acids. The corrosion behavior of metals in hydrofluoric acid has not been as systematic studied in the laboratory as for other common inorganic acids. This is largely because tests using hydrofluoric acid cannot be run in standard equipment and because of the toxic nature of this acid. Moreover, short-term weight loss laboratory corrosion tests in hydrofluoric acid can be frustrating since the results are not as highly reproducible as in the case of other acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric. One of the reasons is because hydrofluoric acid commonly attacks the coupons used for testing in a non-uniform manner. That is, the corrosive power of this acid is not aimed to uniform thinning but mostly to localized penetration below the skin of the metal in the form of thin cracks, voids, pits, trenches and sometimes intergranular attack. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a coupon of Alloy 600 (N06600) exposed for 336 h to the vapor phase of a solution of 20% HF at 93 C. In cases where internal penetration occurs such as in Figure 1, it may not be recommended to use corrosion rates based on weight loss for material selection.

  1. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  2. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

  3. THE COMBINATION OF GELATIN WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID : II. NEW DETERMINATIONS OF THE ISOELECTRIC POINT AND COMBINING CAPACITY OF A PURIFIED GELATIN.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, D I

    1929-03-20

    1. Cooper's gelatin purified according to Northrop and Kunitz exhibited a minimum of osmotic pressure and a maximum of opacity at pH 5.05 +/-0.05. The pH of solutions of this gelatin in water was also close to this value. It is inferred that such gelatin is isoelectric at this pH and not at pH 4.70. 2. Hydrogen electrode measurements with KCl-agar junctions were made with concentrated solutions of this gelatin in HCl up to 0.1 M. The combination curve calculated from these data is quite exactly horizontal between pH 2 and 1, indicating that 1 gm. of this gelatin can combine with a maximum of 9.35 x 10(-4) equivalents of H(+). 3. Conductivity titrations of this gelatin with HCl gave an endpoint at 9.41 (+/-0.05) x 10(-4) equivalents of HCl per gram gelatin. 4. E.M.F. measurements of the cell without liquid junction, Ag, AgCl, HCl + gelatin, H(2), lead to the conclusion that this gelatin in 0.1 M HCl combines with a maximum of 9.4 x 10(-4) equivalents of H(+) and 1.7 x 10(-4) equivalents of Cl(-) per gram gelatin.

  4. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from Space Shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from studies designed to identify deposition patterns and quantify the ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents (which are primarily Al2O3 and HCl) from the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors in the area of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad. Results of measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, as much as 7.1 x 10 exp 3 kg of particulates and 3.4 x 10 exp 3 kg HCL can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence during one STS launch.

  6. On the multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3 m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright p Ψ q -functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  7. On the multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright pΨq-functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  8. Conditioning method development for 3M Trizact diamond tile fixed abrasives used in the finishing of brittle substrates; Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Tim; Gobena, Feben T.; Romero, Vince; Sventek, Bruce; Schoenhofen, Walter

    2005-05-01

    Results of a series of single sided lapping experiments designed to develop appropriate conditioning methods for 3M Trizact Diamond Tile fixed abrasives are reported. Trizact™ Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive lapping technology developed by 3M. The Trizact™ Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder)-inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. The effect of platen and conditioner speed on pad wear will be explored for a roller yoke single-side lapping machine. Pad break-in conditioning was studied in detail for a 6 micron Trizact™ Diamond Tile abrasive used to lap soda-lime glass.

  9. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M <0.08 were 0.94 (95 % CI, 0.91 to 0.96) in males and 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.94 to 0.98) in females. Positive predictive values of the test, where the participants whose I3M <0.08 were adults, were 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.96) in males and 0.97 (95 % CI, 0.94 to 0.98) in females, while negative predictive values of the test, where the participants whose I3M was ≥0.08 were minors, were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.85 to

  10. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  11. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  12. SF3M 2.0: improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction interface based on freely available software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael R.; Pérez, Rafael; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    During recent years, a number of tools based on Structure-from-Motion algorithms have been released for full image-based 3D reconstruction either freely (e.g. Bundler, PMVS2, VisualSFM, MicMac) or commercially (e.g. Agisoft PhotoScan). The SF3M interface was developed in Matlab® to use link software developments (VisualSFM, CloudCompare) and new applications to create a semi-automated workflow including reconstruction, georeferencing and point-cloud filtering, and has been tested for gully erosion assessment with terrestrial images (Castillo et al., 2015). The main aim of this work to provide an improved freely-available and easy-to-use alternative for 3D reconstruction intended for public agencies, non-profit organisations, researchers and other stakeholders interested in 3D modelling. In this communication we present SF3M 2.0, a new version of the graphical user interface. In this case, the SfM module is based on MicMac, an open-software tool (Pierrot-Deseilligny and Cléry, 2011) which provides advanced features such as camera calibration and constrained bundle adjustment using ground control points. SF3M 2.0 will be tested in two scenarios: a) using the same ground-based image set tested in Castillo et al. (2015) to compare the performance of both versions and b) using aerial images taken from a helium balloon to assess a gully network in a 40-hectares catchment. In this study we explore the advantages of SF3M 2.0, explain its operation and evaluate its accuracy and performance. This tool will be also available for free download. References Castillo, C., James, M.R., Redel-Macías, M. D., Pérez, R., and Gómez, J.A.: SF3M software: 3-D photo-reconstruction for non-expert users and its application to a gully network, SOIL, 1, 583-594. Pierrot-Deseilligny, M and Cléry, I. APERO, an Open Source Bundle Adjusment Software for Automatic Calibration and Orientation of a Set of Images. Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission V Symposium, Image Engineering and Vision

  13. Products of the Black Sea alga Phyllophora nervosa as corrosion inhibitor for steel in acids

    SciTech Connect

    Popelyukh, G.M.; Andrianov, A.M.; Burtnenko, L.M.; Gazha, P.A.; Talavira, L.I.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the inhibiting properties of the processing products of the Black Sea red seaweed Phyllophora nervosa on specimens of steel St3 in phosphoric and hydrochloric acids of various concentrations at temperatures in the range from 30 to 95 /sup 0/C. They have studied how the concentrations of urotropin, sodium chloride, and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions influence the protective properties of the seaweed inhibitor. They have made preliminary investigations of the mechanisms of the protective action.

  14. 40 CFR 420.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and... associated with a hydrochloric acid pickling operation. (c) Combination acid pickling (spent acid...

  15. Evaluation of ventilatory therapy for acid aspiration.

    PubMed

    Flint, L; Gosdin, G; Carrico, C J

    1975-10-01

    Aspiration of hydrochloric acid in experimental animals results in severe, progressive hypoxia which is due to intrapulmonary shunting and depressed cardiac output. This preparation is useful therefore in studying the therapy of hypoxia. Mongrel dogs were subjected to acid aspiration and the effects of several ventilatory patterns on intrapulmonary shunt fractions and lung water accumulation observed. The combination of large tidal volumes (30 c.c. per kilogram) with positive end-expiratory pressure was effective in preventing intrapulmonary shunting and other ventilatory patterns were ineffective. Pulmonary edema uniformly followed acid aspiration and was not affected by ventilatory therapy. When ventilatory therapy was delayed for 4 hours, the progression of shunting apparently was limited, but the existing shunt was not reduced.

  16. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  17. Ab initio investigation of the oxygen reduction reaction activity on noble metal (Pt, Au, Pd), Pt3M (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and Pd3M (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) alloy surfaces, for Lisbnd O2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankarasubramanian, Shrihari; Singh, Nikhilendra; Mizuno, Fuminori; Prakash, Jai

    2016-07-01

    First principles, density functional theory (DFT) modelling of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on noble metal (Pt, Au, Pd), Pt3M (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and Pd3M (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) alloy surfaces, was carried out. Periodic models of close-packed (111) surfaces were constructed, their geometry was optimized and the most stable geometric surface configuration was identified. The correlation between the intermediate species binding energy and the favored reaction pathway from amongst 1e-, 2e-, and 4e- mechanisms were studied by calculating the binding energies of a 1/4 monolayer of O, O2, LiO, LiO2, Li2O2, and Li2O on various sites and orientations. The reaction free energies (ΔGrxn) were calculated and used to compute the catalytic activity of the surfaces using molecular kinetics theory. Plots of the catalytic activity vs. Oxygen binding energy (EBinding (O)) showed a typical "volcano" profile. The insights gained from this study can be used to guide the choice of cathode catalysts in Lisbnd O2 cells.

  18. Genetic structure of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta using the I3-M11 partition of COI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Legentil, S.; Pawlik, J. R.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, reports of sponge bleaching, disease, and subsequent mortality have increased alarmingly. Population recovery may depend strongly on colonization capabilities of the affected species. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a dominant reef constituent in the Caribbean. However, little is known about its population structure and gene flow. The 5'-end fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I is often used to address these kinds of questions, but it presents very low intraspecific nucleotide variability in sponges. In this study, the usefulness of the I3-M11 partition of COI to determine the genetic structure of X. muta was tested for seven populations from Florida, the Bahamas and Belize. A total of 116 sequences of 544 bp were obtained for the I3-M11 partition corresponding to four haplotypes. In order to make a comparison with the 5'-end partition, 10 sequences per haplotype were analyzed for this fragment. The 40 resulting sequences were of 569 bp and corresponded to two haplotypes. The nucleotide diversity of the I3-M11 partition (π = 0.00386) was higher than that of the 5'-end partition (π = 0.00058), indicating better resolution at the intraspecific level. Sponges with the most divergent external morphologies (smooth vs. digitate surface) had different haplotypes, while those with the most common external morphology (rough surface) presented a mixture of haplotypes. Pairwise tests for genetic differentiation among geographic locations based on F ST values showed significant genetic divergence between most populations, but this genetic differentiation was not due to isolation by distance. While limited larval dispersal may have led to differentiation among some of the populations, the patterns of genetic structure appear to be most strongly related to patterns of ocean currents. Therefore, hydrological features may play a major role in sponge colonization and need to be considered in future plans for management and

  19. IF-combined smRNA FISH reveals interaction of MCPIP1 protein with IER3 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kochan, Jakub; Wawro, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MCPIP1 and IER3 are recently described proteins essential for maintenance of immune homeostasis. IER3 is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and differentiation and has been shown lately to protect activated T cells and macrophages from apoptosis. MCPIP1 is an RNase critical for controlling inflammation-related mRNAs. MCPIP1 interacts with and degrades a set of stem-loop-containing mRNAs (including IL-6). Our results demonstrate the involvement of MCPIP1 in the regulation of IER3 mRNA levels. A dual luciferase assay revealed that over-expression of MCPIP1 resulted in a decrease of luciferase activity in the samples co-transfected with constructs containing luciferase CDS attached to IER3 3′UTR. We identified a stem-loop structure similar to that described to be important for destabilization of the IL-6 mRNA by MCPIP1. Examination of IER3 3′UTR sequence, structure and evolutionary conservation revealed that the identified stem-loop is buried within a bigger element. Deletion of this fragment abolished the regulation of IER3 3′UTR-containing transcript by MCPIP1. Finally, using immunofluorescence-combined single-molecule RNA FISH we have shown that the MCPIP1 protein co-localizes with IER3 mRNA. By this method we also proved that the presence of the wild-type NYN/PIN-like domain of MCPIP1 correlated with the decreased level of IER3 mRNA. RNA immunoprecipitation further confirmed the interaction of MCPIP1 with IER3 transcripts in vivo. PMID:27256408

  20. The impact of Ghana’s R3M programme on the provision of safe abortions and postabortion care

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Ahiadeke, Clement; Bankole, Akinrinola; Blades, Nakeisha

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, in response to the high maternal mortality, driven largely by unsafe abortions, the government of Ghana, in partnership with other organizations, launched the reducing maternal mortality and morbidity (R3M) programme in seven districts in Greater Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, to improve comprehensive abortion care services. This article examines whether this intervention made a difference to the provision of safe abortion services and postabortion care (PAC). We also examine the role played by provider attitudes and knowledge of the abortion law, on providers with clinical training in service provision. Primary data on health care providers in Ghana, collected using a quasi-experimental design, were analysed using propensity score weighting. Apart from the treatment group, the sample included two controls: (1) Districts in Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, not exposed to the treatment; and (2) Districts from distant Brong Ahafo, also not exposed to the treatment. The findings show that providers in the treatment group are nearly 16 times as likely to provide safe abortions compared with their peers in Brong Ahafo, and ∼2.5 times as likely compared with providers in the other control group. R3M providers were also different from their peers in providing PAC. Associations between provider attitudes and knowledge of the law on both outcomes were either non-significant or inconsistent including for providers with clinical knowledge of abortion provision. Provider confidence however is strongly associated with service provision. We conclude that the R3M programme is helping safe abortion provision, with the differences being greater with control groups that are geographically distant, perhaps owing to lower contamination from movement of providers between facilities. Increasing provider confidence is key to improving both safe abortion provision and PAC. PMID:25261230

  1. The Effect of Spray Strips on a Model of the P3M-1 Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1933-01-01

    This note presents the results of a series of tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank on a one-sixth full-size model of the hull and side floats of the Navy P3M-1 flying boat for the purpose of finding a method of reducing the amount of spray thrown into the propellers of this craft when taking off and landing. The model was tested without spray strips and with five different spray-strip arrangements. The best arrangement was an improvement over the bare hull with no spray strips, but the improvement was not sufficient to be satisfactory with the propellers in the designed position.

  2. Mutual transformation of light waves by reflection holograms in photorefractive crystals of the 4-bar 3m symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Naunyka, V. N.; Shepelevich, V. V.

    2011-05-15

    The mutual transformation of light waves in the case of their simultaneous diffraction from a bulk reflection phase hologram, which was formed in a cubic photorefractive crystal of the 4-bar 3m symmetry class, has been studied. The indicator surfaces of the polarization-optimized values of the relative intensity of the object wave, which make it possible to determine the amplification of this wave for any crystal cut, are constructed. The linear polarization azimuths at which the energy exchange between the light waves reaches a maximum are found numerically for crystals of different cuts.

  3. Design and construction of 2 transonic airfoil models for tests in the NASA Langley C.3-M TCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechterle, G.; Ludewig, K. H.; Stanewsky, E.; Ray, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a NASA/DFVLR cooperation program two transonic airfoils were tested in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT. Model design and construction was carried out by DFVLR. The models designed and constructed performed extremely well under cryogenic conditions. Essentially no permanent changes in surface quality and geometric dimensions occurred during the tests. The aerodynamic results from the TCT tests which demonstrate the large sensitivity of the airfoil CAST 10-Z/DOAZ to Reynolds number changes compared well with results from other facilities at ambient temperatures.

  4. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  5. Reconstruction of BL7B for UV, VIS and IR spectroscopy with a 3 m normal-incidence monochromator.

    PubMed

    Fukui, K; Nakagawa, H; Shimoyama, I; Nakagawa, K; Okamura, H; Nanba, T; Hasumoto, M; Kinoshita, T

    1998-05-01

    The beamline BL7B at the UVSOR facility for solid-state spectroscopy is currently under reconstruction. This reconstruction mainly involves the replacement of the 1 m Seya-Namioka-type monochromator (50-600 nm) with a 3 m NIM (modified version of McPherson model 2253), which covers the 50-1000 nm range with three gratings. The deviation angle of the gratings is 15 degrees. For linear and circular polarization experiments, the beamline optics consist of a two-grazing-incidence (87.5 degrees ) pre-mirror system and a normal-incidence (15 degrees ) post-mirror.

  6. Design and performance estimate of a focal reducer for the 2.3 m Thai National Telescope.

    PubMed

    Buisset, Christophe; Deboos, Alexis; Lépine, Thierry; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2016-01-25

    We have designed a new kind of focal reducer for the 2.3 m Thai National Telescope (TNT) to image the TNT specified FOV Δθ = 14.6' with an angular resolution α ≈1.2 arcsec. This, at a minimum cost by using common glasses, spherical surfaces and by requiring comfortable mechanical tolerance. This focal reducer comprises 1 lens placed at the level of the fork entrance and 1 lens placed in front of the detector. In this paper, we present the focal reducer paraxial model, we describe the optical design and we present the performance.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K-12 cultures exposed to inorganic and organic acids in stationary phase reveals acidulant- and strain-specific acid tolerance responses.

    PubMed

    King, Thea; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C D; Gobius, Kari

    2010-10-01

    The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing.

  8. Anatomical characterization of bombesin receptor subtype-3 mRNA expression in the rodent central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Parks, Gregory S; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Lien; Lew, Michelle; Civelli, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Mice deficient in BRS-3 develop late-onset mild obesity with metabolic defects, while synthetic agonists activating BRS-3 show antiobesity profiles by inhibiting food intake and increasing metabolic rate in rodent models. The molecular mechanisms and the neural circuits responsible for these effects, however, remain elusive and demand better characterization. We report here a comprehensive mapping of BRS-3 mRNA in the rat and mouse brain through in situ hybridization. Furthermore, to investigate the neurochemical characteristics of the BRS-3-expressing neurons, double in situ hybridization was performed to determine whether BRS-3 colocalizes with other neurotransmitters or neuropeptides. Many, but not all, of the BRS-3-expressing neurons were found to be glutamatergic, while few were found to be cholinergic or GABAergic. BRS-3-containing neurons do not express some of the well-characterized neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin/hypocretin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and kisspeptin. Interestingly, BRS-3 mRNA was found to partially colocalize with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), suggesting novel interactions of BRS-3 with stress- and growth-related endocrine systems. Our study provides important information for evaluating BRS-3 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22911445

  9. Photoelectron velocity-map imaging and theoretical studies of heteronuclear metal carbonyls MNi(CO)3- (M = Mg, Ca, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua; Zou, Jinghan; Yuan, Qinqin; Fan, Hongjun; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-03-01

    The heteronuclear metal carbonyl anions MNi(CO)3- (M = Mg, Ca, Al) have been investigated using photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Electron affinities of neutral MNi(CO)3 (M = Mg, Ca, Al) are measured from the photoelectron spectra to be 1.064 ± 0.063, 1.050 ± 0.064, and 1.541 ± 0.040 eV, respectively. The C-O stretching mode in these three clusters is observed and the vibrational frequency is determined to be 2049, 2000, and 2041 cm-1 for MgNi(CO)3, CaNi(CO)3, and AlNi(CO)3, respectively. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures and to aid the experimental assignments. It has been found that three terminal carbonyls are preferentially bonded to the nickel atom in these heterobinuclear nickel carbonyls MNi(CO)3-1/0, resulting in the formation of the Ni(CO)3 motif. Ni remains the 18-electron configuration for MgNi(CO)3 and CaNi(CO)3 neutrals, but not for AlNi(CO)3. This is different from the homobinuclear nickel carbonyl Ni-Ni(CO)3 with the involvement of three bridging ligands. Present findings would be helpful for understanding CO adsorption on alloy surfaces.

  10. Two chicken erythrocyte band 3 mRNAs are generated by alternative transcriptional initiation and differential RNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H R; Kennedy, B S; Engel, J D

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3) mediates two distinct cellular functions: it provides plasma membrane attachment sites for the erythroid cytoskeletal network, and it also functions as the anion transporter between the erythrocyte cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. We previously showed that two chicken band 3 polypeptides are encoded by two different mRNAs with different translation initiation sites. Here we show that these two band 3 mRNAs are transcribed from two separate promoters within a single gene. In addition, the two pre-mRNAs are differentially spliced, leading to fusion with coding exons used in common in the two mRNAs. The chicken erythrocyte band 3 gene is therefore the first example of a gene that has two promoters within a single locus which function equally efficiently in one cell type at the same developmental stage. Images PMID:2601717

  11. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected dairy foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--ice cream, raw milk, yogurt, whey powder, and cheese--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  12. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  13. Evaluation of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count plate method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in foods.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-09-01

    Results of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count (EB) plate method were compared with those of the standard violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) method for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. Studies involving 107 bacterial strains demonstrated that the Petrifilm EB plate method is as sensitive as and more selective than the VRBG method. Sixty of the 62 pure Enterobacteriaceae cultures were recovered by both methods. In addition, 38 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the Petrifilm EB plate, while 28 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the VRBG plate. Colony counts from 174 naturally contaminated and 120 artificially inoculated dairy and nondairy food samples showed that the Petrifilm EB plate method performed as well as or better than the standard VRBG method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae.

  14. Piezoelectric Enhancement of (PbTiO3)m/(BaTiO3)n Ferroelectric Superlattices through Domain Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Liang; Wu, Pingping; Li, Yulan; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Eom, C.B.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Chen, Long-Qing

    2014-11-20

    The phase diagram of (PbTiO3)m/(BaTiO3)n ferroelectric superlattices was computed using the phase-field approach as a function of layer volume fraction and biaxial strain to tune ferroelectric properties through domain engineering. Two interesting domain structures are found: one with mixed Bloch-Néel-Ising domain wall structures and the other with stabilized monoclinic phases. The polarization of the monoclinic phase is able to rotate from out-of-plane to in-plane or vice versa under an electric field, and thus facilitates the domain reversal of rhombohedral domains. This contributes significantly to both reduced coercive fields and enhanced piezoelectric responses.

  15. The structural and electronic properties of cubic AgMO3 (M=Nb, Ta) by first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K. Ganga; Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

    2016-05-01

    We report the electronic structure of the AgMO3(M=Nb, Ta) within the frame work of density functional theory and calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by using ultrasoft pseudopotentials. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and volumes are extracted from fitting of Birch third order equation of state and which are reasonable agreement with the available experimental results. The density of states,band structure of Ag(Nb,Ta)O3 reveals that the valance bands mostly occupied with O-2p and O-2s states and whereas conduction band occupied with Nb (Ta) 4d(5d) states including less contribution from Ag 5s states.

  16. Magnetic properties of Co 1- xM xPt 3 (M  Mn, Fe) compounds with competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Dinia, A.; Cadeville, M. C.

    1995-02-01

    Magnetic properties of the pseudo-binary Co 1- xM xPt 3 (M  Mn, Fe) compounds have been investigated. Under adequate preparation conditions, these compounds display the L1 2 structure. For M  Mn the magnetic phase diagram presents a continuous ferromagnetic region from CoPt 3 to MnPt 3 with a re-entrant spin glass (RSG) phase emerging at low T and H between x = 0.2 and 0.6. For M  Fe, a spin glass (SG) phase separates the ferromagnetic region on the Co-rich side, from the antiferromagnetic region on the Fe-rich side. The results are qualitatively discussed in terms of the three dominant competing magnetic interactions JCoCo, JCoM, JMM.

  17. Measurement of recovery temperature on an airfoil in the Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Adcock, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental measurements of recovery temperature were made on an airfoil in the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.84 over a Reynolds number per meter range from about 15,000,000 to about 335,000,000. The measured recovery temperatures were considerably below those associated with ideal-gas ambient temperature wind tunnels. This difference was accentuated as the stagnation pressure increased and the total temperature decreased. A boundary-layer code modified for use with cryogenic nitrogen adequately predicted the measured adiabatic wall temperature at all conditions. A quantitative, on-line assessment of the nonadiabatic condition of a model can be made during the operation of a cryogenic wind tunnel by using a correlation for the adiabatic wall temperature which is only a function of total temperature, total pressure, and local Mach number on the model.

  18. Characteristics of the three-half-turn-antenna-driven RF discharge in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Grigor’eva, L. I.; Chechkin, V. V. Moiseenko, V. E.; Grekov, D. L.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Lozin, A. V.; Tarasov, I. K.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Zamanov, N. V.; Tretiak, K. K.; Kozulya, M. M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Kasilov, A. A.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.; Voitsenya, V. S.

    2015-12-15

    In the ℓ = 3 Uragan-3M torsatron hydrogen plasma is produced by RF fields in the Alfvén range of frequencies (ω ≤ ω{sub ci}). The initial (target) plasma with the line-averaged density of units 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is produced by a frame antenna with a broad spectrum of generated parallel wavenumbers. After this, to heat the plasma and bring its density to ∼10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, another, shorter wavelength three-half-turn antenna with large transverse currents is used. The behavior of the density, electron temperature, and loss of the plasma supported by the three-half-turn antenna is studied depending on the RF power fed to the antenna and initial values of the density and electron temperature supplied by the frame antenna.

  19. Trends in (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m superlattices with varying layer thicknesses

    PubMed Central

    Jilili, J.; Cossu, F.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m (n, m = 2, 4, 6, 8) superlattices using density functional theory. The electronic structure turns out to be highly sensitive to the onsite Coulomb interaction. In contrast to bulk SrTiO3, strongly distorted O octahedra are observed in the SrTiO3 layers with a systematic off centering of the Ti atoms. The systems favour ferromagnetic spin ordering rather than the antiferromagnetic spin ordering of bulk LaMnO3 and all show half-metallicity, while a systematic reduction of the minority spin band gaps as a function of the LaMnO3 and SrTiO3 layer thicknesses originates from modifications of the Ti dxy states. PMID:26323361

  20. Overview of the O3M SAF GOME-2 operational atmospheric composition and UV radiation data products and data availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassinen, S.; Balis, D.; Bauer, H.; Begoin, M.; Delcloo, A.; Eleftheratos, K.; Gimeno Garcia, S.; Granville, J.; Grossi, M.; Hao, N.; Hedelt, P.; Hendrick, F.; Hess, M.; Heue, K.-P.; Hovila, J.; Jønch-Sørensen, H.; Kalakoski, N.; Kiemle, S.; Kins, L.; Koukouli, M. E.; Kujanpää, J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Lerot, C.; Loyola, D.; Määttä, A.; Pedergnana, M.; Pinardi, G.; Romahn, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Lutz, R.; De Smedt, I.; Stammes, P.; Steinbrecht, W.; Tamminen, J.; Theys, N.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Valks, P.; Zerefos, C.; Zimmer, W.; Zyrichidou, I.

    2015-07-01

    The three GOME-2 instruments will provide unique and long data sets for atmospheric research and applications. The complete time period will be 2007-2022, including the period of ozone depletion as well as the beginning of ozone layer recovery. Besides ozone chemistry, the GOME-2 products are important e.g. for air quality studies, climate modeling, policy monitoring and hazard warnings. The heritage for GOME-2 is in the ERS/GOME and Envisat/SCIAMACHY instruments. The current Level 2 (L2) data cover a wide range of products such as trace gas columns (NO2, BrO, H2CO, H2O, SO2), tropospheric columns of NO2, total ozone columns and vertical ozone profiles in high and low spatial resolution, absorbing aerosol indices from the main science channels as well as from the polarization channels (AAI, AAI-PMD), Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity database, clear-sky and cloud-corrected UV indices and surface UV fields with different weightings and photolysis rates. The Ozone Monitoring and Atmospheric Composition Satellite Application Facility (O3M SAF) processing and data dissemination is operational and running 24/7. Data quality is quarantined by the detailed review processes for the algorithms, validation of the products as well as by a continuous quality monitoring of the products and processing. This is an overview paper providing the O3M SAF project background, current status and future plans to utilization of the GOME-2 data. An important focus is the provision of summaries of the GOME-2 products including product principles and validation examples together with the product sample images. Furthermore, this paper collects the references to the detailed product algorithm and validation papers.

  1. Overview of the O3M SAF GOME-2 operational atmospheric composition and UV radiation data products and data availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassinen, S.; Balis, D.; Bauer, H.; Begoin, M.; Delcloo, A.; Eleftheratos, K.; Gimeno Garcia, S.; Granville, J.; Grossi, M.; Hao, N.; Hedelt, P.; Hendrick, F.; Hess, M.; Heue, K.-P.; Hovila, J.; Jønch-Sørensen, H.; Kalakoski, N.; Kauppi, A.; Kiemle, S.; Kins, L.; Koukouli, M. E.; Kujanpää, J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Lang, R.; Lerot, C.; Loyola, D.; Pedergnana, M.; Pinardi, G.; Romahn, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Lutz, R.; De Smedt, I.; Stammes, P.; Steinbrecht, W.; Tamminen, J.; Theys, N.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Valks, P.; Zerefos, C.; Zimmer, W.; Zyrichidou, I.

    2016-02-01

    The three Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 instruments will provide unique and long data sets for atmospheric research and applications. The complete time period will be 2007-2022, including the period of ozone depletion as well as the beginning of ozone layer recovery. Besides ozone chemistry, the GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) products are important e.g. for air quality studies, climate modelling, policy monitoring and hazard warnings. The heritage for GOME-2 is in the ERS/GOME and Envisat/SCIAMACHY instruments. The current Level 2 (L2) data cover a wide range of products such as ozone and minor trace gas columns (NO2, BrO, HCHO, H2O, SO2), vertical ozone profiles in high and low spatial resolution, absorbing aerosol indices, surface Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity database, clear-sky and cloud-corrected UV indices and surface UV fields with different weightings and photolysis rates. The Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) processes and disseminates data 24/7. Data quality is guaranteed by the detailed review processes for the algorithms, validation of the products as well as by a continuous quality monitoring of the products and processing. This paper provides an overview of the O3M SAF project background, current status and future plans for the utilisation of the GOME-2 data. An important focus is the provision of summaries of the GOME-2 products including product principles and validation examples together with sample images. Furthermore, this paper collects references to the detailed product algorithm and validation papers.

  2. KIF14 and E2F3 mRNA expression in human retinoblastoma and its phenotype association

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Moutushy; Mallikarjuna, Kandalam; Pranav, Oberoi; Srinivasan, Ramalingam; Nagpal, Amit; Venkatesan, Perumal; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We quantified mRNA expression of candidate genes for proliferation (KIF14 and E2F3) in a large retinoblastoma tumor cohort and associated with disease phenotype. Methods KIF14 and E2F3 mRNA expression was quantified by real time PCR in 57 retinoblastoma (RB) tumors, 3 RB cell lines, and control samples that included 4 each fetal, age-matched, adult retinas. Immunohistochemistry was done to confirm KIF14 and E2F3 protein expression in tumor cells. The mRNA expression levels were correlated with disease phenotypes including the significance of chemotherapy on tumors. Results There was statistically significant overexpression of KIF14 and E2F3 mRNA in tumors compared with control retinas (p<0.0001). Further, E2F3 also showed a significant overexpression compared to RB cell lines (p=0.01). Immunohistochemistry confirmed KIF14 and E2F3 protein overexpression in tumor cells. KIF14 had significant mRNA overexpression with older age (p=0.01) in presenting patients and in unilateral RB patients (p=0.04). Chemotherapy-treated tumors showed a significant decrease in KIF14 and E2F3 expression compared to untreated tumors (p<0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusions This report confirms significant mRNA overexpression of KIF14 and E2F3 together in a large cohort of RB tumors. The decreased expression in chemotherapy treated cases needs further validation in a large chemotherapy-treated cohort. PMID:19190782

  3. Ferroelectric property of (Ba,Bi)(Ti,M)O3 (M; Cu, Mn, Al, Fe, In, Y, Yb) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiroki, K.; Kumada, N.; Ogiso, H.; Yonesaki, Y.; Takei, T.; Kinomura, N.; Wada, S.

    2011-10-01

    Two types of solid solutions, (Ba1-2xBi2x)(CuxTi1-x)O3 (x <= 0.04) and (Ba1-xBix)(MxTi1-x)O3 (M; Al, Mn, Fe, In, Y, Yb; x <= 0.03) were prepared by conventional high temperature reaction. For the solid solution of (Ba1-2xBi2x)(CuxTi1-x)O3 single phases with the tetragonal cell was obtained in the region of x <= 0.04 and for the solid solutions of (Ba1-xBix)(MxTi1-x)O3 (M; Al, Mn, Fe, In, Y, Yb) single phases with the tetragonal cell was observed in the region of x <= 0.03 except the sample of M = Al in which a small amount of the second phase was contained. In these solid solutions the Tc increased with the value of x except for M = Al, and was 144.7°C for x = 0.020 of M = Cu, and the highest Tc was observed for x = 0.020 of every M atom and the order of the highest Tc was Cu (144.7°C), Y (141.4°C), Yb (140.8°C), In (138.5°C), Mn (135.5°C) and Fe (131.3°C). The highest apparent piezoelectric constant, (d33 = 258 pm/V) in these solid solutions was observed for x = 0.010 of Al.

  4. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 mRNA in the brain and retina of the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro; Karim, Mohammad Rabiul

    2014-11-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (vGluTs), which accumulate glutamate into synaptic vesicles, are classified into three subtypes in mammalian brains: vGluT1, vGluT2, and vGluT3. VGluT3 is localized in non-glutamatergic neurons of the brain and retinal amacrine cells. In birds, the vGluT3 genome is found, but its distribution in the brain or retina is unknown. The present study was conducted to analyze vGluT3 cDNA sequence and elucidate its distribution in the pigeon brain and retina. The vGluT3 cDNA comprises 1761bp and showed 95% and 88% identity to the chicken and zebra finch vGluT3 cDNAs, respectively, and 74% identity to human vGluT3 cDNA. In situ hybridization revealed that the vGluT3 mRNA was expressed in neurons of the caudal linear nucleus (LC) of the brain and in amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer of the retina. A combination of in situ hybridization and serotonin immunohistochemistry revealed three types of stained cells in LC and retina: vGluT3(+)/serotonin(+), vGluT3(+)/serotonin(-), and vGluT3(-)/serotonin(+). The vGluT3(+)/serotonin(+) cells were approximately 22% in LC and 16% in the retina. The present results suggest that the pigeon vGluT3 mRNA is comparable with the mammalian type.

  5. Expanding on #YouDoYou: Reflections from the 2015 Cohort of 3M National Student Fellows on Exploring Authenticity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Justine; Shah, Wali; Spencer, Vrindy; Thompson, Piper Riley; Young, Karen; Zowmi, Aniqah

    2016-01-01

    The fourth cohort of 3M National Student Fellows explores the current state of our post-secondary education system across Canada and opportunities to further tune into practice in order to pursue an authentic and meaningful academic life. Six of the 2015 3M National Student Fellows propose recommendations for decision-makers at post-secondary…

  6. Laboratory studies on acid-oil microemulsion for use in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yasong; Chen Yuezhu; Sun Yuehua

    1996-12-31

    Two serious of anionic-nonionic surfactants, alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether phosphates (OPP-n) and sodium salts of carboxymethyl alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (OPC-n), where n denotes the average EO number in the molecular, are synthesized to prepare the acid/oil Microemulsions for acidizing. Through components screening tests a work formulation of acidizing microemulsion is established: 13.0% OPP-10, 3.0% OPC-25, 30% n-Hexanol, 36.7% Kerosine and 18.3%(15.0%-concentrated) Hydrochloric Acid. This microemulsion reacts with marble at 30{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure with the lowest acid consuming rate as compared with other retarded acid fluids. Calcium ion accelerates the acid/marble reaction and the suggested microemulsion can tolerate up to 0.69%(W) Calcium ion. No aqueous phase would be separated from the microemulsion until all acid exhausted. The acid/oil microemulsions can be recommended for both matrix and fracture acidizing in depth. The transmission of hydrogen ion in the microemulsion is investigated by using a liquid film supported by solid (SLMS) technique. The mechanism {open_quotes}transmission by exchanging{close_quotes} is suggested. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Preparation of highly charged cellulose nanofibrils using high-pressure homogenization coupled with strong acid hydrolysis pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cuihua; Yi, Jianan; Wu, Yiqiang; Wu, Qinglin; Qing, Yan; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are attracting much attention for the advantages of excellent mechanical strength, good optical transparency, and high surface area. An eco-friendly and energy-saving method was created in this work to produce highly negative charged CNFs using high-pressure mechanical defibrillation coupled with strong acid hydrolysis pretreatments. The morphological development, zeta potential, crystal structure, chemical composition and thermal degradation behavior of the resultant materials were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These CNFs were fully separated, surface-charged, and highly entangled. They showed a large fiber aspect ratio compared to traditional cellulose nanocrystrals that are produced by strong acid hydrolysis. Compared to hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, the CNFs produced by sulfuric acid pretreatments were completely defibrillated and presented stable suspensions (or gels) even at low fiber content. On the other hand, CNFs pretreated by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis trended to aggregate because of the absence of surface charge. The crystallinity index (CI) of CNFs decreased because of mechanical defibrillation, and then increased dramatically with increased sulfuric acid concentration and reaction time. FTIR analysis showed that the C-O-SO3 group was introduced on the surfaces of CNFs during sulfuric acid hydrolysis. These sulfate groups accelerated the thermal degradation of CNFs, which occurred at lower temperature than wood pulp, indicating that the thermal stability of sulfuric acid hydrolyzed CNFs was decreased. The temperature of the maximum decomposition rate (Tmax) and the maximum weight-loss rates (MWLRmax) were much lower than for wood pulp because of the retardant effect of sulfuric acid during the combustion of CNFs. By contrast, the CNFs treated with hydrochloric acid

  8. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  9. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  10. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Protonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Saxena, Narendra S.; Sharma, Kananbala; Sharma, Thaneshwar P.

    2008-04-01

    Polyaniline doped with different protonic acids were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which confirms the amorphous nature and acid doping, respectively. Electrical conduction in these samples has been studied through the measurement of I-V characteristics at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 413 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be nonlinear. The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polyaniline sample is higher as compared to HCl doped polyaniline and pure polyaniline. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature with increase in temperature. Activation energies have been found to be 50.86, 25.74 and 21.05 meV for pure polyaniline (base), polyaniline doped with hydrochloric, phosphoric acid, respectively.

  11. Study of d -electron correlations in skutterudite-related Ce3M4 Sn13 (M =Co , Ru, and Rh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebarski, A.; Goraus, J.; Witas, P.; Kalinowski, L.; Fijałkowski, M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of the skutterudite-related Ce3M4Sn13 compounds, where metal M is Co, Ru, or Rh, using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and band structure calculations, both within local density approximation scheme and within scheme including additional Coulomb correlations (LDA+U ). The d -electron states located near the Fermi level slightly change the intensity with applying the correlation energy U . We note the large impact of d -electron correlation, which is clearly observed in the change of Ce 5 p states located about 18 eV in the valence band. Namely, for Ce3Rh4Sn13 and Ce3Ru4Sn13 the d -electron correlations significantly shift the 5 p states towards higher binding energies, while for Ce3Co4Sn13 the energy of the Ce 5 p states almost does not depend on U . The influence of the d -electron correlations is also manifested by the positive magnetoresistivity (MR) of Ce3Rh4Sn13 and the Ce3 -xLaxRh4Sn13 alloys that reaches 40% at the highest magnetic field (B =9 T) for the sample x =0.6 , whereas only a small positive MR˜0.5 % is observed in Ce3Ru4Sn13 . The magnetoresistivity of Ce3Co4Sn13 exhibits quite different behavior and is negative.

  12. De novo somatic mutations in components of the PI3K-AKT3-mTOR pathway cause hemimegalencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Huynh, My; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Kim, Sangwoo; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Heiberg, Andrew; Scott, Eric; Bafna, Vineet; Hill, Kiley J; Collazo, Adrienne; Funari, Vincent; Russ, Carsten; Gabriel, Stacey B; Mathern, Gary W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with HME can be relieved by the surgical treatment hemispherectomy, allowing sampling of diseased tissue. Exome sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis in paired brain-blood samples from individuals with HME (n = 20 cases) identified de novo somatic mutations in 30% of affected individuals in the PIK3CA, AKT3 and MTOR genes. A recurrent PIK3CA c.1633G>A mutation was found in four separate cases. Identified mutations were present in 8–40% of sequenced alleles in various brain regions and were associated with increased neuronal S6 protein phosphorylation in the brains of affected individuals, indicating aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Thus HME is probably a genetically mosaic disease caused by gain of function in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT3-mTOR signaling. PMID:22729223

  13. Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

    1995-05-01

    This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

  14. Pressure and temperature dependence of the reaction NO2 + NO3 + M yields N2O5 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kircher, C. C.; Margitan, J. J.; Sander, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The pressure and temperature dependences of the reaction NO2 + NO3 + M which yields N2O5 + M are investigated by using the flash photolysis/visible absorption technique in which the pseudo-first-order decay of NO3 is monitored as a function of total pressure (20-700 torr), diluent gas (M = He and N2), and temperature (236-358 K). The reaction is found to be in the falloff region in the 20-700 torr pressure range with collision efficiencies increasing in the order He less than N2. Falloff parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental data to the falloff equation of Troe and co-workers. The expression for k1(N2 concentration, T) is obtained and compared with the evaluations presented in the NASA (DeMore, 1983) and CODATA (Baulch et al., 1982) reviews of kinetic data for atmospheric chemistry. Both evaluations are based on N2O5 thermal decomposition data coupled with estimates of the equilibrium constant. The significance of the reactions for atmospheric chemistry rests not only on their rates but on the extent to which they result in a permanent sink for NOX.

  15. MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd), Luminomagnetic Nanophosphors with Optical and Magnetic Features for Multimodal Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rightsell, Chris; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Kumar, Ajith G.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterials with multiple functionalities play a very important role in several high technology applications. A major area of such applications is the biomedical industry, where contrast agents with multiple imaging modalities can provide better results than conventional materials. Many of the contrast agents available now have drawbacks such as toxicity, photobleaching, low contrast, size restrictions, and overall cost of the imaging system. Rare-earth doped inorganic nanophosphors are alternatives to circumvent several of these issues, together with the added advantage of super high resolution imaging due to the excellent near infrared sensitivity of the phosphors. In addition to optical imaging features, by adding a magnetic ion such as Gd3+ at suitable lattice positions, the phosphor can be made magnetic, yielding dual imaging functionalities. In this research, we are presenting the optical and magnetic imaging features of sub-nanometer size MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd) phosphors for the potential application of these nanophosphors as multimodal contrast agents. Cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo imaging, penetration depth etc. are studied for various phosphor compositions, and optimized compositions are explored. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM) Grant N0-DMR-0934218.

  16. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  17. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-05-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  18. Tektronix color fiber optic tube for exposure of Mead Imaging's Cycolor and 3M's full-color dry silver media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlothlan, J. Kirk

    1990-08-01

    The Tektronix CFOT was used to expose Mead Cycolor and 3M dry silver photosensitive media. The results are presented and compared. The color gamut time to complete exposure and discernible resolution for the media are compared. Reciprocity failure and methods of minimizing the problems associated with it are discussed. The interactions between reciprocity failure and exposure time are discussed. The color coordinates attainable on the exposed media were determined by adjusting the paper feed speed and the intensity of the CFOT to obtain a range of exposures up to and beyond complete exposure. The CIELa*b* color coordinates of the media were measured with a Minolta color meter (Chroma Meter II). The discernible resolution was measured by exposing a 32 x 32 dot matrix on the media and then shrinking the dot to dot spacing between subsequent exposures to obtain a range of dot to dot spacings corresponding to resolutions ranging from 150 to 300 DPI. The exposed media was then examined under magnification to determine where uniform color fill was achieved. 1. CATHODE RAY TUBE DESCRIPTION The CFOT is a line scan tube with a fiber optic faceplate designed for producing full color hard copy on optically sensitive media. The tube has 3 stripes of phosphor each approximately . 060 inches wide by 8 inches long. The three phosphors are red green and blue enabling full color hard copy by sequentially

  19. Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

  20. The "Meteor - 3M" Satellite No.1 Observations of Electron Precipitation Events to Outer Terrestrial Atmosphere for 2002-2005.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkina, Marina

    National meteorological "Meteor - 3M" satellite No. 1 operated on the polar quasi-circular orbit at the altitude of about 1000 km during 2002-2005 years. The Geiger counter was included in the payload to register >100 keV electron flux. The counter has registered more than 1000 electron precipitation events from the outer radiation belt into the atmosphere. Constructed were histograms of the precipitation event number in dependence on the Mac-Ilwain parameter (L). According to the histograms, precipitations occurred most often on L-shells from 3.1 to 3.9 and from 5.1 to 5.9 during 2002-2005. For both intervals constructed were histograms for the electron precipitation event appearance frequency in dependence on the device count rate: the frequency of weak events is always much greater than the frequency of strong events, i.e. the dependence can be approximated by an exponential function. This allows estimating the probability of predetermined rate electron precipitation. Exponential distribution law means that the current precipitation event intensity does not depend on the intensity of previous events so that the sequence of events is the Markov random process in the view sample (2002-2005).

  1. Isothiocyanate-Functionalized Bifunctional Chelates and fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) Complexes for Targeting uPAR in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Benjamin B; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Kai; Bu, Lihong; Slocumb, Winston S; Hayes, Thomas R; Trabue, Steven; Cheng, Zhen; Benny, Paul D

    2016-01-20

    Developing new strategies to rapidly incorporate the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core into biological targeting vectors in radiopharmaceuticals continues to expand as molecules become more complex and as efforts to minimize nonspecific binding increase. This work examines a novel isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelate based on 2,2'-dipicolylamine (DPA) specifically designed for complexing the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) core. Two strategies (postlabeling and prelabeling) were explored using the isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA to determine the effectiveness of assembly on the overall yield and purity of the complex with amine containing biomolecules. A model amino acid (lysine) examined (1) amine conjugation of isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA followed by complexation with fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (postlabeling) and (2) complexation of fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) with isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA followed by amine conjugation (prelabeling). Conducted with stable Re and radioactive (99m)Tc analogs, both strategies formed the product in good to excellent yields under macroscopic and radiotracer concentrations. A synthetic peptide (AE105) which targets an emerging biomarker in CaP prognosis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), was also explored using the isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA strategy. In vitro PC-3 (uPAR+) cell uptake assays with the (99m)Tc-labeled peptide (8a) showed 4.2 ± 0.5% uptake at 4 h. In a murine model bearing PC-3 tumor xenografts, in vivo biodistribution of 8a led to favorable tumor uptake (3.7 ± 0.7% ID/g) at 4 h p.i. with relatively low accumulation (<2% ID/g) in normal organs not associated with normal peptide excretion. These results illustrate the promise of the isothiocyanate-functionalized approach for labeling amine containing biological targeting vectors with fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+).

  2. 1,2-Ethanediol and 1,3-Propanediol Conversions over (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) Nanoclusters: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zongtang; Zetterholm, Patrick; Dixon, David A

    2016-03-24

    The dehydration and dehydrogenation reactions of one and two 1,2-ethanediol and 1,3-propanediol molecules on (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) nanoclusters have been studied computationally using density functional and coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) theory. The reactions are initiated by the formation of a Lewis acid-base complex with an additional hydrogen bond. Dehydration is the dominant reaction proceeding via a metal bisdiolate. Acetaldehyde, the major product for 1,2-ethanediol, is produced by α-hydrogen transfer from one CH2 group to the other. For 1,3-propanediol, the C-C bond breaking pathways to produce C2H4 and HCH═O simultaneously and proton transfer to generate propylene oxide have comparable barrier energies. The barrier to produce propanal from the propylene oxide complex is less than that for epoxide release from the cluster. On the Mo3O9 cluster, a redox reaction channel for 1,2-ethanediol to break the C-C bond to form two formaldehyde molecules and then to produce C2H4 is slightly more favorable than the formation of acetaldehyde. For W(VI), the energy barrier for the reduction pathway is larger due to the lower reducibility of W3O9. Similar reduction on Mo(VI) for 1,3-propanediol to form propene is not a favorable pathway compared with the other pathways as additional C-H bond breaking is required in addition to breaking a C-C bond. The dehydrogenation and dehydration activation energies for the selected glycols are larger than the reactions of ethanol and 1-propanol on the same clusters. The CCSD(T) method is required because density functional theory with the M06 and B3LYP functionals does not predict quantitative energies on the potential energy surface. The M06 functional performs better than does the B3LYP functional. PMID:26901665

  3. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  4. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes.

  5. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes. PMID:25464702

  6. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes. PMID:25508333

  7. Characterization and thermal behavior of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Co or Ni) ceramic materials obtained from gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, F.M.; Melo, D.M.A.; Pimentel, P.M.; Braga, R.M.; Melo, M.A.F.; Martinelli, A.E.; Costa, A.F.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The micrograph in figure shows sample calcined at temperature 900 °C. The sample exhibits morphology with considerable porosity and the formation of agglomerated nanometric particles. Gelatin provides the system with a large amount of organic matter, which is then removed during calcinations, favoring the appearance of pores in the material. Highlights: ► Oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} were prepared by new method synthesis. ► The gelatin, through its carboxylate groups and amine, is an efficient director. ► The obtained materials have magnetic properties and application in catalysis. ► The decomposition kinetic study of bonding groups of gelatin with metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Metal oxides with perovskite-type structure have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their magnetic and electrical properties, as well as their catalytic activity. In this study, oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} composition were prepared by using gelatin powder as a precursor agent for its use as a catalyst. The powders obtained were calcined at 700 °C and 900 °C and characterized using the X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), infrared spectroscopy, temperature programed reduction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Thermogravimetric data using the non-isothermal kinetic models of Flynn and Wall and “Model-free Kinetics” were used to determine the activation energy to study the decomposition kinetics of the ligand groups with system's metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Ni or Co).

  8. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired ..delta..p/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200..mu.. resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10/sup 6/ A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A.

  9. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  10. Sulphur in char and char desulphurization by acid leaching and hydropyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Loffredo, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Sulphur compounds volatilized during pyrolysis of acid-leached char were measured to determine characteristics of char desulphurization reactions. Pyrolysis of char in a hydrogen atmosphere (hydropyrolysis) produced a much higher concentration of thiophenic organics compared with that produced during pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen sulphide gas evolution, at progressively increasing pyrolysis temperature in a helium atmosphere, was measured on five char samples: untreated char, hydrochloric acid-leached char, and three model chars: a demineralized char and two demineralized chars incorporated with sulphur via reactions with elemental sulphur. Hydrogen sulphide gas evolution in untreated char and acid-leached char was found to peak in three temperature regions; the maxima are thought to relate to sulphur in different bonding environments. The amounts of hydrogen sulphide volatilized were much higher for acid-leached char than for untreated char. The gas evolved from each of the remaining three samples showed a single peak region corresponding closely to one of the three peak regions observed for the first two chars. The results of this study indicate that elemental sulphur was produced during hydrochloric acid leaching of the untreated char and suggested that the improved rate of desulphurization observed in the char that had been acid-leached before hydropyrolysis was due in part to the conversion of strongly bound mineral sulphur forms to more weakly bound sulphur forms that are predominantly elemental sulphur in character, and are more easily removed by hydrogen. ?? 1985.

  11. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  12. Determination of the mode of occurrence of As, Cr, and Hg in three Chinese coal samples by sequential acid leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Li, W.; Wang, G.; Chen, H.; Li, B.

    2007-07-01

    Sequential acid leaching was used to leach minerals and the trace elements they contain. One-step leaching uses concentrated nitric acid as solvent, while three-step leaching uses 5M hydrochloric acid, concentrated hydrofluoric acid, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as solvents. The sequential acid leaching by three-and one-step leach was also examined. The results showed that one-step leaching could leach over 80% of arsenic from coal samples, and also could leach mercury to a certain degree. During one-step leaching, little chromium is removed, but it is available to leach by three-step leaching; and during the sequential acid leaching by three and one-step leaching, almost 98% ash is leached. The result of acid leaching could also give detailed information on mode of occurrence of As, Cr, and Hg, which could be classified into: silicate association, pyrite association, organic association, and carbonates and sulfates association. Over half of chromium in the three coals is associated with organic matters and the rest is associated with silicates. The mode of occurrence of arsenic and mercury is mainly associated with different mineral matters depending on the coal samples studied.

  13. Condensation of anhydrides or dicarboxylic acids with compounds containing active methylene groups. Part 1: Condensation of phthalic anhydride with acetoacetic and malonic ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshkaya, V. P.; Vanag, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Phthalic anhydride was condensed with acetoacetic ester in acetic anhydride and triethylamine solution, and when phthalyl chloride was reacted with sodium acetoacetic ester compounds were formed of the phthalide and indandione series: phthalylacetoacetic ester and a derivative of indan-1,3-dione which after boiling with hydrochloric acid yielded indan-1,3-dione. Phthalylmalonic ester was obtained from phthalic anhydride and malonic ester in the presence of triethylamine.

  14. Spacewatch Astrometry of Asteroids and Comets with the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m Telescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, James V.; McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-01

    We use the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m telescopes on Kitt Peak to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small bodies in need of recovery that cannot be reached with the Spacewatch 0.9-m and 1.8-m telescopes. Targets include NEOs with potential close encounters with Earth (Virtual Impactors; VIs), future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by NEOWISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by NEOWISE, and faint Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Notable targets successfully recovered include the Earth Trojan 2010 TK7 and the faint almost-lost VI 2011 BY24 discovered by NEOWISE. Between 2010 June 6 and 2014 July 23 the MPC accepted 1316 lines of astrometry by us with these telescopes on 207 different NEOs including 84 PHAs. We made 343 observations of PHAs with V>=22. Our average arc extension on large PHAs (with H<=17.75) is 184 days, which is 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. Recently with all four telescopes Spacewatch has made 39% of all the observations of PHAs that were fainter than V=22 at the time of measurement. This count is twice that of the next most productive station in that measure. The faintest V magnitude we have observed so far is 24.4 and the smallest solar elongation angle at which we have observed is 46 degrees. Our work with the Mayall and Bok telescopes has been determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) to provide "dramatic improvement" to NEO orbits (T. Spahr, 2014 private communication). Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted

  15. The first rubidium rare-earth(III) thiophosphates: Rb 3M3[PS 4] 4 ( M=Pr, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Theresa; Schleid, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    The two non-isotypical rubidium rare-earth(III) thiophosphates Rb 3M3[PS 4] 4 of praseodymium and erbium can easily be obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of the respective rare-earth metal, red phosphorus and sulfur with an excess of rubidium bromide (RbBr) as flux and rubidium source at 950°C for 14 days in evacuated silica tubes. The pale green platelet-shaped single crystals of Rb 3Pr 3[PS 4] 4 as well as the pink rods of Rb 3Er 3[PS 4] 4 are moisture sensitive. Rb 3Pr 3[PS 4] 4 crystallizes triclinically in the space group P1¯ ( a=926.79(5) pm, b=1050.83(5) pm, c=1453.28(7) pm, α=84.329(4)°, β=88.008(4)°, γ=80.704(4)°; Z=2), Rb 3Er 3[PS 4] 4 monoclinically in the space group P21/n ( a=915.97(5) pm, b=1575.86(7) pm, c=1843.32(9) pm, β=95.601(6)°; Z=4). In both structures, there are three crystallographically different rare-earth cations present. ( M1) 3+ is eightfold coordinated in the shape of a square antiprism, ( M2) 3+ and ( M3) 3+ are both surrounded by eight sulfur atoms as bicapped trigonal prisms each with a coordination number of eight as well as for the praseodymium, but better described as CN=7+1 in the case of the erbium compound. These [ MS 8] 13- polyhedra form a layer according to ∞2{[M3[PS]4]} by sharing edges with the isolated [PS 4] 3- tetrahedra ( d(P-S)=200-209 pm, ∢(S-P-S)=102-116°). These layers are stacked with a repetition period of three in the case of the praseodymium compound, but of only two for the erbium analog. The rubidium cation (Rb1) + is located in cavities of these layers and tenfold coordinated in the shape of a tetracapped trigonal antiprism. The also tenfold but more irregularly coordinated rubidium cations (Rb2) + and (Rb3) + reside between the layers.

  16. Overview of the O3M-SAF validation facility for operational GOME-2 NO2 column data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinardi, Gaia; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Granville, Jos; van Roozendael, Michel; Delcloo, Andy; Debacker, Hugo; Valks, Pieter; Hao, Nan

    In the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF,) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) total column and tropospheric column data are generated operationally from GOME-2 measurements in near-real-time (within 2:30 hours after sensing). NO2 column data are retrieved from the Earth radiance and solar irradiance spectra by a chain of several modules (currently, the level-0-to-1 processor v4.0 and the level-1-to-2 DOAS retrieval processor GDP v4.3). These intermediate modules calculates the parameters needed to derive the final column data: the slant column density along the optical path, the fractional cover and top pressure of clouds affecting the measurement scene, the geometrical enhancement factor (AMF, needed to convert slant into vertical columns), and the NO2 stratospheric reference to be subtracted from the total column to obtain the tropospheric column. In order to validate the final product (the total and tropospheric NO2 columns) in the best way, and due to the complexity of the GOME-2 retrieval chain and the existing issues related to the set-up of a validation strategy in an operational environment, an end-to-end validation ap-proach has been developed, as recommended by Reference Protocols and Guidelines. To ensure meaningful and continuous quality assessment of GOME-2 NO2 data products, the end-to-end validation approach performs the verification and validation of critical individual components of the level-1-to-2 retrieval chain. Particular interest is given to recurring validation issues, such as the particular way remote sensing samples and smoothes the significant variability of atmospheric NO2, the diurnal cycle of NO2, the poor availability of correlative measure-ments (especially for tropospheric column), as well as the current lack of homogenisation of the validation methods. The end-to-end validation process of GOME-2 NO2 data is based on a set of correlative obser-vations performed by

  17. Mercaptoimidazolylpropionic acid hydrobromide. Inhibition of tadpole collagenase and related properties.

    PubMed

    Yankeelov, J A; Parish, H A; Spatola, A F

    1978-07-01

    A mercapto analogue of histidine (1), (RS)-2-mercapto-3-(5-imidazolyl)propionic acid (2), was prepared by treatment of (RS)-2-bromo-3-(5-imidazolyl)propionic acid with trithiocarbonate. Decomposition of the resulting intermediate with hydrochloric acid followed by Sephadex G-15 chromatography permitted isolation of 2 as a hydrobromide complex having unusual stability and properties as evidenced by IR and 1H NMR data. The potency of this complex in inhibiting tissue (Rana catesbiana) collagenase was estimated by radial diffusion assay. The amount of 2 required to produce 50% inhibition was 3.8 +/- 1.5 mM compared to 8.7 +/- 2.5 mM for cysteine. Preliminary tests of oxygen susceptibility, mutagenicity, and toxicity suggest that this substance may warrant study as a therapeutic agent for control of collagenase-linked corneal ulcerations. PMID:209189

  18. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  19. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  20. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  1. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  2. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  3. Effect of Ammonium- and Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids on the Separation of Lactic Acid by Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs)

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Panigrahi, Abhishek; Murakami, Yuuki; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers have attracted much attention from an environmental point of view. Optically pure lactic acid that can be prepared by fermentation is one of the important raw materials for biodegradable polymer. The separation and purification of lactic acid from the fermentation broth are the major portions of the production costs. We proposed the application of supported ionic liquid membranes to recovering lactic acid. In this paper, the effect of ionic liquids, such as Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101, CYPHOS IL-102, CYPHOS IL-104, CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 on the lactic acid permeation have been studied. Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101 and CYPHOS IL-102 were found to be the best membrane solvents as far as membrane stability and permeation of lactic acid are concerned. CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 were found to be unsuitable, as they leak out from the pores of the supported liquid membrane (SLM), thereby allowing free transport of lactic acid as well as hydrochloric acid. CYPHOS IL-102 was found to be the most adequate (Permeation rate = 60.41%) among these ionic liquids as far as the separation of lactic acid is concerned. The permeation mechanisms, by which ionic liquid-water complexes act as the carrier of lactate and hydrochloric acid, were proposed. The experimental permeation results have been obtained as opposed to the expected values from the solution-diffusion mechanism. PMID:24957613

  4. Characteristic constants of 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, a reagent for spectrophotometric analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    The dye 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, has shown promise as a reagent for the determination of zirconium. As the literature contains very little information about this dye, basic data pertinent to its use as a reagent were determined. The sulfonic acid group and all three of the hydroxy groups show acidic characteristics. Apparent dissociation constants were determined for the three more labile protons and the approximate order of magnitude for the fourth constant was estimated. Absorption spectra for the different ionization species are given. A curve is also included which shows the fraction of dye in the different ionization forms at acidities from 10.35M hydrochloric acid to pH 11.9. A sixth dye species was found in 1.0 to 8.4M potassium hydroxide solutions, but its nature is unknown.

  5. Hydrodynamic Instabilities of Acid-Base Reaction Fronts: Active Role of a Color Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riolfo, L. A.; Almarcha, C.; Trevelyan, P. M. J.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; de Wit, A.

    2010-11-01

    Chemical reactions are able to trigger hydrodynamic flows by, for example changing the density of the solutions across the reactive interfaces. In this work we present an experimental and theoretical study of the buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities that can occur when two miscible reactive solutions of an acid-base system are put in contact in the gravity field. We compare situations where a hydrochloric acid aqueous solution is put on top of a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution with or without a color indicator (Bromocresol Green). We also analyze the situation where a hydrochloric acid is put on top of an aqueous solution of a color indicator without any base. We show that the patterns observed and the instabilities taking place strongly depend on the presence of a color indicator. Using a reaction-diffusion model for the concentrations of all species (including the color indicator) we analyze the different possible sources of destabilization of the acid-base front and explain the various instabilities observed in each experimental system.

  6. Influence of Functionalized Pyridine Ligands on the Radio/Chemical Behavior of [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re and 99mTc) 2 + 1 Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While a number of chelate strategies have been developed for the organometallic precursor fac-[M (OH2)3(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc), a unique challenge has been to improve the overall function and performance of these complexes for in vivo and in vitro applications. Since its synthesis, the fac-[M (CO)3]...

  7. Isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelates and fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) complexes for targeting uPAR in prostate cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing strategies to rapidly incorporate the fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into biological targeting vectors is a growing realm in radiopharmaceutical development. This work presents the preparation of a novel isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelate based on 2,2´-dipicolylamine ...

  8. Possible safety hazards associated with the operation of the 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at the NASA Langley Research Center was built in 1973 as a facility intended to be used for no more than 60 hours in order to verify the validity of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept at transonic speeds. The role of the 0.3 m TCT has gradually changed until now, after over 3000 hours of operation, it is classified as a major NASA research facility and, under the administration of the Experimental Techniques Branch, it is used extensively for the testing of airfoils at high Reynolds numbers and for the development of various technologies related to the efficient operation and use of cryogenic wind tunnels. The purpose of this report is to document the results of a recent safety analysis of the 0.3 m TCT facility. This analysis was made as part of an on going program with the Experimental Techniques Branch designed to ensure that the existing equipment and current operating procedures of the 0.3 m TCT facility are acceptable in terms of today's standards of safety for cryogenic systems.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL & PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: US FILTER 3M10C MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the US Filter 3M10C membrane system was conducted over a 44-day test period at the Aqua 2000 Research Center in Chula Vista, California. The test period extended from July 24, 2002 to September 5, 2002. The source water was a blend of Colorado River and ...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid.... This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid regeneration plant means the collection of equipment and processes configured to reconstitute fresh hydrochloric acid pickling...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form..., using the prestandardized pH meter, 1.0 N hydrochloric acid, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, and 0.1 N...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid.... This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid regeneration plant means the collection of equipment and processes configured to reconstitute fresh hydrochloric acid pickling...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form..., using the prestandardized pH meter, 1.0 N hydrochloric acid, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, and 0.1 N...

  14. ANION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Raby, B.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for selectively separating radium, bismuth, poloniums and lead values from a metallic mixture of thc same. The mixture is dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid and the acidity is adjusted to between 1 to 2M in hydrochloric acid to form the anionic polychloro complexes of polonium and bismuth. The solution is contacted with a first anion exchange resin such as strong base quaternary ammonia type to selectively absorb the polonium and bismuth leaving the radium and lead in the effluent. The effluent, after treatment in hydrochloric acid to increase the hydrochloric acid concentration to 6M is contacted with a second anion exchange iesin of the same type as the above to selectively adsorb the lead leaving the radium in the effluent. Radium is separately recovered from the effluent from the second exchange column. Lead is stripped from the loaded resin of the second column by treatment with 3M hydrochloric acid solution. The loaded resin of the first column is washed with 8M hydrochloric acid solution to recover bismuth and then treated with strong nitric acid solution to recover polonium.

  15. METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperation with the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between METC and 3M was to evaluate exposure of 3M SICONEX{trademark} fiber-reinforced ceramic and NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabric materials to a gasifying environment at high temperatures (1000--1100{degree}F) and high pressure (300 psia). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) provided two 60 mm I.D. {times} 0.5 m SICONEX{trademark} spools and one each of the NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabrics for exposure to coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the materials in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the CRADA are found in CRADA 94-024. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 94-024. Four gasifier runs were conducted over a five month period to accumulate 483 hours of operation. During this time, 2 LayCer{trademark} 70/3 filters were used for filtering the coal gas while the SICONEX{trademark} and NEXTEL{trademark} were exposed along side of the filters. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer{trademark} 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

  16. Physicochemical properties of the alumina produced by alkaline and acidic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetchinkina, T. N.

    2009-04-01

    Crystal-optical, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric methods are used to study the polymorphic transformations in the products of calcination of the aluminum hydroxide produced by the decomposition and carbonization of aluminate solutions; the aluminum oxide produced by the decomposition of pure grade crystal hydrates of aluminum salts; and the alumina extracted upon the beneficiation of the mineral part of coaly rock with sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids. The morphology of the products of the thermal decomposition of the initial compounds is examined. The effect of impurities and a reducing agent on the formation of the structural modifications of alumina during heat treatment is revealed.

  17. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  18. New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Richard C.

    2003-03-10

    Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

  19. ALPHA SARCIN, A NEW ANTITUMOR AGENT. I. ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, AND THE IDENTITY OF A NEW AMINO ACID.

    PubMed

    OLSON, B H; GOERNER, G L

    1965-05-01

    Isolation and purification procedures are given for the new antitumor agent, alpha sarcin. These procedures include the use of column ion exchange with a carboxylic resin (Amberlite IRC50), dialysis, decolorization with activated charcoal, gradient salt chromatography, salt removal, and drying from the frozen state. The final product has an activity of 800 sarcoma 180 mouse dilution units per mg. The amino acid composition of the purified material is reported. All of the usual amino acids found in proteins were present except methionine. In addition to the usual amino acids, an unknown amino acid was present in the acid hydrolysate. The latter was isolated, and was found to yield phenylalanine and kynurenine. This compound, which has been named "sarcinine," is extremely stable in 6 n hydrochloric acid in the absence of air, and is unstable in alkali. Sarcinine has also been found in two other antitumor peptides produced by aspergilli, and so may relate significantly to the antitumor properties of these peptides.

  20. A novel, cysteine-modified chelation strategy for the incorporation of [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) in an α-MSH peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han; Kasten, Benjamin B.; Liu, Hongguang; Qi, Shibo; Liu, Yang; Tian, Mei; Barnes, Charles L.; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Zhen; Benny, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering peptide-based targeting agents with residues for site specific and stable complexation of radionuclides is a highly desirable strategy for producing diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. In this report, a model N-S-NPy ligand (3) and a cysteine-derived alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide (6) were used as novel demonstrations of a widely applicable chelation strategy for incorporation of the [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into peptide-based molecules for radiopharmaceutical applications. The structural details of the core ligand-metal complexes as model systems were demonstrated by full chemical characterization of fac-[ReI(CO)3(N,S,NPy-3)]+ (4) and comparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis between 4 and [99mTcI(CO)3(N,S,NPy-3)]+ (4a). The α-MSH analogue bearing the N-S-NPy chelate on a modified cysteine residue (6) was generated and complexed with [MI(CO)3]+ to confirm the chelation strategy’s utility when applied in a peptide-based targeting agent. Characterization of the ReI(CO)3-6 peptide conjugate (7) confirmed the efficient incorporation of the metal center, and the 99mTcI(CO)3-6 analogue (7a) was explored as a potential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compound for imaging the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in melanoma. Peptide 7a showed excellent radiolabeling yields and in vitro stability during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays. In vitro B16F10 melanoma cell uptake of 7a reached a modest value of 2.3 ± 0.08% of applied activity at 2 h at 37 °C while this uptake was significantly reduced by coincubation with a nonlabeled α-MSH analogue, NAPamide (3.2 µM) (P < 0.05). In vivo SPECT/X-ray computer tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and biodistribution of 7a were evaluated in a B16F10 melanoma xenografted mouse model. SPECT/CT imaging clearly visualized the tumor at 1 h post injection (p.i.) with high tumor-to-background contrast. Blocking

  1. Clickable, Hydrophilic Ligand for fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re/99mTc) Applied in an S-Functionalized α-MSH Peptide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction was used to incorporate alkyne-functionalized dipicolylamine (DPA) ligands (1 and 3) for fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re/99mTc) complexation into an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analogue. A novel DPA ligand with carboxylate substitutions on the pyridyl rings (3) was designed to increase the hydrophilicity and to decrease in vivo hepatobiliary retention of fac-[99mTcI(CO)3]+ complexes used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging studies with targeting biomolecules. The fac-[ReI(CO)3(3)] complex (4) was used for chemical characterization and X-ray crystal analysis prior to radiolabeling studies between 3 and fac-[99mTcI(OH2)3(CO)3]+. The corresponding 99mTc complex (4a) was obtained in high radiochemical yields, was stable in vitro for 24 h during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays, and showed increased hydrophilicity by log P analysis compared to an analogous complex with nonfunctionalized pyridine rings (2a). An α-MSH peptide functionalized with an azide was labeled with fac-[MI(CO)3]+ using both click, then chelate (CuAAC reaction with 1 or 3 followed by metal complexation) and chelate, then click (metal complexation of 1 and 3 followed by CuAAC with the peptide) strategies to assess the effects of CuAAC conditions on fac-[MI(CO)3]+ complexation within a peptide framework. The peptides from the click, then chelate strategy had different HPLC tR’s and in vitro stabilities compared to those from the chelate, then click strategy, suggesting nonspecific coordination of fac-[MI(CO)3]+ using this synthetic route. The fac-[MI(CO)3]+-complexed peptides from the chelate, then click strategy showed >90% stability during in vitro challenge conditions for 6 h, demonstrated high affinity and specificity for the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in IC50 analyses, and led to moderately high uptake in B16F10 melanoma cells. Log P analysis of the 99m

  2. [Bactericidal effect of acidic electrolyzed water--comparison of chemical acidic sodium hydrochloride (NaOCl) solution].

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, A; Nakamura, Y

    1996-09-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water is made recently by various kinds of machines and is widely utilized. In this study, we intended to clarify the relationship between the concentration of chloride and pH in the bactericidal effects with acidic electrolyzed water. The effects of weak or strong acidic electrolyzed water were compared with a pseudo-acidic water of pH adjusted by diluted hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomononas aeruginosa. At pH 5.0 approximately 6.0, 3 bacterial strains were killed soon after being exposed to the acidic water containing chloride 50 mg/liter, and the amount of chloride did not change after allowing to stand open for 6 hours. At pH 2.67 approximately 2.80, the bactericidal effects was observed at the concentration of chloride 5 mg/liter, and 80% of chloride remained after allowing to stand for 6 hours. These results indicated that newly made strong acidic water is more effective under a smaller amount of chloride at pH 2.7, and that weak acidic electrolyzed water should be used, if stable bactericidal effect is expected in cleaning the surroundings. PMID:8921674

  3. Lingual BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression patterns and their relation to innervation in the human tongue: similarities and differences compared with rodents.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, I V; Lindskog, S; Seiger, A; Nosrat, C A

    2000-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) mRNAs are expressed in developing and adult rodent tongue and are important for the proper development of lingual gustatory and somatosensory innervation in rodents. Here, we wished to determine whether the findings in rodents apply to humans. By using in situ hybridization histochemistry, distinct, specific, and in some instances overlapping patterns of BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression were found in the developing and adult human tongue, gustatory papillae, and taste buds. BDNF mRNA was expressed in the superior surface epithelium of the developing fungiform papillae (i.e., developing taste buds), in the epithelium covering the circumvallate papillae, and in the subepithelial mesenchyme. Interestingly, BDNF mRNA was expressed in the lingual epithelium before nerve fibers reached the epithelium, indicating a prespecialization of the gustatory epithelium before the arrival of nerves. In the adult fungiform papillae, BDNF mRNA labeling was found in taste buds and in restricted areas in the non-gustatory lingual epithelium. NT-3 mRNA was found in the developing lingual epithelium and gustatory papillae. NT-3 mRNA labeling was observed in the adult fungiform taste buds, overlapping with BDNF mRNA labeling, in contrast to what was seen in rodents. NT-3 mRNA was additionally found in restricted areas in filiform papillae. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) antibodies were used to investigate a possible correlation between lingual innervation and sites of neurotrophin gene activity. Adult human tongue innervation differed from that of rodents, possibly in part due to a different neurotrophin expression pattern in the human tongue. Based on these findings, we suggest that BDNF and NT-3 are important for the initiation and maintenance of the gustatory and somatosensory innervation also in humans. The broader and somewhat overlapping expression patterns of BDNF and NT-3 mRNAs, compared with rodents, suggest

  4. Expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25 (+) T regulatory cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Tao, Jin-Hui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Fang, Xuan; Ma, Qian; Yu, Ning

    2014-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with complex genetic predisposing factors involved. Ets-1 transcription factor plays an important role in the suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and stable expression of FOXP3. To find its potential role in the pathogenesis of SLE, we investigate the mRNA expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from patients with SLE. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from 36 patients with SLE and 18 sex-and-age-matched healthy controls. The Ets-1 mRNA expression level was decreased in patients with SLE [0.225 (0.135, 0.337)] than healthy controls [0.528 (0.303, 0.681)] (P < 0.001). The expression levels of FOXP3 mRNA were lower in SLE patients [0.608 (0.272, 1.164)] than healthy controls [0.919 (0.690, 1.223)], but the difference was not significant (P = 0.106). Significant reduction in Ets-1 and FOXP3 expression was also found in new-onset SLE subgroup when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001). The level of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA was not significantly different in hyperactive and lower active SLE group when compared with inactive SLE group, respectively (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between SLE with lupus nephritis (LN) and SLE without LN either (P > 0.05). Associations of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression levels with major clinical and laboratory parameters of SLE patients were also analyzed. However, no significant association was found. Significant positive correlation was found between Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from SLE patients (r = 0.698, P < 0.001). Our results found that the expression levels of Ets-1 mRNA were decreased in SLE patients and Ets-1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of FOXP3. It indicated that Ets-1 may play an important role in the stable expression of FOXP3 in

  5. Influence of M2O3 (M = Al, Ga) glass modifiers on structure, thermal and spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in lead phosphate based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtys, Marta; Pisarska, Joanna; Żur, Lidia; Goryczka, Tomasz; Pisarski, Wojciech A.

    2014-05-01

    Influence of M2O3 (M = Al, Ga) modifiers oxide on local structure and spectroscopic properties of lead phosphate glasses containing rare earth ions was studied. Among the rare earths, the trivalent europium and erbium ions were selected as an optically active dopants. The thermal properties were examined using DSC, whereas the X-ray diffraction analysis was used in order to verify the structure glass matrix. Luminescence of rare earth ions in lead phosphate glasses was registered in visible and NIR spectral region. The excitation and emission spectra of lead-based systems are presented and discussed in relation to the effect of modifiers oxide M2O3 (M = Al, Ga). Luminescence lifetimes (τm) for the 5D0 state of Eu3+ ions and 4I13/2 state of Er3+ ions were also evaluated.

  6. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits.

  7. Ubiquitous accumulation of 3' mRNA decay fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNAs with chromosomally integrated MS2 arrays.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jennifer F; Parker, Roy

    2016-05-01

    The binding of MS2-GFP protein to arrays of MS2 sites in yeast mRNAs has been used extensively to visualize mRNA localization. We previously reported that arrays of MS2 sites bound by MS2 protein could inhibit Xrn1p and lead to the accumulation of 3' mRNA decay fragments. We suggest that these decay fragments have the potential to complicate mRNA localization studies, as stated in an earlier study. PMID:27090788

  8. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  9. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulated transactions: (a) Domestic and import transactions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but not... hydrochloric (including anhydrous hydrogen chloride) and sulfuric acids, except for exports, transshipments...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulated transactions: (a) Domestic and import transactions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but not... hydrochloric (including anhydrous hydrogen chloride) and sulfuric acids, except for exports, transshipments...

  14. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulated transactions: (a) Domestic and import transactions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but not... hydrochloric (including anhydrous hydrogen chloride) and sulfuric acids, except for exports, transshipments...

  15. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  16. Comparison of Sarns 3M heparin bonded to Duraflo II and control circuits in a porcine model: macro- and microanalysis of thrombi accumulation in circuit arterial filters.

    PubMed

    Larson, D F; Arzouman, D; Kleinert, L; Patula, V; Williams, S

    2000-01-01

    Heparin-bonded perfusion circuits have been reported to reduce the thrombus formation during various levels of systemic heparinization. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of thrombo-resistance of the Sarns 3M heparin-bonded circuit to Baxter Duraflo II and untreated control in a porcine model. Fifteen Yorkshire pigs (60-65 kg) were anesthetized, heparinized with 3000 IU, intravenously (i.v.) and surgically cannulated with an internal jugular outflow and a femoral vein inflow. All circuits consisted of a 22-Fr venous cannula, centrifugal pump, arterial filter, an 18-Fr cannula for return and connected with equal lengths of 3/8" polyvinyl chloride tubing. The flows were maintained at 2.0 l/min for 4 h. Thrombus formation in filter samples were morphometrically analyzed through macro-densitometry, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our findings revealed that the 3M circuit had significantly less gross thrombus (p < 0.001), 66% and 84% less microscopic thrombi and fivefold less SEM-measured aggregates (p = 0.03) compared to the Duraflo II and uncoated groups. This study demonstrated that the 3M heparin-bonded circuit had significantly reduced the formation of micro- and macro-thrombi in the minimally heparinized pig model compared to the Duraflo II and untreated control circuits.

  17. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tingting Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Hongyang

    2015-11-15

    Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) thin films have been deposited by a pulsed laser deposition system. The x-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of orthorhombic phase. The remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films is decreased with the m-number. Positive-up-negative-down measurements indicate the presence of ferroelectric (FE) polarization in as-obtained thin films. Piezoresponse force microscopy investigations confirm the existence of FE domains and the switchable polarization. Weak magnetic moment is detected in the Aurivillius films at room temperature. The present work suggests the possibility of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) materials as potential room-temperature multiferroics.

  18. Measurement of the radiative L3-M vacancy transfer probabilities of some 4f elements and compounds using Indus-2 synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnananda; Mirji, Santosh; Badiger, N. M.; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-08-01

    The L X-ray intensity ratios (ILα/ILl, ILα/ILβ, ILα/ILγ) and the radiative L3-M vacancy transfer probabilities (ηL3-M) of some 4f elements such as Gd, Tb, Ho and compounds; Pr2O3, Pr2(CO3)3·8H2O, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Sm2(CO3)3·2.85H2O, Sm2(SO4)3·8H2O, Gd2(CO3)3, Tb2O3, Dy2(SO4)3, Ho2O3 and HoF3 have been measured using Indus-2 synchrotron radiation. The elements and compounds are excited by synchrotron radiation and the emitted characteristic L X-ray photons are measured with high resolution silicon drift detector. The measured intensity ratios of compounds are not influenced by the chemical environment. However, the ηL3-M values of compound targets indicate the effect of crystal structure.

  19. SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking CHFR mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its major components

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Inkyung; Sohn, Dong H.; Choi, Jinwook; Kim, Joo Mi; Jeon, Shin; Seol, Jae Hong; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediates the ubiquitination of the major components of the SWI/SNF complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediated-ubiquitination induces the degradation of the major components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRG3 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking the CHFR activity. -- Abstract: The murine SWI/SNF-like BAF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that functions as a transcriptional regulator in cell proliferation, differentiation and development. The SWI/SNF-like BAF complex consists of several components including core subunits such as BRG1, BAF155/SRG3, BAF47/SNF5/INI1, and BAF170. We have previously shown that the interaction between SRG3/mBAF155 and other components of the complex stabilizes them by attenuating their proteasomal degradation. However, it has not been known how the major components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex such as BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a are targeted for the ubiquitination and degradation, and how SRG3/mBAF155 protects them from the degradation process. Here we report that CHFR interacts with BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex and ubiquitinates them to target for degradation through a proteasome-mediated pathway, and that SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes these components by blocking their interaction with CHFR.

  20. Assessment of Three Tropospheric Delay Models (IGGtrop, EGNOS and UNB3m) Based on Precise Point Positioning in the Chinese Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Wei; Li, Ying; Chai, Yanju

    2016-01-20

    Tropospheric delays are one of the main sources of errors in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). They are usually corrected by using tropospheric delay models, which makes the accuracy of the models rather critical for accurate positioning. To provide references for suitable models to be chosen for GNSS users in China, we conduct herein a comprehensive study of the performances of the IGGtrop, EGNOS and UNB3m models in China. Firstly, we assess the models using 5 years' Global Positioning System (GPS) derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) series from 25 stations of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Then we study the effects of the models on satellite positioning by using various Precise Point Positioning (PPP) cases with different tropospheric delay resolutions, the observation data processed in PPP is from 21 base stations of CMONOC for a whole year of 2012. The results show that: (1) the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the IGGtrop model is about 4.4 cm, which improves the accuracy of ZTD estimations by about 24% for EGNOS and 19% for UNB3m; (2) The positioning error in the vertical component of the PPP solution obtained by using the IGGtrop model is about 15.0 cm, which is about 30% and 21% smaller than those of the EGNOS and UNB3m models, respectively. In summary, the IGGtrop model achieves the best performance among the three models in the Chinese region.

  1. Assessment of Three Tropospheric Delay Models (IGGtrop, EGNOS and UNB3m) Based on Precise Point Positioning in the Chinese Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Wei; Li, Ying; Chai, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    Tropospheric delays are one of the main sources of errors in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). They are usually corrected by using tropospheric delay models, which makes the accuracy of the models rather critical for accurate positioning. To provide references for suitable models to be chosen for GNSS users in China, we conduct herein a comprehensive study of the performances of the IGGtrop, EGNOS and UNB3m models in China. Firstly, we assess the models using 5 years’ Global Positioning System (GPS) derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) series from 25 stations of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Then we study the effects of the models on satellite positioning by using various Precise Point Positioning (PPP) cases with different tropospheric delay resolutions, the observation data processed in PPP is from 21 base stations of CMONOC for a whole year of 2012. The results show that: (1) the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the IGGtrop model is about 4.4 cm, which improves the accuracy of ZTD estimations by about 24% for EGNOS and 19% for UNB3m; (2) The positioning error in the vertical component of the PPP solution obtained by using the IGGtrop model is about 15.0 cm, which is about 30% and 21% smaller than those of the EGNOS and UNB3m models, respectively. In summary, the IGGtrop model achieves the best performance among the three models in the Chinese region. PMID:26805834

  2. High-throughput differential screening of mRNAs by serial analysis of gene expression: decreased expression of trefoil factor 3 mRNA in thyroid follicular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takano, T; Miyauchi, A; Yoshida, H; Kuma, K; Amino, N

    2004-04-19

    To find mRNAs whose expression differs between thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas, a high-throughput analysis of mRNAs in these two tumours was performed. This method, named high-throughput differential screening by serial analysis of gene expression (HDSS), combines a modified method of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 40 candidate tag sequences that showed extremely different expression levels between a follicular carcinoma and a follicular adenoma in the SAGE analysis were analysed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, using RNAs from an additional four typical follicular carcinomas and adenomas. One sequence tag that represents trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA showed a clear difference in its expression level between adenomas and carcinomas. The expression levels of TFF3 mRNA in 48 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR using a specific probe for TFF3. They were significantly decreased in follicular carcinomas, especially in widely invasive types and those with evident metastases. These results indicate that the decreased expression of TFF3 mRNA is a marker of follicular carcinomas, especially those with a high risk of invasion or metastasis.

  3. Acid-induced secretory cell metaplasia in hamster bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.G.; Lucey, E.C.; Breuer, R.; Snider, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N nitric, hydrochloric, or sulfuric acid to determine their airway epithelial response. Three weeks after exposure, the left intrapulmonary bronchi in Alcian blue/PAS-strained paraffin sections were evaluated for the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium as a measure of secretory cell metaplasia (SCM). Compared to saline-treated control animals, all three acids caused statistically significant SCM. In addition to the bronchial lesion, all three acids caused similar interstitial fibrosis, bronchiolectasis, and bronchiolization of alveoli that varied in individual animals from mild to severe. In a separate experiment to study the persistence of the SCM, hamsters treated with a single instillation of 0.1 N nitric acid showed significant SCM 3, 7, and 17 weeks after exposure. There was a high correlation (r = 0.96) between a subjective assessment of SCM and objective assessment using a digital image-analysis system. We conclude that protons induce SCM independently of the associated anion; the SCM persists at least 17 weeks. Sulfuric acid is an atmospheric pollutant and nitric acid may form locally on the mucosa of lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide. These acids may contribute to the development of maintenance of the SCM seen in the conducting airways of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Tungsten bronze-based nuclear waste form ceramics. Part 3: The system Cs 0.3M xW 1- xO 3 for the immobilization of radio cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luca, Vittorio; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; McLeod, Terry

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies in this series have indicated that Cs- and Sr-loaded Mo-doped hexagonal tungsten bronze (MoW-HTB) oxides, either in the form of fine grained powders, or as composite granules, can be converted to leach resistant ceramics at modest temperatures in the range 600-1200 °C. In the present study it has been shown that such waste form ceramics can also be readily prepared through very simple conventional routes involving the blending of cesium nitrate with tungstic acid and other oxide components followed by heating in air. The phase chemistry resulting from the blending of these oxides has been explored. In the Cs 0.3M xW 1- xO 3 compositional system where x = Ti, Zr, Nb and Ta the solid solution limit has been found to be where x = 0.2. For all values of x between 0 and 0.2 mixed phase materials of HTB and WO 3 were obtained and Cs was found associated with HTB phases that are both rich and depleted in M element. At temperatures above about 1000 °C, phase pure HTB compounds in the space group P63/ mcm were obtained. Even when x greatly exceeds 0.2, the additional oxide content did not interfere with the formation of the HTB phase. Durability of the Cs 0.3M xW 1- xO 3 compositions as gauged by the fractional Cs loss in de-mineralized water was lowest when M = Ti and Nb, and greatest when M = Zr. From these results the durability appears intimately linked with the unit cell a-dimension which in turn varies with M cation radius.

  5. Solution of rocks and refractory minerals by acids at high temperatures and pressures. Determination of silica after decomposition with hydrofluoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, I.; Rowe, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    A modified Morey bomb was designed which contains a removable nichromecased 3.5-ml platinium crucible. This bomb is particularly useful for decompositions of refractory samples for micro- and semimicro-analysis. Temperatures of 400-450?? and pressures estimated as great as 6000 p.s.i. were maintained in the bomb for periods as long as 24 h. Complete decompositions of rocks, garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, phenacite, sapphirine, and kyanite were obtained with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids; the decomposition of chrome refractory was made with hydrochloric acid. Aluminum-rich samples formed difficultly soluble aluminum fluoride precipitates. Because no volatilization losses occur, silica can be determined on sample solutions by a molybdenum-blue procedure using aluminum(III) to complex interfering fluoride. ?? 1965.

  6. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively.

  7. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively. PMID:25916261

  8. Improving clarity and stability of skim milk powder dispersions by dissociation of casein micelles at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Casein micelles in milk cause turbidity and have poor stability at acidic conditions. In this study, skim milk powder dispersions were alkalized to pH 10.0 or 11.0, corresponding to reduced particle mass. In the following acidification with hydrochloric or citric acid, the re-formation of casein particles was observed. The combination of treatment at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and smallest particles, which enabled translucent dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, corresponding to discrete nanoparticles. The concentration of ionic calcium was lower when acidified with citric acid than hydrochloric acid, corresponding to smaller particles with less negative zeta potential. The pH 11.0 treatment followed by acidification with citric acid also resulted in smaller particles than the simple chelating effects (directly implementing sodium citrate). The produced casein nanoparticles with reduced dimensions can be used for beverage and other novel applications.

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  10. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  11. [Effect of Zhuangyao Jianshen Wan (ZYJCW) on P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in rats with diuresis caused by kidney deficiency].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-yi; Jiang, Wei-wen; He, Feng-lei; Mo, Guo-qiang; Guo, Zhong-hui; Wang, Xiao-dan; Wu, Qing-he; Cao, Hong-yin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the urination-reducing effect and mechanism of Zhuangyao Jianshen Wan (ZYJCW). In this study, SI rats were subcutaneously injected with 150 mg · kg(-1) dose of D-galactose to prepare the sub-acute aging model and randomly divided into the model group, the Suoquan Wan group (1.17 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), and ZYJCW high, medium and low dose groups (2.39, 1.20, 0.60 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) , with normal rats in the blank group. They were continuously administered with drugs for eight weeks. The metabolic cage method was adopted to measure the 24 h urine volume and 5 h water load urine volume in rats. The automatic biochemistry analyzer was adopted to detect urine concentrations of Na+, Cl-, K+. The ELISA method was used to determine serum aldosterone (ALD) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The changes in P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues of rats were detected by RT-PCR. According to the results, both ZYJCW high and medium dose groups showed significant down-regulations in 24 h urine volume and 5 h water load urine volume in (P <0.05, P <0.01), declines in Na+ and Cl- concentrations in urine (P <0.01), notable rises in plasma ALD and ADH contents (P <0.05, P <0.01) and remarkable down-regulations in the P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues (P <0.01). The ZYJCW low dose group revealed obvious reductions in Na+ and Cl- concentrations in urine (P <0.01). The results indicated that ZYJCW may show the urination-reducing effect by down-regulating the P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues of rats with diuresis caused by kidney deficiency.

  12. The trigonal bipyramidal MN3M species: a new kind of aromatic complex containing a multiple-fold aromatic N3 subunit.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2005-12-01

    A new kind of aromatic trigonal bipyramidal MN3M (M=Be, B, Mg, Al, and Ca) species, with all real frequencies, is obtained at the MP2/6-311+G(3d) level. The nucleus-independent chemical shift values are -102.16 ppm for the N3 (3-) ring, and -74.09, -79.39, -65.06, -74.44, and -62.33 ppm (at the geometrical center of the trigonal bipyramid) for BeN3Be, BN3B, MgN3Mg, AlN3Al, and CaN3Ca, respectively. Molecular orbital analysis indicates that the regular triangular N3 (3-) ring and each MN3M species have three aromatic six-electron systems (pi, sigma(p), and sigma(s)) and exhibit threefold aromaticity. The CaN3Ca species has a very low vertical ionization energy of 3.64 eV at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3d) level, which is even lower than the ionization energy (3.9 eV) of the Cs atom. Therefore, CaN3Ca can be considered as a new superalkali species. A further study on the CaN3CaCl molecule confirms the superalkali characteristics of CaN3Ca. Two interesting phenomena are explored in the MN3M species: the delocalized electron cloud of the N3 subunit is elongated by two M cations, and the electron clouds of two M cations are distended by the N3 (3-) ring.

  13. Effects of degree of dissociation of acid used on hydrolytic durability of ceramic primer.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Naoko; Kimoto, Suguru; Tanimura, Hideki; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Aida, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, effects of the degree of dissociation of acids on the hydrolysis rate of methoxy group in γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) and the adsorption characteristics of γ-MPS on ceramic surfaces were studied using acetic, phosphoric, and hydrochloric acids. Hydrolytic stability of γ-MPS adsorption layer at the resin-ceramic interface was thus examined. (29)Si NMR observations of acidactivated γ-MPS and contact angle measurements following ceramic surface silanization were performed. Bond strengths of resin to the silanized ceramic surfaces were measured. Statistical analyses of shear bond strength and contact angle data were performed. Increase in the degree of dissociation of the acid used increased the hydrolysis rate of methoxy group in γ-MPS, but lowered the contact angle to the silanized ceramic surface. Decrease in the contact angle increased the hydrolytic stability of γ-MPS adsorption layer.

  14. Tetranitroacetimidic acid: a high oxygen oxidizer and potential replacement for ammonium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thao T; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-08-27

    Considerable work has been focused on developing replacements for ammonium perchlorate (AP), a primary choice for solid rocket and missile propellants, due to environmental concerns resulting from the release of perchlorate into groundwater systems [corrected]. Additionally, the generation of hydrochloric acid contributes to high concentrations of acid rain and to ozone layer depletion. En route to synthesizing salts that contain cationic FOX-7, a novel, high oxygen-containing oxidizer, tetranitroacetimidic acid (TNAA), has been synthesized and fully characterized. The properties of TNAA were found to be exceptional, with a calculated specific impulse exceeding that of AP, leading to its high potential as a replacement for AP. TNAA can be synthesized easily in a one-step process by the nitration of FOX-7 in high yield (>93%). The synthesis, properties, and chemical reactivity of TNAA have been examined.

  15. Oxalic acid degradation by a novel fungal oxalate oxidase from Abortiporus biennis.

    PubMed

    Grąz, Marcin; Rachwał, Kamila; Zan, Radosław; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxalate oxidase was identified in mycelial extracts of a basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis strain. Intracellular enzyme activity was detected only after prior lowering of the pH value of the fungal cultures by using oxalic or hydrochloric acids. This enzyme was purified using size exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-25) and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). This enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 2 when incubated at 40°C, and the optimum temperature was established at 60°C. Among the tested organic acids, this enzyme exhibited specificity only towards oxalic acid. Molecular mass was calculated as 58 kDa. The values of Km for oxalate and Vmax for the enzyme reaction were 0.015 M and 30 mmol min(-1), respectively. PMID:27337220

  16. A New Green Ionic Liquid-Based Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Environments.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdel Rahman O

    2015-06-17

    This work examines the use of new hydrophobic ionic liquid derivatives, namely octadecylammonium tosylate (ODA-TS) and oleylammonium tosylate (OA-TS) for corrosion protection of steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Their chemical structures were determined from NMR analyses. The surface activity characteristics of the prepared ODA-TS and OA-TS were evaluated from conductance, surface tension and contact angle measurements. The data indicate the presence of a double bond in the chemical structure of OA-TS modified its surface activity parameters. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis and contact angle measurements were utilized to investigate the corrosion protection performance of ODA-TS and OA-TS on steel in acidic solution. The OA-TS and ODA-TS compounds showed good protection performance in acidic chloride solution due to formation of an inhibitive film on the steel surface.

  17. Theoretical stusy of the reaction between 2,2',4' - trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid and zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    Zirconium reacts with 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid in acid solutions to Form two complexes in which the ratios of dye to zirconium are 1 to 1 and 2 to 1. Both complexes are true chelates, with zirconium acting as a bridge between the two orthohydroxy dye groups. Apparent equilibrium constants for the reactions to form each of the complexes are determined. The reactions are used as a basis for the determination of the active component in the dye and a graphical method for the determination of reagent purity is described. Four absorption spectra covering the wave length region from 350 to 750 mu are given, which completely define the color system associated with the reactions in solutions where the hydrochloric acid concentration ranges from 0.0064N to about 7N.

  18. Determination of antimony in ores and related materials by continuous hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry after separation by xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1990-10-01

    A continuous hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometric method for determining approximately 0.02 mug/g or more of antimony in ores, concentrates, rocks, soils and sediments is described. The method involves the reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) by heating with hypophosphorous acid in a 4.5M hydrochloric acid-tartaric acid medium and its separation by filtration, if necessary, from any elemental arsenic, selenium and tellurium produced during the reduction step. Antimony is subsequently separated from iron, lead, zinc, tin and various other elements by a single cyclohexane extraction of its xanthate complex from approximately 4.5M hydrochloric acid/0.2M sulphuric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reluctant for iron(III). After the extract is washed, if necessary, with 10% hydrochloric acid-2% thiourea solution to remove co-extracted copper, followed by 4.5M hydrochloric acid to remove residual iron and other elements, antimony(III) in the extract is oxidized to antimony(V) with bromine solution in carbon tetrachloride and stripped into dilute sulphuric acid containing tartaric acid. Following the removal of bromine by evaporation of the solution, antimony(V) is reduced to antimony(III) with potassium iodide in approximately 3M hydrochloric acid and finally determined by hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry at 217.8 nm with sodium borohydride as reluctant. Interference from platinum and palladium, which are partly co-extracted as xanthates under the proposed conditions, is eliminated by complexing them with thiosemicarbazide during the iodide reduction step. Interference from gold is avoided by using a 3M hydrochloric acid medium for the hydride-generation step. Under these conditions gold forms a stable iodide complex.

  19. Exploring artificial layered heterostructures of LaM'O3/LaM''O3 (M'M''= NiCr, FeCr and NiV).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Kareev, M.; Freeland, J. W.; Kareev, A.; Lee, H. N.; Chakhalian, J.

    2008-03-01

    Digital synthesis of atomically sharp interfaces between strongly correlated electron systems can provide a template to build completely new materials. Here we present our results on magnetism and electronic structure in LaM'O3/LaM''O3 (M'M''= NiCr, FeCr and NiV) superlattices by using polarized X-ray spectroscopies. Using laser MBE, the (111) and (100) oriented ultra-thin superlattices were grown with alternating layer thicknesses of 1 unit cell. In the bulk, LaMO3 (M=Cr,Fe,V) are antiferromagnetic insulators while LaNiO3 is a paramagnetic metal. The evolution of element specific magnetism and charge at the interface of LFO/LCO, LNO/LVO and LNO/LCO superlattices with temperature and an applied magnetic field will be discussed in detail. The superlattice results will be contrasted to the bulk magnetic properties of the constituent layers. The work has been supported by U.S. DOD-ARO under Contract No. 0402-17291.

  20. Y chromosome haplotype diversity in Mongolic-speaking populations and gene conversion at the duplicated STR DYS385a,b in haplogroup C3-M407.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Woźniak, Marcin; Rogalla, Urszula; Dambueva, Irina; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Y chromosome microsatellite (Y-STR) diversity has been studied in different Mongolic-speaking populations from South Siberia, Mongolia, North-East China and East Europe. The results obtained indicate that the Mongolic-speaking populations clustered into two groups, with one group including populations from eastern part of South Siberia and Central Asia (the Buryats, Barghuts and Khamnigans) and the other group including populations from western part of Central Asia and East Europe (the Mongols and Kalmyks). High frequency of haplogroup C3-M407 (>50%) is present in the Buryats, Barghuts and Khamnigans, whereas in the Mongols and Kalmyks its frequency is much lower. In addition, two allelic combinations in DYS385a,b loci of C3-M407 haplotypes have been observed: the combination 11,18 (as well as 11,17 and 11,19) is frequent in different Mongolic-speaking populations, but the 11,11 branch is present mainly in the Kalmyks and Mongols. Results of locus-specific sequencing suggest that the action of gene conversion is a more likely explanation for origin of homoallelic 11,11 combination. Moreover, analysis of median networks of Y-STR haplotypes demonstrates that at least two gene conversion events can be revealed-one of them has probably occurred among the Mongols, and the other event occurred in the Barghuts. These two events give an average gene conversion rate range of 0.24-7.1 × 10(-3) per generation. PMID:26911356

  1. The SF3M approach to 3-D photo-reconstruction for non-expert users: application to a gully network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, C.; James, M. R.; Redel-Macías, M. D.; Pérez, R.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    3-D photo-reconstruction (PR) techniques have been successfully used to produce high resolution elevation models for different applications and over different spatial scales. However, innovative approaches are required to overcome some limitations that this technique may present in challenging scenarios. Here, we evaluate SF3M, a new graphical user interface for implementing a complete PR workflow based on freely available software (including external calls to VisualSFM and CloudCompare), in combination with a low-cost survey design for the reconstruction of a several-hundred-meters-long gully network. SF3M provided a semi-automated workflow for 3-D reconstruction requiring ~ 49 h (of which only 17% required operator assistance) for obtaining a final gully network model of > 17 million points over a gully plan area of 4230 m2. We show that a walking itinerary along the gully perimeter using two light-weight automatic cameras (1 s time-lapse mode) and a 6 m-long pole is an efficient method for 3-D monitoring of gullies, at a low cost (about EUR 1000 budget for the field equipment) and time requirements (~ 90 min for image collection). A mean error of 6.9 cm at the ground control points was found, mainly due to model deformations derived from the linear geometry of the gully and residual errors in camera calibration. The straightforward image collection and processing approach can be of great benefit for non-expert users working on gully erosion assessment.

  2. [Determination of docosahexaenoic acid in milk powder by gas chromatography using acid hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Shao, Shiping; Xiang, Dapeng; Li, Shuang; Xi, Xinglin; Chen, Wenrui

    2015-11-01

    A method to determine docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in milk powder by gas chromatography was established. The milk powder samples were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, extracted to get total fatty acids by Soxhlet extractor, then esterified with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to form methyl esters, and treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate. The optimal experiment conditions were obtained from orthogonal experiment L9(3(3)) which performed with three factors and three levels, and it requires the reaction performed with 1 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution at 25 degrees C for 5 min. The derivative treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate was separated on a column of SP-2560 (100 m x 0.25 mm x 0.20 μm), and determined in 55 min by temperature programming-gas chromatography. Good linearity was obtained in the range 5.0-300 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.4%, 1.2% and 1.1% for the seven repeated experiments of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L of DHA, respectively. The limit of detection was 2 mg/kg, and the recoveries of DHA were in the range of 90.4%-93.5%. The results are satisfactory through the tests of practical samples. PMID:26939370

  3. New rock salt-related oxides Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni): Synthesis, structure, magnetism and electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, S.; Morán, E.; Sáez-Puche, R.; Alario-Franco, M.Á.; Dos santos-Garcia, A.J.; Gonzalo, E.; Kuhn, A.; García-Alvarado, F.; Sivakumar, T.; Tamilarasan, S.; Natarajan, S.; Gopalakrishnan, J.

    2013-07-15

    We describe the synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic and electrochemical characterization of new rock salt-related oxides of formula, Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni). The M=Co oxide adopts the LiCoO{sub 2} (R-3m) structure, where sheets of LiO{sub 6} and (Co{sub 2}/Ru)O{sub 6} octahedra are alternately stacked along the c-direction. The M=Ni oxide also adopts a similar layered structure related to Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, where partial mixing of Li and Ni/Ru atoms lowers the symmetry to monoclinic (C2/c). Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that in Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, the oxidation states of transition metal ions are Co{sup 3+} (S=0), Co{sup 2+} (S=1/2) and Ru{sup 4+} (S=1), all of them in low-spin configuration and at 10 K, the material orders antiferromagnetically. Analogous Li{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} presents a ferrimagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature of 100 K. The differences in the magnetic behavior have been explained in terms of differences in the crystal structure. Electrochemical studies correlate well with both magnetic properties and crystal structure. Li-transition metal intermixing may be at the origin of the more impeded oxidation of Li{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} when compared to Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}. Interestingly high first charge capacities (between ca. 160 and 180 mAh g{sup −1}) corresponding to ca. 2/3 of theoretical capacity are reached albeit, in both cases, capacity retention and cyclability are not satisfactory enough to consider these materials as alternatives to LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Two new rock salt related oxides of formula, Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared. The M=Co oxide adopts the LiCoO{sub 2} (R-3m) structure and the M=Ni oxide adopts a similar layered structure related to Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3,} monoclinic (C2/c), with partial mixing of Li and Ni/Ru atoms. For Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, oxidation state for Ru is 4+ and antiferromagnetic (AFM) order is

  4. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    PubMed

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. PMID:26716889

  5. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    PubMed

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II.

  6. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions using tri-iso-octylamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Young; Rajesh Kumar, J; Kim, Joon-Soo; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2009-08-30

    Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions was carried out using tri-iso-octylamine (Alamine 308) as an extractant diluted in kerosene. The percentage extraction of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) increased with increase in acid concentration up to 8 mol L(-1). However, at 10 mol L(-1) HCl concentration, the extraction behavior was reversed, indicating the solvation type mechanism during extraction. The quantitative extraction of approximately 98% platinum(IV) and 36% rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L(-1) Alamine 308. The highest separation factor (S.F.=184.7) of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L(-1) Alamine 308 at 1.0 mol L(-1) of hydrochloric acid concentration. Alkaline metal salts like sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate, lithium chloride, lithium nitrate, potassium chloride and potassium thiocyanate used for the salting-out effect. LiCl proved as best salt for the extraction of platinum(IV). Temperature effect demonstrates that the extraction process is exothermic. Hydrochloric acid and thiourea mixture proved to be better stripping reagents when compared with other mineral acids and bases. PMID:19285802

  8. Enhanced conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film by acid treatment for indium tin oxide-free organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Chiao; Huang, Chih-Kuo; Hung, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Mei-Ying

    2016-08-01

    An acid treatment is used in the enhancement of the conductivity of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin film, which is often used as the anode in organic solar cells. There are three types of acid treatment for PEDOT:PSS thin film: hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid treatments. In this study, we examine and compare these three ways with each other for differences in conductivity. Hydrochloric acid results in the highest conductivity enhancement, from 0.3 to 1109 S/cm. We also discuss the optical transmittance, conductivity, surface roughness, surface morphology, and stability, as well as the factors that can influence device efficiency. The devices are fabricated using an acid-treated PEDOT:PSS thin film as the anode. The highest power conversion efficiency was 1.32%, which is a large improvement over that of the unmodified organic solar cell (0.21%). It is comparable to that obtained when using indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode, ca. 1.46%.

  9. Characteristics of the particle size distribution of hydrolyzed starch, as determined by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkina, N. E.; Padokhin, V. A.; Skobeleva, O. A.

    2013-05-01

    The unimodal distribution of hydrodynamic radii is determined by DLS measurements of starch molecule sizes. The starch was hydrolyzed in 0.3 M hydrochloric acid for 3-9 h. The ratio of amylose to amylopectin is shown to remain constant.

  10. Wheat gluten amino acid analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Lamberts, Lieve; Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes an accurate and user-friendly method for determining amino acid composition of wheat gluten proteins and their gliadin and glutenin fractions. The method consists of hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at 110°C for 24 h, followed by evaporation of the acid and separation of the free amino acids by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection. In contrast to conventional methods, the analysis requires neither pre- or postcolumn derivatization, nor a time-consuming oxidation or derivatization step prior to hydrolysis. Correction factors account for incomplete release of Val and Ile even after hydrolysis for 24 h, and for losses of Ser during evaporation. Gradient conditions including an extra eluent allow multiple sequential sample analyses without risk of Glu accumulation on the anion-exchange column which otherwise would result from high Gln levels in gluten proteins.

  11. Acid hydrolysis of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    An excellent substrate for ethanol production is the Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tuber (Helianthus tuberosus). This crop contains a high level of inulin that can be hydrolyzed mainly to D-fructose and has several distinct advantages as an energy source compared to others. The potential ethanol yield of ca. 4678 L/ha on good agricultural land is equivalent to that obtained from sugar beets and twice that of corn. When JA is to be used for ethanol fermentation by conventional yeast, it is first converted to fermentable sugars by enzymes or acids although various strains of yeast were used for the direct fermentation of JA extracts. Fleming and GrootWassink compared various acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric, citric, and phosphoric) and strong cation exchange resin for their effectiveness on inulin hydrolysis and reported that no differences were noted among the acids or resin in their influence on inulin hydrolysis. Undesirable side reactions were noted during acid hydrolysis leading to the formation of HMF and 2-(2-hydroxy acetyl) furan. The HMF at a level of 0.1% is known to inhibit growth and ethanol fermentation by yeast. In this study the authors established optimal conditions for complete acid-hydrolysis of JA with minimum side reactions and maximum sugar-ethanol production. A material balance for the ethanol production was also determined.

  12. Characteristics of neutralization of acids by newly isolated fungal cells.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Naofumi; Yasuda, Takako; Inoue, Yoko; Kusumoto, Noriko; Iwasaki, Saori; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Katoh, Shigeo

    2004-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play an important role in maintaining soil pH at levels suitable for other soil organisms. To clarify the biological neutralization mechanism in soil, we isolated soil microorganisms showing a high ability to neutralize acids and studied their characteristics. From our taxonomic study, three isolated strains were identified as filamentous fungi, namely Mucor sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aureobasidium pullulans. These strains could secrete basic materials, such as ammonia, for neutralization, grow in the medium at pH 4.0 and increase the pH of the medium to approximately 8.0. These microbial cells could neutralize not only nitric acid but also sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. The strains could also grow by utilizing nitric acid as a sole nitrogen source. In the soil containing these organisms, the pH was maintained in the neutral range by the buffering action of basic materials that they secrete. These results suggest that these fungal cells are useful for protecting the soil from acidification by acid rain.

  13. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  14. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of meat, seafood, and poultry: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Wendy A; Aleo, Victoria A; Schultz, Ann M; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Four foods--cooked, diced chicken; cured ham; smoked salmon; and pepperoni--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 4 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  15. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of processed and prepared foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  16. Accuracy assessment of NOGGIN Plus and MALÅ RAMAC X3M single channel ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) for underground utility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazali Hashim, Mas; Nizam Saip, Saiful; Hani, Nurfauziah; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) becomes a popular device in investigation of the underground utilities in recent years. GPR analyses the type and position of utility objects. However, the performance accuracy of GPR models is an important issue that should be considered. This study conducts the accuracy analysis between two models of single channel GPR; NOGGIN PLUS and MALÅ RAMAC X3M, by focusing on the basic principles of single channel GPR, accuracy analysis and calibration methods implemented on GPR. The survey work has been performed to identify the most accurate instrument to detect underground utility objects. In addition, data analysis was carried out to compare between two models of single channel GPR. This study provides proper guidelines and assists surveyors to select the suitable instruments regarding on applications especially on utility mapping in terms of accuracy.

  17. Large magnetocaloric effect in La0.845Sr0.155Mn1-xMxO3 (M = Mn, Cu, Co) perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Phan, The-Long; Yu, Seong-Cho; Tho, Nguyen Duc; Chau, Nguyen

    2004-06-01

    We present the results of an investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in the perovskites of La0.845Sr0.155Mn1-xMxO3 (M = Mn, Cu, Co). It is found that there was a large magnetic entropy change, i.e. a large magneto-caloric effect, in all these samples. Among them, the magnetic entropy change reaches a maximum value of 2.67 J/kg K at the applied field of 13.5 kOe for the Cu-doped sample, suggesting that this material would be a suitable candidate for the advanced magnetic refrigeration technology. The large magnetic entropy change produced by the abrupt reduction of magnetization is attributed to the strong coupling between spin and lattice that occurs in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature (TC) - which is experimentally verified by electron paramagnetic resonance study.

  18. Identification of hyperhalogens in Ag(n)(BO2)(m) (n = 1-3, m = 1-2) clusters: anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xu, Hong-Guang; Koirala, Pratik; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Kandalam, Anil K; Jena, Puru

    2014-12-21

    The electronic and structural properties of neutral and anionic Agn(BO2)m (n = 1-3, m = 1-2) clusters are investigated by using mass-selected anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Agreement between the measured and calculated vertical detachment energies (VDEs) allows us to validate the equilibrium geometries of [Agn(BO2)m](-) clusters obtained from theory. The ground state structures of anionic Ag2(BO2) and Agn(BO2)2 (n = 1-3) clusters are found to be very different from those of their neutral counterparts. The structures of anionic clusters are chain-like while those of the neutral clusters are closed-rings. The presence of multiple isomers for [Ag2(BO2)2](-) and [Ag3(BO2)2](-) in the cluster beam has also been confirmed. Several of these clusters are found to be hyperhalogens.

  19. MeV proton beams generated by 3 mJ ultrafast laser pulses at 0.5 kHz

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Bixue; Nees, John; Easter, James; Thomas, Alexander; Krushelnick, Karl; Davis, Jack; Petrov, George

    2009-09-07

    Well-collimated proton beams are generated from bulk glass along the target normal direction by tightly focused 55 fs, 3 mJ pulses from a laser operating at 0.5 kHz repetition rate. Proton beams with energies of >265 keV have an emission angle of about 16 deg. full width at half maximum. Spectral measurements indicate proton energies exceeding 0.5 MeV with a flux of 3.2x10{sup 9} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} and the flux of measured protons with energies of greater than 90 keV is 8.5x10{sup 11} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} on center.

  20. Effects of electron correlations application to Ti atoms on physical properties of (LaMnO3)m/(SrTiO3)n superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aezami, A.; Abolhassani, M.; Elahi, M.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic structures and Curie temperatures of the (LaMnO3)m/(SrTiO3)n superlattices (SLm-n) with m=1, 2, 3 and n=1, 2, 3, 8 were investigated, using density functional theory implemented in Quantum-Espresso open source code. By applying on-site coulomb interaction (Hubbard term U) to Ti atoms for all of these superlattices, using Stoner-Wolfarth model, it was found that the magnetic order of interfacial atoms of these superlattices changed to ferromagnetic by implying U=5 eV on Ti atoms. The inclusion of electron-electron correlation with U=5 eV on the Ti atoms for all of the superlattices made the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interfaces, half-metallic. The obtained values of Curie temperature, calculated within mean field approximation with U=5 eV on the Ti atoms, are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of a new and ordered quaternary alloy MnNiCuSb (SG: F 4 bar 3m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Zeba; Thakur, Gohil S.; Ghara, Somnath; Gupta, L. C.; Sundaresan, A.; Ganguli, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized a new crystallographically ordered quaternary Heusler alloy, MnNiCuSb. The crystal structure of the alloy has been determined by Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data. This alloy crystallizes in the LiMgPdSb type structure with F 4 bar 3m space group. MnNiCuSb is a ferromagnet with a high TC~690 K and magnetic moment of 3.85 μB/f.u. Besides this we have also studied two other off-stoichiometric compositions; one Cu rich and the other Ni rich (MnNi0.9Cu1.1Sb and MnNi1.1Cu0.9Sb) which are also ferromagnets. It must be stressed that MnNiCuSb is one of the very few known, non-Fe containing quaternary Heusler alloys with 1:1:1:1 composition.

  2. Luminescence properties of M2Si5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) mixed nitrides prepared by metal hydrides as starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Daiki; Kim, Hyo Sung; Horikawa, Takashi; Itoh, Masahiro; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2012-08-01

    Mixed metal nitrides, M2Si5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba), were synthesized from M2-yCeySi5 or an appropriate mixture of MSiHx, Si3N4 and CeF3, by a direct nitriding process in N2 gas: 2 MSiHx + Si3N4 + CeF3 → M2Si5N8:Ce3+. Also, charge-compensated materials, M2AlzSi5-zN8:Ce3+ were prepared (from an appropriate mixture of MSiHx, MAlSiHx, Si3N4 and CeF3) and the luminescence properties were characterized. The resultant phosphors showed green emission suitable for LED illumination by optimizing the mixing ratio of metal elements.

  3. Charge transfer and orbital reconstruction in the (La2/3Sr1/3MnO3)m/(SrRuO3)n superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Kai; Zhu, H. P.; Zou, W. Q.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S.

    2015-05-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (La2/3Sr1/3MnO3)m/(SrRuO3)n superlattices have been investigated based on the first principles calculations. An obvious Jahn-Teller distortion, which depends on m, n, appears in MnO6 octahedron in the superlattices. The stretch along c-axis of MnO6 octahedron at the interface lifts the Mn eg orbital degeneracy, with electrons preferring the lower energy 3 z2-r2 to the higher energy x2-y2 . Benefitting from the charge transfer at the interface, the still occupied x2-y2 orbital can mediate a robust in-plane double exchange interaction. La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 block is ferromagnetic and metallic, even for the superlattice with m = n = 1.

  4. Separation of traces and large amounts of lead from gram amounts of bismuth, tin, cadmium, and indium by cation exchange chromatography in hydrochloric acid - methanol using a macroporous resin

    SciTech Connect

    Strelow, F.W.E.

    1985-10-01

    Traces and small amounts of lead can be separated from gram amounts of Bi, Sn, Cd, and In by eluting these elements with 0.5 M HCl in 50% methanol from a column containing only 2.7 mL (1g) of Bio-Rad AG MP-50 macroporous cation exchange resin of 100-200 mesh particle size in the H form. A 5.4 mL (2 g) resin column separates up to 100 mg of lead. Lead can be eluted effectively with 3.0 M aqueous HCl. Separations are sharp and quantitative. In combination with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, the method has been applied for the determination of lead in pure metals or chemicals of the above elements. Relative standard deviations were better than 1% for samples containing 10 ppm of lead or more. The sensitivity is less than 0.1 ppm. Relevant elution curves and results of analyses of binary synthetic mixtures and actual samples are presented. 7 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  6. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  7. Generation of stable 3'-mRNA cleavage fragments induced by siRNA in cells with high-levels of duck hepatitis B virus replication.

    PubMed

    Lan, Lin; Mao, Qing; Blum, Hubert E

    2014-01-17

    Therapeutic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have attracted a lot of interest both in basic biomedical sciences as well as in translational medicine. Apart from their therapeutic efficacy adverse effects of siRNAs must be addressed. The generation of stable mRNA cleavage fragments and the translation of N-truncated proteins induced by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASOs) have been reported. Similar to ASOs, siRNAs are considered to function via an antisense mechanism that promotes the cleavage of the target mRNA. To further investigate whether the stable mRNA cleavage fragments also occur in siRNA we constructed a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmid, pshRNA794, containing the same sequence reported in experiments using ASOs which directly targeted the overlapping region of the pre-genomic mRNA (pgmRNA) and sub-genomic mRNA (sgmRNA) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The shRNA resulted in a 70.9% and 69.9% reduction of the DHBV mRNAs in LMH and HuH-7 cells, respectively. In addition a 70% inhibition of the DHBV DNA level was observed. Interestingly, 3'-mRNA cleavage fragments were detected in LMH but not in HuH-7 cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the ASO sequence was also effective in siRNA. Importantly, our results provide direct evidence that stable 3'-mRNA fragments were generated by siRNA in cells with high levels of DHBV replication. Whether these can cause adverse RNAi effects needs to be explored further.

  8. Coordinated study of subkilometer and 3-m irregularities in the F region generated by high-power HF heating at Arecibo

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Ganguly, S.; Gordon, W.E.

    1983-11-01

    High-power high-frequency transmitters near Arecibo were used to generate artificial ionospheric irregularities in the F region. Radio star scintillation observations at 430 MHz were performed at Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory with the 305-m antenna, and radar backscatter measurements at 50 MHz were simultaneously made from Guadeloupe Island to probe the subkilometer and 3-m irregularities in the heated volume. Scintillation studies indicate a low-frequency modulation of the faster intensity fluctuation structure. By the use of plasma drift data this low-frequency modulation of the faster intensity fluctuation structure. By the use of plasma drift data this low-frequency temporal structure translates to spatial dimensions of 1--2 km. The frequency of the modulation envelope is found to be controlled by the heater power and is related to the dominant irregularity wavelength generated by the self-focusing instability. Scintillation spectra imply a steep power law index of approx.5 in the scale length range of about 300 m to 150 m and a shallow index of approx.2 at less than 150 m. The steep power law index may arise from a aperture averaging effect of the large 305-m antenna at Arecibo. Simultaneous measurements of 430-MHz scintillations and 50-MHz radar backscatter from field-aligned striations were performed to show that subkilometer irregularities can be generated by both O and X mode heating whereas the 3-m irregularities are excited only by the O mode heating, as is predicted by the theories of self-focusing and parametric instability.

  9. The association between splenocyte apoptosis and alterations of Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA expression, and oxidative stress induced by dietary nickel chloride in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianying; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wu, Bangyuan

    2013-12-01

    Two hundred and forty avian broilers were equally divided into four groups, and raised with a corn-soybean basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 300, 600, 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Numbers or percentages of apoptotic splenocytes by flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL were higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. Results measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that mRNA expression and contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in Bax and Caspase-3, and were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in Bcl-2 of the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups. Also, the SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, and the ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical, and GSH contents were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and MDA contents were increased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in all groups. In conclusion, dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused apoptosis, altered Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA expression levels and contents, and induced oxidative stress in the spleen. Also, splenocyte apoptosis was closely related to the alternations of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA expression, and oxidative damage. The splenic immunity and blood filtration functions were impaired in broilers. PMID:24351749

  10. Tudor-SN, a component of stress granules, regulates growth under salt stress by modulating GA20ox3 mRNA levels in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunxia; Yan, Zongyun; Wang, Yizheng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Han, Yuzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Tudor-SN protein (TSN) is universally expressed and highly conserved in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, TSN is reportedly involved in stress adaptation, but the mechanism involved in this adaptation is not understood. Here, we provide evidence that TSN regulates the mRNA levels of GA20ox3, a key enzyme for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The levels of GA20ox3 transcripts decreased in TSN1/TSN2 RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic lines and increased in TSN1 over-expression (OE) transgenic lines. The TSN1 OE lines displayed phenotypes that may be attributed to the overproduction of GA. No obvious defects were observed in the RNAi transgenic lines under normal conditions, but under salt stress conditions these lines displayed slower growth than wild-type (WT) plants. Two mutants of GA20ox3, ga20ox3-1 and -2, also showed slower growth under stress than WT plants. Moreover, a higher accumulation of GA20ox3 transcripts was observed under salt stress. The results of a western blot analysis indicated that higher levels of TSN1 accumulated after salt treatment than under normal conditions. Subcellular localization studies showed that TSN1 was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm under normal conditions but accumulated in small granules and co-localized with RBP47, a marker protein for stress granules (SGs), in response to salt stress. The results of RNA immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that TSN1 bound GA20ox3 mRNA in vivo. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that TSN is a novel component of plant SGs that regulates growth under salt stress by modulating levels of GA20ox3 mRNA. PMID:25205572

  11. Measurement of TFF3 mRNA in aspirates from thyroid nodules using mesh filtration: the first clinical trial in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroya; Takano, Toru; Kihara, Minoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh; Miyauchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of gene expression levels in thyroid tumor cells in aspirates was difficult because it is interfered with peripheral blood cells or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this study, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells efficiently with mesh filtration. The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA was estimated using LGALS3 mRNA as an internal control (T/G ratio) in 148 preoperative thyroid aspirates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of T/G ratio for high, moderate, and low samples were 6.5%, 2.5%, and 9.7%, respectively, and inter-assay CV for high, moderate, and low samples were 27.7%, 21.9%, and 38.2%, respectively. Nondiagnostic samples in terms of T/G ratio and cytology were 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. We observed no interference with the data by contaminating blood cells. Among these patients, 12 patients received more than two repeated aspirations. We did not observe a marked day-to-day variation except in two cases. All 13 preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed an extremely low T/G ratio, whereas 93 aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied T/G ratios and 21.5% of them showed a T/G ratio below the cut-off value. Eleven cases underwent surgery. All nodules showing a low T/G ratio were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma by pathological diagnosis. However, one nodule diagnosed as follicular adenoma after surgery showed a high T/G ratio. Our present method may be a promising preoperative test for measuring mRNAs in thyroid aspirates.

  12. Density functional theory studies on theelectronic, structural, phonon dynamicaland thermo-stability properties of bicarbonates MHCO3, M D Li, Na, K

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yuhua; Zhang, Bo; Sorescu, Dan C.; Johnson, Karl; Majzoub, Eric H; Luebke, David R.

    2012-07-01

    The structural, electronic, phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of MHCO3 (M D Li, Na, K) solids were investigated using density functional theory. The calculated bulk properties for both their ambient and the high-pressure phases are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. Solid phase LiHCO3 has not yet been observed experimentally. We have predicted several possible crystal structures for LiHCO3 using crystallographic database searching and prototype electrostatic ground state modeling. Our total energy and phonon free energy .FPH/ calculations predict that LiHCO3 will be stable under suitable conditions of temperature and partial pressures of CO2 and H2O. Our calculations indicate that the HCO􀀀 3 groups in LiHCO3 and NaHCO3 form an infinite chain structure through O#1; #1; #1;H#1; #1; #1;O hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the HCO􀀀 3 anions form dimers, .HCO􀀀 3 /2, connected through double hydrogen bonds in all phases of KHCO3. Based on density functional perturbation theory, the Born effective charge tensor of each atom type was obtained for all phases of the bicarbonates. Their phonon dispersions with the longitudinal optical–transverse optical splitting were also investigated. Based on lattice phonon dynamics study, the infrared spectra and the thermodynamic properties of these bicarbonates were obtained. Over the temperature range 0–900 K, the FPH and the entropies (S) of MHCO3 (M D Li, Na, K) systems vary as FPH.LiHCO3/ > FPH.NaHCO3/ > FPH.KHCO3/ and S.KHCO3/ > S.NaHCO3/ > S.LiHCO3/, respectively, in agreement with the available experimental data. Analysis of the predicted thermodynamics of the CO2 capture reactions indicates that the carbonate/bicarbonate transition reactions for Na and K could be used for CO2 capture technology, in agreement with experiments.

  13. SF3M software: 3-D photo-reconstruction for non-expert users and its application to a gully network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, C.; James, M. R.; Redel-Macías, M. D.; Pérez, R.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional photo-reconstruction (PR) techniques have been successfully used to produce high-resolution surface models for different applications and over different spatial scales. However, innovative approaches are required to overcome some limitations that this technique may present for field image acquisition in challenging scene geometries. Here, we evaluate SF3M, a new graphical user interface for implementing a complete PR workflow based on freely available software (including external calls to VisualSFM and CloudCompare), in combination with a low-cost survey design for the reconstruction of a several-hundred-metres-long gully network. SF3M provided a semi-automated workflow for 3-D reconstruction requiring ~ 49 h (of which only 17 % required operator assistance) for obtaining a final gully network model of > 17 million points over a gully plan area of 4230 m2. We show that a walking itinerary along the gully perimeter using two lightweight automatic cameras (1 s time-lapse mode) and a 6 m long pole is an efficient method for 3-D monitoring of gullies, at a low cost (~ EUR 1000 budget for the field equipment) and the time requirements (~ 90 min for image collection). A mean error of 6.9 cm at the ground control points was found, mainly due to model deformations derived from the linear geometry of the gully and residual errors in camera calibration. The straightforward image collection and processing approach can be of great benefit for non-expert users working on gully erosion assessment.

  14. Ultrastructural observation of the acid-base resistant zone of all-in-one adhesives using three different acid-base challenges.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Miho; Nikaido, Toru; Inoue, Go; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ultrastructure of the dentin-adhesive interface using two all-in-one adhesive systems (Clearfil Tri-S Bond, TB; Tokuyama Bond Force, BF) after different acid-base challenges. Three solutions were used as acidic solutions for the acid-base challenges: a demineralizing solution (DS), a phosphoric acid solution (PA), and a hydrochloric acid solution (HCl). After the acid-base challenges, the bonded interfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Thickness of the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) created in PA and HCl was thinner than in DS for both adhesive systems. For BF adhesive, an eroded area was observed beneath the ABRZ after immersion in PA and HCl, but not in DS. Conversely for TB adhesive, the eroded area was observed only after immersion in PA. In conclusion, although the ABRZ was observed for both all-in-one adhesive systems, its morphological features were influenced by the ingredients of both the adhesive material and acidic solution.

  15. An arbitrary correction function for CO(2) evolution in acid-base titrations and its use in multiparametric refinement of data.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, M; Nowogrocki, G

    1981-08-01

    A great number of acid-base titrations are performed under an inert gas flow: in the procedure, a variable amount of CO(2)-from carbonated reactants-is carried away and thus prevents strict application of mass-balance equations. A function for the CO(2) evolution is proposed and introduced into the general expression for the volume of titrant. Use of this expression in multiparametric refinement yields, besides the usual values (concentrations, acidity constants...), a parameter characteristic of this departure of CO(2). Furthermore, a modified weighting factor is introduced to take into account the departure from equilibrium caused by the slow CO(2) evolution. The validity of these functions was successfully tested on three typical examples: neutralization of strong acid by sodium carbonate, of sodium carbonate by strong acid, and of a mixture of hydrochloric acid, 4-nitrophenol and phenol by carbonated potassium hydroxide.

  16. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  17. Precipitation diagrams and solubility of uric acid dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Ivančić, V.; Füredi-Milhofer, H.; Brown, W. E.; Gregory, T. M.

    1987-07-01

    The solubility of uric acid dihydrate (UA·2H 2O) and the precipitation of UA·2H 2O and anhydrous uric acid (UA) from solutions containing sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid have been investigated. For the solubility studies, crystals of pure UA·2H 2O were prepared and equilibrated with water and with solutions of HCl or NaOH for 60 min or 20 h, respectively. The equilibrium pH (pH = 2-6.25) and uric acid concentration were determined. For the precipitation experiments, commercial UA was dissolved in NaOH in a 1:1.1 molar ratio and UA·2H 2O and/or UA were precipitated with hydrochloric acid. The precipitates and/or supernatants were examined 24 h after sample preparation. The results are represented in the form of tables, precipitation diagrams and "chemical potential" diagrams. Solubility measurements with 60 min equilibration times yielded the solubility products of UA·2H 2O, K sp(298 K) = (0.926 ± 0.025) × 10 -9mol2dm-6 and K sp(310 K) = (2.25 ± 0.05) × 10 -9mol2dm-6 and the first dissociation constants of uric acid, K 1(298 K) = (2.45 ± 0.07) × 10 -6moldm-3 and K 1(310 K) = (3.63 ± 0.08) × 10 -6moldm-3. Precipitation diagrams show that under the given experimental conditions, at 298 K, UA·2H 2O is stable for 24 h while at 310 K this was true only for precipitates formed from solutions of high supersaturations. At lower supersaturations, mixtures of UA·2H 2O and UA formed. Consequently, while the Ksp value determined from precipitation data obtained at 298 K (K sp = 1.04 × 10 -9mol2dm-6) was consistent with the respective solubility product, the 310 K precipitation boundary yielded an ion activity product, AP, the value of which fulfills the conditions Ksp(UA) < AP < Ksp (UA·2H 2O). Similar ion activity products were obtained from solubility measurements in pure water at 20 h equilibration time.

  18. Acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis of wheat straw to improve sugar recovery.

    PubMed

    Ertas, Murat; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-10-01

    A comparison study of autohydrolysis and acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis of wheat straw was performed to understand the impact of acid addition on overall sugar recovery. Autohydrolysis combined with refining is capable of achieving sugar recoveries in the mid 70s. If the addition of a small amount of acid is capable of increasing the sugar recovery even higher it may be economically attractive. Acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric and sulfurous acids were selected for acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis pretreatments. Autohydrolysis with no acid at 190 °C showed the highest total sugar in the prehydrolyzate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 4 and 10 FPU/g for 96 h. Acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis at 190 °C with sulfurous acid showed the highest total sugar recovery of 81.2% at 4 FPU/g enzyme charge compared with 64.3% at 190 °C autohydrolysis without acid.

  19. Bone growth enhancement in vivo on press-fit titanium alloy implants with acid etched microtexture.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E; Soballe, Kjeld

    2008-11-01

    Early bone ongrowth secures long-term fixation of primary implants inserted without cement. Implant surfaces roughened with a texture on the micrometer scale are known to be osseoconductive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone formation at the surface of acid etched implants modified on the micro-scale. We compared implants with a nonparticulate texture made by chemical milling (hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid) (control) with implants that had a dual acid etched (hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid) microtexture surface superimposed on the primary chemically milled texture. We used an experimental joint replacement model with cylindrical titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V) inserted paired and press-fit in cancellous tibia metaphyseal bone of eight canines for 4 weeks and evaluated by histomorphometric quantification. A significant twofold median increase was seen for bone ongrowth on the acid etched surface [median, 36.1% (interquartile range, 24.3-44.6%)] compared to the control [18.4% (15.6-20.4%)]. The percentage of fibrous tissue at the implant surface and adjacent bone was significantly less for dual acid textured implants compared with control implants. These results show that secondary roughening of titanium alloy implant surface by dual acid etching increases bone formation at the implant bone interface. PMID:18186059

  20. Bone growth enhancement in vivo on press-fit titanium alloy implants with acid etched microtexture

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E.; Soballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Early bone ongrowth secures long-term fixation of primary implants inserted without cement. Implant surfaces roughened with a texture on the micrometer scale are known to be osseoconductive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone formation at the surface of acid etched implants modified on the micro-scale. We compared implants with a nonparticulate texture made by chemical milling (hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid) (control) with implants that had a dual acid etched (hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid) microtexture surface superimposed on the primary chemically milled texture. We used an experimental joint replacement model with cylindrical titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V) inserted paired and press-fit in cancellous tibia metaphyseal bone of eight canines for 4 weeks and evaluated by histomorphometric quantification. A significant twofold median increase was seen for bone ongrowth on the acid etched surface [median, 36.1% (interquartile range, 24.3–44.6%)] compared to the control [18.4% (15.6–20.4%)]. The percentage of fibrous tissue at the implant surface and adjacent bone was significantly less for dual acid textured implants compared with control implants. These results show that secondary roughening of titanium alloy implant surface by dual acid etching increases bone formation at the implant bone interface. PMID:18186059