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Sample records for 3m hydrochloric acid

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. ARDS following inhalation of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Bansal, D P; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Radhika, P; Sharma, Manish

    2011-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of Inhalation injury can range from mild cough to a devastating ARDS. We herewith present a patient who is a goldsmith by occupation and his work consists of dissolving gold in Hydrochloric acid. He had accidentally inhaled fumes of Hydrochloric acid and presented with cough and breathlessness, later on required mechanical ventilation for ARDS and improved. This highlights the importance of not to neglect mild symptoms like cough and dyspnea in such a scenario which may have some hidden catastrophe.

  13. Venus clouds - A dirty hydrochloric acid model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1972-01-01

    The spectral and polarization data for Venus are consistent with micrometer-sized aerosol cloud particles of hydrochloric acid with soluble and insoluble iron compounds, whose source could be volcanic or crustal dust. The yellow color of the clouds could be due to absorption bands in the near UV involving ferric iron and chlorine complexes. It is pointed out that the UV features could arise from variations in the concentrations of iron and hydrochloric acid in the cloud particles.

  14. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material approved for hydrochloric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) Containment systems for contaminated hydrochloric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) on a case by case basis....

  15. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material approved for hydrochloric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) Containment systems for contaminated hydrochloric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) on a case by case basis....

  16. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  17. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  3. Persistent ion pairing in aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Baer, Marcel D; Fulton, John L; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Schenter, Gregory K; Mundy, Christopher J

    2014-07-03

    For strong acids, like hydrochloric acid, the complete dissociation into an excess proton and conjugated base as well as the formation of independent solvated charged fragments is assumed. The existence of chloride-hydronium (Cl(-)···H3O(+)) contact ion pairs even in moderate concentration hydrochloric acid (2.5 m) demonstrates that the counterions do not behave merely as spectators. Through comparison of recent extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements to state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we are able to obtain a unique view into the molecular structure of medium-to-high concentrated electrolytes. Here we report that the Cl(-)···H3O(+) contact ion pair structure persists throughout the entire concentration range studied and that these structures differ significantly from moieties studied in microsolvated hydrochloric acid gas phase clusters. Characterizing distinct populations of these ion pairs gives rise to a novel molecular level description of how to view the reaction network for acid dissociation and how it relates to our picture of acid-base equilibria.

  4. Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Marcel D.; Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-03

    For strong acids, like hydrochloric acid, the complete dissociation into an excess proton and conjugated base as well as the formation of independent solvated charged fragments is assumed. The existence of a chloride-Hyronium (Cl-H3O+) contact ion pairs even in moderate concentration hydrochloric acid (2.5 m) demonstrates that the counter ions do not behave merely as spectators. Through the use of modern extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements in conjunction with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we are able to obtain an unprecedented view into the molecular structure of medium to high concentrated electrolytes. Here we report that the Cl-H3O+ contact ion pair structure persists throughout the entire concentration range studied and that these structures differ significantly from moieties studied in micro-solvated hydrochloric acid clusters. Characterizing distinct populations of these ion pairs gives rise to a novel molecular level description of how to think about the activity of the proton that impacts our picture of the pH scale. Funding for CJM, GKS, and JLF was provided by DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Funding for MDB was provided throught the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MB was funded through Argonne National Laboratory.

  5. Emergency esophagogastrectomy for treatment of hydrochloric acid injury.

    PubMed

    Horváth, O P; Oláh, T; Zentai, G

    1991-07-01

    Eight patients with severe hydrochloric acid injury of the esophagus and stomach had early esophagogastrectomy. Four patients survived and 6 to 8 weeks later underwent successful substernal colon replacement. The value of early diagnosis and subsequent aggressive surgical management of patients who have ingested hydrochloric acid is stressed.

  6. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  7. Process and apparatus for electrolysis of hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, F.; Wiechers, H.

    1980-12-02

    In the production of chlorine and hydrogen from hydrochloric acid by electrolysis in an electrolysis cell comprising a plurality of vertically arranged bipolar electrodes, a diaphragm arranged between each two electrodes to divide the electrolysis chambers formed between them into an anolyte chamber and a catholyte chamber, and outlet and inlet devices for the electrolyte, the improvement which comprises electrolyzing the hydrochloric acid in at least two successive stages, and degassing the hydrochloric acid. Advantageously the hydrochloric acid moves from bottom to top, first through an upper stage and then through a lower stage. As a result less electrode surface is needed, a higher current density and/or voltage is possible so existing apparatus can be modified to connect more bipolar electrodes in series.

  8. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and... system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  9. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars.

  10. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  11. Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Rezaei, B.; Movahedinia, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juice and pharmaceuticals. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolourisation of Methyl Orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The linearity range of the calibration graph depends on bromate concentration. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.6×10 -6 M and calibration rang is 8×10 -6-1.2×10 -3 M ascorbic acid. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determinations of 8×10 -6 and 2×10 -5 M ascorbic acid was 2.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  12. Kinetic study of free fatty acid esterification reaction catalyzed by recoverable and reusable hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Hung

    2013-02-01

    The catalytic performance and recoverability of several homogeneous acid catalysts (hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids) for the esterification of enzyme-hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol were studied. Although all tested catalysts drove the reaction to a high yield, hydrochloric acid was the only catalyst that could be considerably recovered and reused. The kinetics of the esterification reaction catalyzed by hydrochloric acid was investigated under varying catalyst loading (0.1-1M), reaction temperature (303-343K), and methanol/FFA molar ratio (1:1-20:1). In addition, a pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model incorporating the above factors was developed. A good agreement (r(2)=0.98) between the experimental and calculated data was obtained, thus proving the reliability of the model. Furthermore, the reusability of hydrochloric acid in FFA esterification can be predicted by the developed model. The recoverable hydrochloric acid achieved high yields of FFA esterification within five times of reuse.

  13. Efficient regioselective O3-monodesilylation by hydrochloric acid in cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiamin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Qifang; Chen, Tieyu; Ling, Chang-Chun

    2015-06-17

    An efficient O3-monodesilylation method has been developed for the derivatization of per-3-O-silylated cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. Using hydrochloric acid as a reagent, the O3-monodesilylation was found to be regioselective, mild, practical and general as it can be applied to all α-, β- and γ-CDs. The advantage of the methodology is that the acid-catalyzed O3-desilylation can be carried out in a stepwise manner so that different types of functional groups can be introduced to a CD molecule at different stage of the O3-desilylations. This makes the current methodology flexible and versatile. This current methodology constitutes one of the few methodologies available for the regioselective modification of CDs at the secondary face.

  14. In situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae using hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Im, Hanjin; Lee, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    This study addresses in situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst. In situ transesterification was performed by heating the mixture of wet algal cells, HCl, methanol, and solvent in one pot, resulting in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield over 90% at 95°C. The effects of reaction variables of temperature, amounts of catalyst, reactant, and solvent, and type of solvents on the yield were investigated. Compared with the catalytic effect of H2SO4, in situ transesterification using HCl has benefits of being less affected by moisture levels that are as high as or above 80%, and requiring less amounts of catalyst and solvent. For an equimolar amount of catalyst, HCl showed 15wt.% higher FAME yield than H2SO4. This in situ transesterification using HCl as a catalyst would help to realize a feasible way to produce biodiesel from wet microalgae.

  15. Thallium Transfer from Hydrochloric Acid Media into Pure Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tereshatov, Evgeny E; Boltoeva, Maria Yu; Mazan, Valerie; Volia, Merinda F; Folden, Charles M

    2016-03-10

    Pure hydrophobic ionic liquids are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. In this work we have systematically investigated thallium (Tl) extraction from aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions into six pure fluorinated ionic liquids, namely imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)-imide anions. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. Tl concentrations were on the order of picomolar (analyzed using radioactive tracers) and millimolar (analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The extraction of the cationic thallium species Tl(+) is higher for ionic liquids with more hydrophilic cations, while for the TlX(z)(3-z) anionic species (where X = Cl(-) and/or Br(-)), the extraction efficiency is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. The highest distribution value of Tl(III) was approximately 2000. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the coextraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined.

  16. Hydrochloric acid: an overlooked driver of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Evans, Chris D; Monteith, Don T; Fowler, David; Cape, J Neil; Brayshaw, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Research on the ecosystem impacts of acidifying pollutants, and measures to control them, has focused almost exclusively on sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), although emitted by coal burning, has been overlooked as a driver of ecosystem change because most of it was considered to redeposit close to emission sources rather than in remote natural ecosystems. Despite receiving little regulatory attention, measures to reduce S emissions, and changes in energy supply, have led to a 95% reduction in United Kingdom HCl emissions within 20 years. Long-term precipitation, surface water, and soil solution data suggest that the near-disappearance of HCl from deposition could account for 30-40% of chemical recovery from acidification during this time, affecting both near-source and remote areas. Because HCl is highly mobile in reducing environments, it is a more potent acidifier of wetlands than S or N, and HCl may have been the major driver of past peatland acidification. Reduced HCl loadings could therefore have affected the peatland carbon cycle, contributing to increases in dissolved organic carbon leaching to surface waters. With many regions increasingly reliant on coal for power generation, HCl should be recognized as a potentially significant constituent of resulting emissions, with distinctive ecosystem impacts.

  17. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  18. [Concentration of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in gastric juice in dogs after starvation and refeeding].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Iu V; Polenov, S A

    2005-03-01

    Feeding fogs with meat after a 3-day period of starvation increased hydrochloric acid concentration with subsequent return of the parameter to normal values. Under the same conditions, pepsin concentration decreased and raised up after re-feeding. Histamine administration following the starvation decreased hydrochloric acid concentration with subsequent normalising. In three days after re-feeding and histamine administration, pepsin concentration drooped owing, probably, to a decrease of parietal cell H2-receptor affinity to histamine. Pentagastrin administration after the starvation increased hydrochloric acid concentration. The findings suggest G-cell function inhibition occurring after a 3-day starvation which is important for the stomach mucous membrane protection.

  19. Fatal myocardial infarction after hydrochloric acid ingestion in a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Sari, Ibrahim; Zengin, Suat; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Davutoglu, Vedat; Yildirim, Cuma

    2008-06-01

    Ingestion of acid-containing household products either accidentally or for suicide attempt is a common form of intoxication. Hydrochloric acid is widely used as an antirust compound or cleaner in homes and is highly corrosive and generally causes coagulation necrosis which could lead to perforation in the gastrointestinal system. Although hydrochloric acid ingestion is mainly harmful to the gastrointestinal system, it may also cause metabolic acidosis, hemolysis, renal failure, and fatality as well. Cardiovascular manifestations of hydrochloric acid ingestion are extremely rare, and we report a 48-year-old man who died of acute inferolateral myocardial infarction after hydrochloric acid ingestion in a suicide attempt who had no history of coronary artery disease. In conclusion, although cardiovascular manifestations of hydrochloric acid ingestion are extremely rare, the ingestion may still cause myocardial infarction which could be fatal. Physicians dealing with hydrochloric acid ingestion in the ED should be aware of this possibility and always obtain serial electrocardiograms even if the patient has no cardiac complaint.

  20. Laboratory investigation of three distinct emissions monitors for hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Dene, Charles E; Pisano, John T; Durbin, Thomas D; Bumiller, Kurt; Crabbe, Keith; Muzio, Lawrence J

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on a continuous basis in coal-fired plants is expected to become more important if HCl standards become implemented as part of the Federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) standards that are under consideration. For this study, the operational performance of three methods/instruments, including tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, were evaluated over a range of real-world operating environments. Evaluations were done over an HCl concentration range of 0-25 ppmv and temperatures of 25, 100, and 185 °C. The average differences with respect to temperature were 3.0% for the TDL for values over 2.0 ppmv and 6.9% of all concentrations, 3.3% for the CRDS, and 4.5% for the FTIR. Interference tests for H2O, SO2, and CO, CO2, and NO for a range of concentrations typical of flue gases from coal-fired power plants did not show any strong interferences. The possible exception was an interference from H2O with the FTIR. The instrument average precision over the entire range was 4.4% for the TDL with better precision seen for concentrations levels of 2.0 ppmv and above, 2.5% for the CRDS, and 3.5% for the FTIR. The minimum detection limits were all on the order of 0.25 ppmv, or less, utilizing the TDL values with a 5-m path. Zero drift was found to be 1.48% for the TDL, 0.88% for the CRDS, and 1.28% for the FTIR.

  1. The effectiveness of a modified hydrochloric acid-quartz-pumice abrasion technique on fluorosis stains: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, G

    1998-02-01

    Endemic dental fluorosis is a form of enamel hypoplasia characterized by moderate-to-severe staining of the tooth surface. Since 1916, numerous investigators have used hydrochloric acid alone on fluorosis stains. More recently, 18% hydrochloric acid-pumice microabrasion has been used to achieve color modification. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the high concentration and low viscosity of hydrochloric acid, which can cause damage to oral and dental tissues. To eliminate this problem, quartz particles can be mixed with the hydrochloric acid. The quartz particles prevent the hydrochloric acid from flowing uncontrollablely by altering it to a gel-like form. A modified 18% hydrochloric acid-quartz-pumice abrasion technique was used to remove fluorine stains from vital teeth in a teenager.

  2. Kinetics of Hydrochloric Acid Leaching of Titanium from Titanium-Bearing Electric Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Chen, Feng; Guo, Yufeng; Jiang, Tao; Travyanov, Andrew Yakovlevich; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2016-05-01

    The hydrochloric acid leaching of titanium from titanium-bearing electric furnace slag was investigated under different experimental conditions. The results indicate that particle size, hydrochloric acid concentration and reaction temperature were of significance to the leaching kinetics. Specifically, reaction temperature was the most important factor followed by hydrochloric acid concentration and particle size. The shrinking core model was used to describe the leaching process which was controlled by surface chemical reaction. The kinetic equation was obtained and the activation energy was found to be 43.16 kJ/mol. Iron and calcium species were almost completely dissolved in the acid when the extraction degree of titanium reached 99.84%. MgO (19.34 wt.%) and Al2O3 (32.45 wt.%) in the spinel were still in the leaching residue and SiO2 (43.53 wt.%) in the form of quartz remained in the leaching residue.

  3. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions.

  4. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  5. The use of dilute hydrochloric acid and cimetidine to reverse severe metabolic alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, B J; Tindall, S F; Elliott, D J

    1978-02-01

    Two cases of severe metabolic alkalosis associated with gastric hypersecretion were successfully treated with dilute hydrochloric acid and a histamine H2-receptor antagonist given by intravenous infusion. This combined therapy with electrolyte replacement and suppression of gastric secretion is valuable in the control of this serious metabolic abnormality when conventional treatment is unsuccessful or contraindicated.

  6. Model Experiment of Thermal Runaway Reactions Using the Aluminum-Hydrochloric Acid Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabayashi, Suguru; Nakano, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Kazuyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for the education of students about thermal runaway reactions based on the reaction between aluminum and hydrochloric acid as a model reaction is proposed. In the introductory part of the exercise, the induction period and subsequent thermal runaway behavior are evaluated via a simple observation of hydrogen gas evolution and…

  7. ST-segment elevation mimicking myocardial infarction after hydrochloric acid ingestion: Acute caustic myocarditis.

    PubMed

    San Antonio, Rodolfo; Pujol López, Margarida; Perea, Rosario Jesús; Sabaté, Manel

    ST-segment elevation after hydrochloric acid ingestion has barely been described in the literature, without identification of its causal mechanism. We hypothesize that acute caustic myocarditis, by direct contact between necrotic upper gastrointestinal tract and pericardium may induce the ECG findings.

  8. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  9. Depolymerization and de-N-acetylation of chitin oligomers in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Einbu, Aslak; Vårum, Kjell M

    2007-01-01

    The monosaccharide 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (glucosamine, GlcN) has recently drawn much attention in relation to its use to treat or prevent osteoarthritis in humans. Glucosamine is prepared from chitin, a process that is performed in concentrated acid, such as hydrochloric acid. This process involves two acid-catalyzed processes, that is, the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and of the N-acetyl linkages (de-N-acetylation). The depolymerization reaction has previously been found to be much faster compared to the deacetylation, with the consequence that the chitin chain will first be hydrolyzed to the monomer 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc) which is subsequently deacetylated. We have found that the chitin disaccharide GlcNAc(1-->4)GlcNAc could be completely hydrolyzed to the monosaccharide GlcNAc with negligible concomitant de-N-acetylation, and the chitin disaccharide and monosaccharide were further used to study the depolymerization reaction and the de-N-acetylation reaction, respectively. The reactions were performed in hydrochloric acid as a function of acid concentration (3-12 M) and temperature (20-35 degrees C), and 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reaction rates. The 1H NMR spectrum of GlcNAc in concentrated (12 M) and deuterated hydrochloric acid at 25 degrees C was assigned. The glucofuranosyl oxazolinium (3) ion was found to exist in equilibrium with the alpha- and beta-anomers of the pyranose form of GlcNAc, where 3 was present in half the total molar concentrations of the two anomeric forms of GlcNAc. At lower acid concentration (3-6 M), only trace concentrations of 3 could be detected. The rate of de-N-acetylation of GlcNAc was determined as a function of hydrochloric acid concentration, showing a maximum at 6 M and decreasing by a factor of 2 upon decreasing or increasing the acid concentration to 3 or 12 M. The activation energy for hydrolysis of the N-acetyl linkage of GlcNAc was

  10. Postoperative metabolic alkalosis and acute renal failure: rationale for the use of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Shavelle, H S; Parke, R

    1975-10-01

    Metabolic alkalosis secondary to chloride depletion, especially following gastrointestinal surgery and associated with acute renal failure, is a frequent clinical occurrence. Management of the resultant acid-base disturbance mandates chloride replacement. The presence of oliguria limits the choice of accompanying cation. The use of intravenous hydrochloric acid to correct and maintain proper chloride balance, secondary to external gastric fluid losses, is recommended as a straightforward approach. Two brief case synopses are presented. Both patients, florid examples of profound chloride depletion, required large amounts of intravenous hydrochloric acid. The options regarding the choice of chloride solution, hazards involved, and a simplified schema of replacement therapy are presented. Combined gastrointestinal and renal dysfunction create unusual biochemical and clinical alterations and may result in a complex management problem.

  11. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  12. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  13. Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

    2015-04-15

    Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM).

  14. Interaction of Benzimidazoles and Benzotriazole: Its Corrosion Protection Properties on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, K.; Mohan, Revathi; Joseph, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic hydrogen-bonded interaction of alkyl benzimidazoles and 1,2,3-benzotrizole and its corrosion protection properties on mild steel in hydrochloric acid at different temperatures have been studied using polarization, EIS, adsorption, surface studies, and computational methods. The extent of synergistic interaction increases with temperature. Quantum chemical approach is used to calculate some electronic properties of the molecules and to ascertain the synergistic interaction, inhibitive effect, and molecular structures. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies and the global chemical reactivity relate to some parameters, such as total energy, E HOMO, E LUMO, and gap energy (Δ E). 1,2,3-Benzotrizole interacts with benzimidazoles derivatives up to a bond length of approximately 1.99 Å. This interaction represents the formation of a hydrogen bond between the 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazoles. This synergistic interaction of 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazole derivatives offers extended inhibition efficiency toward mild steel in hydrochloric acid.

  15. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by lime.

    PubMed

    Zu, Shuai; Li, Wen-zhi; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Zihong; Wang, Ziyu; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a two stage process was evaluated to increase the sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with diluted hydrochloric acid to maximize the xylose yield, and then the residue was treated with lime to alter the lignin structure and swell the cellulose surface. The optimal condition was 120 °C and 40 min for diluted hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by lime pretreatment at 60 °C for 12h with lime loading at 0.1 g/g of substrate. The glucose and xylose yield was 78.0% and 97.0%, respectively, with cellulase dosage at 5 FPU/g of substrate. The total glucose yield increased to 85.9% when the cellulase loading was increased to 10 FPU/g of substrate. This two stage process was effective due to the swelling of the internal surface, an increase in the porosity and a decrease in the degree of polymerization.

  16. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone.

    PubMed

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2015-11-01

    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples.

  17. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  18. Laboratory studies on the retention of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonia on aerosol filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, Lothar; Wittmaack, Klaus

    Retention efficiencies of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonia were measured for different filters, with particular emphasis on cellulose (CE) and cellulose acetate-nitrate (CA) materials. Gases were produced either by nebulising aqueous solutions or by a novel technique based on the desorption from ammonium salts deposited on quartz fibre (QF) filters. Efficiencies for pure acidic gases and ammonia on CE and CA ranged from very low (⩽3.6%) to low (˜10% for HNO 3 on CE). In contrast, if acidic gases and ammonia were supplied in equimolar concentrations, they were retained (almost) completely on CE, with high efficiency on CA (60-80% for NH 3+HNO 3; 20-45% for NH 3+HCl), also with high efficiency on glass fibre filter, but with very low efficiency on QF and Teflon (Tf) filters (<1%). For CA, retention efficiencies were found to increase with increasing relative humidity and to decrease with decreasing mean pressure at which the filters were exposed to the gases. Once retained on CA filters, the retained gases may be lost again during subsequent exposure to clean air.

  19. Chemical reduction of europium(III) in hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasyants, A.G.; Gurinov, Yu.S.; Sofenina, E.V.

    1988-07-10

    The authors have devised a method for use at set pH and temperature, in which the volume of hydrogen produced is recorded and samples are taken for europium(II) analysis. The solution is poured into a glass cell with a thermostatic jacket; argon is passed through a capillary tube 2 for 0.5 h before the reduction is started, with the bubbling rate determined from the change in level in a burette. This burette is also used to record the hydrogen volume. The europium(II) concentration is determined by titration with potassium dichromate by a standard method. Europium is reduced by zinc in acid solution. The zinc consumption in hydrogen production can be reduced by operating at pH 2-3, with the precipitant introduced after the reaction starts.

  20. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  1. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  2. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Bassir, Mahshid Mohammadi; Bagheri, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H3PO4-pumice compound (split-mouth design). Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA) and degree of stain removal (DSR), were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H3PO4-pumice. Conclusion: The H3PO4-pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound. PMID:23349575

  3. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are protected against acetic acid, but not hydrochloric acid, by hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Ross, T

    2009-06-01

    Chapman et al. (B. Chapman, N. Jensen, T Ross, and M. B. Cole, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:5165-5172, 2006) demonstrated that an increased NaCl concentration prolongs survival of Escherichia coli O157 SERL 2 in a broth model simulating the aqueous phase of a food dressing or sauce containing acetic acid. We examined the responses of five other E. coli strains and four Salmonella enterica strains to increasing concentrations of NaCl under conditions of lethal acidity and observed that the average "lag" time prior to inactivation decreases in the presence of hydrochloric acid but not in the presence of acetic acid. For E. coli in the presence of acetic acid, the lag time increased with increasing NaCl concentrations up to 2 to 4% at pH 4.0, up to 4 to 6% at pH 3.8, and up to 4 to 7% (wt/wt of water) NaCl at pH 3.6. Salmonella was inactivated more rapidly by combined acetic acid and NaCl stresses than E. coli, but increasing NaCl concentrations still decreased the lag time prior to inactivation in the presence of acetic acid; at pH 4.0 up to 1 to 4% NaCl was protective, and at pH 3.8 up to 1 to 2% NaCl delayed the onset of inactivation. Sublethal injury kinetics suggest that this complex response is a balance between the lethal effects of acetic acid, against which NaCl is apparently protective, and the lethal effects of the NaCl itself. Compared against 3% NaCl, 10% (wt/wt of water) sucrose with 0.5% NaCl (which has similar osmotic potential) was found to be equally protective against adverse acetic acid conditions. We propose that hypertonicity may directly affect the rate of diffusion of acetic acid into cells and hence cell survival.

  4. Phase equilibria and distribution constants of metal ions in diantipyryl alkane-organic acid-hydrochloric acid-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtev, M. I.; Popova, O. N.; Yuminova, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability of antipyrine and its derivatives (diantipyryl alkanes) to form separating systems in the presence of salicylic (sulfosalicylic) acid and hydrochloric acid and water is studied. The optimum volume of the organic phase, the composition of complexes, and the mechanism for the distribution of metal ions are determined, depending on the concentrations of the main components and the salting-out agent. The complex distribution and extraction constants are calculated.

  5. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  6. Reproducible protein analysis by CE using linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries and hydrochloric acid rinsing.

    PubMed

    Suratman, Adhitasari; Wätzig, Hermann

    2007-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid was investigated as a rinsing reagent to remove adsorbed proteins from linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries for electrophoresis. Three model proteins were used, namely cytochrome c as a basic protein, beta-lactoglobulin as an acidic protein, and beta-casein as a more easily denaturing protein. In order to regenerate capillary surfaces, they have been rinsed for 5 min with 2 M hydrochloric acid, 5 min with water, and then 30 min with buffer after every tenth run. It was found important to perform this regeneration procedure on time. The obtained results show good repeatability of the apparent EOF mobility with percentage RSDs below 3% (n = 60) in various cases. These good results were mainly confirmed in long-term series with more than 200 runs each. Only very high concentrations (175 microM) of beta-lactoglobulin and beta-casein at pH 3.5 gave RSD% values above 5%. For these conditions, the further test of 85% m/m phosphoric acid as rinsing reagent showed a good repeatability of the apparent EOF mobilities as well.

  7. Effect of beverages on bovine dental enamel subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Amoras, Dinah Ribeiro; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (p<0.00001) in the enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness.

  8. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome in housewives due to a bleach-hydrochloric acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Gorguner, Metin; Aslan, Sahin; Inandi, Tacettin; Cakir, Zeynep

    2004-02-01

    The sudden onset of asthmalike symptoms and persistence of airway reactivity following an acute exposure to an irritant gas or vapor has been termed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). A mixture of sodium hypochlorite (bleach, 40%) and hydrochloric acid (18%) is commonly used as a household cleaning solution in our region. From this mixture, chlorine gas is produced, which can cause airway damage and ensuing RADS. Here we describe findings of patients with RADS due to this cleaning mixture, and determine factors associated with a favorable outcome. Data were collected retrospectively on 55 symptomatic patients presenting to our emergency department after inhalation exposure to a mixture of bleach and hydrochloric acid. Symptoms, past medical and smoking history, details of the exposure, initial peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and oxygenation, and acute reversibility of airways obstruction were documented. All patients met previously defined criteria for the diagnosis of RADS, but did not undergo methacholine challenge testing and bronchoalveolar lavage or histopathologic study. Fifty patients were followed over the course of 3 mo. The majority of exposures (64%) occurred in the bathroom or kitchen. Only 21 of 55 (38%) patients showed an improvement in PEFR of 15% or greater following two beta(2)-agonist inhalation treatments. In follow-up, 48 patients (87%) improved clinically and functionally (FEV(1)). Seven patients (13%) deteriorated, with ARDS developing in two, one of whom died from respiratory failure. Advanced age, initial low PEFR, exposure in a small enclosed area, use immediately after mixing, and prolonged short- and long-term exposures were associated with a poorer prognosis. This descriptive study is the largest case series in the literature of RADS developing after exposure to a bleach-hydrochloric acid mixture. The optimum acute treatment and long-term outcomes for patients with RADS due to this combination still need to be determined.

  9. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of gold(iii) with p-dimethylaminobenzilidenerhodanine in hydrochloric acid-ethanol medium.

    PubMed

    Borissova, R

    The reaction between gold(III) and p-dimethylaminobenzilidenerhodanine in hydrochloric acid medium containing 20% v/v ethanol has been studied spectrophotometrically. It has been established that the process is very complicated: gold(III) is reduced to gold(I) which reacts with unchanged reagent. The value of the equilibrium constant is 2.56 +/- 0.45. Conditions are proposed for the determination of 2-8 mug of gold in 25 ml, with a standard deviation of 0.04 mug 25 ml .

  11. A Method for Monitoring Organic Chlorides, Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorine in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. E.; Menichelli, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    While not commonly presented in nonurban atmospheres, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid and chlorine are significant in industrial air pollution and industrial hygiene. Based on a microcoulometer, a much more sensitive method than has heretofore been available has been developed for monitoring these air impurities. The method has a response time (90%) of about twenty seconds, requires no calibration, is accurate to +/- 2.5%, and specific except for bromide and iodide interferences. The instrument is portable and has been operated unattended for 18 hours without difficulty.

  12. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  13. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  14. Distribution of orally ingested hydrochloric acid in the thoracoabdominal cavity after death.

    PubMed

    Yoshitome, Kei; Miyaishi, Satoru; Ishikawa, Takaki; Yamamoto, Yuji; Ishizu, Hideo

    2006-05-01

    The authors encountered a case of hydrochloric acid (HCl) poisoning, thought to be caused by oral ingestion of concentrated HCl. Coagulation of the surface of the tongue and the mucosa of the pharynx, esophagus, and stomach were observed at forensic autopsy. An overabundance of Cl- was found in the gastric contents, corresponding to 8.19 mL of concentrated HCl. This was suggested to be a lethal oral dose of concentrated HCl, and the cause of death was determined to be HCl poisoning. Measuring the pH and concentrations of various ions in body fluids and contents of the alimentary tract enabled postmortem diffusion of HCl to be determined.

  15. Hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous hydrogen chloride partitioning in a cloud contaminated by solid rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Partitioning of hydrogen chloride between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in the lower atmosphere was experimentally investigated in a solid rocket exhaust cloud diluted with humid ambient air. Airborne measurements were obtained of gaseous HCl, total HCl, relative humidity and temperature to evaluate the conditions under which aerosol formation occurs in the troposphere in the presence of hygroscopic HCl vapor. Equilibrium predictions of HCl aerosol formation accurately predict the measured HCl partitioning over a range of total HCl concentrations from 0.6 to 16 ppm.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated with zinc chloride and hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.F.; Gong, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel, was dissolved in a concentrated solution of ZnCl/sub 2/ and 0.5% hydrochloric acid followed by heating at 145/sup 0/C for 6 min. after cooling, cellulose in its amorphous form was precipitated by the addition of acetone. The resulting cellulose was hydrolyzed by cellulase derived from Trichoderma viride. At concentrations of 20% cellulose and 1% cellulase, cellulose was hydrolyzed completely for form a solution of 19% glucose and 1% cellobiose within 72 h of incubation. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  17. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution.

  18. Microarray-based transcriptome of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to sublethal concentrations of acetic acid, lactic acid, and hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Girum Tadesse; Møretrø, Trond; Snipen, Lars; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; Naterstad, Kristine; Axelsson, Lars

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes , an important foodborne pathogen, commonly encounters organic acids in food-related environments. The transcriptome of L. monocytogenes L502 was analyzed after adaptation to pH 5 in the presence of acetic acid, lactic acid, or hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 25 °C, representing a condition encountered in mildly acidic ready-to-eat food kept at room temperature. The acid-treated cells were compared with a reference culture with a pH of 6.7 at the time of RNA harvesting. The number of genes and magnitude of transcriptional responses were higher for the organic acids than for HCl. Protein coding genes described for low pH stress, energy transport and metabolism, virulence determinates, and acid tolerance response were commonly regulated in the 3 acid-stressed cultures. Interestingly, the transcriptional levels of histidine and cell wall biosynthetic operons were upregulated, indicating possible universal response against low pH stress in L. monocytogenes. The opuCABCD operon, coding proteins for compatible solutes transport, and the transcriptional regulator sigL were significantly induced in the organic acids, strongly suggesting key roles during organic acid stress. The present study revealed the complex transcriptional responses of L. monocytogenes towards food-related acidulants and opens the roadmap for more specific and in-depth future studies.

  19. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  20. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-16

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  1. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C.; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  2. [Newly leaching method of copper from waste print circuit board using hydrochloric acid/n-butylamine/copper sulfate].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Cui, Zhao-Jie; Yao, Ya-Wei

    2010-12-01

    A newly leaching method of copper from waste print circuit board was established by using hydrochloric acid-n-butylamine-copper sulfate mixed solution. The conditions of leaching were optimized by changing the hydrochloric acid, n-butylamine, copper sulfate,temperature and other conditions using copper as target mimics. The results indicated that copper could be leached completely after 8 h at 50 degrees C, hydrochloric acid concentration of 1.75 mol/L, n-butylamine concentration of 0.25 mol/L, and copper sulfate mass of 0.96 g. Under the conditions, copper leaching rates in waste print circuit board samples was up to 95.31% after 9 h. It has many advantages such as better effects, low cost, mild reaction conditions, leaching solution recycling.

  3. The criteria of critical runaway and stable temperatures of catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai-Tai; Yang, Ching-Chyuan; Lin, Peng-Chu

    2006-07-31

    The hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid are used in close proximity in the computer chip manufacture. The hydrochloric acid catalyzes an exothermic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. The accumulation of heat and non-condensable gas increases temperature and pressure in this reaction process always lead to runaway reaction and accident owing to inadvertent mixing. Thus, the chemical reaction hazard has to be clearly identified. Its critical runaway temperatures and unstable reaction criteria in this reaction process have to be determined urgently. In this investigation, we estimated its kinetic parameters at various volumetric ratios of the hydrogen peroxide to hydrochloric acid. Then, used these kinetic parameters to evaluate their critical temperatures and stable criteria in each reaction processes. The analytic results are important and useful for the design of safety system in the computer chip manufacture.

  4. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  5. Luminal hydrochloric acid stimulates rapid transepithelial ion fluxes in rodent esophageal stratified squamous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lin, B R; Hsieh, H T; Lee, J M; Lai, I R; Chen, C F; Yu, L C H

    2008-09-01

    It remains unclear whether enhanced ion fluxes occur in the esophageal stratified squamous epithelium upon acid exposure. Rat esophageal tissues devoid of submucosal glands displayed basal short-circuit current (Isc) of 5.03 +/- 1.93 microA/cm(2) and lumen-negative potential difference (PD) in association with net absorption of Na+ and Cl-, and secretion of HCO3(-). Luminal hydrochloric acid (HCl) challenge (pH = 1.6) triggered an acute rise of the Isc and increment of negative PD to seven-fold of baseline, which was diminished in HCO3(-)-free, but not Na+- free buffer. The rise of Isc was inhibited by pretreatment with di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA). Topical carbachol, capsaicin, forskolin or CFTR(inh)-172 had no effect on basal Isc.CFTR(inh)-172 did not reduce the acid-increased Isc. Functional ablation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves had no effect on the acid-induced Isc. The phenomenon of enhanced ion fluxes upon acid stimulation was confirmed in human esophageal specimens. Our results demonstrated that the mechanism of acid-induced rapid transepithelial ion fluxes is dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions as well as functional anion transporters and Na+/H+ exchanger, but independent of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The capsaicin-sensitive and muscarinic-dependent nerve pathways did not play roles in the mechanism.

  6. EDTA and hydrochloric acid effects on mercury accumulation by Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Villaseñor, José; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

  7. Comparison of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids as catalysts in hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    PubMed

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydrolysis of marine algal biomass Kappaphhycus alvarezii using two different acid catalysts was examined with the goal of identifying optimal reaction conditions for the formation of sugars and by-products. K. alvarezii were hydrolyzed by autoclave using sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as catalyst with different acid concentrations (0.1-1.0 M), substrate concentrations (1.0-13.5%), hydrolysis time (10-90 min) and hydrolysis temperatures (100-130 (°)C). A difference in galactose, glucose, reducing sugar and total sugar content was observed under the different hydrolysis conditions. Different by-product compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid were also observed under the different reaction conditions. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis were achieved at a sulfuric acid concentration, temperature and reaction time of 0.2 M, 130 °C and 15 min, respectively. These results may provide useful information for the development of more efficient systems for biofuel production from marine biomass.

  8. Effect of particle size in a limestone-hydrochloric acid reaction system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhou, Qulan; Chen, Xi; Xu, Tongmo; Hui, Shien

    2010-07-15

    Experimental characterization of the wet flue gas desulfurization process is carried out using a model limestone-hydrochloric acid reaction system, with in-situ measurement of the dissolution rate and particle size distribution. The limestone source, initial particle size distribution, working temperature and pH value are varied in large ranges. The dissolution rate is found to be higher when the average particle size is smaller, the temperature is higher, or the pH is lower. An empirical equation is established to correlate the dissolution rate with the particle size and working conditions, which agrees well with measurements. The results may be useful for providing insights to improve the efficiency of the wet flue gas desulfurization process, as well as other solid particle-liquid solution reactions.

  9. Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part II. Xylan removal by dilute hydrochloric acid prehydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, A.H.; Libkie, K.; Springer, E.L.

    1986-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of xylan hemicellulose removal with 0.10 M HCl at 120 degrees C from quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), American elm (Ulmus americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), and southern red oak (Quercus falcata). The mathematical model developed in Part I to describe the kinetics of xylan removal by water prehydrolysis of these species could be used to model xylan removal with dilute hydrochloric acid. Xylan removal could thus be modelled as the sum of two parallel first-order reactions - one fast and one slow. However, unlike the case with water prehydrolysis where the rate constants for the fast and slow reaction processes could be correlated with each other, they could not be correlated for HCl prehydrolysis. Instead, these constant values determined for each species clustered about average values for all the species as a whole. A single set of parameters determined from a nonlinear least squares fit of the experimental prehydrolysis data for all the species as a whole to the model could be used to describe the course of xylan removal from all the species. The fact that one set of parameters could be used suggests that the same reactions are taking place on prehydrolysis and the chemical structure and physical morphology of the xylan hemicellulose were essentially the same in the species studied and probably in all temperate hardwood species. The model thus provides a good approximation of xylan removal from any temperate hardwood with dilute hydrochloric acid at the reaction conditions studied. 20 references.

  10. Use of hydrochloric acid for determinining solid-phase arsenic partitioning in sulfidic sediments.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Richard T; Ford, Robert G

    2002-11-15

    We examined the use of room-temperature hydrochloric acid (1-6 M) and salt solutions of magnesium chloride, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide for the removal of arsenic from synthetic iron monosulfides and contaminated sediments containing acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). Results indicate that acid-soluble arsenic reacts with H2S released from AVS phases and precipitates at low pH as disordered orpiment or alacranite. Arsenic sulfide precipitation is consistent with geochemical modeling in that conditions during acid extraction are predicted to be oversaturated with respect to orpiment, realgar, or both. Binding of arsenic with sulfide at low pH is sufficiently strong that 6 M HCl will not keep spiked arsenic in the dissolved fraction. Over a wide range of AVS concentrations and molar [As]/[AVS] ratios, acid extraction of arsenic from sulfide-bearing sediments will give biased results that overestimate the stability or underestimate the bioavailability of sediment-bound arsenic. Alkaline solutions of sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate are efficient in removing arsenic from arsenic sulfides and mixed iron-arsenic sulfides because of the high solubility of arsenic at alkaline pH, the formation of stable arsenic complexes with sulfide or carbonate, or both.

  11. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Holms, Carla Augusto; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Kahvegian, Marcia; Massoco, Cristina Oliveira; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Junior, Jose Otavio Costa Auler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid. METHODS: Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis. RESULTS: Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertonic saline

  12. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  13. Empirical Modeling of Iron Oxide Dissolution in Sulphuric and Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmelmann, Jan C.; Xu, Hao; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    A new approach is presented to an empirical modeling of chemical pickling processes, based on the activation energy of oxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The model allows us to calculate pickling times as a function of definite parameters. The main oxide layers on hot-rolled materials are magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), and wustite (FeO). On the laboratory scale, the activation energy of each oxide has been determined. FeO is a metastable oxide and has been produced based on magnetite powder in a H2/H2O atmosphere. The oxide powders used for the experimental procedure have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction to insure the proper stoichiometry and composition. The model allows us to calculate the time of oxide dissolution based on the parameters temperature, acid concentration, and the composition of the oxide layer. Calculated values are verified by surface potential measurement on industrial oxide layers. The hot-rolled material used for verification is low carbon steel. A comparison between calculated pickling times and experimental data will be presented.

  14. A simple procedure for preparing chitin oligomers through acetone precipitation after hydrolysis in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kazami, Nao; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Mizutani, Daisuke; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Wakita, Satoshi; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao; Sugahara, Yasusato

    2015-11-05

    Chitin oligomers are of interest because of their numerous biologically relevant properties. To prepare chitin oligomers containing 4-6 GlcNAc units [(GlcNAc)4-6], α- and β-chitin were hydrolyzed with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. The reactant was mixed with acetone to recover the acetone-insoluble material, and (GlcNAc)4-6 was efficiently recovered after subsequent water extraction. Composition analysis using gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that (GlcNAc)4-6 could be isolated from the acetone-insoluble material with recoveries of approximately 17% and 21% from the starting α-chitin and β-chitin, respectively. The acetone precipitation method is highly useful for recovering chitin oligomers from the acid hydrolysate of chitin. The changes in the molecular size and higher-order structure of chitin during the course of hydrolysis were also analyzed, and a model that explains the process of oligomer accumulation is proposed.

  15. Highly improved synthesis of gold nanobipyramids by tuning the concentration of hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu

    2016-07-01

    Fabrication of gold nanobipyramids (Au BPs) has attracted great attention because they exhibit more advantageous plasmonic properties. In this study, Au BPs were synthesized by the well-known seeded growth in the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The effects of the ingredients, including HCl, silver nitrate (AgNO3), l-Ascorbic acid (AA), and seeds on the structure and yield of the Au BPs were systemically investigated. The results showed that the abundant HCl could improve the yield of Au BPs and decrease the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance wavelength. Under the circumstance of higher concentration of AA and AgNO3, more byproducts were resulted. In addition, the effect of HCl under different ratios of seed solution to AA has also been studied. The results showed that the yield was less sensitive to HCl when the amount of seed solution was small. If substantial AA was added to the system, then abundant HCl should be introduced correspondingly to improve the yield of Au BPs.

  16. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  17. Preparation of Rutile from Ilmenite Concentrate Through Pressure Leaching with Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Junyi; Liu, Songli; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang

    2017-04-01

    Take into account the fact that the natural rutile utilized for the production of titanium dioxide pigment through chloride process is desperately lacking worldwide especially in China, an attempt was exploited for extracting synthetic rutile from Yunnan ilmenite concentrate with hydrochloric acid pressure leaching process. The leaching parameters for one step leaching process were investigated. The results shown that the optimum condition is leaching temperature of 413 K (140 °C), acid concentration of 20 pct HCl, leaching time of 4 hours and liquid/solid mass ratio of 8:1. A two steps leaching process was also suggested to reutilize the leaching liquor which with a high content of HCl. The results showed that the content of HCl decreased from 135 to 75 g/L, total iron increased from 44.5 g/L to about 87.6 g/L, and the liquid/solid mass ratio decreased to 5:1 with a two steps leaching process. The leaching product produced through a two steps leaching process shows a pure golden red with a high content of titanium (92.65 pct TiO2), a relatively low content of calcium (0.10 pct CaO) and magnesium (0.12 pct MgO), but high content of silicon (5.72 pct SiO2).

  18. Preparation of Rutile from Ilmenite Concentrate Through Pressure Leaching with Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Junyi; Liu, Songli; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang

    2016-12-01

    Take into account the fact that the natural rutile utilized for the production of titanium dioxide pigment through chloride process is desperately lacking worldwide especially in China, an attempt was exploited for extracting synthetic rutile from Yunnan ilmenite concentrate with hydrochloric acid pressure leaching process. The leaching parameters for one step leaching process were investigated. The results shown that the optimum condition is leaching temperature of 413 K (140 °C), acid concentration of 20 pct HCl, leaching time of 4 hours and liquid/solid mass ratio of 8:1. A two steps leaching process was also suggested to reutilize the leaching liquor which with a high content of HCl. The results showed that the content of HCl decreased from 135 to 75 g/L, total iron increased from 44.5 g/L to about 87.6 g/L, and the liquid/solid mass ratio decreased to 5:1 with a two steps leaching process. The leaching product produced through a two steps leaching process shows a pure golden red with a high content of titanium (92.65 pct TiO2), a relatively low content of calcium (0.10 pct CaO) and magnesium (0.12 pct MgO), but high content of silicon (5.72 pct SiO2).

  19. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch.

  20. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a suitable raw material for fertilizers due to its high phosphorus (P) content. However, heavy metals must be removed before agricultural application and P should be transferred into a bioavailable form. The utilization of gaseous hydrochloric acid for thermochemical heavy metal removal from SSA at approximately 1000 °C was investigated and compared to the utilization of alkaline earth metal chlorides. The heavy metal removal efficiency increased as expected with higher gas concentration, longer retention time and higher temperature. Equivalent heavy metal removal efficiency were achieved with these different Cl-donors under comparable conditions (150 g Cl/kg SSA, 1000 °C). In contrast, the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds present in the SSA after thermal treatment with gaseous HCl was not as good as the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds formed by the utilization of magnesium chloride. This disadvantage was overcome by mixing MgCO(3) as an Mg-donor to the SSA before thermochemical treatment with the gaseous Cl-donor. A test series under systematic variation of the operational parameters showed that copper removal is more depending on the retention time than the removal of zinc. Zn-removal was declined by a decreasing ratio of the partial pressures of ZnCl(2) and water.

  1. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Scatena, Camila; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey's test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  2. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Jung, Bae Dong

    2016-09-30

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

  3. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  4. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu

    2015-12-15

    A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu2Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L(-1) HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol(-1), indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process.

  5. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-02-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource.

  6. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research. PMID:26726020

  7. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  8. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource. PMID:26848031

  9. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-02-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource.

  10. Preserving ground water samples with hydrochloric acid does not result in the formation of chloroform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Pankow, James F.; Barbash, Jack E.; Price, Curtis V.; Zogorski, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often preserved with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to inhibit the biotransformation of the analytes of interest until the chemical analyses can he performed. However, it is theoretically possible that residual free chlorine in the HCl can react with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to form chloroform via the haloform reaction. Analyses of 1501 ground water samples preserved with HCl from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program indicate that chloroform was the most commonly detected VOC among 60 VOCs monitored. The DOC concentrations were not significantly larger in samples with detectable chloroform than in those with no delectable chloroform, nor was there any correlation between the concentrations of chloroform and DOC. Furthermore, chloroform was detected more frequently in shallow ground water in urban areas (28.5% of the wells sampled) than in agricultural areas (1.6% of the wells sampled), which indicates that its detection was more related to urban land-use activities than to sample acidification. These data provide strong evidence that acidification with HCl does not lead to the production of significant amounts of chloroform in ground water samples. To verify these results, an acidification study was designed to measure the concentrations of all trihalomethanes (THMs) that can form as a result of HCl preservation in ground water samples and to determine if ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) could inhibit this reaction if it did occur. This study showed that no THMs were formed as a result of HCl acidification, and that ascorbic acid had no discernible effect on the concentrations of THMs measured.

  11. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Kong, Huan-Yu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Huang; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2013-06-15

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. The dry root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn has been long used to treat respiratory diseases in China. In the present study, Praeruptorin A, C, D and E (PA, PC, PD and PE), four pyranocoumarins extracted from this herb, have been investigated for the pharmacological effects in experimental lung injury mouse models. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice, PA and PC did not show protective effect against lung injury at the dose of 80 mg/kg. However, PD and PE significantly inhibited the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group. Further study demonstrated that PD and PE suppressed protein extravasations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the pathological changes in the lung. Both PD and PE suppressed LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. We also extended our study to acid-induced acute lung injury and found that these two compounds protected mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation. Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury.

  12. Recovery of hydrochloric acid from the waste acid solution by diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Shuguang; Fu, Dan

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion dialysis using a series of anion exchange membranes was employed to recover HCl acid from the waste acid solution. Effects of flow rate, flow rate ratio of water to feed, and Fe ion concentration on the recovery of HCl were investigated. It was found that the flow rate ratio was an important factor in the diffusion dialysis operation, and the recovered HCl concentration and Fe ion concentration in diffusate decreased significantly with the change of flow rate ratio from 0.4 to 1.7. In addition, the higher the Fe ion concentration in the feed, the higher the Fe leakage in the recovered acid solution. The HCl recovery efficiency was influenced not only by the recovered acid concentration, but also the outlet flow rate. While using the actual pot galvanizing waste HCl solution with the co-existence of 2.70 mol/L of Fe and 0.07 mol/L of Zn ions, over 88% HCl recovery efficiency could be achieved and Fe leakage was within the range of 11-23%. However, over 56% of Zn leakage was found due to the formation of negative Zn complexes in solution, which was unfavorable for the recovered acid reuse.

  13. Effect of acid shock with hydrochloric, citric, and lactic acids on the survival and growth of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium in acidified media.

    PubMed

    Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2005-10-01

    The effect of acid shock with hydrochloric, citric, or lactic acid on the survival and growth of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium in acidified broth was evaluated. Salmonella serovars were acid shocked (1 h at 35 degrees C) in Trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric, citric, or lactic acid at pH 5.5. Unshocked cells were exposed to the same media that had been neutralized before use to pH 7.0. Shocked and unshocked cells were inoculated into broth acidified with hydrochloric acid (pH 3.0), citric acid (pH 3.0), or lactic acid (pH 3.8), and growth and survival ability were evaluated. The acid shock conferred protection to Salmonella against the lethal effects of low pH and organic acids. The adaptive response was not specific to the anion used for adaptation. The biggest difference in reduction of survival between shocked and unshocked strains (approximately 2 log CFU/ml) was observed when the microorganisms were shocked with lactic acid and then challenged with citric acid. Salmonella Typhi was more tolerant of citric acid than was Salmonella Typhimurium, but Salmonella Typhimurium had higher acid tolerance in response to acid shock than did Salmonella Typhi. The acid shock decreased the extension of the lag phase and enhanced the physiological state values of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium when the pH of growth was 4.5. This increased ability to tolerate acidity may have an important impact on food safety, especially in the case of Salmonella Typhi, given the very low infectious dose of this pathogen.

  14. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time.

  15. Effect of the structural features of hydrochloric acid-deamidated wheat gluten on its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chun; Hu, Qingling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Zhao, Haifeng; You, Lijun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-06-19

    The effect of the structural features of hydrochloric acid-deamidated wheat gluten with different degrees of deamidation (DDs) on the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by pancreatin was investigated. The wheat gluten deamidated by hydrochloric acid with a DD of 55% revealed the highest susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis as evaluated by the hydrolysis degree and nitrogen solubility index of the hydrolysates. An increase of peptides with MW below 3000 Da was observed as the DD increased. Raman spectra in the 1740-1800 cm⁻¹ and 521-530 cm⁻¹ range suggested that wheat gluten had taken off the deamidation with different DDs and that the disulfide bond had disrupted the sulfhydryl groups with different intensities, respectively. Results from the deconvolution of the amide I region of FTIR spectra in the 1600-1700 cm⁻¹ range showed that the content of the α-helix decreased and that the content of the β-turn and β-sheet increased with increasing DDs, which improved the molecular structure and flexibility of wheat gluten. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the image of HDG-55% presented the smoothest surface and the least uniform pore, enabling the sample to be more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The above information will enable us to better understand the effect of structure on the susceptibility of deamidated wheat gluten.

  16. Hydrochloric acid alters the effect of L-glutamic acid on cell viability in human neuroblastoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Di Cecca, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2013-07-15

    l-Glutamic acid (l-glutamate) is used to induce excitotoxicity and test neuroprotective compounds in cell cultures. However, because l-glutamate powder is nearly insoluble in water, many manufacturers recommend reconstituting l-glutamate in hydrochloric acid (HCl) prior to successive dilutions. Nevertheless, HCl, even at low concentrations, may alter the pH of the cell culture medium and interfere with cell activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the reconstitution of l-glutamate powder in HCl alters its capacity to induce neurotoxicity in different human neuroblastoma cell lines. SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-BE(2) cells were exposed to various concentrations of l-glutamate, which was either reconstituted in HCl (1M) or post re-equilibrated to the pH of the culture medium (7.5). After 24 and 48h of incubation, changes in the cell viability of treated versus untreated cells were evaluated. The effect of an identical amount of HCl present in the l-glutamate dilutions on neuroblastoma cell survival was also investigated. Our data showed that the neurotoxicity of glutamate reconstituted in HCl was comparable to that of HCl alone. Moreover, the pH variations induced by glutamate or HCl in the culture medium were similar. When the pH of the glutamate stock solution was re-equilibrated, l-glutamate induced variation in cell viability to a lower extent and after a longer incubation time. This study demonstrated that HCl used to reconstitute l-glutamate powder might alter the effect of glutamate itself in neuroblastoma cell cultures. Thus, this information might be useful to scientists who use l-glutamate to induce excitotoxicity or to test neuroprotective agents.

  17. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (T m) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The T m of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing T m values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in T m value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased T m values were measured. The T m changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased T m). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  18. Remediation of soils contaminated with chromium using citric and hydrochloric acids: the role of chromium fractionation in chromium leaching.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Tu, Yao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Acid washing is a common method for soil remediation, but is not always efficient for chromium-contaminated soil. Both soil particle size and the forms of chromium existing in the soil affect the efficiency of soil washing. Laboratory batch and column dissolution experiments were conducted to determine the efficiencies of citric and hydrochloric acids as agents to extract chromium from soils contaminated with chromium. The effects of soil particle size and chromium fractionation on Cr leaching were also investigated. About 90% of chromium in the studied soil existed either in residual form or bound to iron and manganese oxides, and Cr fraction distributions were similar for all soil particle sizes. Almost all exchangeable and carbonate-bound chromium was removed by washing once with 0.5 M HCl, whereas organic chromium was more effectively removed by washing with citric acid rather than with HCl solution of the same concentration. For chromium fractions that were either bound to Fe-Mn oxides or existed as residual forms, the efficiencies of acid washing were usually 20% or less, except for 0.5 M HCl solution, which had much higher efficiencies. Separation of the soil sample by particle size before the separate washing of the soil fractions had little improvement on the chromium removal.

  19. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of {approximately} 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO{sub 2} dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 {micro}m) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions.

  20. Protective role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine against hydrochloric acid stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Dipankar; Dey, Anindya; Ghosh, Anil K

    2006-09-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet, 1mM) protects the stationary phase cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the killing effect of acid (10mM HCl, pH approximately 2). Both the acid and the acid plus AdoMet treatment for 2h increased the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity; thereafter it decreased to the basal level. AdoMet partially recovered the intracellular pH (pH(in)) that dropped in presence of acid. AdoMet treatment facilitated acid induced phospholipid biosynthesis as well as membrane proliferation, which was reflected in the cellular lipid composition.

  1. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by some new hydrazine carbodithioic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, K. F.

    2006-04-01

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solutions by some new hydrazine carbodithioic acid derivatives namely N'-furan-2-yl-methylene-hydrazine carbodithioic acid (A), N'-(4-dimethylamino-benzylidene)-hydrazine carbodithioic acid (B) and N'-(3-nitro-benzylidene)-hydrazine carbodithioic (C) was studied using chemical (weight loss) and electrochemical (potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS) measurements. These measurements show that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these compounds increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follow the order C > B > A. Polarization studies show that these compounds act as mixed type inhibitors in 0.5 M HCl solutions. These inhibitors function through adsorption following Langmuir isotherm. The electronic properties of these inhibitors, obtained using PM3 semi-empirical self-consistence field method, have been correlated with their experimental efficiencies using non-linear regression method.

  3. Interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of normal rice starch.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuting; Wei, Benxi; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during the 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid (1-butanol-HCl) hydrolysis of normal rice starch. The interaction model between amylose and 1-butanol was proposed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), (13)C cross polarization and magic angle spinning NMR analysis ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA). GC-MS data showed that another form of 1-butanol existed in 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed normal rice starch, except in the form of free molecules absorbed on the starch granules. The signal of 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed starch at 100.1 ppm appeared in the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectrum, indicating that the amylose-1-butanol complex was formed. DSC and TGA data also demonstrated the formation of the complex, which significantly affected the thermal properties of normal rice starch. These findings revealed that less dextrin with low molecular weight formed might be attributed to resistance of this complex to acid during 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis.

  4. X-ray microtomography of hydrochloric acid propagation in carbonate rocks.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Oliveira, T J L; Cruz, F B; Lopes, R T; Lima, I

    2015-02-01

    Acid treatments are used in the oil and gas industry, to increase the permeability of the carbonate reservoirs by creating preferential channels, called wormholes. Channels formation is strongly influenced by acid type and injection rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate some characteristics of the microporous system of carbonate rocks, before and after acidizing. For that purpose X-ray high-resolution microtomography was used. The results show that this technique can be used as a reliable method to analyze microstructural characteristics of the wormholes.

  5. Corrosion effects of hydrogen sulfide on coiled tubing and carbon steel in hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Coiled tubing is commonly used in oilwell drilling and stimulation. It has been reported to be less susceptible to acid attack than carbon steel in acidizing. Corrosion problems are frequently reported from field activities and include corrosion/erosion, galvanic attack, brine/oxygen/acid attack, and HCl/H{sub 2}S attack. In this study, coiled tubing was exposed to inhibited HCl acid in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S. Four HCl inhibitors and one H{sub 2}S inhibitor were evaluated, and the corrosion rates of coiled tubing, carbon steel (J-55), and carburized steel were compared. Tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure for temperatures less than and equal to 200 F. At temperatures greater than 200 F; tests were conducted at 4,000 psi.

  6. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution.

  7. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  8. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved.

  9. Thallium extraction from hydrochloric acid media into a deep eutectic solvent using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kate; Volia, Merinda; Tereshatov, Evgeny; Folden, Charles, III

    2016-09-01

    The chemical properties of superheavy elements are relatively unknown due to their short half-lives and difficulty of production. In preparation for a future experiment to study the chemical properties of element 113, separation techniques have been used to study the behavior of its homologs, In and Tl. Previous work studied the liquid-liquid extraction of radioactive 201Tl (t1 / 2 = 3 . 04 d) from various concentrations of HCl into a mixture of menthol and lauric acid that formed a so-called deep eutectic solvent (DES). This work focuses on the effects of adding an extraction agent, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (HDEHP), to the DES on the efficiency of thallium extraction. The extraction of Tl(I) was generally poor, both with and without HDEHP added. In contrast, 111In (t1 / 2 = 2 . 80 d) showed significant extraction using HDEHP added to the same DES. This difference in behavior could potentially be exploited in a future experiment on the chemistry of element 113. National Science Foundation.

  10. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from space shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy space center, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-07-01

    Observations of damage to vegetation, acute reductions in surface water pH, and kills of small fish prompted the Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the John F. Kennedy Space Center to initiate intensive environmental evaluations of possible acute and long-term chronic impacts that may be produced by repeated launches of the space shuttle. An important step in this evaluation was the identification of deposition patterns and the quantification of ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents from the solid rocket motors (SRMs) in the area of the launch pad. These constituents are primarily aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). During three launches of the space transportation system (STS-11, 13, and 14) up to 100 bulk deposition collectors, 83 mm in diameter containing 100 ml of deionized water, were deployed in a grid pattern covering 12.6 ha north of launch pad 39-A. Estimates of HCl and particulate deposition levels were made based on laboratory measurements of items entrained in the collectors. Captured particulates consisted of a variety of items including Al2O3, sand grains, sea shell fragments, paint chips, and other debris ablated from the launch pad surface by the initial thrust of the SRMs. Estimated ranges of HCl and particulate deposition in the study area were 0-127 g/m2 and 0-246 g/m2, respectively. Deposition patterns were highly influenced by wind speed and direction. These measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, up to 7.1 × 103 kg of particulates and 3.4 × 103 kg of HCl can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Binti Kassim, Fatin A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-22

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10(-3) M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The effect of te perature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10(-3) M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  12. Extraction and separation of Pd(II), Pt(IV), Fe(III), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) from hydrochloric acid solutions with selected cyanamides as novel extractants.

    PubMed

    Mowafy, E A; Aly, H F

    2007-10-22

    Three structurally related novel extractants namely: N,N-dihexylcyanamide (DHCY), N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)cyanamide (DEHCY) and N,N-di-octylcyanamide (DOCY) were synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by different techniques. The general method for synthesizing these extractants was based on the reaction of relevant secondary amines with cyanogen bromide in presence of sodium acetate anhydride. Their extracting ability in toluene as a diluent for Pd(II), Pt(IV), Fe(III), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) from hydrochloric acid media has been studied. The extraction of hydrochloric acid was studied also. Pd(II) was strongly extracted by these extractants at low hydrochloric acid concentrations and the extraction decreased with increasing hydrochloric acid concentration while the reverse was obtained in the extraction of Pt(IV), Fe(III) and Zn(II). Under similar extraction conditions Cu(II) and Ag(I) were found poorly extracted. Hydrochloric acid was extracted only in its high concentration region. A systematic investigation has been carried out on the extraction of Pd(II) using two of the synthesized extractants. Pd(II) was extracted as a solvated complex with the composition, metal:chloride ion:extractant=1:2:2. The extracted species were studied also using IR spectra.

  13. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading.

  14. Speciation analysis of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in antileishmaniotic drug using Dowex 1 x 4 resin from hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Łukaszczyk, L; Zyrnicki, W

    2010-09-05

    A new and simple method for the direct and simultaneous determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in meglumine antimoniate, the first-choice drug for leishmaniasis treatment, was developed. Speciation analysis was carried out using the quantitative separation of inorganic trivalent and pentavalent antimony on Dowex 1 x 4 resin from 1.5 mol l(-1) hydrochloric acid solution. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for determination of antimony. The interfering effects of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were examined and only Bi was found to be a significant interferent. The liberation of Sb(V) and Sb(III) from organoantimonial compounds without changing of oxidation state was carried out by means of 1.5 mol l(-1) hydrochloric acid solution. The spike recovery values obtained for Sb(III) in pharmaceutical sample varied from 92 to 100%. The method was successfully applied for the direct determination of antimony(III) and of antimony(V) in meglumine antimoniate.

  15. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na2SO3 microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yanmin; Liu, Fei; Shang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yanzhao

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl(4)(-)CTAB(+). The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol(-1) and -84.87 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E%>99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach.

  16. Effect of ruminal infusion of glucose, volatile fatty acids and hydrochloric acid on mineral metabolism in sheep.

    PubMed

    Giduck, S A; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S

    1988-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of alterations in ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations on utilization of Mg and other minerals. In Exp. 1, two metabolism trials were conducted with 12 ruminally cannulated crossbred wethers fed 800 g/d of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata, L.) hay. After each feeding, wethers were ruminally infused with 500 ml (4.2 ml/min) or either 1) deionized water, 2) 40% (w/v) glucose solution, 3) .26 M propionic and .17 M butyric acid solution or 4) .35 M HCl. The pH of the VFA solution was adjusted to 6.8 with 10N NaOH. In Exp. 2, a metabolism trial was conducted with 12 ruminally cannulated crossbred wethers fed 600 g of orchard-grass hay and infused with a buffered VFA solution prepared as in Exp. 1 or with an unbuffered solution. In both experiments each trial consisted of a 5-d adaption period followed by four 5-d collections of feed, feces and urine. Compared with the glucose treatment, infusion of the buffered VFA solution produced similar acetic and propionic and higher (P less than .05) butyric acid concentrations (Exp. 1). The HCl solution produced changes in ruminal and pH values similar to those of the glucose infusion. In Exp. 1, apparent absorption of Mg was increased over twofold by the glucose infusion (P less than .05), but the other infusions had no effect. Apparent absorption of P was decreased (P less than .05) by HCl infusion, and K absorption was decreased by HCl and glucose infusions. In Exp. 2, infusion of the unbuffered VFA solution decreased apparent Mg absorption by 15.7%, compared with infusion of the buffered solution. These experiments suggest that the increased Mg absorption observed with carbohydrate supplementation is not due to alterations in ruminal pH or VFA levels.

  17. Abscinazole-E3M, a practical inhibitor of abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase for improving drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Mega, Ryosuke; Kanno, Yuri; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant water use and drought tolerance. However, agricultural applications of ABA have been limited because of its rapid inactivation in plants, which involves hydroxylation of ABA by ABA 8′-hydroxylase (CYP707A). We previously developed a selective inhibitor of CYP707A, (−)-Abz-E2B, by structurally modifying S-uniconazole, which functions as an inhibitor of CYP707A and as a gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme. However, its synthetic yield is too low for practical applications. Therefore, we designed novel CYP707A inhibitors, Abz-T compounds, that have simpler structures in which the 1,2,3-triazolyl ring of (−)-Abz-E2B has been replaced with a triple bond. They were successfully synthesised in shorter steps, resulting in greater yields than that of (−)-Abz-E2B. In the enzymatic assays, one of the Abz-T compounds, (−)-Abz-E3M, acted as a strong and selective inhibitor of CYP707A, similar to (−)-Abz-E2B. Analysis of the biological effects in Arabidopsis revealed that (−)-Abz-E3M enhanced ABA’s effects more than (−)-Abz-E2B in seed germination and in the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Treatment with (−)-Abz-E3M induced stomatal closure and improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, (−)-Abz-E3M also increased the ABA response in rice and maize. Thus, (−)-Abz-E3M is a more practical and effective inhibitor of CYP707A than (−)-Abz-E2B. PMID:27841331

  18. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed.

  19. Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Endo, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of adding trace acids in ethanol based organosolv treatment were investigated to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress. A high glucose yield (60%) in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained by treating the sample at 170 °C for 45 min in 50% ethanol liquor containing 0.4% hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the enzymatic digestibility of the treated sample was improved to ∼70% by changing the enzyme from acremonium cellulase to Accellerase1500. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of lignin droplets and partial cellulose nanofibers on the surface of the treated sample. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the treated samples using thermotolerant yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777) was tested. A high ethanol concentration (22.1 g/L) was achieved using the EtOH50/W50/HCl0.4-treated sample compared with samples from other treatments.

  20. Characterization of N-terminal amino group-heme ligation emerging upon guanidine hydrochloric acid induced unfolding of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus ferricytochrome c552.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hulin; Kawano, Shin; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nonnative heme coordination structures emerging upon guanidine hydrochloric acid (GdnHCl) induced unfolding of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus ferricytochrome c552 were characterized by means of paramagnetic NMR. The heme coordination structure possessing the N-terminal amino group of the peptide chain in place of axial Met (His-Nterm form) was determined in the presence of GdnHCl concentrations in excess of 1.5 M at neutral pH. The stability of the His-Nterm form at pH 7.0 was found to be comparable with that of the bis-His form which has been recognized as a major nonnative heme coordination structure in cytochrome c folding/unfolding. Consequently, in addition to the bis-His form, the His-Nterm form is a substantial intermediate which affects the pathway and kinetics of the folding/unfolding of cytochromes c, of which the N-terminal amino groups are not acetylated.

  1. Comparison of the kinetic laws of the dissolution of bauxite and aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides in hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Kozlov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of the temperature and concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution on the dissolution kinetics of aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides and a natural sample of aluminum-containing raw materials, bauxite, is studied. The rate W of the transition of iron(III) ions from bauxite is higher than the rate of aluminum ion transition. The dependence of the fraction of a dissolved solid phase on time τ of dissolution of the oxides and hydroxides is determined, α = 1 — exp(- Asinh( Wτ)). The solubility of iron(III) chloride increases and that of aluminum chloride decreases as the HCl concentration increases. An empirical equation is proposed for the description of the dependence of the process rate on a series of parameters,.

  2. Modification of di- and tetrasaccharides from shark cartilage keratan sulphate by refined anhydromethanolic hydrochloric acid-treatments and evaluation of their specific desulphation.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yutaka; Watabe, Shugo; Mochizuki, Hideo; Imai, Kyoko; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Ishii, Tadashi

    2003-05-01

    Highly sulphated keratan di- and tetrasaccharides were prepared from keratan sulphate (KS) of shark cartilage by enzymatic digestion with keratanase II and subsequent chromatography. The tetrasaccharide fraction carrying four sulphate groups was completely desulphated by 100 mM anhydromethanolic hydrochloric acid (MeOH-HCl) treatment at room temperature for 16 h. The conditions for the desulphation reaction by MeOH-HCl treatment were examined using sulphated keratan di- and tetrasaccharides as substrates by means of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and/or capillary electrophoresis, followed by the preparation of partially desulphated keratan oligosaccharides. Sulphate substitution patterns of monosulphated keratan disaccharide and trisulphated keratan tetrasaccharide were evaluated by methylation analysis. The results suggested that 6-O-sulphate groups of Gal moieties are cleaved faster than those of GlcNAc moieties under the present conditions adopted for the MeOH-HCl treatment of KS-derived oligosaccharides.

  3. Photovoltaic properties of dye sensitised solar cells using TiO2 nanotube arrays for photoanodes: Role of hydrochloric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tian; Wang, Baoyuan; Xie, Jian; Li, Quantong; Zhang, Jun; Asghar, Muhammad Imran; Lund, Peter D.; Wang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    A hydrochloric acid treatment was performed to modify the surface of TiO2 nanotube arrays for improving the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. The microstructural, optical and photovoltaic properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays and the assembled cells were investigated in detail. It was found that HCl treatment does not change the morphology and crystallographic structure of the nanotube arrays, but it results in more hydroxyl groups on the TiO2 surface for dye adsorption and a surface protonation for both an improved dye adsorption and a higher quantum yield of electron injection. A major performance enhancement was found which originated from the remarkable increase in the dye adsorption. A power conversion efficiency of 8.4%, JSC of ∼16.8 mA cm-2 and VOC of 0.7 V was observed when the photoanode was treated with a 0.1 M HCl solution.

  4. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    PubMed

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  5. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    PubMed Central

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos® IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L−1 Na2SO3 receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]+ [AuCl4]− H+ [PO2]− where [P]+ and [PO2]− represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO3)2]3− in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry. PMID:26670259

  6. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and…

  7. Double-stranded helical twisted beta-sheet channels in crystals of gramicidin S grown in the presence of trifluoroacetic and hydrochloric acids.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M; Overhand, Mark; van Raaij, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    Gramicidin S is a nonribosomally synthesized cyclic decapeptide antibiotic with twofold symmetry (Val-Orn-Leu-D-Phe-Pro)(2); a natural source is Bacillus brevis. Gramicidin S is active against Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. However, its haemolytic toxicity in humans limits its use as an antibiotic to certain topical applications. Synthetically obtained gramicidin S was crystallized from a solution containing water, methanol, trifluoroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. The structure was solved and refined at 0.95 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains 1.5 molecules of gramicidin S, two trifluoroacetic acid molecules and ten water molecules located and refined in 14 positions. One gramicidin S molecule has an exact twofold-symmetrical conformation; the other deviates from the molecular twofold symmetry. The cyclic peptide adopts an antiparallel beta-sheet secondary structure with two type II' beta-turns. These turns have the residues D-Phe and Pro at positions i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. In the crystals, the gramicidin S molecules line up into double-stranded helical channels that differ from those observed previously. The implications of the supramolecular structure for several models of gramicidin S conformation and assembly in the membrane are discussed.

  8. Minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors in a pickling process with high-concentration hydrochloric acid solutions: mechanism and evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Su, Wen; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fenglian; Yu, Guojun; Zhang, Jianyin

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to propose a strategy for minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors through the synergistic corrosion inhibition of OP-10 and potassium iodide, thus facilitating a cleaner production process for acid pickling of metals with a high-concentration solution (6.0 mol/l) of hydrochloric acid. Results obtained with the methods of weight loss and electrochemical polarization showed that adding KI and OP-10 could enhance the energy barrier of the corrosion reaction and improved the corrosion inhibition for mild steel in high concentration of HCl solutions. A synergistic effect was identified when KI and OP-10 were present in suitable proportions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that the complex inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor and it formed a compact film on the metal surface, thus providing an effective protection for the metal in the aggressive solutions, which significantly minimized the creation of spent pickling liquors. A simple and convenient method was also proposed for the quantificational evaluation of the inhibition degree in the creation of spent pickling liquors.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanjuan; Li, Nan; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Li, Xiaotian; Yan, Xiao

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S{sub 2}{sup 2−}. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS{sub 2} is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS{sub 2} is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS{sub 2} catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}.

  10. Antiapoptotic role of S-adenosyl-l-methionine against hydrochloric acid induced cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Dipankar; Dey, Anindya; Basu, Arghya; Ghosh, Anil K

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of stationary phase cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to 10 mM HCl (pH approximately 2) resulted in cell death as a function of time (up to 6 h) with most (about 40%-65%) of the cells showing apoptotic features including chromatin condensation along the nuclear envelope, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of cytoplasmic membrane, and DNA fragmentation. During the first 2 h of acid exposure there was an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level inside cells, with subsequent elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and decrease in reducing equivalents culminating in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). An initial (1 h) event of mitochondrial hyper-polarization with subsequent elevation of ROS level of the acid treated cells was also observed. S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet; 1 mM) treatment increased the cell survival of the acid stressed cells. It partially scavenged the increased intracellular ROS level by supplementing glutathione through the transsulfuration pathway. It also inhibited acid mediated lipid peroxidation, partially recovered acid evoked loss of DeltaPsi(m) and protected the cells from apoptotic cell death. S-adenosyl di-aldehyde, an indirect inhibitor of the AdoMet metabolic pathway, increased mortality of the acid treated cells. Incubation of acid stressed cells with the antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (1 mM), decreased the cellular mortality, but the same concentration of AdoMet offered more protection by scavenging the free radicals. The ability of AdoMet to scavenge ROS mediated apoptosis may be an important function of this molecule in responding to cellular stress. The study could open a new avenue for detailed investigation on the curative potential of AdoMet against gastric ulcer.

  11. Hydrochloric acid modification process for fabricating Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x THz oscillator stack on-chip coupled to THz detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikata, Tsubasa; Kato, Takahiro; Kotaki, Yukio; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Kawakami, Akira; Yasui, Kanji

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) integrating of an oscillator and a detector by double side photolithography and material modification with a dilutehydrochloric acid solution (pH = 1.65) within a monolithic Bi-2212 crystal. The dilute hydrochloric solution modifies Bi-2212 to insulating BiOCl. Various lateral dimensions of the oscillator IJJ from 45 × 8 to 95 × 30 µm2 were formed; all of the detectors were about 15 × 10 to 15 × 30 µm2 in lateral dimensions. These stacks have 180-416 junctions. Zero voltage current for the detector stack was measured at 77 K while sweeping a bias voltage in the oscillator stack. The zero voltage current of the detector stack was strongly suppressed when a kink structure in the current-voltage curve of the oscillator stacks appeared. This indicates that the oscillator stack emits radiation at this voltage. From the Josephson voltage-frequency relation, it is found that the voltage corresponds to about 0.5-1 THz.

  12. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid by 2,5-bis(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Bentiss, F.; Lagrenee, M.; Traisnel, M.; Hornez, J.C.

    1999-10-01

    The inhibition effect of a new class of organic inhibitors (e.g., 2,5-bis(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole [2-APOX]) on the corrosion of mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated. The inhibitor was synthesized and its inhibiting action on the corrosion was studied through weight loss and various electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly revealed the fact that 2-APOX is a mixed-type inhibitor. Changes in impedance parameters (charge-transfer resistance [R{sub t}] and double-layer capacitance [C{sub dl}]) were indicative of adsorption of 2-APOX on the metal surface, leading to the formation of a protective film that grew with increasing exposure time. The 2-APOX appeared to function through the general adsorption mode following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M NCl with addition of 80 mg/L of 2-APOX was studied in the temperature range from 25 C to 60 C. The associated activation corrosion and free adsorption energies were determined. This inhibitor is considered a noncytotoxic substance.

  13. Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/nanofibers bilayer film on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lixin; Du, Pingfan; Shao, Xiaoli; Cao, Houbao; Hui, Quan; Xiong, Jie

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/TiO{sub 2} nanofibers bilayer film was fabricated for DSSC. ► The effects of HCl treated TiO{sub 2} on the performance of DSSC were investigated. ► The potential methods of improving conversion efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/nanofibers bilayer film has been fabricated via spin coating and electrospinning followed by calcination. The TiO{sub 2} bilayer film with thickness of about 6.0 μm is composed of anatase TiO{sub 2} phase. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were assembled by hydrochloric acid (HCl) treated TiO{sub 2} film. The results of the photocurrent action spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and I–V curves showed that each photovoltaic parameter of DSSC increased with the concentration of HCl increasing, and reached a maximum value and afterwards decreased. The maximum incident monochromatic photo-to-electron conversion efficiency (at 350 nm) and maximum overall conversion efficiency (η) of 0.05 M HCl treated TiO{sub 2} based DSSC were enhanced to 48.0% and 4.75%, which were respectively increased by 14% and 6.3% than those of DSSC based on untreated TiO{sub 2} film.

  14. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M).

  15. Lactic and hydrochloric acids induce different patterns of inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Song, Mingchen; Li, Jinyou

    2004-04-01

    Metabolic acidosis frequently complicates sepsis and septic shock and may be deleterious to cellular function. Different types of metabolic acidosis (e.g., hyperchloremic and lactic acidosis) have been associated with different effects on the immune response, but direct comparative studies are lacking. Murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in complete medium with lactic acid or HCl to adjust the pH between 6.5 and 7.4 and then stimulated with LPS (Escherichia coli 0111:B4; 10 ng/ml). Nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured in the supernatants. RNA was extracted from the cell pellets, and RT-PCR was performed to amplify corresponding mediators. Gel shift assay was also performed to assess NF-kappa B DNA binding. Inc easing concentrations of acid caused increasing acidification of the media. Trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase release demonstrated that acidification did not reduce cell viability. HCl significantly increased LPS-induced NO release and NF-kappa B DNA binding at pH 7.0 but not at pH 6.5. IL-6 and IL-10 expression (RNA and protein) were reduced with HCl-induced acidification, but IL-10 was reduced much more than IL-6 at low pH. By contrast, lactic acid significantly decreased LPS-induced NO, IL-6, and IL-10 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Lactic acid also inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappa B DNA binding. Two common forms of metabolic acidosis (hyperchloremic and lactic acidosis) are associated with dramatically different patterns of immune response in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. HCl is essentially proinflammatory as assessed by NO release, IL-6-to-IL-10 ratios, and NF-kappa B DNA binding. By contrast, lactic acidosis is anti-inflammatory.

  16. Treasure of the Past VI: Standard Potential of the Silver-Silver-Chloride Electrode from 0° to 95° C and the Thermodynamic Properties of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Roger G.; Bower, Vincent E.

    2001-01-01

    From electromotive-force measurements of the cell without liquid junction: Pt;H2,HCl(m),AgCl;Agthrough the range 0° to 95° C, calculations have been made of (1) the standard potential of the silver–silver-chloride electrode, (2) the activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid in aqueous solutions from m (molality) =0 to m=0.1 and from 0° to 90° C, (3) the relative partial molal heat content of hydrochloric acid, and (4) the relative partial molal heat capacity of hydrochloric acid. The extrapolations were made by the method of least squares with the aid of punch-card techniques. Data from at least 24 cells were analyzed at each temperature, and 81 cells were studied at 25° C. The value of the standard potential was found to be 0.22234 absolute volt at 25° C, and the standard deviation was 0.02 millivolt at 0° C, 0.01 millivolt at 25° C, and 0.09 millivolt at 95° C. The results from 0° to 60° C are compared with earlier determinations of the standard potential and other quantities derived from the electromotive force. PMID:27500034

  17. Corrosion Inhibitive Evaluation of an Environmentally Friendly Water-Base Acrylic Terpolymer on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azghandi, Mojtaba Vakili; Davoodi, Ali; Farzi, Gholam Ali; Kosari, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion inhibitive performance of an environmentally friendly water-base acrylic terpolymer [methyl methacrylate/Butyl Acrylate/Acrylic acid (ATP)] on mild steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by alternating current and direct current electrochemical techniques and the quantum chemical method. An efficiency of more than 97 pct was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time has a positive effect, while the temperature influence is negligible on the inhibitor efficiency. The present terpolymer obeys the Langmuir isotherm, and thermodynamic calculation reveals a chemisorption type on the surface. Density functional calculations showed that the lone pairs of electrons of oxygen in the structure of three monomers are suitable sites to adsorb onto the metal surface. Finally, in the presence of ATP, a decrease in surface roughness and corrosion attacks was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy examinations, respectively.

  18. Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by washing with hydrochloric acid and subsequent immobilization with calcite and allophanic soil.

    PubMed

    Isoyama, Masahiro; Wada, Shin-Ichiro

    2007-05-17

    Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is not popular because of its high cost. Reducing the bioaccessible heavy metals content to an allowable level by washing with inorganic acids and subsequent immobilization of remained metals may be a low cost option for soil remediation. The applicability of this combined treatment was investigated using three different types of soil, a kaolinitic, a smectitic and an allophanic soil, which were artificially contaminated with Pb. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated using two main criteria: (i) reduction of the HCl extractable Pb (bioaccessible Pb) below 150 mg kg(-1), reduction of water extractable Pb below the concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1). These values correspond to allowable levels suggested by the Japanese Ministry of Environment. The soils were washed batch-wise at a solution to soil ratio of 5 L kg(-1) successively with 1 mol L(-1) HCl and 0.1 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) solutions. The two solutions were separated by filtration from one batch and reused for washing the next batch of soil without processing. The Pb concentration in the solutions increased after repeated use and removal efficiency gradually declined. The efficiency of the treatment was highly dependent on the type of soil. In the kaolinitic soil, HCl extractable Pb content of the soil from the first batch was about 50 mg kg(-1) and it exceeded 150 mg kg(-1) in that from sixth batch. But the combined soils from 1st to 10th batches gave bioaccessible Pb content barely below 150 mg kg(-1). For the smectitic soil having higher cation exchange capacity, the acceptable number of times of reuse was estimated to be 4. For the allophanic soil, treatment with the HCl solution was efficient only for the first batch of the soil, and the reuse of the acid solution was found to be ineffective. The application of 50 g kg(-1) of calcite or slacked lime was effective for reducing the water extractable Pb content. To keep soil pH near neutral and secure long

  19. [Effect of Hydrochloric acid on invasion of Ascaris suum; enzyme activity in the digestive system and serum of newborn piglets].

    PubMed

    Jabłonowski, Z; Romaniuk, K; Piechocki, D; Zółtowska, K; Lukaszewicz-Babecka, J; Dziekońska-Rynko, I J

    1995-01-01

    The studies were carried out on twenty newborn piglets. They were divided into four groups. The groups no 3 and no 4 were given intragastric 0.18% HCl from the 3th day of experiment. The groups no 2 and no 4 were infected on the 7th day with 10,000 invasive eggs of Ascaris suum. The presence of A. suum larvae in the lungs and liver was examined after one week lasting invasion by Baermann method. The total acidity in the gastric content was measured. The activity of alpha-amylase, lipase and proteases was determined in the extracts from pancreas and in the contents of stomach, duodenum and jejunum. The level of pepsinogens and alpha-amylase in the animals serum was studied. The intensity of Ascaris invasion was slightly higher in the group which was given HCl than in the infected group without HCl. The activity of digestive enzymes in the both groups was similar. Only in the stomach content from the 4th group the activity of pepsin was higher (p < 0.05), and alpha-amylase and lipase were lower (p < 0.01) than in the 2nd and in the 3th group. The level of pepsinogens was always lower and alpha-amylase higher in the serum of infected animals than in uninfected groups.

  20. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper.

    PubMed

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2007-07-01

    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)

  1. [Suicidal poisoning due to hydrogen sulfide produced by mixing a liquid bath essence containing sulfur and a toilet bowl cleaner containing hydrochloric acid].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanya; Fukushima, Hirofumi

    2008-04-01

    A 21-year-old man was found dead in a car. There were 9 empty bottles of 610HAP (a 440 g bottle of a liquid bath essence containing 160-195 g/kg sulfur) and 10 of Sunpole (a 500 mL bottle of a toilet bowl cleaner containing 9.5% HCl) in the car. The car doors were sealed with tape, and there was a strong smell of sulfur in and around the car. GC/MS analysis showed 0.66 microg/mL sulfide and 0.14 micromol/mL thiosulfate in the blood sample. The concentration of thiosulfate in the urine sample was normal. Police investigation concluded that the man killed himself by aspirating hydrogen sulfide that had been produced by mixing 610 HAP and Sunpole. To examine the amount of hydrogen sulfide produced, small portions of these liquids were mixed in a 560-mL volume flask. The results showed that 0.1 mL of each liquid produced 4,950 ppm of hydrogen sulfide, and 0.2 mL of each produced 10,800 ppm. According to these results, if the cabin volume is assumed to be 3,300 L, mixing 120 mL of each liquid produces a lethal level of hydrogen sulfide, i.e., 1,000 ppm. This was a rare suicide case, and it revealed the hazards of mixing of liquid bath essences containing sulfur and toilet bowl cleaners containing hydrochloric acid.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10-3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10-3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10−3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10−3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl. PMID:26795066

  4. Sequential soil washing techniques using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in abandoned iron-ore mines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Hwang, Jung Sung; Choi, Sang Il

    2007-01-01

    Sequential washing techniques using single or dual agents [sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions] were applied to arsenic-contaminated soils in an abandoned iron-ore mine area. We investigated the best remediation strategies to maximize arsenic removal efficiency for both soils and arsenic-containing washing solution through conducting a series of batch experiments. Based on the results of a sequential extraction procedure, most arsenic prevails in Fe-As precipitates or coprecipitates, and iron exists mostly in the crystalline forms of iron oxide. Soil washing by use of a single agent was not effective in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils because arsenic extractions determined by the Korean standard test (KST) methods for washed soils were not lower than 6mg kg(-1) in all experimental conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that iron-ore fines produced mobile colloids through coagulation and flocculation in water contacting the soils, containing dissolved arsenic and fine particles of ferric arsenate-coprecipitated silicate. The first washing step using 0.2M HCl was mostly effective in increasing the cationic hydrolysis of amorphous ferrihydrite, inducing high removal of arsenic. Thus, the removal step of arsenic-containing flocs can lower arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. Among several washing trials, alternative sequential washing using 0.2M HCl followed by 1M HCl (second step) and 1M NaOH solution (third step) showed reliable and lower values of arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. This washing method can satisfy the arsenic regulation of washed soil for reuse or safe disposal application. The kinetic data of washing tests revealed that dissolved arsenic was easily readsorbed into remaining soils at a low pH. This result might have occurred due to dominant species of positively charged crystalline iron oxides characterized through the sequential extraction procedure. However

  5. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 1: sampling hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO₃) from a test gas atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Howe, Alan; Musgrove, Darren; Breuer, Dietmar; Gusbeth, Krista; Moritz, Andreas; Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy; Dorotte, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Historically, workplace exposure to the volatile inorganic acids hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO(3)) has been determined mostly by collection on silica gel sorbent tubes and analysis of the corresponding anions by ion chromatography (IC). However, HCl and HNO(3) can be present in workplace air in the form of mist as well as vapor, so it is important to sample the inhalable fraction of airborne particles. As sorbent tubes exhibit a low sampling efficiency for inhalable particles, a more suitable method was required. This is the first of two articles on "Evaluation of Sampling Methods for Measuring Exposure to Volatile Inorganic Acids in Workplace Air" and describes collaborative sampling exercises carried out to evaluate an alternative method for sampling HCl and HNO(3) using sodium carbonate-impregnated filters. The second article describes sampling capacity and breakthrough tests. The method was found to perform well and a quartz fiber filter impregnated with 500 μL of 1 M Na(2)CO(3) (10% (m/v) Na(2)CO(3)) was found to have sufficient sampling capacity for use in workplace air measurement. A pre-filter is required to remove particulate chlorides and nitrates that when present would otherwise result in a positive interference. A GSP sampler fitted with a plastic cone, a closed face cassette, or a plastic IOM sampler were all found to be suitable for mounting the pre-filter and sampling filter(s), but care has to be taken with the IOM sampler to ensure that the sampler is tightly closed to avoid leaks. HCl and HNO(3) can react with co-sampled particulate matter on the pre-filter, e.g., zinc oxide, leading to low results, and stronger acids can react with particulate chlorides and nitrates removed by the pre-filter to liberate HCl and HNO(3), which are subsequently collected on the sampling filter, leading to high results. However, although there is this potential for both positive and negative interferences in the measurement, these are unavoidable

  6. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  7. Determination of triadimenol based on the quenching effect on resonance light scattering from the triadimenol-deoxyribonucleic acid-hydrochloric acid system.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengpei; Luo, Xiaolin; Jiang, Guibin; Hou, Shicong; Liu, Gang; Ren, Liping; Zhang, Li; Huang, Qin; Jie, Nianqin

    2007-05-01

    Analysis of triadimenol was carried out using deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) via the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique. After adding triadimenol into aqueous medium of pH 1.72, the RLS of DNA was remarkably quenched. A resonance light scattering peak at 310 nm was found, and the quenched intensity of RLS at this wavelength was proportional to the concentration of triadimenol. The linear range of the calibration curve was approximately 0-3 microg mL-1 with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.07 microg mL-1. The triadimenol in samples of water, cucumber and human serum was determined. The results were satisfactory, and the recovery rates were in the range of 96.3-106.0%, 94.8-105.9% and 92.3-100.5%, respectively. The interaction mechanism was also studied.

  8. Analysis of twenty phenolic compounds in human urine: hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction based on K2CO 3-treated silica, and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Lin, Yuanjie; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; She, Jianwen; Xu, Qian; Wu, Chunhua; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    This study developed a new method for the analysis of 20 phenolic compounds in human urine. The urine samples were prepared by hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. We found that HCl hydrolysis is of similar effectiveness to, and much cheaper than, the traditional enzymatic method. Vanillic acid was co-eluted with butyl paraben and interfered with the determination of butyl paraben in urine. K2CO3-treated-silica-gel SPE was designed to efficiently eliminate interference from the endogenous organic acids (especially vanillic acid) in urine. After derivatization, the samples were analyzed by large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS-MS). Good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.996) was established in the range 0.1-100 ng mL(-1) for all analytes. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.7-9.8 pg mL(-1). Intraday (n = 5) and interday (n = 5 days) validation was performed, with satisfactory accuracy (recovery: 70-126 % and 73-107 %, respectively) and precision (RSD ≤ 19 %) at two levels (low: 0.1 and 0.5 ng mL(-1); high: 5 and 10 ng mL(-1)). The method was used in a population study and achieved more than 85 % detection for most analytes; mean analyte concentrations were in the range 0.01-185 ng mL(-1). The method is suitable for the analysis of multiple phenolic metabolites in human urine.

  9. Survival of Salmonella strains differing in their biofilm-formation capability upon exposure to hydrochloric and acetic acid and to high salt.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akio; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2011-09-01

    Acidic and osmotic treatments are part of hurdle systems to control pathogens such as Salmonella in food. In the current study, Salmonella enterica isolates previously shown to differ in their ability to form biofilms were grown in diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) (1:5 dilution in distilled water) and subsequently exposed to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl, PBS adjusted to pH 3.9 with acetic acid or rice vinegar diluted 1:15 with distilled water (pH 3.9). Cells grown in diluted TSB were also exposed to distilled water, pH 7.6, containing 5 M NaCl. No differences in survival upon exposure to PBS adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl or distilled water containing high salt were observed between the isolates; however, exposure to acetic acid and rice vinegar resulted in lower survival levels of isolates previously shown to be poor biofilm formers. The numbers (log(10) cfu/ml) of surviving cells after exposure for 36 hr to acetic acid and rice vinegar were 4.43 ± 0.24 vs. 2.27 ± 0.87 (P<0.05) and 5.19 ± 0.12 vs. 2.33 ± 0.93 (P<0.05) for isolates with a high vs. low biofilm-forming ability. The survival data could be fitted with the Weibull model. The data suggest that the ability of Salmonella strains to survive in the presence of acetic acid and rice vinegar parallels their ability to form biofilms. Thus, Salmonella with a high biofilm-formation capability might be more difficult to kill with acetic acid found in foods or cleaning solutions.

  10. Structure of Hydronium (H3O+)/Chloride (Cl-) Contact Ion Pairs in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solution: A Zundel-like Local Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    2010-09-15

    Details of the H3O+ and H2O structure in the first solvation shell about Cl- in aqueous HCl solutions are reported from x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. Results show increasing degrees of contact ion pairing between Cl- and H3O+ as the HCl concentration increases from 6.0 m, 10.0 m and finally 16.1 m HCl (concentrated acid). At the highest acid concentration there are on average, approximately 1.6 H3O+ ions and 4.2 H2O’s in the first shell about Cl-. The structure of the Cl-/H3O+ contact ion pair is distinctly different than that of the H2O structure about Cl-. The Cl-O bond length (2.98Å) for Cl-/H3O+ is approximately 0.16 Å shorter than the Cl-/H2O bond. The bridging proton resides at an intermediate position between Cl and O at 1.60 Å from the Cl- and approximately 1.37 Å from the O of the H3O+. The bridging-proton structure of this contact ion pair, [Cl-H-OH2], is similar to structure of the water Zundel ion, [H2O-H-OH2]+. In both cases there is a shortened Cl-O or O-O bond and the intervening proton bond distances are substantially longer than for the covalent bonds of either HCl or H2O. The results further our understanding of the interaction H3O+ with Cl- that is of interest to fundamental physical chemistry and that has consequences in biochemical, geochemical and atmospheric processes.

  11. Inhibition Effects of a Synthesized Novel 4-Aminoantipyrine Derivative on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution together with Quantum Chemical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Junaedi, Sutiana; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMPO) was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value. PMID:23736696

  12. Inhibition effects of a synthesized novel 4-aminoantipyrine derivative on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution together with quantum chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Junaedi, Sutiana; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-06-04

    1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMPO) was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value.

  13. Formation of the bisulfite anion (HSO(3) (-) , m/z 81) upon collision-induced dissociation of anions derived from organic sulfonic acids.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Freneil B; Wood, Ryan E; Nishshanka, Upul; Attygalle, Athula B

    2012-04-01

    In the negative-ion collision-induced dissociation mass spectra of most organic sulfonates, the base peak is observed at m/z 80 for the sulfur trioxide radical anion (SO(3) (-·) ). In contrast, the product-ion spectra of a few sulfonates, such as cysteic acid, aminomethanesulfonate, and 2-phenylethanesulfonate, show the base peak at m/z 81 for the bisulfite anion (HSO(3) (-) ). An investigation with an extensive variety of sulfonates revealed that the presence of a hydrogen atom at the β-position relative to the sulfur atom is a prerequisite for the formation of the bisulfite anion. The formation of HSO(3) (-) is highly favored when the atom at the β-position is nitrogen, or the leaving neutral species is a highly conjugated molecule such as styrene or acrylic acid. Deuterium-exchange experiments with aminomethanesulfonate demonstrated that the hydrogen for HSO(3) (-) formation is transferred from the β-position. The presence of a peak at m/z 80 in the spectrum of 2-sulfoacetic acid, in contrast to a peak at m/z 81 in that of 3-sulfopropanoic acid, corroborated the proposed hydrogen transfer mechanism. For diacidic compounds, such as 4-sulfobutanoic acid and cysteic acid, the m/z 81 ion can be formed by an alternative mechanism, in which the negative charge of the carboxylate moiety attacks the α-carbon relative to the sulfur atom. Experiments conducted with deuterium-exchanged and deuterium-labeled analogs of sulfocarboxylic acids demonstrated that the formation of the bisulfite anion resulted either from a hydrogen transfer from the β-carbon, or from a direct attack by the carboxylate moiety on the α-carbon.

  14. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  15. Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, B.; Sasirekha, N.R.; Chen, Y.-W.

    2008-03-04

    The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] ratio and particle size of titania was observed.

  16. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-09-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  17. Fabrication process of intrinsic Josephson junction stacks in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x crystals by double-sided patterning process using dilute hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahiro; Ishida, Hiroki; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Yasui, Kanji; Hamasaki, Katsuyoshi

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a new double-sided patterning (DSP) process that employs dilute acid (pH = 1.65) to fabricate Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions. These stacks, which were fabricated from a single crystal of Bi-2212, were surrounded by an acid-treated product. The critical aspect of this process is that the Bi-2212 surrounding the photoresist pattern was converted into a transparent material, BiOCl, which was connected with the Bi-2212 crystal. Consequently, this process provides a simple way to achieve DSP of the surfaces of Bi-2212 crystals. This new DSP process realizes a remarkably improved reproducibility in fabricating Bi-2212 stacks that exhibit good current-voltage characteristics with a large hysteresis and multiple branches at T = 77 K.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kuklik M, Zemkova D, Kozlowski K. 3-M syndrome in two sisters. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Aug;38(4):419-22. Citation on PubMed Temtamy SA, Aglan MS, Ashour AM, Ramzy MI, Hosny LA, Mostafa MI. 3-M syndrome: a report of three Egyptian cases with review ...

  19. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  20. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  1. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  2. Atmospheric scavenging of hydrochloric acid. [from rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, E. O.; Fenton, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The scavenging of hydrogen chloride from a solid rocket exhaust cloud was investigated. Water drops were caused to fall through a confined exhaust cloud and then analyzed to determine the amount of HCl captured during fall. Bubblers were used to measure HCl concentration within the chamber. The measured chamber HCl concentration, together with the measured HCl deposition on the chamber walls, accounted for 81 to 94% of the theoretical HCl. It was found that the amount of HCl captured was approximately one-half of that predicted by the Frossling correlation. No effect of humidity was detected through a range of 69-98% R.H.. The scavenging of HCl from a solid rocket exhaust cloud was calculated using an idealized Kennedy Space Center rain cycle. Results indicate that this cycle would reduce the cloud HCl concentration to 20.6% if its value in the absence of rain.

  3. Hydrochloric Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C.; May, R.; Jaegle, L.; Hu, H.; Sander, S.; Gunson, M.; Toon, G.; Russell, J., III; Stimpfle, R.; Koplow, J.; Salawitch, R.; Michelsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of hc1 measured in the lower stratosphere in 1993 by the ALIAS instrument on the ER-2 aircraft reveal that only 40% of inorganic chlorine (CL sub y, inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorinated source gases) is present as HC1, significantly lower than model predictions.

  4. Hydrochloric acid and the chlorine budget of the lower statosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Jaegle, L.; Hu, H.; Sander, S. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Toon, G. C.; Russell, J. M., III; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of HCl measurements in the lower stratosphere in 1993 by the ALIAS instrument on the ER-2 aircraft reveal that only 40% of inorganic chlorine (Cl(y), inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorinated sources gases) is present as HCl, significantly lower than model predictions. Although the sum of measured HCl, ClO and ClONO2, the latter inferred from measurements of ClO and NO2 equals Cl(y) to within the incertainty of measurement, it is systematically less than Cl(y) by 30-50%. This discrepancy suggests that concentrations of ClONO2 may exceed those of HC; near 20 km altitude, consistent with a slower photolysis rate for ClONO2 than calculated using recommended cross sections. Comparison of profiles of HCl measured during 1992 and 1193 at mid-latitudes by balloon (BLISS and MARKIV), space shuttle (ATMOS), and satellite (HALOE) instruments with the aircraft data reveal an apparent pressure dependence to the HCl to Cl(y) ratio, consistent with a factor of 3-10 reduction in the photolysis rate for ClONO2 at ER-2 altitudes. However, the diurnal variation of ClO is well-simulated by models using the recommended photolysis rate, and simulations measurements of ClONO2 and HCl at mid-latitudes by ATMOS and MARKIV report HCl (HCL+ ClONO2) ratios greater than or equal to 50%. Premliminary measurements by ALIAS in the southern hemisphere report HCl/Cl(y) values of about 75%.

  5. Dinosaur extinction: closing the '3 m gap'.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G B; Sargis, Eric J; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G

    2011-12-23

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the '3 m gap', has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K-T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a 'fern spike', and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-T boundary impact event.

  6. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  7. Recovery of Pd(II) from hydrochloric solution using polyallylamine hydrochloride-modified Escherichia coli biomass.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyeong; Won, Sung Wook; Mao, Juan; Kwak, In Seob; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2010-09-15

    A new type of biosorbent able to bind anionic metals was developed by cross-linking of waste biomass Escherichia coli with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH). The PAH-modified biomass was investigated for the removal and recovery of Pd(II), in the chloro-complex form, from aqueous solution. The performance of the PAH-modified biomass was evaluated in terms of the following parameters: the solution pH, contact time and initial metal concentration. In the pH edge experiments, the uptake of Pd(II) increased with increasing pH. Pd(II) biosorption proceeded rapidly in the first 10 min, with almost complete equilibrium being achieved within 60 min. Moreover, the isotherm data showed that the maximum uptakes of Pd(II) were 265.3mg/g at pH 3 and 212.9 mg/g at pH 2, respectively. After incineration of the Pd-loaded PAH-modified biomass, metallic palladium was recovered in the ash. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed that the palladium was recovered in two valency states: zero-valent and divalent palladium (as PdO). Therefore, we concluded that PAH-modified biomass is a useful and cost-effective biosorbent for the recovery of anionic precious metals as chloro-complex solutions containing hydrochloric acid produced from metal refining processes.

  8. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  9. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  10. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  11. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  12. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  13. Efficient 3M PBS enhancing miniature projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Zhisheng; Nevitt, Timothy; Willett, Stephen; Mortenson, Dave; Le, John; McDowell, Erin; Kent, Susan; Wong, Timothy; Beniot, Gilles J.; Ouderkirk, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, 3M has developed a number of mobile projectors, with a goal towards providing the world's smallest, most efficient projection systems. Compact size and efficiency are required characteristics for projection systems used in mobile devices and more lately, in augmented reality systems. In this paper we summarize the main generations of 3M light engine optical designs. We present the optical architectures of four light engines, including the rationale behind the illumination designs and the projection systems. In particular, we describe various configurations relating to the 3M polarizing beam splitter (PBS) which is key to enhanced efficiency of the miniature projection systems.

  14. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  15. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  16. 76 FR 70443 - Decision on Waiver Application From 3M

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA conditionally granted the request from 3M for a waiver from testing tetrabromobisphenol A (CASRN 79-94-7). Regulations issued by EPA under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act... application is submitted to EPA and is approved. EPA received such a request for a waiver from these...

  17. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  18. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  19. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  20. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  1. Cost and Performance Report 3M Selective Separation Cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    2000-12-19

    In the summer of 1998, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) initiated a water treatment project through its Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program at the Savannah River Site (DOE-SR, 1999). The purpose of the ASTD project was to deploy new and innovative water treatment technologies - that offer significant improvements over existing baseline technologies - in the removal of cesium and strontium from contaminated water. One of the technologies selected by EM-50 was the Selective Separation Cartridge, based on an innovative membrane technology developed the 3M Co., St. Paul, MN (OST-2000).The Savannah River Site is committed to deploy this Selective Separation Cartridge technology at other appropriate locations. It may be appropriate for other Reactor Disassembly Basins, or in-situ groundwater remediation. The deployment of this technology will be considered strongly as opportunities present themselves. The primary lesson learned is to anticipate and plan to reduce the radiation dose from a Cs-137 removal system to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. 3M did not include any mitigating actions in their original design and fabrication, primarily because the system was completely constructed before WSRC became deeply involved with the 3M/EM-50 project.

  2. Characteristic of a novel composite inorganic polymer coagulant-PFAC prepared by hydrochloric pickle liquor.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wei; Qiu, Huiqin; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Yanjing; Yang, Kailiang; Liu, Zhongzhe; Ding, Guoji

    2009-02-15

    A composite inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC) was prepared by using hydrochloric pickle liquor and calcium aluminate as main materials. The optimum conditions for preparing PFAC with the hydrochloric pickle liquor and the calcium aluminate were studied. The coagulation performance of PFAC was investigated by studying the turbidity, COD, total phosphate (TP) and NH(3)-N removal efficiency in municipal sewage treatment. Results indicated that the effective composition, basicity (simplified as B, B=[OH]/(3[Fe(T)+Al(T)])x100%), coagulation performance and stability of PFAC were affected by calcium aluminate dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature and stabilizing agents. The COD and turbidity removal efficiency of PFAC was better than that of PFS and FeCl(3), and the TP and NH(3)-N removal efficiency of PFAC was much better than that of PFS, FeCl(3) and PAC. PFAC not only possessed a good coagulation performance, but also had good stability when stored.

  3. Gas chromatographic determination of oxalic acid in foods.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, H

    1985-01-01

    A new quantitative gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for the determination of oxalic acid in foods. Solid sample is extracted with water (soluble oxalic acid) or 2N hydrochloric acid (total oxalic acid) at room temperature. An aliquot of sample extract is evaporated to dryness, and the oxalic acid in the residue is methylated with 7% hydrochloric acid-methanol. The reaction mixture is extracted with chloroform, and dimethyl oxalate is quantitated by GC. Recovery of oxalic acid added to liquid samples averaged 100.6%; recoveries from extracts of solid samples were 96.2-99.5 and 97.2-100.1% for water and hydrochloric acid extractions, respectively. Results are shown for determination of oxalic acid in spinach and beverages. The technique is simple, rapid, and accurate, and small samples may be used. The limit of determination is 20 micrograms.

  4. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  5. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  6. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  7. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  8. Observations of 3-m auroral irregularities during the ERRRIS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, J. D.; Farley, D. T.; Swartz, W. E.; Providakes, J. F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1992-06-01

    In the late winter of 1988 and 1989, three NASA sounding rockets were flown through the auroral electrojet from ESRANGE (Sweden) as part of the E-region Rocket-Radar Instability Study (ERRRIS). Many ground-based instruments supported these flights, including the EISCAT, STARE, and CUPRI radars, as well as all-sky cameras, riometers, and magnetometers. In this paper the observations of the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), which detected coherent backscatter from 3-m irregularities in the auroral E-region are summarized. Twenty hours of power spectra and interferometry data are available, and, during the 1989 campaign, three weeks of nearly continuous Range-Time-Intensity (RTI) and first moment data were recorded.

  9. Determination of the Efficiency of Mixed-Acid Digestions of Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta Vazquez, Alejandra I.; Gill, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-acid digestion is a method often used for the determination of elemental analysis of sediment samples. It is crucial that efficiency details associated with the digestion method be well understood on an element by element basis. Battelle’s Marine Sciences Laboratory Standard Operating Procedure for Sediment Mixed-Acid Digestions was modified to identify conditions which produce optimal recovery of elements. The parameters that were adjusted for testing were mass of sediment, mixed-acid volume, mixed-acid composition and digestion time. Digestion involves treatment of the sediment sample with mixed-acid mixtures at 135º C ± 10º in a Teflon® digestion bomb. Typical analytical methods include Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Initial experiments involved determining the optimal ratio of acid volume to mass of sediment. Experiments were designed to identify the point at which insufficient acid was used to effectively digest a given mass of sediment. When the mass of sediment was varied between 0.2 and 1.0 gram using a 4 mL aqua regia acid mixture (3 mL hydrochloric acid and 1 mL nitric acid), there was no effect on the recovery of the elements Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The next experiments focused on a time study to resolve the shortest digestive time for optimal elemental recovery. Two masses of sediment were investigated, 0.25 and 0.7 g, again utilizing aqua regia digestion (4 mL). Maximum recovery was reached after 4 hours of digestion; additional digestion time released no or only minimal amounts of elements from the sediments. The final set of experiments was designed to identify optimal conditions for the total digestion of sediment using a mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and boric acid. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal volume of hydrofluoric acid

  10. Chemical and structural properties of sweet potato starch treated with organic and inorganic acid.

    PubMed

    Babu, A Surendra; Parimalavalli, R; Jagannadham, K; Rao, J Sudhakara

    2015-09-01

    In the present study sweet potato starch was treated with hydrochloric acid or citric acid at 1 or 5 % concentration and its properties were investigated. Citric acid treatment resulted higher starch yield. Water holding capacity and water absorption index was increased with increased acid concentration. Emulsion properties improved at 5 % acid concentration. The DE value of acid-thinned sweet potato starches was ranged between 1.93 and 3.76 %. Hydrochloric acid treated starches displayed a higher fraction of amylose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study revealed that all the starches displayed C-type crystalline pattern with varied crystallinity. FT-IR spectra perceived a slight change in percentage intensity of C-H stretch of citric acid modified starches. Starch granules tended to appear less smooth than the native starch granules after acid treatment in Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) with granule size ranging between 8.00 and 8.90 μm. A drastic decrease in the pasting profile was noticed in hydrochloric acid (5 %) treated starch. While 5 % citric acid treated starch exhibited higher pasting profile. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) showed that peak and conclusion gelatinisation temperatures increased with increase in hydrochloric acid or citric acid concentration. Hence citric acid was found to mimic the hydrochloric acid with some variation which suggests that it may have promising scope in acid modification.

  11. Anion-exchange separation of Pt and Pd using perchloric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, R.K.; Morgan, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    On Biorad Ag-1X8 anion-exchange resin (200-400 mesh), Pd and Pt may be separated from one another by elution with 0.2M HClO4, and 5M HClO4, respectively. If present, Au may be retained by making the elutriants 0.003M in HCl. Alternatively, reduction by H2SO3 enables elution of Pt2+ with 6M HCl before recovery of Pd2+ with 0.2M HClO4??Ir4+ is reduced to Ir3+ by H2SO3 and may be eluted ahead of Pt2+ by 2M HCl. ?? 1982 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  12. The selective leaching of uranium, vanadium and phosphorus from phosphate ore with hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, J. L.; Prisbrey, K. A.; Taylor, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    The selective leaching of uranium, vanadium, and phosphorus from phosphate ore may be useful in by-product recovery. Experimental results have shown that it is possible to preferentially remove uranium from phosphate ore using dilute HCl (0.05 M). 93 pct of the uranium is leached within 90 min, leaving 94 pct of the phosphorus and 82 pct of the vanadium unattacked. Phosphorus may then be removed by increasing the pH. The apparent activation energies and orders for the leaching reactions were found. For uranium, the apparent order with respect to H+ is 1.05 and the apparent activation energy is 7750 J. The apparent order for the leaching of the vanadium minerals with respect to H+ is 1.93 and the apparent activation energy is 12800 J. The phosphorus reaction has an apparent order, with respect to H+, of 1.98 and an apparent activation energy of 10200 J. The uranium readsorbs at longer times. The readsorption reaction is a function of temperature, particle size, and H+ concentration. Two methods of selectivity analysis were used in the analysis of the data-end point analysis and initial rate analysis.

  13. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES PRESERVED WITIH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as TBA. Because alcohols tend to stay with the water samples, they are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for separation and analysis. A common tec...

  14. Separation of calcium-48 isotope by crown ether chromatography using ethanol/hydrochloric acid mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Shin; Umehara, Saori; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Masao; Kaneshiki, Toshitaka; Ozawa, Masaki; Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-09

    Benzo-18-crown-6 ether resin embedded in porous silica beads was synthesized and used as the packing material for chromatographic separation of (48)Ca isotope. The aim of the present work is to develop efficient isotope enrichment process for double β decay nuclide (48)Ca. To this end, ethanol/HCl mixed solvent was selected as the medium for the chromatographic separation. Adsorption of calcium on the resin was studied at different HCl concentrations and different ethanol mixing ratios in batch-wise experiments. A very interesting phenomenon was observed; Ca adsorption is controlled not by the overall HCl concentration of the mixed solvent, but by the initial concentration of added HCl solution. Calcium break-through chromatography experiments were conducted by using 75v/v% ethanol/25v/v% 8M HCl mixed solvent at different flow rates. The isotope separation coefficient between (48)Ca and (40)Ca was determined as 3.8×10(-3), which is larger than that of pure HCl solution system. Discussion is extended to the chromatographic HETP, height equivalent to a theoretical plate.

  15. Feasibility study of the application of existing techniques to remotely monitor hydrochloric acid in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwick, H.; Ward, V.; Beaudette, L.

    1973-01-01

    A critical evaluation of existing optical remote sensors for HCl vapor detection in solid propellant rocket plumes is presented. The P branch of the fundamental vibration-rotation band was selected as the most promising spectral feature to sense. A computation of transmittance for HCl vapor, an estimation of interferent spectra, the application of these spectra to computer modelled remote sensors, and a trade-off study for instrument recommendation are also included.

  16. The Effects of Thermal Pretreatment on Leaching of Yunnan Ilmenite with Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song-Li; Xiang, Jun-Yi

    2016-04-01

    The effects of thermal pretreatment on the leaching of Yunnan ilmenite ores were investigated from two aspects: the dissolution of iron and titanium, and the proportion of fine precipitations. The results indicate that high-temperature reduction or oxidization produces phase and structure transformations on ilmenite that facilitate the dissolution of iron, reduce the dissolution of titanium, and facilitate the hydrolysis of dissolved titanium. The results further indicate that oxidation at temperatures ranging from 1023 K (750 °C) to 1273 K (1000 °C) can significantly decrease the proportion of fine products. It is believed that the structure of oxidized ilmenite played an important role in minimizing the proportion of fine materials.

  17. ON THE USE OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FOR DETERMINING SOLID-PHASE ARSENIC PARTITIONING IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. Results from a field study at a Superfund...

  18. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0015)...

  19. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0015)...

  20. Use of hydrochloric acid as a source of anions for prevention of milk fever.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Horst, R L

    1998-11-01

    Diets that contain high amounts of K induce milk fever by alkalinizing the blood of the cow, reducing the ability of homeostatic mechanisms to maintain normal blood concentrations of Ca. The addition of anions to the diet induces metabolic acidosis, which counteracts the alkalinizing effect of the high cation diets commonly fed to cows. Currently, anions are usually added as anionic salts, such as CaCl2 or MgSO4, and the pH of urine is often monitored to assess the degree of metabolic acidification resulting from the addition of anions to the diet. An alternative source of anions is HCl. In Experiment 1, the addition of HCl to the diet of cows that were not pregnant and not lactating significantly reduced the pH of urine and blood within 24 h. After HCl was removed from the diet, the pH of urine returned to baseline levels within 48 h. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of HCl into the prepartum ration of Jersey cows entering the third or greater lactation significantly reduced the incidence of milk fever from 63% of control cows to 11% of the treated cows and also reduced the degree of hypocalcemia that was experienced by the cows during the periparturient period. Plasma Ca concentrations at 0.5 d after calving were 5.33 +/- 0.52 and 6.69 +/- 0.51 mg/dl in the control and the HCl-treated cows, respectively. In Experiment 2, the prepartum consumption of the ration with HCl was greater than the consumption of the control ration. In liquid form, HCl remains dangerous to handle and corrosive to machinery. Commercial preparations of HCl mixed into common feed ingredients as a premix could offer an inexpensive and palatable alternative to anionic salts as a means of controlling the incidence of milk fever in dairy cows.

  1. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong

    2015-07-07

    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... access openings used for inspection and maintenance of tanks, or unless otherwise specifically approved... gaskets. (c) Where special arrangements are approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG) to permit a pump...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... access openings used for inspection and maintenance of tanks, or unless otherwise specifically approved... gaskets. (c) Where special arrangements are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) to permit a pump...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gaskets. (c) Where special arrangements are approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG) to permit a pump suction... during the cargo transfer operations, except installed electric or portable battery lights. Smoking...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gaskets. (c) Where special arrangements are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) to permit a pump suction... during the cargo transfer operations, except installed electric or portable battery lights. Smoking...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gaskets. (c) Where special arrangements are approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG) to permit a pump suction... during the cargo transfer operations, except installed electric or portable battery lights. Smoking...

  7. Sorption of uranium(VI) ions from hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride solutions by anion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Pakholkov, V.S.; Denisova, L.A.; Rychkov, V.N.; Kurnosenko, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The sorption of macroscopic quantities of uranium from solutions of UO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ containing HCl and NH/sub 4/Cl in concentrations from 0.0 to 6.0 M by the AV-17 x 8, AV-16G, EDE-10P, AN-31, AN-2F, AN22, and AN-251 anion exchangers has been investigated under static conditions. The sorption isotherms are described by an equation similar to Freundlich's equation: K/sub d/ = K tilde x C/sub eq/sup 1/z/ or log K/sub d/ = log K tilde + 1/z x log C/sub eq/. Equations describing the dependence of the sorbability (or K/sub d/) on the equilibrium concentration of uranium in the solution have been obtained with the aid of the least-squares method. Conclusions regarding the chemistry of the exchange of uranium ions on anion exchangers in chloride solutions have been drawn on the basis of the UV spectra of the original solutions and the IR spectra of the ion exchangers obtained in this work, as well as the established general laws governing sorption.

  8. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  9. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  10. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  11. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... solution, rinse them with water, and place them in a solution containing 81/2 pounds of sodium bicarbonate... from the sodium bicarbonate solution and wash them to remove the excess of bicarbonate. (Approved...

  12. Steel--Project Fact Sheet: Recycling Acid and Metal Salts from Pickling Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.; Recca, L.

    1999-01-14

    Regenerating hydrochloric acids from metal finishing pickling baths reduces costs, wastes, and produces a valuable by-product--ferrous sulfate. Order your copy of this OIT project fact sheet and learn more about how your company can benefit.

  13. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  14. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  15. Insights into How Students Learn the Difference between a Weak Acid and a Strong Acid from Cartoon Tutorials Employing Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Akaygun, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes an investigation into how Flash-based cartoon video tutorials featuring molecular visualizations affect students' mental models of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions and how the acids respond when tested for electrical conductance. Variation theory served as the theoretical framework for examining how students…

  16. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  17. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  18. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  19. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  1. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  2. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-ENG). ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  3. Recovery of uranium from acid media by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V.; Nandy, K.K.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of uranium from various acid media such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and perchloric acid by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) has been studied. The distribution coefficients for the extraction of uranium by the MPBPA resin are compared with the corresponding values reported in literature for the conventional sulphonic acid resin. The results clearly indicate the suitability of the MPBPA resin to recover uranium from different types of acid solutions of widely ranging acidities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Biperiden hydrochlorate ameliorates dystonia of rats produced by microinjection of sigma ligands into the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takahashi, H; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Shimizu, T

    2000-11-01

    It has been reported that the imbalance of anticholinergic and antidopaminergic activity of each neuroleptic drug correlates with the capacity to produce neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia (NAD) and the major focus of NAD is thought to be the striatum. Anticholinergic drugs are highly effective on NAD, but they are partially effective on neuroleptic-induced tardive dystonia and their effect on idiopathic dystonia is disappointing. Recently, it has been reported that the unilateral microinjection of sigma (sigma) ligands into the red nucleus induces torticollis of rats. This animal model appears to be a model of dystonia, but it is not clear whether it is suitable for NAD in man. To clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of an anticholinergic drug, biperiden hydrochlorate (BH), on this animal model. This study revealed that BH dose-dependently ameliorated dystonia of rats induced by two sigma ligands, whether each sigma ligand had dopaminergic affinity or not. This animal model of dystonia appears to be a model of NAD in man from the viewpoint of treatment-response. The results also suggest that not only dopaminergic and cholinergic systems but also sigma system, and not only the striatum but also the red nucleus, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of NAD.

  5. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  6. N- and O-linked glycosylation site profiling of the human basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Piras, Valentina; Liori, Barbara; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Vincenzoni, Federica; Cordaro, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213.

  7. Reactivity of clay minerals with acids and alkalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.; Starkey, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    One-g samples of a montmorillonite, a metabentonite, an illite, two kaolinites, and three halloysites were treated with 50 ml of hydrochloric acid (6??45 N, 1:1), acetic acid (4??5 N, 1:3), sodium hydroxide (2??8 N), sodium chloride solution (pH 6??10; Na = 35???; Cl = 21??5???), and natural sea water (pH 7??85; Na = 35??5???; Cl = 21??5???) for a 10-day period in stoppered plastic vials. The supernatant solutions were removed from the clay minerals and analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and K2O. All the solutions removed some SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 from the samples, but the quantities were small. Sodium hydroxide attacked the kaolin group minerals more strongly than it did montmorillonite, metabentonite, or illite. Halloysite was more strongly attacked by hydrochloric acid than was any of the other experimental minerals. Hydrochloric acid removed iron oxide coatings from soil clay minerals, but acetic acid did not remove them completely. The samples most strongly attacked by HCl and NaOH were examined by X-ray diffraction. Acid treatment did not destroy the structure of the clays, but the halloysite structure was partially destroyed. Sodium hydroxide attacked the halloysite structure, as shown by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. These experiments show that treatment in dilute acids has no harmful effect in the preparation of clays for X-ray diffraction. Acetic acid is preferred to hydrochloric acid for this purpose. Hydrochloric acid cleans clay minerals by removing free iron oxide from the surface; acetic acid is less effective. ?? 1971.

  8. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  9. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  10. Optimizing Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility (3M)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    3M conducted an in-house motor system study in 29 buildings at the 3M Center. The company evaluated approximately 1,000 electric motors and upgraded systems, resulting in reduced electricity use and cost savings of $77,554 per year.

  11. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyunjin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2009-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M3 is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3. This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K+ channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K+ currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca2+ currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca2+ currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:19931239

  12. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyun Jin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2010-02-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M(3) is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K(+) channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca(2+) currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level.

  13. 101. JOB NO. 1347F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. JOB NO. 1347-F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ONE-EIGHTH SCALE OF OFFICES - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 115. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; BOILER SETTING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  16. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  17. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Obenschain, Art (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  18. Infiltration of natural caries lesions in relation to their activity status and acid pretreatment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Schlafer, S; Lussi, A; Nyvad, B

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing how active and inactive enamel caries lesions differ by their degree of resin infiltration, and whether the choice of acid pretreatment plays a crucial role. Four examiners assessed 104 human molars and premolars with noncavitated enamel lesions and classified them as 'active' or 'inactive' using the Nyvad criteria. Forty-five teeth were included in this study after independent unanimous lesion activity assessment. Lesions were cut perpendicularly into 2 halves. Each half lesion was pretreated with either 15% hydrochloric acid or 35% phosphoric acid. The lesions were infiltrated after staining with rhodamine isothiocyanate. Thin sections of 100 µm were prepared and the specimens were bleached with 30% hydrogen peroxide. The specimens were then counterstained with sodium fluorescein, subjected to confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed quantitatively. Outcome parameters were maximum and average infiltration depths as well as relative penetration depths and areas. In active lesions no significant difference of percentage maximum penetration depth and percentage average penetration depth between lesions pretreated with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid could be observed. In inactive lesions, however, phosphoric acid pretreatment resulted in significantly lower penetration compared to hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Surface conditioning with hydrochloric acid led to similar infiltration results in active and inactive lesions. Moreover, inactive lesions showed greater variability in all assessed infiltration parameters than did active lesions. In conclusion, caries lesion activity and acid pretreatment both influenced the infiltration. The use of phosphoric acid to increase permeability of the surface layer of active lesions should be further explored.

  19. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  20. Catalytic destruction of perchlorate in ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution with control of temperature, pressure and chemical reagents

    DOEpatents

    Gu, Baohua; Cole, David R.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2004-10-05

    A method is described to decompose perchlorate in a FeCl.sub.3 /HCl aqueous solution such as would be used to regenerate an anion exchange resin used to remove perchlorate. The solution is mixed with a reducing agent, preferably an organic alcohol and/or ferrous chloride, and can be heated to accelerate the decomposition of perchlorate. Lower temperatures may be employed if a catalyst is added.

  1. Corrosion Inhibition by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract for 304 SS in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, S.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The inhibition effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract on the corrosion phenomena of 304 SS in 1 M HCl has been studied by polarization potentiodynamic. The powder of T. diversifolia was extracted by demineralized water which was cultivated in East Java, Indonesia. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer. The presence of T. diversifolia can inhibit the corrosion rate of 304 SS. The efficiency inhibition value of 2 g/L T. diversifolia leaves extract reached up to 77.27% at room temperature.

  2. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment.

  3. Quinoxaline derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium: Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Kabanda, Mwadham M.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2016-02-01

    The corrosion inhibition potential of four quinoxaline derivatives namely, 1-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Me-4-PQPB), 1-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)butan-1-one (Mt-4-PQPB), 1-[3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Mt-3-PQPB) and 1-[3-(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Oxo-1,3-PQPB) was studied for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution using electrochemical, spectroscopic techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results of both potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies revealed that the compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and the order of corrosion inhibition efficiency at 100 ppm is Me-4-PQPB>Mt-3-PQPB>Oxo-1,3-PQPB>Mt-4-PQPB. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of chemical interactions between the inhibitors and mild steel surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on mild steel surface was found to be both physisorption and chemisorption but predominantly chemisorption. The experimental data obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of protective films of the inhibitors on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical parameters obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations support experimental results.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limits provided by paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the... as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the levels... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the levels... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limits provided by paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the... as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the levels... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the...

  9. Impact of quality parameters on the recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fish using methanol-hydrochloric acid solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Richard, Nicole L; Pivarnik, Lori F; Ellis, P Christopher; Lee, Chong M

    2011-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) extraction by AOAC Official Method 996.07 has resulted in low amine recoveries in fresh fish tissue. Addition of 25% 0.4 M HCl to the 75% methanol-water extraction solvent resulted in higher recoveries of putrescine and cadaverine. Average putrescine recovery increased from 55 to 92% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 92 to 98% in mackerel; and from 83 to 107% in processed mackerel. Average cadaverine recovery increased from 57 to 95% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 91 to 97% in mackerel; and from 92 to 108% in processed mackerel. Fish stored on ice for 12 days also showed differences between background concentrations determined with the two solvents. However, the values decreased with storage time, indicating that degradation of the protein matrix may cause more comparable measurements between the two solvents. However, consistently higher putrescine and cadaverine measurements were determined using MeOH-HCl. Although significant differences in the extraction of amines from the high-fat fish tissue were not seen between MeOH and MeOH-HCl, it would be ideal to have one solvent for biogenic amine extraction. This study confirms that MeOH-HCl is a better solvent for complete extraction and recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fresh and processed fish tissues.

  10. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  11. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  12. Manipulation of electronic structure via alteration of local orbital environment in [(SrIrO3)m,(SrTi O3)] (m =1 ,2 ,and ∞ ) superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeun; Kim, Choong H.; Sandilands, L. J.; Sohn, C. H.; Matsuno, J.; Takagi, H.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Moon, S. J.; Noh, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of [(SrIrO3)m,(SrTi O3)] (m =1 ,2 ,and ∞ ) superlattice (SL) thin films with optical spectroscopy and first principles calculations. Our optical results confirmed the existence of the Jeff= 1 /2 states in SL samples, similar to the bulk Ruddlesden-Popper series S rn+1I rnO3 n +1 iridates. Apart from this similarity, in the SL samples, we observed red shifts of the characteristic optical excitations in the Jeff= 1 /2 state and an enhancement of the low-energy spectral weight, which implies a reduction in the effective electron correlation for bands near the Fermi energy. The density functional theory plus Coulomb interactions (DFT +U ) calculations suggested that the SrTi O3 layer intervened between SrIr O3 layers in the SLs activated additional hopping channels between the Ir ions, thus increasing the bandwidth and reducing the effective strength of the correlations. This paper demonstrates that fabrication of iridium-based heterostructures can be used to finely tune electronic structures via alteration of their local orbital environments.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of 3 m open tubular capillary columns with a zwitterionic polymeric porous layer for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhu, Manman; Zhang, Lingyi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    A 3 m zwitterionic polymeric porous layer open tubular column (3 m × 25 μm id × 375 μm od) with a polymeric porous layer thickness of 4 μm was fabricated by the copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide). The effects of the diameter of the capillary, reaction temperature, and polymerization time on the preparation of the open tubular column were investigated. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the zwitterionic layer was observed to be rough and throughout the fused-silica capillary homogenously, which increased the phase ratio. The separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds demonstrates the strong hydrophilicity of the poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide coating. In addition, the poly[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide porous layer open tubular column was applied for the analysis of flavonoids from the rootstalk of licorice, revealing the potential in separating complex samples. The relative standard deviation of retention time for run-to-run (n = 5), day-to-day (n = 3), and column-to-column (n = 3) of toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide, formamide, and thiourea were below 1.2%, exhibiting good repeatability.

  14. 3M Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay: AOAC Official Methods 995.22 and 2002.09.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Deann L; Crowley, Erin S; Bird, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the 3M Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay (VIA; 3M Food Safety, St. Paul, MN) was conducted at Q Laboratories, Inc., Cincinnati, OH. The 3M Tecra Listeria VIA method was compared to the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method for the analysis of five ready-to-eat (RTE) meats: deli turkey, hot dogs, liver pate, raw fermented sausage, and deli ham, and on a stainless steel environmental surface. Twenty replicates of each of the five food matrixes were analyzed at a low and a high inoculum level. The low-level test portions were inoculated with 0.2-2 CFU/25 g, and the high-level test portions with 2-5 CFU/25 g. In addition, 20 replicates of one environmental surface were analyzed at a low and a high inoculum level. The low-level sampling area was inoculated with 0.2-2 CFU/5 cm2, and the high-level area with 2-5 CFU/5 cm2. Five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/25 g (uninoculated) for the foods and at 0 CFU/5 cm2 for the environmental sampling area. There was no significant difference in the number of positives detected by the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA and the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method for four of the RTE meats and the stainless steel environmental surface analyzed in this study. For the raw, fermented sausage, there was a significant difference in the number of positives detected for the high inoculum level by the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA and the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method, with the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA method detecting more positives.

  15. Flux growth of MBO3 (M=Fe, Ga, In, Sc, Lu) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Rudenko, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The temperatures for saturation of the MBO3 (M=Fe, Ga, In, Sc, Lu) compounds in the M2O3-B2O3- (70 PbO-30 PbF2, wt%) solvents are determined. The growth rates of FeBO3 and GaBO3 crystal faces as functions of the flux supercooling are obtained. It is demonstrated that the bulk FeBO3 and GaBO3 crystals can be grown in a narrow flux supercooling range using a controlled seeding technique. The MBO3 (M=In, Sc, Lu) crystals in the form of (111) plates are synthesized by spontaneous crystallization.

  16. Model experience in the Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The model building, development, and testing experience gained during 8 years of operation of the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) is summarized. The summary is divided into four portions: (1) models tested in the 0.3-m TCT's original octagonal test section; (2) models tested in the present two dimensional test section; (3) models tested as a part of tunnel calibration and the development of advanced technology airfoils; and (4) development of a new way to construct two dimensional airfoil models. Design requirements imposed on the models by high Reynolds number testing at cryogenic temperatures are reviewed.

  17. Comparative in vitro release and clinical pharmacokinetics of leuprolide from Luphere 3M Depot, a 3-month release formulation of leuprolide acetate.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Yoon; Park, Jeong Hwa; Lee, MinSeok; Song, Im-Sook; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2017-03-01

    A 3-month depot formulation of leuprolide acetate (Luphere 3M Depot) with a mean microsphere diameter of 22.3 μm was prepared aseptically by spray-drying glacial acetic acid solution of the drug and polylactic acid, and lyophilization in a d-mannitol solution. The encapsulation efficiency and loading content of the drug in the Luphere 3M Depot were 94.7% and 9.92% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro release of leuprolide from the depot was substantially delayed and the release profile was similar to that of Lucrin Depot (Abbott Korea, Korea). The safety and pharmacokinetics of leuprolide were investigated over a period of 42 days in 20 prostate cancer patients following a subcutaneous injection of Luphere 3M or Lucrin Depot suspensions (leuprolide acetate dose of 11.25 mg) in a multi-center, randomized, single dose, parallel study. Both formulations were well tolerated by the patients and no serious adverse effects were observed during and after the study. No significant differences were observed in the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUClast) of leuprolide between the two formulations. The results suggest comparable safety and efficacy profiles of Luphere 3M Depot and Lucrin Depot in clinical situations.

  18. Elevated extrahepatic expression and secretion of mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) into colostrum.

    PubMed

    McDonald, T L; Larson, M A; Mack, D R; Weber, A

    2001-12-01

    Mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) was secreted at highly elevated levels in bovine, equine and ovine colostrum and found at lower levels in milk 4 days postparturition. N-terminal sequencing of the mature M-SAA3 protein from all the three species revealed a conserved four amino acid motif (TFLK) within the first eight residues. This motif has not been reported to be present in any of the hepatically-produced acute phase SAA (A-SAA) isoforms. Cloning of the bovine M-Saa3 cDNA from mammary gland epithelial cells revealed an open reading frame that encoded a precursor protein of 131 amino acids which included an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The predicted 113 residue mature M-SAA3 protein had a theoretical molecular mass of 12,826Da that corresponded with the observed 12.8kDa molecular mass obtained for M-SAA3 in immunoblot analysis. The high abundance of this extrahepatically produced SAA3 isoform in the colostrum of healthy animals suggests that M-SAA3 may play an important functional role associated with newborn adaptation to extrauterine life and possibly mammary tissue remodeling.

  19. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E. Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10−6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5–10, p = 3.3 x 10−6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC. PMID:26372210

  20. Attenuation of kindling-induced decreases in NT-3 mRNA by thyroid hormone depletion.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Smith, M A; Post, R M; Rosen, J B

    1998-02-01

    The expression of neurotrophins is altered by amygdala kindled seizures. Because thyroid hormone can regulate the transcription of neurotrophins, we asked whether thyroid hormone regulates neurotrophin mRNA expression following amygdala kindling. Rats with electrodes implanted in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala were either depleted of thyroid hormone or given excess thyroid hormone. The rats were then kindled daily until they had one generalized seizure. The brains were removed 4 h after the seizure and processed for in situ hybridization of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNAs. In non-kindled rats, thyroid hormone depletion increased the levels of BDNF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. NGF and NT-3 mRNA expression was not altered. In addition, thyroid hormone manipulations had no effect on kindling or on kindling-induced BDNF and NGF mRNA. However, the kindling-induced decrease in NT-3 mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer was significantly attenuated by thyroid hormone depletion. These effects were reversed by thyroid hormone replacement. The results indicate that thyroid hormone plays a modulatory role in the seizure-induced changes of NT-3 mRNA expression found in the dentate gyrus.

  1. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10-6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5-10, p = 3.3 x 10-6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC.

  2. A DS106 Thing Happened on the Way to the 3M Tech Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockridge, Rochelle; Levine, Alan; Funes, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates how DS106, a computer science course in Digital Storytelling from the University of Mary Washington (UMW) and accessible as an open course on the web, is being explored in a corporate environment at 3M, an American multinational corporation based in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build community, collaboration, and more…

  3. Shear in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F plumes observed over Sanya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guozhu; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Abdu, M. A.; Wan, Weixing; Hu, Lianhuan

    2015-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radars near magnetic equator regularly measured a vertical shear in zonal drifts of the evening background plasma, with westward drifts below the equatorial F region peak and eastward drifts above. We report here observations of a clear shear structure in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F (SF) backscatter plumes measured with a 47.5 MHz coherent scatter radar operated at a low-latitude site Sanya (18.4°N, 109.6°E; dip latitude 12.8°N). The radar interferometry analysis on the zonal drifts of the 3 m irregularities yields results consistent with that estimated from the irregularity echo Doppler velocity measurements with multiple beams. It is shown that the SF 3 m irregularities move westward at the lowest altitudes, while at higher altitudes in the same SF plume structure, the 3 m irregularities drift eastward. One interesting point is that the vertical shear of zonal drifts was centered at ~300 km altitude over Sanya, which maps to an apex altitude of ~650 km at magnetic equator and is thus apparently higher than the apex altitudes 250-450 km where the zonal velocity shear has usually been observed. Analysis of the observations suggests that while the possibility of local generation of the shear flow of the irregularities can exist, the possibility of a plasma vortex appearing at relative high altitudes causing the zonal drift shear of F region 3 m irregularities measured over Sanya cannot be totally ruled out.

  4. Incorporation of stratospheric acids into water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Scott; Turco, Richard P.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are absorbed within the water ice lattice at mole fractions maximizing below 0.00001 and 0.0001 in a variety of solid impurity studies. The absorption mechanism may be substitutional or interstitial, leading in either case to a weak permeation of stratospheric ices by the acids at equilibrium. Impurities could also inhabit grain boundaries, and the acid content of atmospheric ice crystals will then depend on details of their surface and internal microstructures. Limited evidence indicates similar properties for the absorption of HNO3. Water ice lattices saturated with acid cannot be a significant local reservoir for HCl in the polar stratosphere.

  5. Effect of Chitosan Dissolved in Different Acids on its Ability to Control Postharvest Gray Mold of Table Grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that must be dissolved in an acid solution to activate its antimicrobial and eliciting properties. Among 15 acids, chitosan dissolved in 1% solutions of acetic, L-ascorbic, formic, L-glutamic, hydrochloric, lactic, maleic, malic, phosphorous, and succinic. Chitosan s...

  6. Formation of Linear Polyenes in Thermal Dehydration of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.

  7. Stimulation of high-frequency breakdown of gas in Uragan-3M torsatron by runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, I. K.; Tarasov, M. I.; Sitnikov, D. A.; Pashnev, V. K.; Lytova, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments on confinement and heating of plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron, the method of high-frequency breakdown of the working gas is used. In these experiments, in conditions of a relatively stable magnetic field, the rf power supplied to the setup chamber has a frequency close to the ion-cyclotron frequency. Such a method of gas breakdown is not always sufficiently reliable. In our experiments, preliminary ionization of the working gas by the run-away electron beam is used for stabilizing the breakdown. This work contains the results of experiments on enhancement of the runaway electron beam and on the interaction of the runaway electron beam in the Uragan-3M torsatron with the HF electromagnetic pump field. This enables us to formulate a number of recommendations for using spontaneously formed beams of accelerated particles for stimulating the rf breakdown. Our results confirm the possibility of gas breakdown by runaway electrons.

  8. Florida hospital saves 5.3 M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Florida hospital saves 5.3M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing. Surgery cancellations have been slashed from 13% of cases to less than 3%, while emergency department admissions have increased by 20%. Those are just two of the results of a quality improvement project at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL, that focused on using the principles of lean manufacturing to improve patient flow in the five-hospital system

  9. A 3 m. y. record of Pliocene-Pleistocene loess in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.A.; Stemper, B.A. ); Pewe, T.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Many distal tephra beds exist in the thick, fossiliferous loess deposits near Fairbanks interior Alaska. Isothermal plateau fission-track ages, determined on glass shards from tephra beds, in conjunction with tephrostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic techniques, indicate that loess deposition began in the late Pliocene-an antiquity previously unsuspected. Hence, there is the opportunity now to reconstruct a detailed, well-dated record of environmental changes in interior Alaska during the past 3 m.y.

  10. Ultra Barrier Topsheet Film for Flexible Photovoltaics with 3M Company

    SciTech Connect

    Funkenbusch, Arnie; Ruth, Charles

    2014-12-30

    In this DOE sponsored program, 3M achieved the critical UBT features to enable durable flexible high efficiency modules to be produced by a range of customers who have now certified the 3M UBT and are actively developing said flexible modules. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the work under this program were; Scale-up the current Generation-1 UBT from 12” width, as made on 3M’s pilot line, to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing, while maintaining baseline performance metrics (see table below); This objective was fully met; Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime demanded by the photovoltaic market; Aggressive testing revealed potential failure modes in the Gen 1 UBT. Deficiencies were identified and corrective action taken in the Gen 2 UBT; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance relative to baseline, including higher %T (percent transmission), lower water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) with targets based on what the technology needs for 25 year lifetime, proven lifetime of 25 years in solar module construction in the field, and lower cost; Testing of UBT Gen 2 under a wide range of conditions presented in this report failed to reveal any failure mode. Therefore UBT Gen 2 is known to be highly durable. 3M will continue to test towards statistically validating a 25 year lifetime under 3M funding; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line within three years; and This objective was fully met.

  11. Fundamental experiments of radio astronomy by the paraboloidal antenna of 3.3 m diameter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Kuji, S.; Hara, T.; Fujishita, M.; Horiai, K.; Iwadate, K.; Sato, K.; Tsubokawa, T.; Tamura, Y.; Takano, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Asari, K.

    The 3.3 m diameter paraboloidal antenna was moved at early 1985 for fundamental experiments of radio astronomy at the International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa. The antenna was originally manufactured for the telecomunication experiments at 4 GHz. The authors fitted up a new feed horn of 8 GHz-band for their experiments. The driving system was renewed as suitable for astronomical use by using DC servomotors, optical encoders and a micro-computer.

  12. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  13. Validation of the 3M molecular detection system for the detection of listeria in meat, seafood, dairy, and retail environments.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Esther D; David, John; Koeritzer, Bob; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-05-01

    There is a continued need to develop improved rapid methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this project was to evaluate the 3M Molecular Detection System (3M MDS), which uses isothermal DNA amplification, and the 3M Molecular Detection Assay Listeria using environmental samples obtained from retail delicatessens and meat, seafood, and dairy processing plants. Environmental sponge samples were tested for Listeria with the 3M MDS after 22 and 48 h of enrichment in 3M Modified Listeria Recovery Broth (3M mLRB); enrichments were also used for cultural detection of Listeria spp. Among 391 samples tested for Listeria, 74 were positive by both the 3M MDS and the cultural method, 310 were negative by both methods, 2 were positive by the 3M MDS and negative by the cultural method, and one sample was negative by the 3M MDS and positive by the cultural method. Four samples were removed from the sample set, prior to statistical analyses, due to potential cross-contamination during testing. Listeria isolates from positive samples represented L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. seeligeri. Overall, the 3M MDS and culture-based detection after enrichment in 3M mLRB did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) with regard to the number of positive samples, when chi-square analyses were performed for (i) number of positive samples after 22 h, (ii) number of positive samples after 48 h, and (iii) number of positive samples after 22 and/or 48 h of enrichment in 3M mLRB. Among 288 sampling sites that were tested with duplicate sponges, 67 each tested positive with the 3M MDS and the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, further supporting that the 3M MDS performs equivalently to traditional methods when used with environmental sponge samples.

  14. The holistic 3M modality of drug delivery nanosystems for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of human death worldwide. There are many challenges in the treatment of cancer and the rapidly developing area of nanotechnology has shown great potential to open a new era in cancer therapy. This article, rather than being exhaustive, focuses on the striking progress in the drug delivery nanosystems (DDNS) for cancer therapy and selects typical examples to point out the emerging mode of action of DDNS from our perspective. Among the outstanding advances in DDNS for cancer therapy is the development of ``multicomponent delivery systems'', ``multifunctional nanocarriers'' and ``multistage delivery systems''. However, these represent only one aspect of DDNS research. In addition, nature is the best teacher and natural evolution pressure has meant that virions conform to the ``multitarget, multistage and multicomponent'' (3M) mode of action. Amazingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used for over 4000 years in China, also displays the same mode of action. Integrating the previous notable progress in nanoparticle technology, learned from the building mode of natural virions and the action concept of TCM, we propose an integrity-based 3M mode DDNS for cancer therapy: multitarget, multistage and multicomponent, which are not fragmented parts but an interconnected integrity. Based on the physiological multitarget and the pharmacokinetic multistage, multicomponent DDNS are rationally designed, where different components with individual specific functions act in a synergistic manner against each target at each disposition stage to maximize the targeted delivery effectiveness. In this article, we introduce each component of 3M DDNS in detail and describe some typical cases to realize the tumor-homing purposes.

  15. Sugar yields from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment of maple wood compared to those with other dilute acids and hot water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taiying; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-30

    Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was applied to maple wood to improve compatibility with downstream operations, and its performance in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was compared to results for hydrothermal and dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acid pretreatments. The highest total xylose yield of ∼84% of the theoretical maximum was for both 0.5% oxalic and sulfuric acid pretreatment at 160 °C, compared to ∼81% yield for hydrothermal pretreatment at 200 °C and for 0.5% hydrochloric acid pretreatment at 140 °C. The xylooligomer fraction from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was only 6.3% of the total xylose in solution, similar to results with dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but much lower than the ∼70% value for hydrothermal pretreatment. Combining any of the four pretreatments with enzymatic hydrolysis with 60 FPU cellulase/g of glucan plus xylan in the pretreated maple wood resulted in virtually the same total glucose plus xylose yields of ∼85% of the maximum possible.

  16. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  17. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using a two-stage dilute acid followed by wet-milling pretreatment process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiyu; Li, Wenzhi; Ma, Qiaozhi; An, Shengxin; Li, Minghao; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-07-01

    A two-stage process was evaluated to increase sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to recover the xylose, and then the residue was subjected to a wet-milling pretreatment. Dilute hydrochloric acid showed a high xylose recovery during the first stage. The optimal condition was 120°C and 40min for 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by wet-milling pretreatment for 15min. The xylose and glucose yield were 81.0% and 64.0%, respectively, with a cellulase dosage at 3FPU/g of substrate. This two-stage process was effective on account of the removal of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the delamination of cell wall in the second stage, increasing the possibility of adsorption of cellulose to enzymes, and resulting in a high sugar recovery with a very low enzyme loading.

  18. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  19. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3' UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3' extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3-aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis.

  20. Finishing of display glass for mobile electronics using 3M Trizact diamond tile abrasive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianbin; Fletcher, Tim; Na, Tee Koon; Sventek, Bruce; Romero, Vince; Lugg, Paul S.; Kim, Don

    2010-10-01

    This paper will describe a new method being used during the finishing of glass displays for mobile electronics including mobile hand held devices and notebook computers. The new method consists of using 3M TrizactTM Diamond Tile Abrasive Pads. TrizactTM Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive grinding technology developed by 3M Company. The TrizactTM Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder) - inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology can be applied in both double and single side grinding applications. A unique advantage of TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology is the combination of high stock removal and low sub-surface damage. Grinding results will be presented for both 9 micron and 20 micron grades of TrizactTM Diamond Tile abrasive pads used to finish several common display glasses including Corning GorillaTM glass and Soda Lime glass.

  1. [11'-Deoxyverticillin A induces caspase-dependent cell apoptosis in PC3M cells].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingdi; Zhang, Yingqiu; Ni, Yangxiao; Shi, Guoli; Yang, Huaiyi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years, the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer have increased dramatically in China. At earlier stages, most diagnosed prostate cancers are responsive to androgen depletion treatment, yet, nearly all patients will eventually progress to metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), which still has no effective therapeutic method or drug to deal with. 11'-Deoxyverticillin A (C42) belongs to the family of epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs), an interesting class of fungal toxins that inhibit farnesyl transferase. Compounds holding such a property have been explored as putative anticancer agents. In this study, using PC3M cells, an AIPC cell line, we investigated the effect of the compound on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism. It revealed that C42 markedly enhanced the activity of caspase-3/7 and increased the accumulation of the cleaved PARP, all of which are the markers of apoptosis. It also revealed that C42 either decreased cell viability or inhibited the growth of PC3M cells. Moreover, we observed that the loss of cell viability and cell growth inhibition induced by C42 were both time- and dosage dependent. Taken together, we indicated that C42 can induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in AIPC cells, and the results presented here will broaden our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which C42 exerts its anticancer activity, and future work in this direction may provide valuable information in the development of these compounds into effective cancer therapeutic strategies against androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  2. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  3. 29 CFR 516.27 - “Board, lodging, or other facilities” under section 3(m) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âBoard, lodging, or other facilitiesâ under section 3(m) of...” under section 3(m) of the Act. (a) In addition to keeping other records required by this part, an... these terms are used in sec. 3(m) of the Act) furnished to them by the employer or by an...

  4. 29 CFR 516.27 - “Board, lodging, or other facilities” under section 3(m) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBoard, lodging, or other facilitiesâ under section 3(m) of...” under section 3(m) of the Act. (a) In addition to keeping other records required by this part, an... these terms are used in sec. 3(m) of the Act) furnished to them by the employer or by an...

  5. Mucosal acid causes gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Chono, Koji; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Kimoto, Aishi; Sasamata, Masao

    2007-01-05

    The mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress gastric mucosal blood flow is not fully understood, although the depletion of mucosal prostaglandin E2 has been proposed as one possible explanation. We investigated the role of gastric acid on gastric mucosal blood flow in NSAID-treated rats. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and gastric mucosal blood flow was measured sequentially in a 5-mm2 area of the gastric corpus using a scanning laser Doppler perfusion image system. Results showed that diclofenac (5 mg/kg s.c.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow, although both strongly decreased mucosal prostaglandin E2 when saline was instilled into the gastric chamber. On replacement of the saline in the chamber with 100 mM hydrochloric acid, these drugs caused a decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow levels within 30 min. The specific cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors celecoxib (50 mg/kg s.c.) and rofecoxib (25 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, nor did they decrease gastric mucosal blood flow, even when hydrochloric acid was added to the chamber. Furthermore, measurement of vasoconstrictive factors present in the mucosa showed that endothelin-1 levels increased after administration of diclofenac s.c. in the presence of intragastric hydrochloric acid. This indicates that the presence of mucosal hydrochloric acid plays an important role in the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, while the COX-1-derived basal prostaglandin E2, which is unlikely to control gastric mucosal blood flow itself, protects microcirculatory systems from mucosal hydrochloric acid.

  6. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  7. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is cMX = (1/2)∑ci (ci = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/cMX)1/2 = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. PMID:25733975

  8. An intracellular redox sensor for reactive oxygen species at the M3-M4 linker of GABAAρ1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Gasulla, Javier; Calvo, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally involved in cell oxidative stress but also play a role as cellular messengers in redox signalling; for example, modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, the direct actions of ROS on GABAA receptors were not previously demonstrated. In the present work, we studied the effects of ROS on GABAAρ1 receptor function. Experimental Approach GABAAρ1 receptors were expressed in oocytes and GABA-evoked responses electrophysiologically recorded in the presence or absence of ROS. Chemical protection of cysteines by selective sulfhydryl reagents and site-directed mutagenesis studies were used to identify protein residues involved in ROS actions. Key Results GABAAρ1 receptor-mediated responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by H2O2. Potentiating effects were attenuated by a free radical scavenger, lipoic acid or an inhibitor of the Fenton reaction, deferoxamine. Each ρ1 subunit contains only three cysteine residues, two extracellular at the Cys-loop (C177 and C191) and one intracellular (C364) at the M3-M4 linker. Mutant GABAAρ1 receptors in which C364 was exchanged by alanine were completely insensitive to modulation, implying that this site, rather than a cysteine in the Cys-loop, is essential for ROS modulation. Conclusion and Implications Our results show that the function of GABAAρ1 receptors is enhanced by ROS and that the intracellular C364 is the sensor for ROS actions. PMID:24428763

  9. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Pettignano, Alberto; Sammartano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is c MX = (1/2)∑c i (c i = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/c MX)(1/2) = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered.

  10. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  11. Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.

  12. The refurbished 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope at Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) announced the opportunity to "assume responsibility for operation of the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope." A group of astronomers/educators from institutions across the USA successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the observatory and operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT Consortium has been established between Francis Marion University, the Planetary Science Institute, South Carolina State University, Villanova University, and Western Kentucky University to oversee the refurbishment and automation, and operate the telescope to successfully achieve its research and education goals. The RCT was commissioned in 1964 as the Remotely Controlled Telescope and utilized that epoch's computing and communication technology to provide unattended operation from NOAO headquarters in Tucson, about 90 km distant. The original incarnation of the RCT allowed astronomers to gain experience in the remote operation of observatories in order to both develop techniques for operating space-based telescopes and to increase the productivity of ground-based telescopes (Maran 1967 Science 158, 867). While these tests worked as well as could be expected given the technology of the time, the telescope and observatory were refitted in 1969 for classical, attended operations. The second life of the 1.3-m was as a heavily subscribed KPNO visitor facility, first with photoelectric photometers and later as an important testbed for the newest infrared instrumentation. In 1996 the telescope was removed from the list of available KPNO facilities and stood idle until the RCT Consortium hired EOS Technologies, Inc. to refurbish and automate the observatory. In winter 2003 most of the observatory systems have been refurbished and the commissioning has begun. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  13. Experience and Challenges in Implementing Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment on Meteor-3M Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Newsom, Jerry; Rawls, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Implementation of Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) is a joint science mission between the Rosavioskosmos, also called Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under the global collaboration agreement established by President Clinton and Yeltsin in 1995 between the United States and Russia, space was one of the major areas identified for joint scientific collaboration. There were several collaborative projects identified under space, earth, human exploration of space and aeronautics. SAGE was one of the key Earth Science instruments selected common to both countries' interests in ozone research. SAGE has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for the last 15-year period. It has provided a vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed in the overall ozone depletion research. SAGE II, the fourth instrument has been flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) for the last 14 years. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. SAGE III for Russian Meteor-3M mission is a third generation design with more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage and intelligent terrestrial software. The Russian collaboration required a complete integration of SAGE III on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite and a launch on a Zenit-2 launch vehicle manufactured in Ukraine. The whole complex is scheduled to be launched from Baikonur cosmodrome in early 2001. This cooperative mission has presented a number of management, technical and logistical challenges on both sides. This paper makes an attempt to review and document such experiences.

  14. Modeling the hydrothermal circulation and the hydrogen production at the Rainbow site with Cast3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Charlou, J.; Jean-baptiste, P.

    2012-12-01

    On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Rainbow venting site is described as an ultramafic-hosted active hydrothermal site and releases high fluxes of methane and hydrogen [1, 2]. This behavior has first been interpreted as the result of serpentinization processes. But geochemical reactions involving olivine and plagioclase assemblages, and leading to chlorite, tremolite, talc and magnetite assemblages, could contribute to the observed characteristics of the exiting fluid [2]. The predominance of one of these geochemical reactions or their coexistence strongly depend on the hydrothermal fluid circulation. We developed and validated a 2D/3D numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in the framework of the Cast3M code [3, 4]. We also developed a numerical model for hydrogen production and transport that is based on experimental studies of the serpentinization processes [5-6]. This geochemical model takes into account the exothermic and water-consuming behavior of the serpentinization reaction and it can be coupled to our thermo-hydrogeological model. Our simulations provide temperatures, mass fluxes and venting surface areas very close to those estimated in-situ [7]. We showed that a single-path model [8] was necessary to simulate high values such as the in-situ measured temperatures and estimated water mass fluxes of the Rainbow site [7]. This single-path model will be used to model the production and transport of hydrogen at the Rainbow hydrothermal site. References [1]Charlou et al. (2010) AGU Monograph series. [2]Seyfried et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 1574-1593. [3]http://www-cast3m.cea.fr. [4]Martin & Fyfe (1970) Chem. Geol. 6, 185-202. [5] Marcaillou et al. (2011) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 303, 281-290. [6]Malvoisin et al. (2012) JGR, 117, B01104. [7]Perez et al. (2012) submited to Computational Geosciences. [8]Lowell & Germanovich (2004) AGU, Washington DC, USA.

  15. Yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid: acidic conditions caused by the organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures induce expression of intracellular metal metabolism genes regulated by Aft1p.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Miho; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2006-09-01

    Using two types of genome-wide analysis to investigate yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid, we found that the acidic condition affects metal metabolism. The first type is an expression analysis using DNA microarrays to investigate 'acid shock response' as the first step to adapt to an acidic condition, and 'acid adaptation' by maintaining integrity in the acidic condition. The other is a functional screening using the nonessential genes deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression analysis showed that genes involved in stress response, such as YGP1, TPS1 and HSP150, were induced under the acid shock response. Genes such as FIT2, ARN1 and ARN2, involved in metal metabolism regulated by Aft1p, were induced under the acid adaptation. AFT1 was induced under acid shock response and under acid adaptation with lactic acid. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-fused Aft1p was localized to the nucleus in cells grown in media containing lactic acid, acetic acid, or hydrochloric acid. Both analyses suggested that the acidic condition affects cell wall architecture. The depletion of cell-wall components encoded by SED1, DSE2, CTS1, EGT2, SCW11, SUN4 and YNL300W and histone acetyltransferase complex proteins encoded by YID21, EAF3, EAF5, EAF6 and YAF9 increased resistance to lactic acid. Depletion of the cell-wall mannoprotein Sed1p provided resistance to lactic acid, although the expression of SED1 was induced by exposure to lactic acid. Depletion of vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins caused acid sensitivity. Moreover, our quantitative PCR showed that expression of PDR12 increased under acid shock response with lactic acid and decreased under acid adaptation with hydrochloric acid.

  16. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  17. Observation of 20-400 kHz fluctuations in the U-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Slavnyj, A. S.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Kulaga, A. E.; Zamanov, N. V.; Hirose, A.

    2016-02-01

    First observations of quasi-coherent fluctuations in the frequency range of 20-400 kHz in Alfvén-wave-heated plasmas of the U-3M torsatron are presented. The excitation conditions of these modes depend on the radio frequency antenna type and the plasma density, the appearance of the modes correlating with the presence of both suprathermal electrons and high-energy ions in the plasma, which supports our opinion that the modes are excited by energetic particles. Complicated evolution of the mode frequencies with abrupt changes at the instants of plasma confinement transitions is observed at the initial stage of each discharge. The frequencies become stable at the stage of the plasma current flattop. Raw estimates show that toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes could be responsible for the 150-400 kHz fluctuations. Low-frequency 20-70 kHz bursts are observed during plasma confinement transitions. The poloidal mode number of one of these bursts with the frequency of 20 kHz burst was determined to be m = 2. This mode rotated in the electron diamagnetic rotation direction with a frequency lower than the geodesic acoustic mode frequency and can be identified as a drift-sound-type mode.

  18. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C.; Engle, S.; Guinan, E.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  19. Characteristics of ICR-produced peripheral plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedin, N. T.; Chechkin, V. V.; Fomin, I. P.

    Some plasma parameters outside the confinement volume near the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) and in the divertor fluxes were studied by probe and microwave techniques during ICR production and heating of the plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron. When moving around the LCMS, the steepness of the radial density, electron temperature, and potential profiles increase with distance away from the 'rib' of the LCMS. The quasi-steady radial electric field E(sub r) near the LCMS exceeds 100 V/cm and is directed outwards, opposite to the calculated ambipolar electric field inside the confinement volume. It is shown that the total flow of the diverted plasma in the spacing between two helical windings consists of a weakly mobile non-resonant component which is presumably formed at the periphery due to ionization, and a component whose value and poloidal location are sensitive to resonance conditions for RF power absorption, this flow being apparently formed by a plasma diffusing through the LCMS and/or generated near the LCMS, where the filed E(sub r) is localized. Based on plasma parameters measurements after the RF pulse is switched off, a qualitative model of peripheral plasma dynamics after the end of the RF heating is constructed.

  20. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  1. Cleaning of inner vacuum surfaces in the Uragan-3M facility by radio-frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lozin, A. V. Moiseenko, V. E.; Grigor’eva, L. I.; Kozulya, M. M.; Kulaga, A. E.; Lysoivan, A. I.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Romanov, V. S.; Chernyshenko, V. Ya.; Chechkin, V. V.; Collaboration: Uragan-3M Team

    2013-08-15

    A method for cleaning vacuum surfaces by a low-temperature (T{sub e} ∼ 10 eV) relatively dense (n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}) plasma of an RF discharge was developed and successfully applied at the Uragan-3M torsatron. The convenience of the method is that it can be implemented with the same antenna system and RF generators that are used to produce and heat the plasma in the operating mode and does not require retuning the frequencies of the antennas and RF generators. The RF discharge has a high efficiency from the standpoint of cleaning vacuum surfaces. After performing a series of cleanings by the low-temperature RF discharge plasma (about 20000 pulses), (i) the intensity of the CIII impurity line was substantially reduced, (ii) a quasi-steady operating mode with a duration of up to 50 ms, a plasma density of n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, and an electron temperature of up to T{sub e} ∼ 1 keV was achieved, and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis of the residual gas in the chamber indicated a significant reduction in the impurity content.

  2. GRACOS: Scalable and Load Balanced P3M Cosmological N-body Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, Alexander; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The GRACOS (GRAvitational COSmology) code, a parallel implementation of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (P3M) algorithm for distributed memory clusters, uses a hybrid method for both computation and domain decomposition. Long-range forces are computed using a Fourier transform gravity solver on a regular mesh; the mesh is distributed across parallel processes using a static one-dimensional slab domain decomposition. Short-range forces are computed by direct summation of close pairs; particles are distributed using a dynamic domain decomposition based on a space-filling Hilbert curve. A nearly-optimal method was devised to dynamically repartition the particle distribution so as to maintain load balance even for extremely inhomogeneous mass distributions. Tests using 800(3) simulations on a 40-processor beowulf cluster showed good load balance and scalability up to 80 processes. There are limits on scalability imposed by communication and extreme clustering which may be removed by extending the algorithm to include adaptive mesh refinement.

  3. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  4. Clinical evaluation of the 3M Littmann Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 in 150 cats.

    PubMed

    Blass, Keith A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Scansen, Brian A; Visser, Lance C; Lu, Jennifer; Smith, Danielle N; Ward, Jessica L

    2013-10-01

    Detection of murmurs and gallops may help to identify cats with heart disease. However, auscultatory findings may be subject to clinically relevant observer variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electronic stethoscope (ES) in cats. We hypothesized that the ES would perform at least as well as a conventional stethoscope (CS) in the detection of abnormal heart sounds. One hundred and fifty consecutive cats undergoing echocardiography were enrolled prospectively. Cats were ausculted with a CS (WA Tycos Harvey Elite) by two observers, and heart sounds were recorded digitally using an ES (3M Littmann Stethoscope Model 3200) for off-line analysis. Echocardiography was used as the clinical standard method for validation of auscultatory findings. Additionally, digital recordings (DRs) were assessed by eight independent observers with various levels of expertise, and compared using interclass correlation and Cohen's weighted kappa analyses. Using the CS, a heart murmur (n = 88 cats) or gallop sound (n = 17) was identified in 105 cats, whereas 45 cats lacked abnormal heart sounds. There was good total agreement (83-90%) between the two observers using the CS. In contrast, there was only moderate agreement (P <0.001) between results from the CS and the DRs for murmurs, and poor agreement for gallops. The CS was more sensitive compared with the DRs with regard to murmurs and gallops. Agreement among the eight observers was good-to-excellent for murmur detection (81%). In conclusion, DRs made with the ES are less sensitive but comparably specific to a CS at detecting abnormal heart sounds in cats.

  5. Qualification Of Kapton Pretreatment Process Using 3M Scotch Weld 2216 For Solar Panel Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, B. R.; Krishna, Priya G.; Venkatesh, K.; Nagendra, H. R.; Nanjundaswamy, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    Substrates for solar arrays intended to be used on satellite systems are generally made of aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) face skin. Two mil thick KaptonTM sheets are co cured on one side of the aluminum /CFRP composite structure while realizing the substrate panels. This Kapton sheet would serve as an insulator over which solar cell blankets are bonded with suitable adhesive for the satellite solar panels. The satellite solar panels demands highest degree of quality and reliability and one of the prime factors in this regards is the bond strength of adhesive which is used to bond the solar cell blankets. Various methods of pretreatments of Kapton surface are in use for increasing the surface energy, which in turn results in improved bond strengths. These methods generally provide roughened surface of the Kapton which is achieved either by abrasive means like scrubbing the surface using fine silica chip, or plasma etching or alternatively by an additive process wherein suitable polyester, phenolic or other resins are coated on to the Kapton surface to achieve the desired results. For spacecraft solar panel applications at ISRO, polyester resin coating on to the Kapton surface was used as pretreatment prior to adhesive application. This process had provided adequate bond strengths between the solar cells and Kapton. Due to issues related to the supply of the polyester resin material from the vendor alternative methods of pretreatments were explored. In this paper, a novel process developed for Kapton pretreatment is described along with results of relevant qualifications for the satellite solar panel application. This newly developed pretreatment process for Kapton successfully adopts an epoxy based material 3M Scotch weld 2216 which is widely used in spacecraft electronic hardware.

  6. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases. PMID:22989054

  7. Initial Operation and Checkout of Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment and Meteor-3M Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, L.; Chu, W.; Salikhov, R.; Moore, A.; Trepte, C.; Cisewski, M.

    2002-01-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10,2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA s Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center s (LaRC) management. This paper presents innovative approaches deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational issues

  8. Initial operation and checkout of stratospheric aerosol gas experiment and Meteor-3M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, Leonid; Chu, William P.; Salikhov, Rashid; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Trepte, Charles R.; Cisewski, Michael S.

    2003-04-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10, 2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M(1) satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. This paper presents the process and approach deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational

  9. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  10. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  11. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  12. [The experience of using Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE) - the advantages of bulk fill flowable restoratives].

    PubMed

    Sharova, T N

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents clinical cases illustrating the advantages of bulk fill flowable restoratives, such as Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). The material showed good clinical results for class I and class II restorations.

  13. Modifications to Langley 0.3-m TCT adaptive wall software for heavy gas test medium, phase 1 studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    The scheme for two-dimensional wall adaptation with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as test gas in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) is presented. A unified version of the wall adaptation software has been developed to function in a dual gas operation mode (nitrogen or SF6). The feature of ideal gas calculations for nitrogen operation is retained. For SF6 operation, real gas properties have been computed using the departure function technique. Installation of the software on the 0.3-m TCT ModComp-A computer and preliminary validation with nitrogen operation were found to be satisfactory. Further validation and improvements to the software will be undertaken when the 0.3-m TCT is ready for operation with SF6 gas.

  14. Ethanol Conversion on Cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Fang, Zongtang; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-03-06

    Oxides of molybdenum and tungsten are an important class of catalytic materials with applications ranging from isomerization of alkanes and alkenes, partial oxidation of alcohols, selective reduction of nitric oxide and metathesis of alkeness.[1-10] While many studies have focused on the structure - function relationships, the nature of high catalytic activity is still being extensively investigated. There is a general agreement that the activity of supported MOx (M = W, Mo) catalysts is correlated with the presence of acidic sites, where the catalytic activity is strongly affected by the type of oxide support, delocalization of electron density, structures of tungsten oxide domains and presence of protons

  15. On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

  16. Effect of surface acidic oxides of activated carbon on adsorption of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Chia; Li, Hong-Song; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2008-11-30

    The influence of surface acidity of activated carbon (AC) was experimentally studied on adsorption of ammonia (NH(3)). Coconut shell-based AC was modified by various acids at different concentrations. There were five different acids employed to modified AC, which included nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, and acetic acid. Acidic functional groups on the surface of ACs were determined by a Fourier transform infrared spectrograph (FTIR) and by the Boehm titration method. Specific surface area and pore volume of the ACs were measured by a nitrogen adsorption apparatus. Adsorption amounts of NH(3) onto the ACs were measured by a dynamic adsorption system at room temperature according to the principle of the ASTM standard test method. The concentration of NH(3) in the effluent stream was monitored by a gas-detecting tube technique. Experimental results showed that adsorption amounts of NH(3) on the modified ACs were all enhanced. The ammonia adsorption amounts on various activated carbons modified by different acids are in the following order: nitric acid>sulfuric acid>acetic acid approximately phosphoric acid>hydrochloric acid. It is worth to note that the breakthrough capacity of NH(3) is linearly proportional to the amount of acidic functional groups of the ACs.

  17. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, A; Chincoli, A; de Gennaro, A C; DʼAddario, V; Cicinelli, E

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk.

  18. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, A.; Chincoli, A.; de Gennaro, A. C.; DʼAddario, V.; Cicinelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk. PMID:27453585

  19. Coordinated observations of F region 3 m field-aligned plasma irregularities associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. F.; Wang, C. Y.; Su, C. L.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.; Chu, Y. H.

    2016-04-01

    Three meter field-aligned irregularities (3 m FAIs) associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) that occurred on 5 February 2008 were observed by using the Chung-Li 52 MHz coherent scatter radar. Interferometry measurements show that the plasma structures responsible for the 3 m FAI echoes are in a clumpy shape with a horizontal dimension of about 10-78 km in a height range of 220-300 km. In order to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the plasma irregularities at different scales in the bottomside of F region, the VHF radar echo structures from the 3 m FAIs combined with the 630 nm airglow images provided by the Yonaguni all-sky imager are compared and analyzed. The results show that the radar echoes were located at the west edge of the depletion zones of the 630 nm airglow image of the MSTIDs. The bulk echo structures of the 3 m FAIs drifted eastward at a mean trace velocity of about 30 m/s that is in general agreement with the zonal trace velocity of the MSTIDs shown in the 630 nm airglow images. These results suggest that the observed F region 3 m FAIs for the present case can be regarded as the targets that are frozen in the local region of the MSTIDs. In addition, the radar-observed 3 m FAI echo intensity and spectral width bear high correlations to the percentage variations of the 630 nm emission intensity. These results seem to suggest that through the nonlinear turbulence cascade process, the MSTID-associated 3 m FAIs are very likely generated from the kilometer-scale plasma irregularities with large amplitude excited by the gradient drift instability.

  20. P3 mAb: An Immunogenic Anti-NeuGcGM3 Antibody with Unusual Immunoregulatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Darel; Rodríguez, Nely; Griñán, Tania; Rondón, Teresa; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando; Hernández, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycosylated gangliosides, sulfatides, and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast, and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self-immunoglobulin, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the present paper we show that the high immunogenicity of P3 mAb depends not only on CD4 but also on CD8(+) T cells, since the depletion of CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells led to the loss of P3 mAb immunogenicity in the syngeneic model. Furthermore, the immunization with P3 mAb enhanced the recovery of the CD8(+) T cell population in mice treated with an anti-CD8a antibody. Additionally, the immunization with P3 mAb restored the capacity of immunosuppressed mice to reject allogeneic tumors, a mechanism mediated by the action of CD8(+) T cells. Finally, in mice with cyclophosphamide induced lymphopenia, the administration of P3 mAb accelerated the recovery of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results show new possibilities for B and CD8(+) T cells interactions during the immune response elicited by a self-protein. Furthermore they point to P3 mAb as a potential interesting candidate for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

  1. Shear bond strength of resin to acid/pumice-microabraded enamel.

    PubMed

    Royer, M A; Meiers, J C

    1995-01-01

    The effect of enamel microabrasion techniques consisting of either 18% hydrochloric acid in pumice or a commercially available abrasive/10% hydrochloric acid mixture, PREMA, on composite/enamel shear bond strengths was investigated. Sixty extracted third molars had the bonding surface flattened and were divided into six treatment groups (n=10) with the enamel treated prior to bonding as follows: Group 1-- untreated; Group 2--37% phosphoric acid etched for 30 seconds; Group 3--18% hydrochloric acid/pumice mixture applied for five 20-second treatments; Group 4--similar to Group 3 with additional 37% phosphoric acid etch; Group 5--treated with PREMA compound applied for five 20-second treatments; Group 6--similar to Group 5 treatment with additional 37% phosphoric acid. Herculite XR composite resin was then bonded to all samples using a VLC unit. Samples were tested in shear, and fractured enamel surfaces were evaluated using light microscopy to determine the enamel-to-resin failures. Resin bond strengths to microabraded and H3PO4-etched enamel were similar to bond strengths of untreated H3PO4-etched enamel and were significantly better than bond strengths to PREMA-treated or unetched enamel.

  2. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, J.; Plötzing, T.; Rohe, D.; Pieranski, P.

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay “dry”. This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  3. Maternal uniparental isodisomy and heterodisomy on chromosome 6 encompassing a CUL7 gene mutation causing 3M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Okamoto, N; Kosaki, K; Yorifuji, T; Shimokawa, O; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K-i; Harada, N

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of segmental uniparental maternal hetero- and isodisomy involving the whole of chromosome 6 (mat-hUPD6 and mat-iUPD6) and a cullin 7 (CUL7) gene mutation in a Japanese patient with 3M syndrome. 3M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation that was recently reported to involve mutations in the CUL7 or obscurin-like 1 (OBSL1) genes. We encountered a patient with severe growth retardation, an inverted triangular gloomy face, an inverted triangle-shaped head, slender long bones, inguinal hernia, hydrocele testis, mild ventricular enlargement, and mild mental retardation. Sequence analysis of the CUL7 gene of the patient revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.2975G>C. Genotype analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed two mat-hUPD and two mat-iUPD regions involving the whole of chromosome 6 and encompassing CUL7. 3M syndrome caused by complete paternal iUPD of chromosome 6 involving a CUL7 mutation has been reported, but there have been no reports describing 3M syndrome with maternal UPD of chromosome 6. Our results represent a combination of iUPDs and hUPDs from maternal chromosome 6 involving a CUL7 mutation causing 3M syndrome.

  4. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; comparison of a nitric acid in-bottle digestion procedure to other whole-water digestion procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, John R.; Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrochloric acid in-bottle digestion procedure is used to partially digest wholewater samples prior to determining recoverable elements by various analytical methods. The use of hydrochloric acid is problematic for some methods of analysis because of spectral interference. The inbottle digestion procedure has been modified to eliminate such interference by using nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in the digestion. Implications of this modification are evaluated by comparing results for a series of synthetic whole-water samples. Results are also compared with those obtained by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) (USEPA) Method 200.2 total-recoverable digestion procedure. Percentage yields that use the nitric acid inbottle digestion procedure are within 10 percent of the hydrochloric acid in-bottle yields for 25 of the 26 elements determined in two of the three synthetic whole-water samples tested. Differences in percentage yields for the third synthetic whole-water sample were greater than 10 percent for 16 of the 26 elements determined. The USEPA method was the most rigorous for solubilizing elements from particulate matter in all three synthetic whole-water samples. Nevertheless, the variability in the percentage yield by using the USEPA digestion procedure was generally greater than the in-bottle digestion procedure, presumably because of the difficulty in controlling the digestion conditions accurately.

  5. Properties near magnetic instability of heavy-electron compounds Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13, with M=Co, Rh and Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebarski, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    In this review, we report the thermodynamic, magnetic and electronic transport properties of the skutterudite-related Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13 intermetallic compounds with M = Co, Rh and Ru, which display a variety of behaviours. Ce3M4Sn13 exhibit a large increase in C/T with a maximum value of about 4 JK-2mol-1Ce due to strong electron and short-range magnetic correlations. These compounds show a crossover from a magnetically correlated heavy-fermion state to a single impurity state in applied magnetic fields. In order to study the proximity of Ce3Co4Sn13 to the possible magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), we investigated the system of Ce3-xLaxCo4Sn13 alloys. We found the critical concentration ?, which separates the magnetically correlated state (?) from a single impurity state (?), however the low-T C(T)/T and the magnetic susceptibility behaviours are not characteristic of the QCP. With increasing of the magnetic field, resistivity follows power law behaviour for the samples ?, with n strongly field dependent. The ?-anomaly is discussed on the base of spin-fluctuation theory of Moriya and Takimoto. Specific heat data show that La3M4Sn13 are typical BCS superconductors, however, La3Rh4Sn13 and La3Ru4Sn13 exhibit a second superconducting phase, characteristic of inhomogeneous superconductors.

  6. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes.

  7. Synthesis of new visible light active photocatalysts of Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 (M' = Nb, Ta): a band gap engineering strategy based on electronegativity of a metal component.

    PubMed

    Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Park, Hyunwoong; Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Sun Jin; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2005-08-11

    We have synthesized new, efficient, visible light active photocatalysts through the incorporation of highly electronegative non-transition metal Pb or Sn ions into the perovskite lattice of Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 (M = Sn, Pb; M' = Nb, Ta). X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopic, and energy dispersive spectroscopic microprobe analyses reveal that tetravalent Pb or Sn ions exist in the B-site of the perovskite lattice, along with In and Nb/Ta ions. According to diffuse UV-vis spectroscopic analysis, the Pb-containing quaternary metal oxides Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 possess a much narrower band gap (E(g) approximately 1.48-1.50 eV) when compared to the ternary oxides Ba(In(1/2)M'(1/2))O3 (E(g) approximately 2.97-3.30 eV) and the Sn-containing Ba(In(1/3)Sn(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 derivatives (E(g) approximately 2.85-3.00 eV). Such a variation of band gap energy upon the substitution is attributable to the broadening of the conduction band caused by the dissimilar electronegativities of the B-site cations. In contrast to the ternary or the Sn-substituted quaternary compounds showing photocatalytic activity under UV-vis irradiation, the Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 compounds induce an efficient photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). The present results highlight that the substitution of electronegative non-transition metal cations can provide a very powerful way of developing efficient visible light harvesting photocatalysts through tuning of the band structure of a semiconductive metal oxide.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Wet Hydrofluoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Hydrofluoric acid is a water solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF). Hydrofluoric acid is used widely in diverse types of industrial applications; traditionally, it is used in pickling solutions in the metal industry, in the fabrication of chlorofluorocarbon compounds, as an alkylation agent for gasoline and as an etching agent in the industry of glass. In recent years, hydrofluoric acid has extensively been used in the manufacture of semiconductors and microelectronics during the wet chemical cleaning of silicon wafers. Hydrofluoric acid can be considered a reducing acid and although it is chemically classified as weaker than, for example, sulfuric or hydrochloric acids, it is extremely corrosive. This acid is also particularly toxic and poses greater health hazard than most other acids. The corrosion behavior of metals in hydrofluoric acid has not been as systematic studied in the laboratory as for other common inorganic acids. This is largely because tests using hydrofluoric acid cannot be run in standard equipment and because of the toxic nature of this acid. Moreover, short-term weight loss laboratory corrosion tests in hydrofluoric acid can be frustrating since the results are not as highly reproducible as in the case of other acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric. One of the reasons is because hydrofluoric acid commonly attacks the coupons used for testing in a non-uniform manner. That is, the corrosive power of this acid is not aimed to uniform thinning but mostly to localized penetration below the skin of the metal in the form of thin cracks, voids, pits, trenches and sometimes intergranular attack. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a coupon of Alloy 600 (N06600) exposed for 336 h to the vapor phase of a solution of 20% HF at 93 C. In cases where internal penetration occurs such as in Figure 1, it may not be recommended to use corrosion rates based on weight loss for material selection.

  9. Spectral and statistical analysis of fluctuations in the SOL and diverted plasmas of the Uragan-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beletskii, A. A.; Grigor'eva, L. I.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Chechkin, V. V.; Sorokovoy, Y. L.; Volkov, Ye. D.; Burchenko, P. Ya.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Tsybenko, S. A.; Lozin, A. V.; Slavnyj, A. S.; Lavrenovich, Yu. S.; Zamanov, N. V.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.

    2009-10-01

    In the l = 3/ m = 9 Uragan-3M (U3-M) torsatron ( R 0 = 1 m, ā ≈ 0.12 m, ι( ā)/2π ˜ 0.3) with an open helical divertor and a plasma produced and heated by RF fields (ω ≲ ωci), studies of low frequency (5-100 kHz) density and potential fluctuations in the SOL plasma and in the diverted plasma flows (DPFs), have been carried out. It is shown, that in the SOL to more (less) distantly located points relative to the last closed magnetic surface, higher (lower) frequency fluctuations are inherent. Such a spectral splitting in two sub-ranges occurs in the DPFs too. A peculiarity of the spatial distribution of DPF fluctuation spectra is that lower frequency fluctuations dominate on the ion toroidal B × ∇ B drift side. During L-H-like transition in U-3M simultaneously with strong E r shear formation, a suppression of lower frequency fluctuations and a decrease of local radial turbulent particle flux take place. Results are presented of investigation of plasma density fluctuations in SOL with the use of probability distribution function (PDF) analysis. Evaluations of skewness and kurtosis of fluctuations have been made. The analysis of I s fluctuations in DPF have been carried out in a similar way.

  10. Effect of 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps on edema and function of the burned hand: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lowell, M; Pirc, P; Ward, R S; Lundy, C; Wilhelm, D A; Reddy, R; Held, B; Bernard, J

    2003-01-01

    Edema and limited function are common acute problems associated with hand burns. This case study examined the effects of 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps on edema and function in a 59-year-old male (46% TBSA flame injury) with newly skin grafted dorsally burned hands. At the time of each dressing change, circumferential measurements were taken of both hands and weekly active range of motion and grip strength measurements were recorded. The nine-hole peg test was used to appraise dexterity. During the 4-week study period, there was less edema, greater active range of motion and grip strength, and greater dexterity in the hand with 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps as compared with the control hand. This case study suggests that 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps were effective in reducing edema in the skin-grafted hand after skin grafting. It further appeared that the reduced edema may have contributed to improved hand function and that 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps as a compressive dressing do not impede hand function

  11. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  12. Evaluation of 3M Molecular Detection System and ANSR Pathogen Detection System for rapid detection of Salmonella from egg products.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Ma, L M; Zheng, S; He, X; Wang, H; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S; Zhang, G

    2016-11-02

    Isothermal amplification assay is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Detection System (PDS) for the detection of Salmonella in egg products as compared to the Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method and a modified culture method (3M MDS and ANSR PDS preferred method). Two Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (18579, PT4; CDC_2010K_1441, PT8), one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (607310-1), and one Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (0723) isolates were used in this study. Seven wet egg products and 13 dry egg products were inoculated with these strains individually at 1 to 5 CFU/25 g. One set of test portions was prepared following FDA BAM procedures [with lactose broth (LB) as pre-enrichment broth]. Another set of test portions was prepared using buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broth, as instructed by the 2 detection systems. Results from 3M MDS and ANSR PDS were 100% in agreement with their BPW-based culture method results. When LB was used as pre-enrichment broth, the number of Salmonella positive test portions (80 tested), identified with the BAM, 3M MDS, and ANSR PDS, were 63, 61, and 60, respectively. In conclusion, both 3M MDS and ANSR PDS Salmonella assays were as effective as their BPW based culture methods and were equivalent to the BAM culture method for the detection of Salmonella in egg products. These sensitive isothermal assays can be used as rapid detection tools for Salmonella in egg products provided that BPW is used as pre-enrichment broth.

  13. Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Pattana; Thani, Arthit; Leelavatcharamas, Vichean; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

    2010-02-01

    In order to use sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for lactic acid production, optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of the bagasse were investigated. After lignin extraction, the conditions were varied in terms of hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) concentration (0.5-5%, v/v), reaction time (1-5h) and incubation temperature (90-120 degrees C). The maximum catalytic efficiency (E) was 10.85 under the conditions of 0.5% of HCl at 100 degrees C for 5h, which the main components (in gl(-1)) in the hydrolysate were glucose, 1.50; xylose, 22.59; arabinose, 1.29; acetic acid, 0.15 and furfural, 1.19. To increase yield of lactic acid production from the hydrolysate by Lactococcus lactis IO-1, the hydrolysate was detoxified through amberlite and supplemented with 7 g l(-1) of xylose and 7 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The main products (in gl(-1)) of the fermentation were lactic acid, 10.85; acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid, 6.04 and ethanol, 5.24.

  14. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  15. Method for determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in hydrochloric media and alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2012-10-01

    Alternative method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The method is based on total decomposition of the solid materials and preconcentration of liquid samples. The separation of uranium from interfering radionuclides and stable matrix elements is attained by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in hydrochloric media. After the additional removal of stable iron by extraction with diisopropyl ether, purified uranium is electrodeposited on stainless steel disks and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been successfully applied to the determination of uranium isotopes in water and bottom sediments from the rivers Danube, Ogosta and Tzibritza in Northwestern Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials with different matrices.

  16. Confinement bifurcation initiated by plasma current profile and toroidal electric field perturbations in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Bulanin, V. V.; Kornev, V. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2011-03-01

    The results of the experimental study of confinement mode bifurcation performed on the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. As a trigger of confinement mode switching, plasma current ramp-up/-down or magnetic compression/decompression is used. It is found that the possibility and direction of confinement mode switching are correlated not with plasma current profile perturbation (peaking or broadening) but with the sign of toroidal electric field perturbation. A model connecting confinement bifurcation and toroidal electric field perturbation through the perturbation of the radial electric field is used to describe the phenomena observed in all eight scenarios investigated. This model ascribes the radial electric field generation to the non-compensated Ware drift of banana electrons at the TUMAN-3M peripheral plasma, where \

  17. On the multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3 m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright p Ψ q -functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  18. On the multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright pΨq-functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  19. pH-controlled coordination mode rearrangements of "clickable" Huisgen-based multidentate ligands with [M(I)(CO)3]+ (M = Re, (99m)Tc).

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Shalina C; Moore, Adam L; Wemple, Ariana R; Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; MacGillivray, Leonard R; Benny, Paul D

    2013-03-18

    The viability of the Huisgen cycloaddition reaction for clickable radiopharmaceutical probes was explored with an alkyne-functionalized 2-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]acetic acid (PMAA) ligand system, 3, and fac-[M(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc). Two synthetic strategies, (1) click, then chelate and (2) chelate, then click, were investigated to determine the impact of assembly order on the reactivity of the system. In the click, then chelate approach, fac-[M(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+) was reacted with the PMAA ligand "clicked" to the benzyl azide, 5, to yield two unique coordination species, fac-[M(I)(CO)3(O,N(amine),N(py)-5)], M = Re (8), (99m)Tc (8A), and fac-[M(I)(CO)3(N(tri),N(amine),N(py)-5)], M = Re (9), (99m)Tc (9A), where coordination is through the triazole (N(tri)), central amine (N(amine)), pyridine (N(py)), or carboxylate (O). Depending on the reaction pH, different ratios of complexes 8(A) and 9(A) were observed, but single species were obtained of (O,N(amine),N(py)) coordination, 8(A), in basic pHs (>9) and (N(tri),N(amine),N(py)) coordination, 9(A), in slightly acidic pHs (<4). In the chelate, then click approach, the (O,N(amine),N(py)) coordination of [M(I)(CO)3](+) was preorganized in the alkyne-functionalized fac-[M(I)(CO)3(O,N(amine),N(py)-3)], M = Re (6), (99m)Tc (6A), followed by standard Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen "click" conditions at pH ≈ 7.4, where the (O,N(amine),N(py)) coordination mode remained unchanged upon formation of the triazole product in the clicked molecule. Despite the slow substitution kinetics of the low-spin d(6) metal, the coordination modes (O,N(amine),N(py)) and (N(tri),N(amine),N(py)) were found to reversibly intraconvert between 8(A) and 9(A) based upon changes in pH that mirrored the (O,N(amine),N(py)) coordination in basic pHs and (N(tri),N(amine),N(py)) coordination in acidic pHs. Comparison of the Re and (99m)Tc analogs also revealed faster intraconversion between the coordination modes for (99m)Tc.

  20. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  1. Engineered proteins with Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor scaffold to manipulate RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng; Tanaka Hall, Traci M

    2013-08-01

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins are characterized by a sequence-specific RNA-binding domain. This unique single-stranded RNA recognition module, whose sequence specificity can be reprogrammed, has been fused with functional modules to engineer protein factors with various functions. We summarize the advances made with respect to developing RNA regulatory tools, as well as opportunities for the future.

  2. Etomoxir, sodium 2-[6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate, up-regulates uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels in primary culture of rat preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    1999-09-16

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial membrane proton transporters that uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the proton gradient across the membrane. Treatment of primary culture of rat preadipocytes for 24 h with 40 microM etomoxir, an irreversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I), up-regulated UCP-3 mRNA levels (3. 6-fold induction), whereas changes in UCP-2 mRNA levels were not significant. As a consequence of increased UCP-3 expression, a fall in the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by flow cytometry. Etomoxir treatment modified neither L-CPT-I (liver-type) nor PPARalpha mRNA levels in preadipocytes. In contrast, mRNA expression of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), the rate-limiting enzyme of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, whose transcription is controlled by PPARalpha, was significantly induced (1.3-fold induction, P = 0.015). These findings suggest that the effects of etomoxir were mediated by PPARalpha. Since it has been reported that the intracellular accumulation of lipids following the inhibition of CPT-I by etomoxir leads to a PPARalpha-mediated metabolic response that increases the expression of genes involved in alternate fatty acid oxidation pathways, these results seem to implicate UCP-3 in this protective metabolic response. It remains to be studied whether reductions in the expression of UCP-3 could compromise this response, giving rise to lipotoxic effects on cells.

  3. Heat flux measurements of Tb3M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. C. B.; Lombardi, G. A.; dos Reis, R. D.; Freitas, H. E.; Cardoso, L. P.; Mansanares, A. M.; Gandra, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb3M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb3Co and Tb3Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R3M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb3Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, -∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb3Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ0∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R3M materials.

  4. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  5. Double L{sub 3}M ionization of Pd induced by impact with medium-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Schenker, J.-L.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.

    2011-02-15

    The electron-induced L{sub 3}M two-step double ionization cross sections of metallic Pd were determined experimentally for incident electron beam energies ranging from the double ionization threshold up to 18 keV. The double L{sub 3}M ionization cross sections were derived from the intensity ratios (I{sub L{alpha}M}:I{sub L{alpha}}) of the resolved M satellites to the parent diagram lines. The sample was bombarded with monoenergetic electrons from an energy-tunable 20-kV electron gun. The diagram and M-satellite x-ray lines were measured by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, using a reflection-type von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer. The two-step partial cross sections were determined by subtracting from the measured total double ionization cross sections the contributions due to the shake process and L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions. Despite the thick target employed in the present study, the dependence of the two-step cross sections on the incoming electron energy could be derived using a target slice decomposition method. It is shown that the obtained energy dependence can be well reproduced by the semiempirical parametrization model of Pattard and Rost.

  6. Deposition of LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al)-Oriented Films by Spray Combustion Flame Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Hiromichi; Shiwa, Yuzo; Nagano, Masamitsu

    1994-10-01

    LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films were prepared on sintered alumina, sapphire (001) and MgO(100) at 500 900°C by spraying ultrasonically atomized aqueous solutions of nitrates into a combustion flame (spray combustion flame technique). LaNiO3 and LaCoO3 on MgO(100) crystallized in high-temperature phases (cubic) while LaCrO3 and LaAlO3 crystallized in room-temperature phases. LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films on MgO(100) were highly oriented to (100), (100), (001) and (100), respectively, while the films on sintered alumina and sapphire were not. The electric resistivities of the dense LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr) films were as low as those of bulk ceramics. LaNiO3 film deposited on MgO above 700°C showed the lowest resistivity of about 6×10-6 Ω m. It was suggested that the reactivities of the constituent metal atoms with OH in the flame are associated with the preferred phase and the morphology of the films.

  7. Anti-CD3 mAb treatment cures PDL1-/-.NOD mice of diabetes but precipitates fatal myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mfarrej, Bechara; Keir, Mary; Dada, Shirine; Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Sharpe, Arlene H; Guleria, Indira

    2011-07-01

    Anti-CD3 mAb is an effective therapy that can reverse diabetes in NOD mice and has therapeutic potential in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We administered anti-CD3 to PDL1-/-.NOD mice in order to determine whether this treatment would reverse the development of diabetes in these mice. Mice injected with anti-CD3 mAb neonatally were protected from T1D. However, all of these anti-CD3 mAb treated PDL1-/-.NOD mice developed a wasting disease between 12 and 20 weeks of age with sudden deterioration and weight loss, leading to death within 3-5 days of development of illness. Histology revealed severe inflammation in the heart and skeletal muscles. These results suggest that deficiency of PDL1 in NOD background has the potential to lead to immune-mediated tissue damage in organs other than the pancreas, but this cannot be appreciated in PDL1-/-.NOD mice as the mice develop T1D at an early age and die from diabetes prior to manifesting other autoimmune diseases.

  8. Analysis of a mixture of a known and an unknown weak acid by titration to a preset pH.

    PubMed

    Livaska, A

    1975-12-01

    The preset-pH titration method has been used to indicate the presence of a second acid when the titration curve (pH vs. volume of added titrant) seems to indicate only one acid. By use of the method even small amounts of propionic acid can be detected in an acetic acid solution despite the small value of Delta log K(H)(HA) = 0.18. Binary mixtures of acids may bs analysed when one acid is known, and log k(H)(HA) for the unknown acid may be found. Acetic acid, as the known acid, has been determined together with hydrochloric, mandelic, hydroxyacetic or boric acid or ammonium ion, with an error of about 1%. The method can be used in some cases for titration of ternary mixtures of one known and two unknown acids. Only the sum of the unknown acids can then be determined together with the known acid.

  9. Modified yukmijihwangtang suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the intravesical hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis rat model via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Dong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Yukmijihwangtang (YM), a boiled extract of medicinal plants, has been prescribed for patients with kidney dysfunction in Korea; however, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects has not been fully elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects on bladder function by using modified YM (M-YM), which included Ulmi radicis cortex in addition to the six traditional medicinal plants in YM. Bladder irritation of the rats was caused by intravesical instillation of HCl. The animals were divided into six groups: sham group, cystitis-injury group with no treatment, cystitis-injury group with prednisolone treatment (5 mg/kg), and cystitis-injury with M-YM treatment (100, 200 or 500 mg/kg groups). Whole bladders were collected at day eight after injury. Samples were analyzed by histological and immunological examinations. An in vitro study was performed to determine whether M-YM extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and IκB phosphorylation in a human uroepithelial cell line of T24 cells. Administration of M-YM notably improved bladder histological changes, and suppressed IL-6/TNF α production and IκB phosphorylation in a rat model of chronic cystitis. M-YM also inhibited LPS-induced NO production and IκB phosphorylation in T24 cells. This study suggests that administration of M-YM might be an applicable therapeutic traditional medicine for the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  10. Electrochemical and theoretical investigation of the inhibitory effect of two Schiff bases of benzaldehyde for the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, U. J.; Jha, P. C.; Lone, M. Y.; Shah, R. R.; Shah, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion inhibition effect of o-Aminophenol-N-Benzylidene (o-AmphNB) and o-Anisidene-N-Benzylidene (o-AnsNB) for pure Aluminium in 1 M HCl at different concentrations of two different inhibitors were investigated by means of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The values of Δ Gadso revealed that the adsorption mechanism of these molecules on aluminium surface is competitive phenomenon between chemical and physical adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization parameters revealed the mixed mode of inhibition with predominance of cathodic inhibition. The impedance results showed that with increase in concentration of inhibitor, charge transfer resistance increases while double layer capacitance decreases. Quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) method were performed on o-AmphNB and o-AnsNB to determine the relationship between molecular structures and their inhibition efficiencies. Correlation analysis concluded that the inhibition effect of inhibitors could be explained in terms of electronic properties.

  11. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from Space Shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from studies designed to identify deposition patterns and quantify the ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents (which are primarily Al2O3 and HCl) from the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors in the area of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad. Results of measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, as much as 7.1 x 10 exp 3 kg of particulates and 3.4 x 10 exp 3 kg HCL can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence during one STS launch.

  13. Products of the Black Sea alga Phyllophora nervosa as corrosion inhibitor for steel in acids

    SciTech Connect

    Popelyukh, G.M.; Andrianov, A.M.; Burtnenko, L.M.; Gazha, P.A.; Talavira, L.I.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the inhibiting properties of the processing products of the Black Sea red seaweed Phyllophora nervosa on specimens of steel St3 in phosphoric and hydrochloric acids of various concentrations at temperatures in the range from 30 to 95 /sup 0/C. They have studied how the concentrations of urotropin, sodium chloride, and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions influence the protective properties of the seaweed inhibitor. They have made preliminary investigations of the mechanisms of the protective action.

  14. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection assay (MDA) Salmonella for the detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2013-01-01

    The 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Salmonella target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG 4.05), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the POD of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.04 (-0.16, +0.09). No significant differences were observed in the number of positive

  15. SF3M 2.0: improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction interface based on freely available software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael R.; Pérez, Rafael; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    During recent years, a number of tools based on Structure-from-Motion algorithms have been released for full image-based 3D reconstruction either freely (e.g. Bundler, PMVS2, VisualSFM, MicMac) or commercially (e.g. Agisoft PhotoScan). The SF3M interface was developed in Matlab® to use link software developments (VisualSFM, CloudCompare) and new applications to create a semi-automated workflow including reconstruction, georeferencing and point-cloud filtering, and has been tested for gully erosion assessment with terrestrial images (Castillo et al., 2015). The main aim of this work to provide an improved freely-available and easy-to-use alternative for 3D reconstruction intended for public agencies, non-profit organisations, researchers and other stakeholders interested in 3D modelling. In this communication we present SF3M 2.0, a new version of the graphical user interface. In this case, the SfM module is based on MicMac, an open-software tool (Pierrot-Deseilligny and Cléry, 2011) which provides advanced features such as camera calibration and constrained bundle adjustment using ground control points. SF3M 2.0 will be tested in two scenarios: a) using the same ground-based image set tested in Castillo et al. (2015) to compare the performance of both versions and b) using aerial images taken from a helium balloon to assess a gully network in a 40-hectares catchment. In this study we explore the advantages of SF3M 2.0, explain its operation and evaluate its accuracy and performance. This tool will be also available for free download. References Castillo, C., James, M.R., Redel-Macías, M. D., Pérez, R., and Gómez, J.A.: SF3M software: 3-D photo-reconstruction for non-expert users and its application to a gully network, SOIL, 1, 583-594. Pierrot-Deseilligny, M and Cléry, I. APERO, an Open Source Bundle Adjusment Software for Automatic Calibration and Orientation of a Set of Images. Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission V Symposium, Image Engineering and Vision

  16. Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid.

    PubMed

    Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used.

  17. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  18. Investigation of Gas-Sensing Property of Acid-Deposited Polyaniline Thin-Film Sensors for Detecting H₂S and SO₂.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xingchen; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Wu, Xiaoqing; Cui, Hao; Chen, Dachang

    2016-11-10

    Latent insulation defects introduced in manufacturing process of gas-insulated switchgears can lead to partial discharge during long-time operation, even to insulation fault if partial discharge develops further. Monitoring of decomposed components of SF₆, insulating medium of gas-insulated switchgear, is a feasible method of early-warning to avoid the occurrence of sudden fault. Polyaniline thin-film with protonic acid deposited possesses wide application prospects in the gas-sensing field. Polyaniline thin-film sensors with only sulfosalicylic acid deposited and with both hydrochloric acid and sulfosalicylic acid deposited were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization method. Gas-sensing experiment was carried out to test properties of new sensors when exposed to H₂S and SO₂, two decomposed products of SF₆ under discharge. The gas-sensing properties of these two sensors were compared with that of a hydrochloric acid deposited sensor. Results show that the hydrochloric acid and sulfosalicylic acid deposited polyaniline thin-film sensor shows the most outstanding sensitivity and selectivity to H₂S and SO₂ when concentration of gases range from 10 to 100 μL/L, with sensitivity changing linearly with concentration of gases. The sensor also possesses excellent long-time and thermal stability. This research lays the foundation for preparing practical gas-sensing devices to detect H₂S and SO₂ in gas-insulated switchgears at room temperature.

  19. Investigation of Gas-Sensing Property of Acid-Deposited Polyaniline Thin-Film Sensors for Detecting H2S and SO2

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xingchen; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Wu, Xiaoqing; Cui, Hao; Chen, Dachang

    2016-01-01

    Latent insulation defects introduced in manufacturing process of gas-insulated switchgears can lead to partial discharge during long-time operation, even to insulation fault if partial discharge develops further. Monitoring of decomposed components of SF6, insulating medium of gas-insulated switchgear, is a feasible method of early-warning to avoid the occurrence of sudden fault. Polyaniline thin-film with protonic acid deposited possesses wide application prospects in the gas-sensing field. Polyaniline thin-film sensors with only sulfosalicylic acid deposited and with both hydrochloric acid and sulfosalicylic acid deposited were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization method. Gas-sensing experiment was carried out to test properties of new sensors when exposed to H2S and SO2, two decomposed products of SF6 under discharge. The gas-sensing properties of these two sensors were compared with that of a hydrochloric acid deposited sensor. Results show that the hydrochloric acid and sulfosalicylic acid deposited polyaniline thin-film sensor shows the most outstanding sensitivity and selectivity to H2S and SO2 when concentration of gases range from 10 to 100 μL/L, with sensitivity changing linearly with concentration of gases. The sensor also possesses excellent long-time and thermal stability. This research lays the foundation for preparing practical gas-sensing devices to detect H2S and SO2 in gas-insulated switchgears at room temperature. PMID:27834895

  20. Induction of an oxalate decarboxylase in the filamentous fungus Trametes versicolor by addition of inorganic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui Xia; Hong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve yields and to reduce the cost of oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC, EC 4.1.1.2), the induction of OxDC in the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was studied in this work. OxDC was induced by addition of inorganic acids including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid to culture media. The results showed that all the acids could enhance OxDC expression. The activity of the acid-induced OxDC rose continuously. All of the OxDC volumetric activities induced by the inorganic acids were higher than 20.0 U/L and were two times higher than that obtained with oxalic acid. OxDC productivity was around 4.0 U*L(-1)*day(-1). The highest specific activity against total protein was 3.2 U/mg protein at day 8 after induction of sulfuric acid, and the specific activity against mycelial dry weight was 10.6 U/g at day 9 after induction of hydrochloric acid. The growth of mycelia was inhibited slightly when the pH values in culture media was around 2.5-3.0, while the growth was inhibited heavily when the pH was lower than 2.5.

  1. IF-combined smRNA FISH reveals interaction of MCPIP1 protein with IER3 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kochan, Jakub; Wawro, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MCPIP1 and IER3 are recently described proteins essential for maintenance of immune homeostasis. IER3 is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and differentiation and has been shown lately to protect activated T cells and macrophages from apoptosis. MCPIP1 is an RNase critical for controlling inflammation-related mRNAs. MCPIP1 interacts with and degrades a set of stem-loop-containing mRNAs (including IL-6). Our results demonstrate the involvement of MCPIP1 in the regulation of IER3 mRNA levels. A dual luciferase assay revealed that over-expression of MCPIP1 resulted in a decrease of luciferase activity in the samples co-transfected with constructs containing luciferase CDS attached to IER3 3′UTR. We identified a stem-loop structure similar to that described to be important for destabilization of the IL-6 mRNA by MCPIP1. Examination of IER3 3′UTR sequence, structure and evolutionary conservation revealed that the identified stem-loop is buried within a bigger element. Deletion of this fragment abolished the regulation of IER3 3′UTR-containing transcript by MCPIP1. Finally, using immunofluorescence-combined single-molecule RNA FISH we have shown that the MCPIP1 protein co-localizes with IER3 mRNA. By this method we also proved that the presence of the wild-type NYN/PIN-like domain of MCPIP1 correlated with the decreased level of IER3 mRNA. RNA immunoprecipitation further confirmed the interaction of MCPIP1 with IER3 transcripts in vivo. PMID:27256408

  2. The impact of Ghana's R3M programme on the provision of safe abortions and postabortion care.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Ahiadeke, Clement; Bankole, Akinrinola; Blades, Nakeisha

    2015-10-01

    In 2006, in response to the high maternal mortality, driven largely by unsafe abortions, the government of Ghana, in partnership with other organizations, launched the reducing maternal mortality and morbidity (R3M) programme in seven districts in Greater Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, to improve comprehensive abortion care services. This article examines whether this intervention made a difference to the provision of safe abortion services and postabortion care (PAC). We also examine the role played by provider attitudes and knowledge of the abortion law, on providers with clinical training in service provision. Primary data on health care providers in Ghana, collected using a quasi-experimental design, were analysed using propensity score weighting. Apart from the treatment group, the sample included two controls: (1) Districts in Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, not exposed to the treatment; and (2) Districts from distant Brong Ahafo, also not exposed to the treatment. The findings show that providers in the treatment group are nearly 16 times as likely to provide safe abortions compared with their peers in Brong Ahafo, and ∼2.5 times as likely compared with providers in the other control group. R3M providers were also different from their peers in providing PAC. Associations between provider attitudes and knowledge of the law on both outcomes were either non-significant or inconsistent including for providers with clinical knowledge of abortion provision. Provider confidence however is strongly associated with service provision. We conclude that the R3M programme is helping safe abortion provision, with the differences being greater with control groups that are geographically distant, perhaps owing to lower contamination from movement of providers between facilities. Increasing provider confidence is key to improving both safe abortion provision and PAC.

  3. Enhanced translational efficiency of a novel transforming growth factor beta 3 mRNA in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Arrick, B A; Grendell, R L; Griffin, L A

    1994-01-01

    The mRNA for transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) includes a long (1.1-kb) 5' noncoding region which exerts a potent inhibitory effect on translational efficiency. We now report that many human breast cancer cell lines (T47-D, SK-BR-3, ZR-75-1, and BT-474) express two mRNA species for TGF-beta 3: the 3.5-kb transcript previously described as the only TGF-beta 3 mRNA species in cells and a novel 2.6-kb transcript which lacks approximately 870 nucleotides from the 5' noncoding region. The 5' end of the shorter transcript was sequenced, establishing it to be a 5' truncation of the full-length TGF-beta 3 transcript. Estradiol decreased mRNA levels of both TGF-beta 3 mRNA transcripts to an equivalent degree in estrogen receptor-positive cells. In contrast, the synthetic progestin gestodene altered the relative abundance of the two transcripts, preferentially diminishing the expression of the 2.6-kb transcript. The potential for enhanced mRNA translation attributable to the shorter 5' noncoding region was evaluated by transfection of cells with chimeric plasmid constructs in which the transcription unit consisted of coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase downstream of the 5' noncoding sequence from TGF-beta 3. The translational efficiency of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-encoding mRNA containing the shorter 5' noncoding region of the 2.6-kb TGF-beta 3 transcript was approximately seven times greater than with the full-length 5' noncoding region of TGF-beta 3. Polysome analysis of TGF-beta 3 mRNA in SK-BR-3 cells supported the hypothesis that the 2.6-kb transcript was more actively engaged in translation. Images PMID:8264630

  4. The Effect of Spray Strips on a Model of the P3M-1 Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1933-01-01

    This note presents the results of a series of tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank on a one-sixth full-size model of the hull and side floats of the Navy P3M-1 flying boat for the purpose of finding a method of reducing the amount of spray thrown into the propellers of this craft when taking off and landing. The model was tested without spray strips and with five different spray-strip arrangements. The best arrangement was an improvement over the bare hull with no spray strips, but the improvement was not sufficient to be satisfactory with the propellers in the designed position.

  5. Determination of the scattering lengths of gallium isotopes by neutron interferometry with PNO-apparatus in JRR-3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomimitsu, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Kikuta, S.

    1999-01-01

    For carrying out experiments in the field of the so-called precise neutron optics (PNO), we have implemented special multi-purpose apparatus called the "PNO-apparatus" at JRR-3M. Making use of an Si triple-Laue (LLL) neutron interferometer with the PNO-apparatus, we successfully determined the coherent neutron scattering lengths of gallium isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. The results are 8.053±0.013 fm for 69Ga and 6.170±0.011 fm for 71Ga, respectively.

  6. Design and construction of 2 transonic airfoil models for tests in the NASA Langley C.3-M TCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechterle, G.; Ludewig, K. H.; Stanewsky, E.; Ray, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a NASA/DFVLR cooperation program two transonic airfoils were tested in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT. Model design and construction was carried out by DFVLR. The models designed and constructed performed extremely well under cryogenic conditions. Essentially no permanent changes in surface quality and geometric dimensions occurred during the tests. The aerodynamic results from the TCT tests which demonstrate the large sensitivity of the airfoil CAST 10-Z/DOAZ to Reynolds number changes compared well with results from other facilities at ambient temperatures.

  7. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  8. Mutual transformation of light waves by reflection holograms in photorefractive crystals of the 4-bar 3m symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Naunyka, V. N.; Shepelevich, V. V.

    2011-05-15

    The mutual transformation of light waves in the case of their simultaneous diffraction from a bulk reflection phase hologram, which was formed in a cubic photorefractive crystal of the 4-bar 3m symmetry class, has been studied. The indicator surfaces of the polarization-optimized values of the relative intensity of the object wave, which make it possible to determine the amplification of this wave for any crystal cut, are constructed. The linear polarization azimuths at which the energy exchange between the light waves reaches a maximum are found numerically for crystals of different cuts.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K-12 cultures exposed to inorganic and organic acids in stationary phase reveals acidulant- and strain-specific acid tolerance responses.

    PubMed

    King, Thea; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C D; Gobius, Kari

    2010-10-01

    The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing.

  10. A Rare Cause of Short Stature: 3M Syndrome in a Patient with Novel Mutation in OBSL1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Melikşah; Muratoğlu Şahin, Nursel; Kurnaz, Erdal; Bayramoğlu, Elvan; Savaş Erdeve, Şenay; Aycan, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Semra

    2017-01-01

    The Miller-McKusick-Malvaux (3M) syndrome is a rare autosomal disorder that can lead to short stature, dysmorphic features, and skeletal abnormalities with normal intelligence. A 16-month-old female patient had been referred to our clinic due to short stature. Case history revealed a birth weight of 1740 grams on the 39th week of gestation, with a birth length of 42 cm and no prior hereditary conditions of clinical significance in her family. On physical examination, her length was 67 cm [-3.6 standard deviation (SD) score], weight 7.2 kg (-2.9 SD score), and head circumference 42 cm (below 3rd percentile). She also had numerous characteristic physical features such as a triangular face, fleshy nose tip, a long philtrum, prominent mouth and lips, pointed chin, lumbar lordosis, and prominent heels. As her growth retardation had a prenatal onset and the physical examination results were suggestive of a characteristic profile, the diagnosis of 3M syndrome was strongly considered. Genetic assessment of the patient revealed a novel homozygous p.T45Nfs*40 mutation in the OBSL1 gene. It is recommended that physicians pay further attention to this condition in the differential diagnosis of children with severe short stature. PMID:27796265

  11. In situ study of the R{bar 3}c-R{bar 3}m orientational disorder in calcite.

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, S. M.; Hassan, I.; Mulder, W. H.; Lee, P. L.; Toby, B. H.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of West Indies

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the crystal structure and intensities of the (113) and (211) reflections in calcite, CaCO{sub 3}, were studied using Rietveld structure refinements based on synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. Calcite transforms from R{bar 3}c to R{bar 3}m at about T{sub c} = 1240 K. A CO{sub 3} group occupies, statistically, two positions with equal frequency in the disordered R{bar 3}m phase, but with unequal frequency in the partially ordered R{bar 3}c phase. One position for the CO{sub 3} group is rotated by 180{sup o} with respect to the other. The unequal occupancy of the two orientations in the partially ordered R{bar 3}c phase is obtained directly from the occupancy factor, x, for the O1 site and gives rise to the order parameter, S = 2x - 1. The a cell parameter shows a negative thermal expansion at low T, followed by a plateau region at higher T, then a steeper contraction towards T{sub c}, where the CO{sub 3} groups disorder in a rapid process. Using a modified Bragg-Williams model, fits were obtained for the order parameter S, and for the intensities of the (113) and (211) reflections.

  12. Dopamine receptor D3 mRNA expression in human lymphocytes is negatively correlated with the personality trait of persistence.

    PubMed

    Czermak, Christoph; Lehofer, Michael; Renger, Helmut; Wagner, Elke M; Lemonis, Leonidas; Rohrhofer, Alfred; Schauenstein, Konrad; Liebmann, Peter M

    2004-05-01

    It has been proposed that neurotransmitter receptor expression in peripheral immune cells reflects expression of these receptors in the brain. To test this "peripheral marker hypothesis", we compared mRNA expression of the dopamine receptors D3 (DRD3) and D4 (DRD4) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to personality traits assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 50 healthy and unmedicated Caucasian individuals. A shared variance of at least 17% (p=0.016) between DRD3 mRNA expression in PBL and the personality trait of persistence was found. As personality traits have been generally assumed polygenic with a single gene accounting for rarely more than 1-2% of observed variance in a trait, this result lends further support to the peripheral marker hypothesis for DRD3 mRNA expression in PBL. It may also suggest a significant role for the DRD3 in the neurobiology of persistence and point to an interesting link between personality and functioning of the immune system.

  13. Hydrogeological and geochemical modeling of hydrothermal fluids circulation in active ultramafic-hosted systems under CAST3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mugler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.; Donval, J.; Vidal, O.; Marcailloux, C.; Munoz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges is a fundamental process that impacts the transfer of energy and water from the interior of the Earth to the Crust, Hydrosphere and biosphere. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), at precisely located ultramafic-hosted systems, important fluxes of heat, hydrogen and Iron are observed (Charlou et al., 2010 AGU Monograph series). It is now demonstrated that high and low-temperature hydrothermal activity and mantle degassing are indicators of ongoing serpentinization process. For a real understanding of this process and to estimate heat and hydrogen fluxes, numerical modeling leant on field data and laboratory experiments can yield results of interest. We thus developed a thermo-hydrogeological numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in geological layers, encoded under CAST3M, and presented here. For homogeneous medias, we successfully obtained exiting fluid temperatures that natural hydrothermal fluids usually reach. Considering laboratory experiments, we coupled, under CAST3M, our thermo-hydrogeological model to a geochemical model of serpentinization reaction. This last model is based on a reaction front velocity model calibrated by laboratory experiments. Primary results are presented here.

  14. Gastric acid secretion and mucosal appearances in Addison's disease and hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Delamore, I W; Williams, A W

    1961-06-01

    Studies of gastric acid secretion and mucosal appearances have been made in a group of 14 patients suffering from hypopituitarism. Achlorhydria was found in six of the patients suffering from Addison's disease but in only one patient suffering from hypopituitarism. In both groups the mean gastric secretion of hydrochloric acid was considerably lower than in a group of control subjects and replacement therapy with cortisone and DOCA in Addison's disease and cortisone and thyroid extract in hypopituitarism failed to restore gastric function to normal. A constant correlation was not found between gastric acid secretion and mucosal appearances.

  15. Longitudinal studies of patients with ANCA vasculitis demonstrate concurrent reactivity to complementary PR3 protein segments cPR3m and cPR3C and with no reactivity to cPR3N

    PubMed Central

    Hewins, Peter; Belmonte, Frances; Jennette, J Charles; Falk, Ronald J; Preston, Gloria A

    2010-01-01

    Antibodies recognizing the complement of the middle of PR3 (cPR3m) occur in ~30% of PR3-ANCA-vasculitis patients and immunization of animals with a peptide complementary to the middle of PR3 (cPR3m) induces not only anti-complementary PR3 antibodies, but also anti-PR3 antibodies derived through an anti-idiotypic response. PR3 epitopes recognized by patient ANCA however, are not restricted to the middle of PR3. This prompted us to test for antibodies that react with proteins complementary to the terminal regions of PR3 (cPR3C and cPR3N) in PR3-ANCA patients. Anti-cPR3C reactivity was detected in 28% of patients but anti-cPR3N reactivity in only 15%. Ranked anti-cPR3C and anti-cPR3m reactivity correlated in the cohort, whereas there was no significant relationship between cPR3C and cPR3N reactivity. Serial samples from three patients’ revealed that anti-cPR3C and anti-cPR3m reactivity followed a similar pattern over time. Serial samples from a fourth patient demonstrated an anti-cPR3N response without concurrent cPR3m or cPR3C reactivity. Epitope determination by mass spectrometry identified a thirteen amino acid sequence on cPR3C that contained a common binding site recognized by antibodies from three patients. This peptide sequence contains a “PHQ” motif which was reported to be the basis for cross-reactivity of anti-cPR3m antibodies with plasminogen. Why these antibodies are detected in only ~30% of the patients remains unclear. The data reveal it is not due to lack of inclusion of flanking regions of complementary PR3 during screening. Instead, quite unexpectedly, the data demonstrate that patients’ antibodies react with a restricted epitope that exists in both cPR3m and cPR3C. PMID:20712431

  16. Comparison of acids on the induction of an Acid Tolerance Response in Salmonellatyphimurium, consequences for food safety.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Salmonellatyphimurium inactivation at pH 3.0 in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Meat Extract (ME) was studied using stationary-phase cells grown in non-acidified BHI (pH 7.4) and ME (pH 6.6) and acidified BHI and ME at pH values of 6.4, 5.4 and 4.5 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids. Cells grown in buffered BHI (pH 7.0) were used as non-acid adapted control cells. Acid adapted S. typhimurium cells obtained in both media (BHI and ME) were more resistant to extremely acidic conditions when ME was used as challenge medium, although the ability of S. typhimurium to survive extreme pH conditions also depended on growth medium and type of acidulant used. Acid adapted cells grown in BHI developed a higher Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) than those grown in ME. When cells were grown in acidified BHI, no bacterial inactivation was observed after three hours of acid challenge in ME. Furthermore, when cells were grown in acidified ME at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4, D-values obtained using ME as challenge medium were, respectively, 6-9 and 10-15 fold higher than those found when BHI was used as challenge medium. In all cases, the order of acids in inducing the ATR was citric>acetic>lactic>malic⩾hydrochloric>ascorbic. These findings represent a concern for food safety as the increase in the acid resistance of acid adapted cells could allow for S. typhimurium survival in the strong acidic environment of the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Determination of the non protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in estuarine cyanobacteria by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Mafalda S; Cianca, Rosa C C; Lopes, Viviana R; Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2011-10-01

    A capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of the amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) was achieved using a fused-silica capillary column (50 cm × 75 μm I.D.) filled with 5 mM sodium tetraborate solution (pH 9), with an applied voltage of 25 kV, at 25 °C. The method was then applied in quantifying BMAA in eighteen strains of lyophilized estuarine cyanobacteria, following amino acid extraction using 0.1 M trichloroacetic acid and 6 M hydrochloric acid, sequentially.

  18. Influence of functionalized pyridine ligands on the radio/chemical behavior of [M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re and (99m)Tc) 2 + 1 complexes.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Thomas R; Lyon, Patrice A; Barnes, Charles L; Trabue, Steven; Benny, Paul D

    2015-02-16

    While a number of chelate strategies have been developed for the organometallic precursor fac-[M(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc), a unique challenge has been to improve the overall function and performance of these complexes for in vivo and in vitro applications. Since its discovery, fac-[M(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+) has served as an essential scaffold for the development of new targeted (99m)Tc based radiopharmaceuticals due to its labile aquo ligands. However, the lipophilic nature of the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) core can influence the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the complexes. In an effort to understand and improve this behavior, monosubstituted pyridine ligands were used to assess the impact of donor nitrogen basicity on binding strength and stability of fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) in a 2 + 1 labeling strategy. A series of Re and (99m)Tc complexes were synthesized with picolinic acid as a bidentate ligand and 4-substituted pyridine ligands. These complexes were designed to probe the effect of pKa from the monodentate pyridine ligand both at the macro scale and radiochemical concentrations. Comparison of X-ray structural data and radiochemical solution experiments clearly indicate an increase in overall yield and stability as pyridine basicity increased.

  19. 40 CFR 420.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to each fume scrubber associated with sulfuric acid pickling operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid... each fume scrubber associated with hydrochloric acid pickling operations. (5) Acid regeneration... scrubber wastewater associated with hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (c) Combination acid...

  20. 40 CFR 420.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to each fume scrubber associated with sulfuric acid pickling operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid... each fume scrubber associated with hydrochloric acid pickling operations. (5) Acid regeneration... scrubber wastewater associated with hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (c) Combination acid...

  1. 40 CFR 420.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to each fume scrubber associated with sulfuric acid pickling operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid... each fume scrubber associated with hydrochloric acid pickling operations. (5) Acid regeneration... scrubber wastewater associated with hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (c) Combination acid...

  2. 40 CFR 420.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to each fume scrubber associated with sulfuric acid pickling operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid... each fume scrubber associated with hydrochloric acid pickling operations. (5) Acid regeneration... scrubber wastewater associated with hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (c) Combination acid...

  3. 40 CFR 420.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to each fume scrubber associated with sulfuric acid pickling operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid... each fume scrubber associated with hydrochloric acid pickling operations. (5) Acid regeneration... scrubber wastewater associated with hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (c) Combination acid...

  4. Preparation of Highly Crystalline TiO(2) Nanostructures by Acid-assisted Hydrothermal Treatment of Hexagonal-structured Nanocrystalline Titania/Cetyltrimethyammonium Bromide Nanoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuxi; Wu, Yanqiang; Sakai, Toshio; Du, Zuliang; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2010-08-11

    Highly crystalline TiO(2) nanostructures were prepared through a facile inorganic acid-assisted hydrothermal treatment of hexagonal-structured assemblies of nanocrystalline titiania templated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Hex-ncTiO(2)/CTAB Nanoskeleton) as starting materials. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, crystalline and the formation of the nanostructures were investigated. We found that the morphology and crystalline phase strongly depended on the hydrochloric acid concentrations. More importantly, crystalline phase was closely related to the morphology of TiO(2) nanostructure. Nanoparticles were polycrystalline anatase phase, and aligned nanorods were single crystalline rutile phase. Possible formation mechanisms of TiO(2) nanostructures with various crystalline phases and morphologies were proposed.

  5. Preparation of Highly Crystalline TiO2 Nanostructures by Acid-assisted Hydrothermal Treatment of Hexagonal-structured Nanocrystalline Titania/Cetyltrimethyammonium Bromide Nanoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Highly crystalline TiO2 nanostructures were prepared through a facile inorganic acid-assisted hydrothermal treatment of hexagonal-structured assemblies of nanocrystalline titiania templated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Hex-ncTiO2/CTAB Nanoskeleton) as starting materials. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, crystalline and the formation of the nanostructures were investigated. We found that the morphology and crystalline phase strongly depended on the hydrochloric acid concentrations. More importantly, crystalline phase was closely related to the morphology of TiO2 nanostructure. Nanoparticles were polycrystalline anatase phase, and aligned nanorods were single crystalline rutile phase. Possible formation mechanisms of TiO2 nanostructures with various crystalline phases and morphologies were proposed. PMID:21124640

  6. About improving efficiency of the P3 M algorithms when computing the inter-particle forces in beam dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozynchenko, Alexander I.; Kozynchenko, Sergey A.

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, a problem of improving efficiency of the particle-particle- particle-mesh (P3M) algorithm in computing the inter-particle electrostatic forces is considered. The particle-mesh (PM) part of the algorithm is modified in such a way that the space field equation is solved by the direct method of summation of potentials over the ensemble of particles lying not too close to a reference particle. For this purpose, a specific matrix ;pattern; is introduced to describe the spatial field distribution of a single point charge, so the ;pattern; contains pre-calculated potential values. This approach allows to reduce a set of arithmetic operations performed at the innermost of nested loops down to an addition and assignment operators and, therefore, to decrease the running time substantially. The simulation model developed in C++ substantiates this view, showing the descent accuracy acceptable in particle beam calculations together with the improved speed performance.

  7. Characteristics of the three-half-turn-antenna-driven RF discharge in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Grigor’eva, L. I.; Chechkin, V. V. Moiseenko, V. E.; Grekov, D. L.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Lozin, A. V.; Tarasov, I. K.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Zamanov, N. V.; Tretiak, K. K.; Kozulya, M. M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Kasilov, A. A.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.; Voitsenya, V. S.

    2015-12-15

    In the ℓ = 3 Uragan-3M torsatron hydrogen plasma is produced by RF fields in the Alfvén range of frequencies (ω ≤ ω{sub ci}). The initial (target) plasma with the line-averaged density of units 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is produced by a frame antenna with a broad spectrum of generated parallel wavenumbers. After this, to heat the plasma and bring its density to ∼10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, another, shorter wavelength three-half-turn antenna with large transverse currents is used. The behavior of the density, electron temperature, and loss of the plasma supported by the three-half-turn antenna is studied depending on the RF power fed to the antenna and initial values of the density and electron temperature supplied by the frame antenna.

  8. Trends in (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m superlattices with varying layer thicknesses

    PubMed Central

    Jilili, J.; Cossu, F.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m (n, m = 2, 4, 6, 8) superlattices using density functional theory. The electronic structure turns out to be highly sensitive to the onsite Coulomb interaction. In contrast to bulk SrTiO3, strongly distorted O octahedra are observed in the SrTiO3 layers with a systematic off centering of the Ti atoms. The systems favour ferromagnetic spin ordering rather than the antiferromagnetic spin ordering of bulk LaMnO3 and all show half-metallicity, while a systematic reduction of the minority spin band gaps as a function of the LaMnO3 and SrTiO3 layer thicknesses originates from modifications of the Ti dxy states. PMID:26323361

  9. NaxMV(PO4)3 (M = Mn, Fe, Ni) Structure and Properties for Sodium Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Xue, Leigang; Lü, Xujie; Gao, Hongcai; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Fu, Gengtao; Cui, Zhiming; Zhu, Ye; Goodenough, John B

    2016-12-14

    NASICON (Na(+) super ionic conductor) structures of NaxMV(PO4)3 (M = Mn, Fe, Ni) were prepared, characterized by aberration-corrected STEM and synchrotron radiation, and demonstrated to be durable cathode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. In Na4MnV(PO4)3, two redox couples of Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) and V(4+)/V(3+) are accessed with two voltage plateaus located at 3.6 and 3.3 V and a capacity of 101 mAh g(-1) at 1 C. Furthermore, the Na4MnV(PO4)3 cathode delivers a high initial efficiency of 97%, long durability over 1000 cycles, and good rate performance to 10 C. The robust framework structure and stable electrochemical performance makes it a reliable cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  10. Measurement of recovery temperature on an airfoil in the Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Adcock, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental measurements of recovery temperature were made on an airfoil in the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.84 over a Reynolds number per meter range from about 15,000,000 to about 335,000,000. The measured recovery temperatures were considerably below those associated with ideal-gas ambient temperature wind tunnels. This difference was accentuated as the stagnation pressure increased and the total temperature decreased. A boundary-layer code modified for use with cryogenic nitrogen adequately predicted the measured adiabatic wall temperature at all conditions. A quantitative, on-line assessment of the nonadiabatic condition of a model can be made during the operation of a cryogenic wind tunnel by using a correlation for the adiabatic wall temperature which is only a function of total temperature, total pressure, and local Mach number on the model.

  11. Design and use of a double crystal diffractometer for very small angle neutron scattering at JRR-3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, K.; Tomimitsu, H.

    1995-02-01

    The double crystal diffractometer (DCD) for very small angle neutron scattering (VSANS) in the precise neutron optics (PNO) apparatus on a 3G beam hole at JRR-3M is described. The DCD consists of a nondispersive (1, - 1) setting of 111 reflection of silicon single crystals with a sample between two crystals and is set on a vibration isolator table in a constant temperature chamber. The peak intensity of a rocking curve without a sample is 2200 cps at a detector position and the signal to noise ratio is 1.6 × 10 4 in a typical experiment. VSANS measurements for silica powder samples reveal that the q-range is available between 2 × 10 -4 and 6 × 10 -2 nm -1.

  12. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  13. Laboratory studies on acid-oil microemulsion for use in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yasong; Chen Yuezhu; Sun Yuehua

    1996-12-31

    Two serious of anionic-nonionic surfactants, alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether phosphates (OPP-n) and sodium salts of carboxymethyl alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (OPC-n), where n denotes the average EO number in the molecular, are synthesized to prepare the acid/oil Microemulsions for acidizing. Through components screening tests a work formulation of acidizing microemulsion is established: 13.0% OPP-10, 3.0% OPC-25, 30% n-Hexanol, 36.7% Kerosine and 18.3%(15.0%-concentrated) Hydrochloric Acid. This microemulsion reacts with marble at 30{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure with the lowest acid consuming rate as compared with other retarded acid fluids. Calcium ion accelerates the acid/marble reaction and the suggested microemulsion can tolerate up to 0.69%(W) Calcium ion. No aqueous phase would be separated from the microemulsion until all acid exhausted. The acid/oil microemulsions can be recommended for both matrix and fracture acidizing in depth. The transmission of hydrogen ion in the microemulsion is investigated by using a liquid film supported by solid (SLMS) technique. The mechanism {open_quotes}transmission by exchanging{close_quotes} is suggested. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Expanding on #YouDoYou: Reflections from the 2015 Cohort of 3M National Student Fellows on Exploring Authenticity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Justine; Shah, Wali; Spencer, Vrindy; Thompson, Piper Riley; Young, Karen; Zowmi, Aniqah

    2016-01-01

    The fourth cohort of 3M National Student Fellows explores the current state of our post-secondary education system across Canada and opportunities to further tune into practice in order to pursue an authentic and meaningful academic life. Six of the 2015 3M National Student Fellows propose recommendations for decision-makers at post-secondary…

  15. PMHS impact response in 3 m/s and 8 m/s nearside impacts with abdomen offset.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carl S; Madura, Nathaniel H; Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-11-01

    Lateral impact tests were performed using seven male post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to characterize the force-deflection response of contacted body regions, including the lower abdomen. All tests were performed using a dual-sled, side-impact test facility. A segmented impactor was mounted on a sled that was pneumatically accelerated into a second, initially stationary sled on which a subject was seated facing perpendicular to the direction of impact. Positions of impactor segments were adjusted for each subject so that forces applied to different anatomic regions, including thorax, abdomen, greater trochanter, iliac wing, and thigh, could be independently measured on each PMHS. The impactor contact surfaces were located in the same vertical plane, except that the abdomen plate was offset 5.1 cm towards the subject. The masses of the sleds and the force- deflection characteristics of the energy-absorbing interface material between the sleds were set to provide the impactor sled with a velocity profile that matched the average driver door velocity history produced in a series of side NCAP tests. Impactor padding was also selected so that average ATD pelvis and thorax responses from the same series of side NCAP tests were reproduced when the ATD used in these tests was impacted using the average door-velocity history. Each subject was first impacted on one side of the body using an initial impactor speed of 3 m/s. If a post-test CT scan and strain-gage data revealed two or fewer non-displaced rib fractures, then the PMHS was impacted on the contralateral side of the body at a speed of 8 m/s or 10 m/s. The results of tests in the 3 m/s and 8 m/s conditions were used to develop force-deflection response corridors for the abdomen, force history response corridors for the pelvis (iliac wing and greater trochanter), the midthigh, and the thorax. Response corridors for the lateral acceleration of the pelvis were also developed. Future work will compare side impact ATD

  16. Novel Lignan and Stilbenoid Mixture Shows Anticarcinogenic Efficacy in Preclinical PC-3M-luc2 Prostate Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Laajala, Teemu D.; Smeds, Annika; Eckerman, Christer; Holmbom, Bjarne; Saarinen, Niina M.; Aittokallio, Tero; Mäkelä, Sari I.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer of men in the Western world, and novel approaches for prostate cancer risk reduction are needed. Plant-derived phenolic compounds attenuate prostate cancer growth in preclinical models by several mechanisms, which is in line with epidemiological findings suggesting that consumption of plant-based diets is associated with low risk of prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a novel lignan-stilbenoid mixture in PC-3M-luc2 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Lignan and stilbenoid –rich extract was obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) knots. Pine knot extract as well as stilbenoids (methyl pinosylvin and pinosylvin), and lignans (matairesinol and nortrachelogenin) present in pine knot extract showed antiproliferative and proapoptotic efficacy at ≥40 μM concentration in vitro. Furthermore, pine knot extract derived stilbenoids enhanced tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis already at ≥10 μM concentrations. In orthotopic PC-3M-luc2 xenograft bearing immunocompromized mice, three-week peroral exposure to pine knot extract (52 mg of lignans and stilbenoids per kg of body weight) was well tolerated and showed anti-tumorigenic efficacy, demonstrated by multivariate analysis combining essential markers of tumor growth (i.e. tumor volume, vascularization, and cell proliferation). Methyl pinosylvin, pinosylvin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin, as well as resveratrol, a metabolite of pinosylvin, were detected in serum at total concentration of 7−73 μM, confirming the bioavailability of pine knot extract derived lignans and stilbenoids. In summary, our data indicates that pine knot extract is a novel and cost-effective source of resveratrol, methyl pinosylvin and other bioactive lignans and stilbenoids. Pine knot extract shows anticarcinogenic efficacy in preclinical prostate cancer model, and our in vitro data

  17. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  18. Photo-crosslinked hyaluronic acid coated upconverting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrazek, Jiri; Kettou, Sofiane; Matuska, Vit; Svozil, Vit; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Pospisilova, Martina; Nesporova, Kristina; Velebny, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated inorganic nanoparticles display enhanced interaction with the CD44 receptors which are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. Here, we describe a modification of core-shell β-NaY0.80Yb0.18Er0.02F4@NaYF4 nanoparticles (UCNP) by HA derivative bearing photo-reactive groups. UCNP capped with oleic acid were firstly transferred to aqueous phase by an improved protocol using hydrochloric acid or lactic acid treatment. Subsequently, HA bearing furanacryloyl moieties (HA-FU) was adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface and crosslinked by UV irradiation. The crosslinking resulted in stable HA coating, and no polymer desorption was observed. As-prepared UCNP@HA-FU show a hydrodynamic diameter of about 180 nm and are colloidally stable in water and cell culture media. The cellular uptake by normal human fibroblasts and MDA MB-231 cancer cell line was investigated by upconversion luminescence imaging.

  19. Steady state hemodynamic and energetic characterization of the Penn State/3M Health Care Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W J; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Pierce, W S; Pae, W E; Kuroda, H; Rawhouser, M A; Felder, G; Reibson, J D; Cleary, T J; Ford, S K; Marlotte, J A; Nazarian, R A; Hicks, D L

    1999-01-01

    Total Artificial Heart (TAH) development at Penn State University and 3M Health Care has progressed from design improvements and manufacturing documentation to in vitro and in vivo testing to characterize the system's hemodynamic response and energetic performance. The TAH system is completely implantable and intended for use as an alternative to transplantation. It includes a dual pusher plate pump and rollerscrew actuator, welded electronics and battery assembly, transcutaneous energy transmission system, telemetry, and a compliance chamber. In vitro testing was conducted on a Penn State mock circulatory loop with glycerol/water solution at body temperature. Tests were performed to characterize the preload and afterload response, left atrial pressure control, and power consumption. A sensitive preload response was demonstrated with left atrial pressure safely maintained at less than 15 mm Hg for flow rates up to 7.5 L/min. Variations in aortic pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were found to have minimal effects on the preload sensitivity and left atrial pressure control. In vivo testing of the completely implanted system in its final configuration was carried out in two acute studies using implanted temperature sensors mounted on the electronics, motor, and energy transmission coil in contact with adjacent tissue. The mean temperature at the device-tissue interface was less than 4 degrees C above core temperature.

  20. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  1. Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

  2. MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd), Luminomagnetic Nanophosphors with Optical and Magnetic Features for Multimodal Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rightsell, Chris; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Kumar, Ajith G.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterials with multiple functionalities play a very important role in several high technology applications. A major area of such applications is the biomedical industry, where contrast agents with multiple imaging modalities can provide better results than conventional materials. Many of the contrast agents available now have drawbacks such as toxicity, photobleaching, low contrast, size restrictions, and overall cost of the imaging system. Rare-earth doped inorganic nanophosphors are alternatives to circumvent several of these issues, together with the added advantage of super high resolution imaging due to the excellent near infrared sensitivity of the phosphors. In addition to optical imaging features, by adding a magnetic ion such as Gd3+ at suitable lattice positions, the phosphor can be made magnetic, yielding dual imaging functionalities. In this research, we are presenting the optical and magnetic imaging features of sub-nanometer size MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd) phosphors for the potential application of these nanophosphors as multimodal contrast agents. Cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo imaging, penetration depth etc. are studied for various phosphor compositions, and optimized compositions are explored. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM) Grant N0-DMR-0934218.

  3. Deposition of LaMO 3 (M=Co, Cr, Al) films by spray pyrolysis in inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Hiromichi; Katsuki, Hiroaki; Nagano, Masamitsu

    1994-11-01

    LaMO 3 (M=Co, Cr, Al) films were prepared on substrates by introducing ultrasonically atomized metal nitrate solutions into an inductively coupled plasma under atmospheric pressure (spray-ICP technique). Dense perovskite-type oxide films of LaCoO 3 and LaCrO 3 were obtained at 600-900°C, while the LaAiO 3 films consisted of loosely packed aggregates. Deposition rates of the films were 6-35 nm/min at 600-900°C. The high temperature phases (cubic) of LaCoO 3 and LaAlO 3 crystallized due to effect of grain size. LaCrO 3 film crystallized in the room temperature phase (orthorhombic). LaCoO 3 was highly oriented to (100) on MgO(100), and LaCrO 3 to (011) and (101) on sapphire(001). Lowest electric resistivities of LaCoO 3 and LaCrO 3 film on MgO were 9.8X10 -3 and 2.7X10 -1 Ω m, respectively, at room temperature.

  4. De novo somatic mutations in components of the PI3K-AKT3-mTOR pathway cause hemimegalencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Huynh, My; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Kim, Sangwoo; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Heiberg, Andrew; Scott, Eric; Bafna, Vineet; Hill, Kiley J; Collazo, Adrienne; Funari, Vincent; Russ, Carsten; Gabriel, Stacey B; Mathern, Gary W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with HME can be relieved by the surgical treatment hemispherectomy, allowing sampling of diseased tissue. Exome sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis in paired brain-blood samples from individuals with HME (n = 20 cases) identified de novo somatic mutations in 30% of affected individuals in the PIK3CA, AKT3 and MTOR genes. A recurrent PIK3CA c.1633G>A mutation was found in four separate cases. Identified mutations were present in 8–40% of sequenced alleles in various brain regions and were associated with increased neuronal S6 protein phosphorylation in the brains of affected individuals, indicating aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Thus HME is probably a genetically mosaic disease caused by gain of function in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT3-mTOR signaling. PMID:22729223

  5. Criticality calculations for the VR-1 reactor with IRT-3M-HEU fuel and IRT-4MLEU fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, N. A.; Matos, J. E.

    2007-01-17

    At The request of the Czech Technical University in Prague, ANL has performed independent verification calculations using the MCNP Monte Carlo code for three core configurations of the VR-1 reactor: a current core configuration B1 with HEU (36%) IRT-3M fuel assemblies and planned core configurations C1 and C2 with LEU (19.7%) IRT-4M fuel assemblies. Details of these configurations were provided to ANL by CTU. For core configuration B1, criticality calculations were performed for two sets of control rod positions provided to ANL by CTU. For core configurations C1 and C2, criticality calculations were done for cases with all control rods at the top positions, all control rods at the bottom positions, and two critical states of the reactor for different control rod positions. In addition, sensitivity studies for variation of the {sup 235}U mass in each fuel assembly and variation of the fuel meat and cladding thicknesses in each of the fuel tubes were done for the C1 core configuration. Finally the reactivity worth of the individual control rods was calculated for the B1, C1, and C2 core configurations.

  6. Effect of solvent, temperature and pressure on the stability of chiral and perovskite metal formate frameworks of [NH2NH3][M(HCOO)3] (M = Mn, Fe, Zn).

    PubMed

    Mączka, Mirosław; Pasińska, Katarzyna; Ptak, Maciej; Paraguassu, Waldeci; da Silva, Tercio Almeida; Sieradzki, Adam; Pikul, Adam

    2016-11-23

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, and thermal, Raman, infrared and magnetic properties of [NH2NH3][M(HCOO)3] (HyM) compounds (M = Mn, Zn, Fe). Our results show that synthesis from methanol solution leads to perovskite polymorphs while that from 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or its mixture with methanol allows obtaining chiral polymorphs. Perovskite HyFe, chiral HyFe and chiral HyMn undergo phase transitions at 347, 336 and 296 K, respectively, with symmetry changes from Pnma to Pna21, P63 to P212121 and P63 to P21. X-ray diffraction and Raman studies show that the phase transitions are governed by dynamics of the hydrazinium ions. Low-temperature magnetic studies show that these compounds exhibit magnetic ordering below 9-12.5 K. Since the low-temperature structures of chiral HyMn and perovskite HyFe are polar, these compounds are possible multiferroic materials. We also report high-pressure Raman scattering studies of chiral and perovskite HyZn, which show much larger stiffness of the latter phase. These studies also show that the ambient pressure polar phases are stable up to at least 1.4 and 4.1 GPa for the chiral and perovskite phase, respectively. Between 1.4 and 2.0 GPa (for chiral HyZn) and 4.1 and 5.2 GPa (for perovskite HyZn) pressure-induced transitions are observed associated with changes in the zinc-formate framework. Strong broadening of Raman bands and the decrease in their number for the high-pressure phase of chiral HyZn suggest that this phase is disordered and has higher symmetry than the ambient pressure one.

  7. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  8. Listeria monocytogenes varies among strains to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under stresses by different acids as analyzed by a high-throughput microplate-based fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Changyong; Yang, Yongchun; Dong, Zhimei; Wang, Xiaowen; Fang, Chun; Yang, Menghua; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Liya; Fang, Weihuan; Song, Houhui

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen, has the capacity to maintain intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis in acidic environments, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report a simple microplate-based fluorescent method to determine pHi of listerial cells that were prelabeled with the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester and subjected to acid stress. We found that L. monocytogenes responds differently among strains toward organic and inorganic acids to maintain pHi homeostasis. The capacity of L. monocytogenes to maintain pHi at extracellular pH 4.5 (pHex) was compromised in the presence of acetic acid and lactic acid, but not by hydrochloric acid and citric acid. Organic acids exhibited more inhibitory effects than hydrochloric acid at certain pH conditions. Furthermore, the virulent stains L. monocytogenes EGDe, 850658 and 10403S was more resistant to acidic stress than the avirulent M7 which showed a defect in maintaining pHi homeostasis. Deletion of sigB, a stress-responsive alternative sigma factor from 10403S, markedly altered intracellular pHi homeostasis, and showed a significant growth and survival defect under acidic conditions. Thus, this work provides new insights into bacterial survival mechanism to acidic stresses.

  9. Listeria monocytogenes varies among strains to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under stresses by different acids as analyzed by a high-throughput microplate-based fluorometry

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changyong; Yang, Yongchun; Dong, Zhimei; Wang, Xiaowen; Fang, Chun; Yang, Menghua; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Liya; Fang, Weihuan; Song, Houhui

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen, has the capacity to maintain intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis in acidic environments, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report a simple microplate-based fluorescent method to determine pHi of listerial cells that were prelabeled with the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester and subjected to acid stress. We found that L. monocytogenes responds differently among strains toward organic and inorganic acids to maintain pHi homeostasis. The capacity of L. monocytogenes to maintain pHi at extracellular pH 4.5 (pHex) was compromised in the presence of acetic acid and lactic acid, but not by hydrochloric acid and citric acid. Organic acids exhibited more inhibitory effects than hydrochloric acid at certain pH conditions. Furthermore, the virulent stains L. monocytogenes EGDe, 850658 and 10403S was more resistant to acidic stress than the avirulent M7 which showed a defect in maintaining pHi homeostasis. Deletion of sigB, a stress-responsive alternative sigma factor from 10403S, markedly altered intracellular pHi homeostasis, and showed a significant growth and survival defect under acidic conditions. Thus, this work provides new insights into bacterial survival mechanism to acidic stresses. PMID:25667585

  10. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  11. Decreased AMPA GluR2, but not GluR3, mRNA expression in rat amygdala and dorsal hippocampus following morphine-induced behavioural sensitization.

    PubMed

    Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Bahrololoumi Shapourabadi, Mina; Ahmadi, Shamseddin; Hashemi Bozchlou, Saeed; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa

    2008-11-01

    1. Repeated administration of psychostimulants and micro-opioid receptor agonists elicits a progressive enhancement of drug-induced behavioural responses, a phenomenon termed behavioural sensitization. These changes in behaviour may reflect plastic changes requiring regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor function. 2. In the present study, rats were treated for 7 days with saline or morphine (10 mg/kg). After a washout period of either 24 h or 7 days, locomotion, oral stereotypy and state-dependent memory in a passive avoidance test were measured in the presence or absence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium salt (CNQX; 3 mg/kg), an AMPA receptor antagonist. In order to evaluate the mechanism underlying the behavioural responses, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate mRNA expression of the AMPA receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and amygdala of animals treated repeatedly with morphine. 3. The results indicate that repeated morphine treatment followed by 7 days (but not 24 h) washout produces behavioural sensitization, as determined by locomotion, oral stereotypy and state-dependent memory. Blockade of AMPA receptors with CNQX on the test day did not alter these behavioural responses. In addition, repeated morphine treatment followed by 7 days (but not 24 h) washout decreased GluR2 mRNA expression in both the amygdala (by 50%) and hippocampus (by 35%). Repeated morphine treatment did not alter GluR3 mRNA expression in any brain area assessed. 4. These data imply that AMPA receptors are involved in the development (but not expression) phase of behavioural sensitization. The decreases in GluR2 mRNA expression in the amygdala and hippocampus may result in the formation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, which are believed to play an important role in behavioural sensitization.

  12. 1,2-Ethanediol and 1,3-Propanediol Conversions over (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) Nanoclusters: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zongtang; Zetterholm, Patrick; Dixon, David A

    2016-03-24

    The dehydration and dehydrogenation reactions of one and two 1,2-ethanediol and 1,3-propanediol molecules on (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) nanoclusters have been studied computationally using density functional and coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) theory. The reactions are initiated by the formation of a Lewis acid-base complex with an additional hydrogen bond. Dehydration is the dominant reaction proceeding via a metal bisdiolate. Acetaldehyde, the major product for 1,2-ethanediol, is produced by α-hydrogen transfer from one CH2 group to the other. For 1,3-propanediol, the C-C bond breaking pathways to produce C2H4 and HCH═O simultaneously and proton transfer to generate propylene oxide have comparable barrier energies. The barrier to produce propanal from the propylene oxide complex is less than that for epoxide release from the cluster. On the Mo3O9 cluster, a redox reaction channel for 1,2-ethanediol to break the C-C bond to form two formaldehyde molecules and then to produce C2H4 is slightly more favorable than the formation of acetaldehyde. For W(VI), the energy barrier for the reduction pathway is larger due to the lower reducibility of W3O9. Similar reduction on Mo(VI) for 1,3-propanediol to form propene is not a favorable pathway compared with the other pathways as additional C-H bond breaking is required in addition to breaking a C-C bond. The dehydrogenation and dehydration activation energies for the selected glycols are larger than the reactions of ethanol and 1-propanol on the same clusters. The CCSD(T) method is required because density functional theory with the M06 and B3LYP functionals does not predict quantitative energies on the potential energy surface. The M06 functional performs better than does the B3LYP functional.

  13. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activators, bezafibrate and Wy-14,643, increase uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels without modifying the mitochondrial membrane potential in primary culture of rat preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    2000-08-15

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inner mitochondrial membrane transporters which act as pores for H(+) ions, dissipating the electrochemical gradient that develops during mitochondrial respiration at the expense of ATP synthesis. We have studied the effects of two fibrates, bezafibrate and Wy-14,643, on UCP-3 and UCP-2 mRNA levels in primary monolayer cultures of rat adipocytes and undifferentiated preadipocytes. Treatment with both PPARalpha activators for 24 h up-regulated UCP-3 mRNA levels. Thus, bezafibrate treatment resulted in an 8-fold induction in UCP-3 mRNA levels in preadipocytes compared with the 3.5-fold induction observed in adipocytes. Differences in the induction of UCP-3 between these cells correlated well with the higher expression of PPARalpha and RXRalpha mRNA values in preadipocytes compared to adipocytes. Wy-14,643 caused similar effects on UCP-3 mRNA expression. In contrast to UCP-3, UCP-2 mRNA levels were only slightly modified by bezafibrate in adipocytes. The induction in UCP-3 expression was not accompanied by changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential of rat primary preadipocytes after bezafibrate or Wy-14,643 treatment. Since it has been proposed that UCP-3 could be involved in the regulation of the use of fatty acids as fuel substrates, the UCP-3 induction achieved after bezafibrate and Wy-14, 643 treatment may indicate a higher oxidation of fatty acids, limiting their availability to be stored as triglycerides. This change may result in a reduced rate of conversion of preadipocytes to adipocytes, which directly affects fat depots.

  15. Acid adaptation promotes survival of Salmonella spp. in cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Leyer, G J; Johnson, E A

    1992-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was adapted to acid by exposure to hydrochloric acid at pH 5.8 for one to two doublings. Acid-adapted cells had increased resistance to inactivation by organic acids commonly present in cheese, including lactic, propionic, and acetic acids. Recovery of cells during the treatment with organic acids was increased 1,000-fold by inclusion of 0.1% sodium pyruvate in the recovery medium. Acid-adapted S. typhimurium cells survived better than nonadapted cells during a milk fermentation by a lactic acid culture. Acid-adapted cells also showed enhanced survival over a period of two months in cheddar, Swiss, and mozzarella cheeses kept at 5 degrees C. Acid adaptation was found in Salmonella spp., including Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype heidelberg, and Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype javiana, associated with food poisoning. These observations support the theory that acid adaptation is an important survival mechanism enabling Salmonella spp. to persist in fermented dairy products and possibly other acidic food products. PMID:1622286

  16. Impaired muscarinic type 3 (M3) receptor/PKC and PKA pathways in islets from MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Roma, Letícia Prates; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Vanzela, Emerielle Cristine; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Bonfleur, Maria Lúcia

    2013-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate-obese rats are glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. Their pancreatic islets secrete more insulin at increasing glucose concentrations, despite the possible imbalance in the autonomic nervous system of these rats. Here, we investigate the involvement of the cholinergic/protein kinase (PK)-C and PKA pathways in MSG β-cell function. Male newborn Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of MSG (4 g/kg body weight (BW)) or hyperosmotic saline solution during the first 5 days of life. At 90 days of life, plasma parameters, islet static insulin secretion and protein expression were analyzed. Monosodium glutamate rats presented lower body weight and decreased nasoanal length, but had higher body fat depots, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and hypertrigliceridemia. Their pancreatic islets secreted more insulin in the presence of increasing glucose concentrations with no modifications in the islet-protein content of the glucose-sensing proteins: the glucose transporter (GLUT)-2 and glycokinase. However, MSG islets presented a lower secretory capacity at 40 mM K(+) (P < 0.05). The MSG group also released less insulin in response to 100 μM carbachol, 10 μM forskolin and 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xantine (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01). These effects may be associated with a the decrease of 46 % in the acetylcholine muscarinic type 3 (M3) receptor, and a reduction of 64 % in PKCα and 36 % in PKAα protein expressions in MSG islets. Our data suggest that MSG islets, whilst showing a compensatory increase in glucose-induced insulin release, demonstrate decreased islet M3/PKC and adenylate cyclase/PKA activation, possibly predisposing these prediabetic rodents to the early development of β-cell dysfunction.

  17. Characterization and thermal behavior of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Co or Ni) ceramic materials obtained from gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, F.M.; Melo, D.M.A.; Pimentel, P.M.; Braga, R.M.; Melo, M.A.F.; Martinelli, A.E.; Costa, A.F.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The micrograph in figure shows sample calcined at temperature 900 °C. The sample exhibits morphology with considerable porosity and the formation of agglomerated nanometric particles. Gelatin provides the system with a large amount of organic matter, which is then removed during calcinations, favoring the appearance of pores in the material. Highlights: ► Oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} were prepared by new method synthesis. ► The gelatin, through its carboxylate groups and amine, is an efficient director. ► The obtained materials have magnetic properties and application in catalysis. ► The decomposition kinetic study of bonding groups of gelatin with metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Metal oxides with perovskite-type structure have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their magnetic and electrical properties, as well as their catalytic activity. In this study, oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} composition were prepared by using gelatin powder as a precursor agent for its use as a catalyst. The powders obtained were calcined at 700 °C and 900 °C and characterized using the X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), infrared spectroscopy, temperature programed reduction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Thermogravimetric data using the non-isothermal kinetic models of Flynn and Wall and “Model-free Kinetics” were used to determine the activation energy to study the decomposition kinetics of the ligand groups with system's metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Ni or Co).

  18. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  19. Sulphur in char and char desulphurization by acid leaching and hydropyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Loffredo, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Sulphur compounds volatilized during pyrolysis of acid-leached char were measured to determine characteristics of char desulphurization reactions. Pyrolysis of char in a hydrogen atmosphere (hydropyrolysis) produced a much higher concentration of thiophenic organics compared with that produced during pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen sulphide gas evolution, at progressively increasing pyrolysis temperature in a helium atmosphere, was measured on five char samples: untreated char, hydrochloric acid-leached char, and three model chars: a demineralized char and two demineralized chars incorporated with sulphur via reactions with elemental sulphur. Hydrogen sulphide gas evolution in untreated char and acid-leached char was found to peak in three temperature regions; the maxima are thought to relate to sulphur in different bonding environments. The amounts of hydrogen sulphide volatilized were much higher for acid-leached char than for untreated char. The gas evolved from each of the remaining three samples showed a single peak region corresponding closely to one of the three peak regions observed for the first two chars. The results of this study indicate that elemental sulphur was produced during hydrochloric acid leaching of the untreated char and suggested that the improved rate of desulphurization observed in the char that had been acid-leached before hydropyrolysis was due in part to the conversion of strongly bound mineral sulphur forms to more weakly bound sulphur forms that are predominantly elemental sulphur in character, and are more easily removed by hydrogen. ?? 1985.

  20. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Jakowlew, S B; Ciment, G; Tuan, R S; Sporn, M B; Roberts, A B

    1994-01-01

    Specific cDNA probes and antibodies for chicken transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 2 and beta 3 were used to study expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo. Expression of the mRNAs for both TGF-beta isoforms was detected by day 1.5 of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 10) by RNA Northern blot analysis and increased with developmental age. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs was detected in every embryonic tissue examined, with the level of expression of both isoforms being high in heart, brain and muscle and low in kidney and liver. Coordinate unidirectional upregulation of expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs occurred in most embryonic tissues with development except the heart, where the steady-state level of expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA decreased with age, while that of TGF-beta 3 mRNA increased. In situ hybridization analysis detected TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs as early as the definitive primitive streak stage (stage 4). During neurulation (stage 10), TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs were detected in cells of all three germ layers; TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected in neurectoderm as well. Following neurulation, TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected in the neural tube, notochord, ectoderm, endoderm, sclerotome and dermomyotome at stage 16; expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA was not as prominent as TGF-beta 3 mRNA in these structures. By stage 29, both TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs were localized in several tissues including heart, lung, gizzard and feathers. Immunohistochemical staining analysis detected immunoreactive TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins in all three germ layers of stage 4 embryos. Staining for TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins was detected in several cell types and tissues in the early developing embryo frequently in the same locations as TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs, with staining for TGF-beta 2 being less intense than TGF-beta 3. However, in some cases, localization of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins was

  1. A randomised trial comparing combination chemotherapy using mitomycin C, mitozantrone and methotrexate (3M) with vincristine, anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (VAC) in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Powles, T. J.; Jones, A. L.; Judson, I. R.; Hardy, J. R.; Ashley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a randomised clinical trial in patients with advanced breast cancer, comparing the regimen 3M, mitomycin C 7-8 mg m-2 (day 1), mitozantrone 7-8 mg m-2 (day 1 and 21), methotrexate 35 mg m-2 (day 1 and 21) given on a 42 day cycle with a standard anthracycline containing regimen, VAC, vincristine 1.4 mg m-2 (day 1), anthracycline (adriamycin or epirubicin) 30 mg m-2 (day 1), cyclophosphamide 400 mg m-2 (day 1) given on a 21 day cycle. Of a total of 217 patients, 107 were randomised to 3M and 110 to VAC and a mean of 5.5 courses was given per patient. The overall response rate (complete and partial) was 53% (95% Confidence Limits (CL): 43-62%) for 3M and 49% (CL; 39-58%) for VAC. The response according to sites of metastases was the same for both treatment groups. Symptomatic toxicity including alopecia, neuropathy, vomiting (P less than 0.001) and nausea (P less than 0.01) were significantly less for 3M. Myelosuppression including leucopenia (P less than 0.001) and thrombocytopenia (P less than 0.001) was significantly greater with 3M at day 21, although there was no difference in nadir counts in patients at special risk of myelosuppression and there was no evidence of an increase in infective or bleeding complications. There was no significant difference in the duration of response to 3M (10 months, CL 6-15) and VAC (11 months, CL 7-12), nor in survival (3M, 8 months, CL 6-12; VAC, 10 months, CL 8-12). These results indicate that 3M is as effective as, but has significantly less symptomatic toxicity than, an anthracycline containing regimen for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. PMID:1892775

  2. Condensation of anhydrides or dicarboxylic acids with compounds containing active methylene groups. Part 1: Condensation of phthalic anhydride with acetoacetic and malonic ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshkaya, V. P.; Vanag, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Phthalic anhydride was condensed with acetoacetic ester in acetic anhydride and triethylamine solution, and when phthalyl chloride was reacted with sodium acetoacetic ester compounds were formed of the phthalide and indandione series: phthalylacetoacetic ester and a derivative of indan-1,3-dione which after boiling with hydrochloric acid yielded indan-1,3-dione. Phthalylmalonic ester was obtained from phthalic anhydride and malonic ester in the presence of triethylamine.

  3. Determination of the mode of occurrence of As, Cr, and Hg in three Chinese coal samples by sequential acid leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Li, W.; Wang, G.; Chen, H.; Li, B.

    2007-07-01

    Sequential acid leaching was used to leach minerals and the trace elements they contain. One-step leaching uses concentrated nitric acid as solvent, while three-step leaching uses 5M hydrochloric acid, concentrated hydrofluoric acid, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as solvents. The sequential acid leaching by three-and one-step leach was also examined. The results showed that one-step leaching could leach over 80% of arsenic from coal samples, and also could leach mercury to a certain degree. During one-step leaching, little chromium is removed, but it is available to leach by three-step leaching; and during the sequential acid leaching by three and one-step leaching, almost 98% ash is leached. The result of acid leaching could also give detailed information on mode of occurrence of As, Cr, and Hg, which could be classified into: silicate association, pyrite association, organic association, and carbonates and sulfates association. Over half of chromium in the three coals is associated with organic matters and the rest is associated with silicates. The mode of occurrence of arsenic and mercury is mainly associated with different mineral matters depending on the coal samples studied.

  4. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-03-09

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure.

  5. Transcription Expression and Clinical Significance of Dishevelled-3 mRNA and δ-Catenin mRNA in Pleural Effusions from Patients with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shu-Li; Cha, Na; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wang, Shao-Cheng; Li, Wei-Nan; Wang, En-Hua; Wu, Guang-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate diagnostic utility of Dishevelled-3 (DVL-3) mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA expression in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer. Methods. DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA levels were assessed by performing RT-PCR on pleural effusion specimens from patients with lung cancer (n = 75) and with lung benign disease (n = 51). Results. The expressions of DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA were significantly higher in malignant than in benign lung disease (P < 0.01) and were obviously higher than cytology in adenocarcinoma (P < 0.01). In single use, DVL-3 mRNA had the highest specificity (94.1%) and PPV (95.7%), whereas δ-catenin mRNA had the highest sensitivity (92.0%) and NPV (88.5%). When combinations of markers were evaluated together, DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA gave a high-diagnostic performance: sensitivity of 100.0%, NPV of 100.0%, and accuracy of 96.0%, respectively. Conclusion. As molecular markers of detecting pleural micrometastasis, DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA are helpful to diagnose the cancer cells in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer. PMID:22461838

  6. Spacewatch Astrometry of Asteroids and Comets with the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m Telescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, James V.; McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-01

    We use the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m telescopes on Kitt Peak to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small bodies in need of recovery that cannot be reached with the Spacewatch 0.9-m and 1.8-m telescopes. Targets include NEOs with potential close encounters with Earth (Virtual Impactors; VIs), future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by NEOWISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by NEOWISE, and faint Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Notable targets successfully recovered include the Earth Trojan 2010 TK7 and the faint almost-lost VI 2011 BY24 discovered by NEOWISE. Between 2010 June 6 and 2014 July 23 the MPC accepted 1316 lines of astrometry by us with these telescopes on 207 different NEOs including 84 PHAs. We made 343 observations of PHAs with V>=22. Our average arc extension on large PHAs (with H<=17.75) is 184 days, which is 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. Recently with all four telescopes Spacewatch has made 39% of all the observations of PHAs that were fainter than V=22 at the time of measurement. This count is twice that of the next most productive station in that measure. The faintest V magnitude we have observed so far is 24.4 and the smallest solar elongation angle at which we have observed is 46 degrees. Our work with the Mayall and Bok telescopes has been determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) to provide "dramatic improvement" to NEO orbits (T. Spahr, 2014 private communication). Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted

  7. Protonation of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate by acids in various solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, I.L.; Bune, E.V.; Bogachev, Yu.S.; Sheinker, A.P.; Teleshov, E.N.

    1988-04-10

    It was established by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR that diethylaminoethyl methacrylate exists in the unprotonated form in solvents which are not acids. In the presence of an equimolar amount of hydrochloric or trifluoroacetic acids the amino ester is fully protonated, irrespective of the solvent. The diethylaminoethyl methacrylate-acetic acid system exists in the form of a molecular complex with a hydrogen bond and in the protonated form; the proportions of the protonated form were estimated in various solvents. The change in the reactivity of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its salts in polymerization was explained by a change in the electronic state of CH/sub 2/ = group of the monomer as a result of its protonation and of the formation of a hydrogen bond between the C = O group of the monomer and the solvent.

  8. Evaluation of five methods for derivatization and GC determination of a mixture of very long chain fatty acids (C24:0-C36:0).

    PubMed

    Antolín, Ernesto Méndez; Delange, David Marrero; Canavaciolo, Víctor González

    2008-01-07

    D003 is a new active ingredient consisting of a mixture of very long chain saturated fatty acids (C(24:0)-C(36:0)) in a definite proportion, which shows antioxidant, antiosteoporotic, antiplatelet and cholesterol-lowering effects in experimental models. Five derivatization methods for determining these fatty acids by gas chromatography (GC), using diazomethane, sulphuric acid-methanol, hydrochloric acid-methanol, boron trifluoride-methanol and N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide were evaluated. GC analysis was carried out using a BPX-5 wide-bore column and 1-nonadecanoic acid (C(19:0)) as internal standard. Methods were similar on account of the fatty acid content determined (84.2-86.6%). However, whereas the hydrochloric acid-methanol method needed 90 min to complete the derivatization, the other methods only required 10 min. Considering costs, speed, safety and GC response, the method using sulphuric acid-methanol was found the most appropriate for determining these fatty acids. The validation of this method: linearity over a range 40-160%, accuracy assessed through a recovery study, precision within day and inter-day, and specificity, even for samples subject to stress conditions, proved it is suitable for quality control and stability studies of the very long chain fatty acids composing this active ingredient.

  9. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Alakomi, H L; Skyttä, E; Saarela, M; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Latva-Kala, K; Helander, I M

    2000-05-01

    The effect of lactic acid on the outer membrane permeability of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied utilizing a fluorescent-probe uptake assay and sensitization to bacteriolysis. For control purposes, similar assays were performed with EDTA (a permeabilizer acting by chelation) and with hydrochloric acid, the latter at pH values corresponding to those yielded by lactic acid, and also in the presence of KCN. Already 5 mM (pH 4.0) lactic acid caused prominent permeabilization in each species, the effect in the fluorescence assay being stronger than that of EDTA or HCl. Similar results were obtained in the presence of KCN, except for P. aeruginosa, for which an increase in the effect of HCl was observed in the presence of KCN. The permeabilization by lactic and hydrochloric acid was partly abolished by MgCl(2). Lactic acid sensitized E. coli and serovar Typhimurium to the lytic action of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) more efficiently than did HCl, whereas both acids sensitized P. aeruginosa to SDS and to Triton X-100. P. aeruginosa was effectively sensitized to lysozyme by lactic acid and by HCl. Considerable proportions of lipopolysaccharide were liberated from serovar Typhimurium by these acids; analysis of liberated material by electrophoresis and by fatty acid analysis showed that lactic acid was more active than EDTA or HCl in liberating lipopolysaccharide from the outer membrane. Thus, lactic acid, in addition to its antimicrobial property due to the lowering of the pH, also functions as a permeabilizer of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and may act as a potentiator of the effects of other antimicrobial substances.

  10. Lactic Acid Permeabilizes Gram-Negative Bacteria by Disrupting the Outer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Alakomi, H.-L.; Skyttä, E.; Saarela, M.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Latva-Kala, K.; Helander, I. M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lactic acid on the outer membrane permeability of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied utilizing a fluorescent-probe uptake assay and sensitization to bacteriolysis. For control purposes, similar assays were performed with EDTA (a permeabilizer acting by chelation) and with hydrochloric acid, the latter at pH values corresponding to those yielded by lactic acid, and also in the presence of KCN. Already 5 mM (pH 4.0) lactic acid caused prominent permeabilization in each species, the effect in the fluorescence assay being stronger than that of EDTA or HCl. Similar results were obtained in the presence of KCN, except for P. aeruginosa, for which an increase in the effect of HCl was observed in the presence of KCN. The permeabilization by lactic and hydrochloric acid was partly abolished by MgCl2. Lactic acid sensitized E. coli and serovar Typhimurium to the lytic action of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) more efficiently than did HCl, whereas both acids sensitized P. aeruginosa to SDS and to Triton X-100. P. aeruginosa was effectively sensitized to lysozyme by lactic acid and by HCl. Considerable proportions of lipopolysaccharide were liberated from serovar Typhimurium by these acids; analysis of liberated material by electrophoresis and by fatty acid analysis showed that lactic acid was more active than EDTA or HCl in liberating lipopolysaccharide from the outer membrane. Thus, lactic acid, in addition to its antimicrobial property due to the lowering of the pH, also functions as a permeabilizer of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and may act as a potentiator of the effects of other antimicrobial substances. PMID:10788373

  11. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  12. Engineering α4β2 nAChRs with reduced or increased nicotine sensitivity via selective disruption of consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Nilza M.; Avilés-Pagán, Emir; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Báez-Pagán, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays a crucial role in nicotine addiction. These receptors are known to desensitize and up-regulate after chronic nicotine exposure, but the mechanism remains unknown. Currently, the structure and functional role of the intracellular domains of the nAChR are obscure. To study the effect of subunit phosphorylation on α4β2 nAChR function and expression, eleven residues located in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop were mutated to alanine and aspartic acid. Two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled epibatidine binding assays were performed on Xenopus oocytes to assess agonist activation and receptor expression. When ACh was used as an agonist, a decrease in receptor activation was observed for the majority of the mutations. When nicotine was used as an agonist, four mutations exhibited a statistically significant hypersensitivity to nicotine (S438D, S469A, Y576A, and S589A). Additionally, two mutations (S516D and T536A) that displayed normal activation with ACh displayed remarkable reductions in sensitivity to nicotine. Binding assays revealed a constitutive up-regulation in these two nicotine mutations with reduced nicotine sensitivity. These results suggest that consensus phosphorylation residues in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit play a crucial role in regulating α4β2 nAChR agonist selectivity and functional expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that disruption of specific interactions at PKC putative consensus sites can render α4β2 nAChRs almost insensitive to nicotine without substantial effects on normal AChR function. Therefore, these PKC consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 nAChR subunit could be a target for smoking cessation drugs. PMID:25957813

  13. Engineering α4β2 nAChRs with reduced or increased nicotine sensitivity via selective disruption of consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit.

    PubMed

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Nilza M; Avilés-Pagán, Emir; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Báez-Pagán, Carlos A; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2015-12-01

    The α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays a crucial role in nicotine addiction. These receptors are known to desensitize and up-regulate after chronic nicotine exposure, but the mechanism remains unknown. Currently, the structure and functional role of the intracellular domains of the nAChR are obscure. To study the effect of subunit phosphorylation on α4β2 nAChR function and expression, eleven residues located in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop were mutated to alanine and aspartic acid. Two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled epibatidine binding assays were performed on Xenopus oocytes to assess agonist activation and receptor expression. When ACh was used as an agonist, a decrease in receptor activation was observed for the majority of the mutations. When nicotine was used as an agonist, four mutations exhibited a statistically significant hypersensitivity to nicotine (S438D, S469A, Y576A, and S589A). Additionally, two mutations (S516D and T536A) that displayed normal activation with ACh displayed remarkable reductions in sensitivity to nicotine. Binding assays revealed a constitutive up-regulation in these two nicotine mutations with reduced nicotine sensitivity. These results suggest that consensus phosphorylation residues in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit play a crucial role in regulating α4β2 nAChR agonist selectivity and functional expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that disruption of specific interactions at PKC putative consensus sites can render α4β2 nAChRs almost insensitive to nicotine without substantial effects on normal AChR function. Therefore, these PKC consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 nAChR subunit could be a target for smoking cessation drugs.

  14. Acid tolerance in Salmonella typhimurium induced by culturing in the presence of organic acids at different growth temperatures.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-02-01

    The influence of growth temperature and acidification of the culture medium up to pH 4.25 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids on the growth and subsequent acid resistance at pH 3.0 of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 was studied. The minimum pH value which allowed for S. typhimurium growth within the temperature range of 25-37 degrees C was 4.5 when the pH was reduced using citric and hydrochloric acids, and 5.4 and 6.4 when lactic acid and acetic acid were used, respectively. At high (45 degrees C) or low (10 degrees C) temperatures, the growth pH boundary was increased about 1 pH unit. The growth temperature markedly modified the acid resistance of the resulting cells. In all cases, D-values were lower for cells grown at 10 degrees C and significantly increased with increasing growth temperature up to 37 degrees C, at which D-values obtained were up to 10 times higher. Cells grown at 45 degrees C showed D-values similar to those found for cells grown at 25 degrees C. The growth of cells in acidified media, regardless of the pH value, caused an increase in their acid resistance at the four incubation temperatures, although the magnitude of the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) observed depended on the growth temperature. Acid adapted cultures at 10 degrees C showed D-values ranging from 5.75 to 6.91 min, which turned out to be about 2 times higher than those corresponding to non-acid adapted cultures, while higher temperatures induced an increase in D-values of at least 3.5 times. Another finding was that, while at 10 and 45 degrees C no significant differences among the effect of the different acids tested in inducing an ATR were observed, when cells were grown at 25 and 37 degrees C citric acid generally turned out to be the acid which induced the strongest ATR. Results obtained in this study show that growth temperature is an important factor affecting S. typhimurium acid resistance and could contribute to find new strategies based on intelligent

  15. Effect of Ammonium- and Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids on the Separation of Lactic Acid by Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Panigrahi, Abhishek; Murakami, Yuuki; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-05-13

    Biodegradable polymers have attracted much attention from an environmental point of view. Optically pure lactic acid that can be prepared by fermentation is one of the important raw materials for biodegradable polymer. The separation and purification of lactic acid from the fermentation broth are the major portions of the production costs. We proposed the application of supported ionic liquid membranes to recovering lactic acid. In this paper, the effect of ionic liquids, such as Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101, CYPHOS IL-102, CYPHOS IL-104, CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 on the lactic acid permeation have been studied. Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101 and CYPHOS IL-102 were found to be the best membrane solvents as far as membrane stability and permeation of lactic acid are concerned. CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 were found to be unsuitable, as they leak out from the pores of the supported liquid membrane (SLM), thereby allowing free transport of lactic acid as well as hydrochloric acid. CYPHOS IL-102 was found to be the most adequate (Permeation rate = 60.41%) among these ionic liquids as far as the separation of lactic acid is concerned. The permeation mechanisms, by which ionic liquid-water complexes act as the carrier of lactate and hydrochloric acid, were proposed. The experimental permeation results have been obtained as opposed to the expected values from the solution-diffusion mechanism.

  16. Uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels are increased in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of bezafibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Llaverías, G; Roglans, N; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    1999-07-05

    Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that are also able to improve glucose tolerance in animals and diabetic patients through an unknown mechanism. Since uncoupling proteins (UCP) seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we examined whether treatment of rats with bezafibrate for 3, 7, or 15 days modified UCP mRNA levels. Using RT-PCR, we observed a weak ectopic expression of UCP-1 and a 2-fold increase in UCP-3 mRNA levels in white adipose tissue after 7 and 15 days of treatment. Moreover, bezafibrate administration caused a 1. 7-fold induction in UCP-3 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle on day 7. Since UCP-3 mRNA levels are reduced in skeletal muscle of diabetic patients, this effect may be involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity caused by bezafibrate in NIDDM.

  17. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-3 mRNA Expression as a Prognostic Marker for Invasive Duct Carcinoma not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Hammoda, Ghada Ezat; El-Hefnawy, Sally Mohammed; Abdallah, Rania Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the Erythroblastosis Oncogene B(ErbB) receptor family holds crucial role in its pathogenesis. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 3 (HER-3) gene over expression in breast tissue has been associated with aggressive clinical behaviour and bad prognosis. Aim To evaluate HER-3 mRNA expression level as a prognostic marker for breast cancer and to correlate its level with other established prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods This study was carried out on specimens of 100 cases that were divided into 40 patients presented with fibroadenoma and 60 patients presented with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) not otherwise specified and underwent modified radical mastectomy. All specimens were investigated for HER-2/neu, ER and PR expression by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative assay of HER-3 mRNA expression using real time PCR technique. Results There was a significant high HER3 mRNA level in carcinoma cases compared to fibroadenoma. In malignant cases, HER3 mRNA level was significantly associated with advanced T stage, advanced N stage, number of positive lymph nodes, large tumour size and cases associated with an adjacent in situ component. Moreover, HER-3 mRNA level was of highest values in Her-2/neu positive group followed by triple negative cases with the lowest level in luminal group (p<0.05). Conclusion HER-3 gene is upregulated in IDC especially those carrying poor prognostic features. HER-3 mRNA level may identify a subset of patients with a poor prognosis, and who could undergo further evaluation for the efficacy of HER3 targeted anticancer therapy. PMID:28384967

  18. Characteristic constants of 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, a reagent for spectrophotometric analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    The dye 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, has shown promise as a reagent for the determination of zirconium. As the literature contains very little information about this dye, basic data pertinent to its use as a reagent were determined. The sulfonic acid group and all three of the hydroxy groups show acidic characteristics. Apparent dissociation constants were determined for the three more labile protons and the approximate order of magnitude for the fourth constant was estimated. Absorption spectra for the different ionization species are given. A curve is also included which shows the fraction of dye in the different ionization forms at acidities from 10.35M hydrochloric acid to pH 11.9. A sixth dye species was found in 1.0 to 8.4M potassium hydroxide solutions, but its nature is unknown.

  19. RNA editing makes mistakes in plant mitochondria: editing loses sense in transcripts of a rps19 pseudogene and in creating stop codons in coxI and rps3 mRNAs of Oenothera.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, W; Brennicke, A

    1991-01-01

    An intact gene for the ribosomal protein S19 (rps19) is absent from Oenothera mitochondria. The conserved rps19 reading frame found in the mitochondrial genome is interrupted by a termination codon. This rps19 pseudogene is cotranscribed with the downstream rps3 gene and is edited on both sides of the translational stop. Editing, however, changes the amino acid sequence at positions that were well conserved before editing. Other strange editings create translational stops in open reading frames coding for functional proteins. In coxI and rps3 mRNAs CGA codons are edited to UGA stop codons only five and three codons, respectively, downstream to the initiation codon. These aberrant editings in essential open reading frames and in the rps19 pseudogene appear to have been shifted to these positions from other editing sites. These observations suggest a requirement for a continuous evolutionary constraint on the editing specificities in plant mitochondria. Images PMID:1762921

  20. Unique expression features of cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 mRNA expression in human colon and lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously identified the cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (Ct-OATP1B3) mRNA in several human colon and lung cancer tissues. Ct-OATP1B3 is a variant of the liver-type OATP1B3 (Lt-OATP1B3) mRNA, which is a hepatocyte plasma membrane transporter with broad substrate specificity. However, in cancer tissues, both the detailed characteristics of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression and its biological functions remain unclear. With this point in mind, we sought to characterize Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression in colon and lung cancer tissues. In addition, we attempted to obtain functional implication of Ct-OATP1B3 in cancer cells. Methods Matched pairs of cancer and normal tissues were collected from 39 colon cancer and 28 lung cancer patients. The OATP1B3 mRNA expression levels in each of these tissues were separately determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test were used in statistical analysis. The Ct-OATP1B3 functional expression in colon cancer cells was then examined by Western blotting and transport analyses. Results Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA, but not Lt-OATP1B3 mRNA, was abundantly expressed in colon cancer tissues at a higher detection frequency (87.2%) than that of the adjacent normal tissues (2.6%). Furthermore, it was found that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression was often detected in early colon cancer stages (88.9%, n = 18), and that its expression was associated with well-differentiated colon cancer statuses. On the other hand, Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA also showed a predominant and cancer-associated expression profile in lung tissues, although at frequencies and expression levels that were lower than those obtained from colon cancer. As for attempts to clarify the Ct-OATP1B3 functions, neither protein expression nor transport activity could be observed in any of the cell lines examined. Conclusions Based on the unique characteristics of the Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression profile identified in

  1. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  2. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  3. Chromotropic acid-formaldehyde reaction in strongly acidic media. The role of dissolved oxygen and replacement of concentrated sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Fagnani, E; Melios, C B; Pezza, L; Pezza, H R

    2003-05-28

    The procedure for formaldehyde analysis recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Chromotropic acid spectrophotometric method, which is the one that uses concentrated sulphuric acid. In the present study the oxidation step associated with the aforementioned method for formaldehyde determination was investigated. Experimental evidence has been obtained indicating that when concentrated H(2)SO(4) (18 mol l(-1)) is used (as in the NIOSH procedure) that acid is the oxidizing agent. On the other hand, oxidation through dissolved oxygen takes place when concentrated H(2)SO(4) is replaced by concentrated hydrochloric (12 mol l(-1)) and phosphoric (14.7 mol l(-1)) acids as well as by diluted H(2)SO(4) (9.4 mol l(-1)). Based on investigations concerning the oxidation step, a modified procedure was devised, in which the use of the potentially hazardous and corrosive concentrated H(2)SO(4) was eliminated and advantageously replaced by a less harmful mixture of HCl and H(2)O(2).

  4. ANION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Raby, B.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for selectively separating radium, bismuth, poloniums and lead values from a metallic mixture of thc same. The mixture is dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid and the acidity is adjusted to between 1 to 2M in hydrochloric acid to form the anionic polychloro complexes of polonium and bismuth. The solution is contacted with a first anion exchange resin such as strong base quaternary ammonia type to selectively absorb the polonium and bismuth leaving the radium and lead in the effluent. The effluent, after treatment in hydrochloric acid to increase the hydrochloric acid concentration to 6M is contacted with a second anion exchange iesin of the same type as the above to selectively adsorb the lead leaving the radium in the effluent. Radium is separately recovered from the effluent from the second exchange column. Lead is stripped from the loaded resin of the second column by treatment with 3M hydrochloric acid solution. The loaded resin of the first column is washed with 8M hydrochloric acid solution to recover bismuth and then treated with strong nitric acid solution to recover polonium.

  5. Precipitation Hardening of Laser-Surfaced Layer of Maraging Alloy at the Surface of Steel 3Kh3M3F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrev, D. S.; Shcherbakov, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and fracture behavior of a layer of maraging alloy deposited by laser surfacing on steel 3Kh3M3F is studied in the initial condition and after precipitation hardening at 550 and 600°C. Microhardness is measured in layer cross sections, and fractures after surfacing and aging are analyzed in an electron microscope.

  6. Isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelates and fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) complexes for targeting uPAR in prostate cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing strategies to rapidly incorporate the fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into biological targeting vectors is a growing realm in radiopharmaceutical development. This work presents the preparation of a novel isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelate based on 2,2´-dipicolylamine ...

  7. The hydrazide/hydrazone click reaction as a biomolecule labeling strategy for M(CO)3 (M = Re, (99m)Tc) radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Tanushree; Kasten, Benjamin B; Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; MacGillivray, Leonard R; Berkman, Clifford E; Benny, Paul D

    2011-12-28

    Facile reactivity of hydrazides and aldehydes was explored as potential coupling partners for incorporation into M(CO)(3) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) based radiopharmaceuticals. Both 'click, then chelate' and 'prelabel, then click' synthetic routes produced identical products in high yields and lacked metal-hydrazide/-hydrazone interactions, highlighting the potential of this click strategy.

  8. Influence of Functionalized Pyridine Ligands on the Radio/Chemical Behavior of [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re and 99mTc) 2 + 1 Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While a number of chelate strategies have been developed for the organometallic precursor fac-[M (OH2)3(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc), a unique challenge has been to improve the overall function and performance of these complexes for in vivo and in vitro applications. Since its synthesis, the fac-[M (CO)3]...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL & PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: US FILTER 3M10C MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the US Filter 3M10C membrane system was conducted over a 44-day test period at the Aqua 2000 Research Center in Chula Vista, California. The test period extended from July 24, 2002 to September 5, 2002. The source water was a blend of Colorado River and ...

  10. Lactuside B decreases aquaporin-4 and caspase-3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus and striatum following cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LI, PING-FA; ZHAN, HE-QIN; LI, SHENG-YING; LIU, RUI-LI; YAN, FU-LIN; CUI, TAI-ZHEN; YANG, YU-PING; LI, PENG; WANG, XIN-YAO

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of lactuside B (LB) on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and caspase-3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus and the striatum following cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Cerebral I/R injury was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 2 h and then inducing reperfusion. Rats in the I/R + LB groups were treated with various doses of LB following reperfusion. Neurological deficit scores and brain water content were obtained to determine the pharmacodynamics of LB. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression levels of AQP4 and caspase-3 mRNA in the hippocampus and the striatum. The results of the present study indicate that LB decreased the neurological deficit scores and the brain water content. In the hippocampus, AQP4 and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly downregulated in the I/R + LB groups at 24 and 72 h following drug administration, compared with those in the I/R group (P<0.05). In the striatum, LB was also shown to significantly reduce AQP4 and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels at 24 and 72 h following drug administration, compared with those in the I/R group (P<0.05). The effects became stronger as the LB dose was increased. The most significant reductions in AQP4 and caspase-3 mRNA expression were noted in the I/R + LB 25 mg/kg and I/R + LB 50 mg/kg groups at 72 h following drug administration. The results of the present study show that LB is capable of significantly downregulating AQP4 and caspase-3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus and striatum following cerebral I/R injury in rats. The mechanism by which LB improved ischaemic brain injury may be associated with changes in AQP4 and caspase-3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus and the striatum. PMID:24520266

  11. New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Richard C.

    2003-03-10

    Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

  12. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  13. Effects of the Yeast RNA-Binding Protein Whi3 on the Half-Life and Abundance of CLN3 mRNA and Other Targets

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ying; Futcher, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Whi3 is an RNA binding protein known to bind the mRNA of the yeast G1 cyclin gene CLN3. It inhibits CLN3 function, but the mechanism of this inhibition is unclear; in previous studies, Whi3 made no observable difference to CLN3 mRNA levels, translation, or protein abundance. Here, we re-approach this issue using microarrays, RNA-Seq, ribosome profiling, and other methods. By multiple methods, we find that the whi3 mutation causes a small but consistent increase in the abundance of hundreds of mRNAs, including the CLN3 mRNA. The effect on various mRNAs is roughly in proportion to the density of GCAU or UGCAU motifs carried by these mRNAs, which may be a binding site for Whi3. mRNA instability of Whi3 targets may in part depend on a 3′ AU rich element (ARE), AUUUUA. In addition, the whi3 mutation causes a small increase in the translational efficiency of CLN3 mRNA. The increase in CLN3 mRNA half-life and abundance together with the increase in translational efficiency is fully sufficient to explain the small-cell phenotype of whi3 mutants. Under stress conditions, Whi3 becomes a component of P-bodies or stress granules, but Whi3 also acts under non-stress condition, when no P-bodies are visible. We suggest that Whi3 may be a very broadly-acting, but mild, modulator of mRNA stability. In CLN3, Whi3 may bind to the 3′ GCAU motifs to attract the Ccr4-Not complex to promote RNA deadenylation and turnover, and Whi3 may bind to the 5′ GCAU motifs to inhibit translation. PMID:24386402

  14. METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperation with the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between METC and 3M was to evaluate exposure of 3M SICONEX{trademark} fiber-reinforced ceramic and NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabric materials to a gasifying environment at high temperatures (1000--1100{degree}F) and high pressure (300 psia). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) provided two 60 mm I.D. {times} 0.5 m SICONEX{trademark} spools and one each of the NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabrics for exposure to coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the materials in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the CRADA are found in CRADA 94-024. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 94-024. Four gasifier runs were conducted over a five month period to accumulate 483 hours of operation. During this time, 2 LayCer{trademark} 70/3 filters were used for filtering the coal gas while the SICONEX{trademark} and NEXTEL{trademark} were exposed along side of the filters. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer{trademark} 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

  15. Clickable, hydrophilic ligand for fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re/(99m)Tc) applied in an S-functionalized α-MSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Benjamin B; Ma, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongguang; Hayes, Thomas R; Barnes, Charles L; Qi, Shibo; Cheng, Kai; Bottorff, Shalina C; Slocumb, Winston S; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Zhen; Benny, Paul D

    2014-03-19

    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction was used to incorporate alkyne-functionalized dipicolylamine (DPA) ligands (1 and 3) for fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re/(99m)Tc) complexation into an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analogue. A novel DPA ligand with carboxylate substitutions on the pyridyl rings (3) was designed to increase the hydrophilicity and to decrease in vivo hepatobiliary retention of fac-[(99m)Tc(I)(CO)3](+) complexes used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging studies with targeting biomolecules. The fac-[Re(I)(CO)3(3)] complex (4) was used for chemical characterization and X-ray crystal analysis prior to radiolabeling studies between 3 and fac-[(99m)Tc(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+). The corresponding (99m)Tc complex (4a) was obtained in high radiochemical yields, was stable in vitro for 24 h during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays, and showed increased hydrophilicity by log P analysis compared to an analogous complex with nonfunctionalized pyridine rings (2a). An α-MSH peptide functionalized with an azide was labeled with fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) using both click, then chelate (CuAAC reaction with 1 or 3 followed by metal complexation) and chelate, then click (metal complexation of 1 and 3 followed by CuAAC with the peptide) strategies to assess the effects of CuAAC conditions on fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) complexation within a peptide framework. The peptides from the click, then chelate strategy had different HPLC tR's and in vitro stabilities compared to those from the chelate, then click strategy, suggesting nonspecific coordination of fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) using this synthetic route. The fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+)-complexed peptides from the chelate, then click strategy showed >90% stability during in vitro challenge conditions for 6 h, demonstrated high affinity and specificity for the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in IC50 analyses, and led to moderately high uptake in B16F10 melanoma cells

  16. A novel, cysteine-modified chelation strategy for the incorporation of [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) in an α-MSH peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han; Kasten, Benjamin B.; Liu, Hongguang; Qi, Shibo; Liu, Yang; Tian, Mei; Barnes, Charles L.; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Zhen; Benny, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering peptide-based targeting agents with residues for site specific and stable complexation of radionuclides is a highly desirable strategy for producing diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. In this report, a model N-S-NPy ligand (3) and a cysteine-derived alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide (6) were used as novel demonstrations of a widely applicable chelation strategy for incorporation of the [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into peptide-based molecules for radiopharmaceutical applications. The structural details of the core ligand-metal complexes as model systems were demonstrated by full chemical characterization of fac-[ReI(CO)3(N,S,NPy-3)]+ (4) and comparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis between 4 and [99mTcI(CO)3(N,S,NPy-3)]+ (4a). The α-MSH analogue bearing the N-S-NPy chelate on a modified cysteine residue (6) was generated and complexed with [MI(CO)3]+ to confirm the chelation strategy’s utility when applied in a peptide-based targeting agent. Characterization of the ReI(CO)3-6 peptide conjugate (7) confirmed the efficient incorporation of the metal center, and the 99mTcI(CO)3-6 analogue (7a) was explored as a potential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compound for imaging the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in melanoma. Peptide 7a showed excellent radiolabeling yields and in vitro stability during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays. In vitro B16F10 melanoma cell uptake of 7a reached a modest value of 2.3 ± 0.08% of applied activity at 2 h at 37 °C while this uptake was significantly reduced by coincubation with a nonlabeled α-MSH analogue, NAPamide (3.2 µM) (P < 0.05). In vivo SPECT/X-ray computer tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and biodistribution of 7a were evaluated in a B16F10 melanoma xenografted mouse model. SPECT/CT imaging clearly visualized the tumor at 1 h post injection (p.i.) with high tumor-to-background contrast. Blocking

  17. Expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25 (+) T regulatory cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Tao, Jin-Hui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Fang, Xuan; Ma, Qian; Yu, Ning

    2014-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with complex genetic predisposing factors involved. Ets-1 transcription factor plays an important role in the suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and stable expression of FOXP3. To find its potential role in the pathogenesis of SLE, we investigate the mRNA expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from patients with SLE. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from 36 patients with SLE and 18 sex-and-age-matched healthy controls. The Ets-1 mRNA expression level was decreased in patients with SLE [0.225 (0.135, 0.337)] than healthy controls [0.528 (0.303, 0.681)] (P < 0.001). The expression levels of FOXP3 mRNA were lower in SLE patients [0.608 (0.272, 1.164)] than healthy controls [0.919 (0.690, 1.223)], but the difference was not significant (P = 0.106). Significant reduction in Ets-1 and FOXP3 expression was also found in new-onset SLE subgroup when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001). The level of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA was not significantly different in hyperactive and lower active SLE group when compared with inactive SLE group, respectively (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between SLE with lupus nephritis (LN) and SLE without LN either (P > 0.05). Associations of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression levels with major clinical and laboratory parameters of SLE patients were also analyzed. However, no significant association was found. Significant positive correlation was found between Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from SLE patients (r = 0.698, P < 0.001). Our results found that the expression levels of Ets-1 mRNA were decreased in SLE patients and Ets-1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of FOXP3. It indicated that Ets-1 may play an important role in the stable expression of FOXP3 in

  18. 40 CFR 63.8985 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This Subpart... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling—HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration...

  19. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  3. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  4. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud.

  5. Intergrowth of hexagonal tungsten bronze and perovskite-like structures: The oxides ACu 3M7O 21 ( A = K, Rb, Cs, TI; M = Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmoussa, A.; Groult, D.; Studer, F.; Raveau, B.

    1982-02-01

    Seven oxides ACu 3M7O 21 have been isolated with A = K, Rb, Tl, Cs for M = Ta and A = K, Rb, Cs for M = Nb. These phases are orthorhombic: a ⋍ 28 Å, b ⋍ 7.50 Å, and c ⋍ 7.55 Å, probable space group Cmmm. Their structure has been established from an X-ray diffraction study and from high-resolution microscopy observations. The structure consists of an intergrowth of single hexagonal tungsten bronze AM3O 9 slices and double distorted perovskite Cu 3M4O 12 slabs ( M = Nb, Ta) in which copper has a square coordination. The host lattice of these compounds can be considered as the member " n = 1; n' = 2" of a series of intergrowths corresponding to the formulation | M3O 9| Hn| M2O 6| Pn' .

  6. Structural investigations of Sb2O3-M2O (M=Li, Na or K) glasses by the mean of thermal and elastics characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, M. T.; Haddad, S.; Ouennes, K.; Boulegroun, A.; Poulain, M.

    2012-09-01

    By using classical routes (melting - casting), glasses synthesized in silica crucibles were obtained in the combination of binary systems Sb2O3-M2CO3 (M=Li, Na and K). Ultrasonic's velocities were carried out by pulse echo method to determine the elastics parameters, such as elastic modules (E, G, K, L) and other related parameters (Poisson's ration, acoustic impedance, Debye temperature). Other physical properties were measured, such as density and characteristic temperatures. Influence of composition on these physico-chemical properties is discussed. A quantitative analysis of thermal analysis, free volume, elastic and mechanical measurements have been carried out to obtain more information about the structure of alkali antimonite glasses and the role of alkali oxides in these no-conventional glasses. These measurements have been made for the first time on these glasses.

  7. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for Alcohol Preference, Withdrawal, and Ap3m2 Expression Using Integrative Functional Genomics and Precision Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jason A.; Jay, Jeremy J.; Baker, Christopher L.; Bergeson, Susan E.; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.; Chesler, Elissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. PMID:24923803

  8. Regulation of interleukin 3 mRNA expression in mast cells occurs at the posttranscriptional level and is mediated by calcium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wodnar-Filipowicz, A.; Moroni, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is transiently produced by murine bone marrow-derived mast cells in response to antigen stimulation of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. The authors have studied the postreceptor signaling pathways involved in regulating expression of the IL-3 gene in the murine mass cell PB-3c. Large amounts of IL-3 mRNA accumulated after exposure of cells to calcium ionophore A23187, a reagent that increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which stimulates protein kinase C, did not induce IL-3 mRNA accumulation, although it did potentiate the effect of A23187. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that the IL-3 gene is constitutively transcribed in unstimulated cells and that treatment with A23187 and/or phorbol ester has no influence on its transcription rate. The effect of A23187 was found to be due to stabilization of the IL-3 mRNA. In cells maintained in the presence of A23187 the IL-3 mRNA was stable during 3 hr of incubation with actinomycin D, whereas removal of A23187 under the same conditions resulted in rapid degradation of the mRNA. These results indicate that control of expression of the IL-3 gene in mast cells is primarily at the posttranscriptional level and that the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent signal-transduction pathway plays an important role in this process. Synthesis of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA in response to A23187 and phorbol ester was found to be subject to both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

  9. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits.

  10. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tingting Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Hongyang

    2015-11-15

    Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) thin films have been deposited by a pulsed laser deposition system. The x-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of orthorhombic phase. The remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films is decreased with the m-number. Positive-up-negative-down measurements indicate the presence of ferroelectric (FE) polarization in as-obtained thin films. Piezoresponse force microscopy investigations confirm the existence of FE domains and the switchable polarization. Weak magnetic moment is detected in the Aurivillius films at room temperature. The present work suggests the possibility of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) materials as potential room-temperature multiferroics.

  11. Chemical equilibrium of minced turkey meat in organic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Goli, T; Abi Nakhoul, P; Zakhia-Rozis, N; Trystram, G; Bohuon, P

    2007-02-01

    The distribution of acid (HA), anions (A(-)), free protons (H(3)O(+)) and bound protons (H(b)), in homogenized turkey meat was evaluated at various meat/water mass ratios of (1/4-1/10) during titration with acetic acid (0.25N) or lactic acid (0.2N). H(b) concentration was determined by titration with hydrochloric acid (0.075N) and a correlation for [H(b)]=f(pH) was proposed. A procedure was used to calculate the fractions of the various species in equilibrium, starting from an initial acid concentration in a meat/water system and assuming the accuracy of the pK(a) value of the pure weak acids despite the chemical complexity of meat. Calculated results were in very good agreement (±0.15) with experimental pH values, whatever the acid, meat batch or meat/water mass ratios used. Less than 1% of the total protons were free (H(3)O(+)) and determined the meat pH.

  12. Solution of rocks and refractory minerals by acids at high temperatures and pressures. Determination of silica after decomposition with hydrofluoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, I.; Rowe, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    A modified Morey bomb was designed which contains a removable nichromecased 3.5-ml platinium crucible. This bomb is particularly useful for decompositions of refractory samples for micro- and semimicro-analysis. Temperatures of 400-450?? and pressures estimated as great as 6000 p.s.i. were maintained in the bomb for periods as long as 24 h. Complete decompositions of rocks, garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, phenacite, sapphirine, and kyanite were obtained with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids; the decomposition of chrome refractory was made with hydrochloric acid. Aluminum-rich samples formed difficultly soluble aluminum fluoride precipitates. Because no volatilization losses occur, silica can be determined on sample solutions by a molybdenum-blue procedure using aluminum(III) to complex interfering fluoride. ?? 1965.

  13. Utilizing acid pretreatment and electrospinning to improve biocompatibility of poly(glycolic acid) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Boland, Eugene D; Telemeco, Todd A; Simpson, David G; Wnek, Gary E; Bowlin, Gary L

    2004-10-15

    Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) has a long history as a bioresorbable polymer. Its biocompatibility is widely accepted, yet PGA is often rejected as a soft-tissue scaffold because of fibrous encapsulation. The goal of this study was to improve the soft-tissue biocompatibility of PGA by producing scaffolds composed of small-diameter fibers through electrospinning and subjecting these scaffolds to a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCL) pretreatment. The theory is that small-diameter fibers will elicit a reduced immune response and HCl treatment will improve cellular interactions. Scaffolds were characterized in terms of fiber diameter and pore area via image-analysis software. Biocompatibility was assessed through a WST-1 cell-proliferation assay (in vitro) with the use of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat intramuscular implantations (in vivo). Fibers produced ranged in diameter from 0.22 to 0.88 microm with pore areas from 1.84 to 13.22 microm(2). The untreated scaffold composed of 0.88-microm fibers was encapsulated in vivo and supported the lowest rates of cell proliferation. On the contrary, the acid pretreated scaffold with 0.22-microm fibers was incorporated into the surrounding tissue and exhibited proliferation rates that exceeded the control populations on tissue-culture plastic. In conclusion, this study has shown the ability to improve the biocompatibility of PGA through acid pretreatment of scaffolds comprised of submicron fiber diameters.

  14. 77 FR 56200 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Request; NESHAP for Hydrochloric Acid Production (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...: NESHAP for Hydrochloric Acid Production (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 2032.07, OMB Control... disclose the information. Respondents/Affected Entities: Owners or operators of hydrochloric...

  15. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively.

  16. Improving clarity and stability of skim milk powder dispersions by dissociation of casein micelles at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Casein micelles in milk cause turbidity and have poor stability at acidic conditions. In this study, skim milk powder dispersions were alkalized to pH 10.0 or 11.0, corresponding to reduced particle mass. In the following acidification with hydrochloric or citric acid, the re-formation of casein particles was observed. The combination of treatment at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and smallest particles, which enabled translucent dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, corresponding to discrete nanoparticles. The concentration of ionic calcium was lower when acidified with citric acid than hydrochloric acid, corresponding to smaller particles with less negative zeta potential. The pH 11.0 treatment followed by acidification with citric acid also resulted in smaller particles than the simple chelating effects (directly implementing sodium citrate). The produced casein nanoparticles with reduced dimensions can be used for beverage and other novel applications.

  17. A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of terbium from fluorescent lamps: Experimental design, optimization of acid leaching process and process analysis.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Valentina; Ippolito, Nicolò Maria; De Michelis, Ida; Medici, Franco; Vegliò, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    Terbium and rare earths recovery from fluorescent powders of exhausted lamps by acid leaching with hydrochloric acid was the objective of this study. In order to investigate the factors affecting leaching a series of experiments was performed in according to a full factorial plan with four variables and two levels (4(2)). The factors studied were temperature, concentration of acid, pulp density and leaching time. Experimental conditions of terbium dissolution were optimized by statistical analysis. The results showed that temperature and pulp density were significant with a positive and negative effect, respectively. The empirical mathematical model deducted by experimental data demonstrated that terbium content was completely dissolved under the following conditions: 90 °C, 2 M hydrochloric acid and 5% of pulp density; while when the pulp density was 15% an extraction of 83% could be obtained at 90 °C and 5 M hydrochloric acid. Finally a flow sheet for the recovery of rare earth elements was proposed. The process was tested and simulated by commercial software for the chemical processes. The mass balance of the process was calculated: from 1 ton of initial powder it was possible to obtain around 160 kg of a concentrate of rare earths having a purity of 99%. The main rare earths elements in the final product was yttrium oxide (86.43%) following by cerium oxide (4.11%), lanthanum oxide (3.18%), europium oxide (3.08%) and terbium oxide (2.20%). The estimated total recovery of the rare earths elements was around 70% for yttrium and europium and 80% for the other rare earths.

  18. Oral hygiene products and acidic medicines.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids.

  19. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  20. [Effect of Zhuangyao Jianshen Wan (ZYJCW) on P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in rats with diuresis caused by kidney deficiency].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-yi; Jiang, Wei-wen; He, Feng-lei; Mo, Guo-qiang; Guo, Zhong-hui; Wang, Xiao-dan; Wu, Qing-he; Cao, Hong-yin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the urination-reducing effect and mechanism of Zhuangyao Jianshen Wan (ZYJCW). In this study, SI rats were subcutaneously injected with 150 mg · kg(-1) dose of D-galactose to prepare the sub-acute aging model and randomly divided into the model group, the Suoquan Wan group (1.17 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), and ZYJCW high, medium and low dose groups (2.39, 1.20, 0.60 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) , with normal rats in the blank group. They were continuously administered with drugs for eight weeks. The metabolic cage method was adopted to measure the 24 h urine volume and 5 h water load urine volume in rats. The automatic biochemistry analyzer was adopted to detect urine concentrations of Na+, Cl-, K+. The ELISA method was used to determine serum aldosterone (ALD) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The changes in P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues of rats were detected by RT-PCR. According to the results, both ZYJCW high and medium dose groups showed significant down-regulations in 24 h urine volume and 5 h water load urine volume in (P <0.05, P <0.01), declines in Na+ and Cl- concentrations in urine (P <0.01), notable rises in plasma ALD and ADH contents (P <0.05, P <0.01) and remarkable down-regulations in the P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues (P <0.01). The ZYJCW low dose group revealed obvious reductions in Na+ and Cl- concentrations in urine (P <0.01). The results indicated that ZYJCW may show the urination-reducing effect by down-regulating the P2X1 and P2X3 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues of rats with diuresis caused by kidney deficiency.