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Sample records for 3m selective separation

  1. Cost and Performance Report 3M Selective Separation Cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    2000-12-19

    In the summer of 1998, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) initiated a water treatment project through its Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program at the Savannah River Site (DOE-SR, 1999). The purpose of the ASTD project was to deploy new and innovative water treatment technologies - that offer significant improvements over existing baseline technologies - in the removal of cesium and strontium from contaminated water. One of the technologies selected by EM-50 was the Selective Separation Cartridge, based on an innovative membrane technology developed the 3M Co., St. Paul, MN (OST-2000).The Savannah River Site is committed to deploy this Selective Separation Cartridge technology at other appropriate locations. It may be appropriate for other Reactor Disassembly Basins, or in-situ groundwater remediation. The deployment of this technology will be considered strongly as opportunities present themselves. The primary lesson learned is to anticipate and plan to reduce the radiation dose from a Cs-137 removal system to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. 3M did not include any mitigating actions in their original design and fabrication, primarily because the system was completely constructed before WSRC became deeply involved with the 3M/EM-50 project.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY SELECTIVE PERMEATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , SEPARATION), (*PERMEABILITY, CARBON DIOXIDE ), POROUS MATERIALS, SILICON COMPOUNDS, RUBBER, SELECTION, ADSORPTION, TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, POLYMERS, FILMS, PLASTICS, MEMBRANES, HUMIDITY.

  3. Selective oxoanion separation using a tripodal ligand

    DOEpatents

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Rajbanshi, Arbin

    2016-02-16

    The present invention relates to urea-functionalized crystalline capsules self-assembled by sodium or potassium cation coordination and by hydrogen-bonding water bridges to selectively encapsulate tetrahedral divalent oxoanions from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions and methods using this system for selective anion separations from industrial solutions. The method involves competitive crystallizations using a tripodal tris(urea) functionalized ligand and, in particular, provides a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  4. Rare earth separations by selective borate crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xuemiao; Wang, Yaxing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Yumin; Chen, Lanhua; Xiao, Chengliang; Diwu, Juan; Du, Shiyu; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-03-01

    Lanthanides possess similar chemical properties rendering their separation from one another a challenge of fundamental chemical and global importance given their incorporation into many advanced technologies. New separation strategies combining green chemistry with low cost and high efficiency remain highly desirable. We demonstrate that the subtle bonding differences among trivalent lanthanides can be amplified during the crystallization of borates, providing chemical recognition of specific lanthanides that originates from Ln3+ coordination alterations, borate polymerization diversity and soft ligand coordination selectivity. Six distinct phases are obtained under identical reaction conditions across lanthanide series, further leading to an efficient and cost-effective separation strategy via selective crystallization. As proof of concept, Nd/Sm and Nd/Dy are used as binary models to demonstrate solid/aqueous and solid/solid separation processes. Controlling the reaction kinetics gives rise to enhanced separation efficiency of Nd/Sm system and a one-step quantitative separation of Nd/Dy with the aid of selective density-based flotation.

  5. Rare earth separations by selective borate crystallization.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuemiao; Wang, Yaxing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Yumin; Chen, Lanhua; Xiao, Chengliang; Diwu, Juan; Du, Shiyu; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2017-03-14

    Lanthanides possess similar chemical properties rendering their separation from one another a challenge of fundamental chemical and global importance given their incorporation into many advanced technologies. New separation strategies combining green chemistry with low cost and high efficiency remain highly desirable. We demonstrate that the subtle bonding differences among trivalent lanthanides can be amplified during the crystallization of borates, providing chemical recognition of specific lanthanides that originates from Ln(3+) coordination alterations, borate polymerization diversity and soft ligand coordination selectivity. Six distinct phases are obtained under identical reaction conditions across lanthanide series, further leading to an efficient and cost-effective separation strategy via selective crystallization. As proof of concept, Nd/Sm and Nd/Dy are used as binary models to demonstrate solid/aqueous and solid/solid separation processes. Controlling the reaction kinetics gives rise to enhanced separation efficiency of Nd/Sm system and a one-step quantitative separation of Nd/Dy with the aid of selective density-based flotation.

  6. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  7. Solvent System Selection Strategies in Countercurrent Separation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J. Brent; McAlpine, James B.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of applications in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography, collectively known as countercurrent separation, are dedicated to medicinal plant and natural product research. In countercurrent separation, the selection of the appropriate solvent system is of utmost importance as it is the equivalent to the simultaneous choice of column and eluent in liquid chromatography. However, solvent system selection is often laborious, involving extensive partition and/or analytical trials. Therefore, simplified solvent system selection strategies that predict the partition coefficients and, thus, analyte behavior are in high demand and may advance both the science of countercurrent separation and its applications. The last decade of solvent system selection theory and applications are critically reviewed, and strategies are classified according to their data input requirements. This offers the practitioner an up-to-date overview of rationales and methods for choosing an efficient solvent system, provides a perspective regarding their accuracy, reliability, and practicality, and discusses the possibility of combining multiple methods for enhanced prediction power. PMID:26393937

  8. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection assay (MDA) Salmonella for the detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2013-01-01

    The 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Salmonella target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG 4.05), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the POD of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.04 (-0.16, +0.09). No significant differences were observed in the number of positive

  9. Sample selection and testing of separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Phase partitioning, which has become an important tool for the separation and purification of biological materials, was studied. Instruments available for this technique were researched and a countercurrent distribution apparatus, the Biosheff MK2N, was purchased. Various proteins, polysaccharides and cells were studied as models to determine operating procedures and conditions for this piece of equipment. Results were compared with those obtained from other similar equipment, including a nonsynchronous coil planet centrifuge device. Additionally, work was done with affinity ligands attached to PEG, which can further enhance the separation capabilities of phase partitioning.

  10. Isotope separation by selective photodissociation of glyoxal

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1976-01-01

    Dissociation products, mainly formaldehyde and carbon monoxide, enriched in a desired isotope of carbon, oxygen, or hydrogen are obtained by the selective photodissociation of glyoxal wherein glyoxal is subjected to electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength such that photon absorption excites and induces dissociation of only those molecules of glyoxal containing the desired isotope.

  11. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  12. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  13. High selectivity ZIF-93 hollow fiber membranes for gas separation.

    PubMed

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Caro, Guillermo; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; Karvan, Oğuz; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2015-06-30

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-93 (ZIF-93) continuous membranes were synthesized on the inner side of P84 co-polyimide hollow fiber supports by microfluidics. MOFs and polymers showed high compatibility and the membrane exhibited H2-CH4 and CO2-CH4 separation selectivities of 97 (100 °C) and 17 (35 °C), respectively.

  14. Selective separation of ultra-fine particles by magnetophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Wingo, R. M.; Worl, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The selective and-specific extraction of species of interest fiom local environmental and other sample sources are importaut fbr scientific research, industrial processes, and environmental applications. A novel process for selective separation of ultrafine particles using 'magnetophoresis' is investigated. The principle of this process is that the direction and velocity of particle movement in a magnetic field are determined by magnetic, gravitational, and drag fbrces. By controlling these fbrces, one is able to control the migration rates of different species and then magnetically fiactionate mixtures of species into discrete groups. This study demonstrated for the fist time the selective separation of various species, such as iron (111) oxide, cupric (11) oxide, samarium (In) oxide, and cerium (III) oxide, by magnetophoresis. To better understand this phenomenon, a fbrce-balance model was developed that provides a good interpretation of the experimental results.

  15. (1) Selective separation and solidification of radioactive nuclides by zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Hitoshi; Sato, Nobuaki; Kirishima, Akira

    Massive tsunami generated by the Great East Japan Earthquake attacked the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused the nuclear accident of level 7 to overturn the safety myth of the nuclear power generation. The domestic worst accident does not yet reach the convergence, and many inhabitants around the power plant are forced to double pains of earthquake disaster and nuclear accident. Large amounts of high-activity-level water over 200,000 tons are accumulated on the basement floor of each turbine building, which is a serious obstacle to take measures for the nuclear accident. For the decontamination of high-activity-level water containing seawater, the inorganic ion-exchangers having high selectivity are effective especially for the selective removal of radioactive Cs. On the other hand, radioactive Cs and I released into the atmosphere from the power plant spread widely around Fukushima prefecture, and the decontamination of rainwater and soil become the urgent problem. At present, passing about four months after nuclear accident, the radioactive nuclides of 137Cs and 134Cs are mainly contained in the high-activity-level water and the selective adsorbents for radioactive Cs play an important part in the decontamination. Since the construction of original decontamination system is an urgent necessity, selective separation methods using inorganic ion-exchangers are greatly expected. From the viewpoint of cost efficiency and high Cs-selectivity, natural zeolites are effective for the decontamination of radioactive Cs. This special issue deals with the selective separation and solidification of radioactive Cs and Sr using zeolites.

  16. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though computationally intensive alternative for model selection. Application of the algorithm is illustrated using Fisher's iris data set and Howells' craniometric data set. Mixed ICA/PCA is of potential interest in any field of scientific investigation where the authenticity of blindly separated non-Gaussian sources might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian. PMID:25811988

  17. Chemical Lead Optimization of a pan Gq mAChR M1, M3, M5 Positive Allosteric Modulator (PAM) Lead. Part II. Development of potent and highly selective M1 PAM

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Thomas M.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Breininger, Micah L.; Gentry, Patrick R.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This Letter describes a chemical lead optimization campaign directed at VU0119498, a pan Gq mAChR M1, M3, M5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) with the goal of developing a selective M1 PAM. An iterative library synthesis approach delivered a potent (M1 EC50 = 830 nM) and highly selective M1 PAM (>30 μM vs. M2-M5). PMID:20156687

  18. MCM-22/silica selective flake nanocomposite membranes for hydrogen separations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungkyu; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2010-01-20

    MCM-22/silica composite films were fabricated using layer-by-layer deposition toward a nanoscale realization of the selective flake concept first proposed by Cussler in (J. Membr. Sci. 1990, 52 (3), 275-288). According to this concept, considerable zeolitic transport selectivity can be harvested if plate-like zeolite particles were oriented flat within an appropriate thin film matrix. c-Out-of-plane oriented MCM-22 flakes were chosen because of the expected H(2)-selective (over other permanent gases) molecular sieving action through their c-axis-transport-limiting aperture defined by six SiO(4) tetrahedra. To fill the gaps between MCM-22 particles the evaporation induced self-assembled (EISA) mesoporous silica, introduced by Brinker et al. in (Nature 1997, 389 (6649), 364-368), was selected as a tunable matrix, through which Knudsen diffusion would be the dominant transport mechanism for permanent gases. The repetition of appropriate deposition cycles (i.e., particle deposition and subsequent silica coating) led to the gradual increase of separation performance achieving H(2)/N(2) ideal selectivity as high as 120.

  19. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.; Cherubini, J.H.

    1963-05-14

    A process is described for separating uranium from a nuclear fuel element comprising a uranium-containing core and a ferritic stainless steel clad by heating said element in a non-carburizing atmosphere at a temperature in the range 850-1050 un. Concent 85% C, rapidly cooling the heated element through the temperature range 815 un. Concent 85% to 650 EC to avoid annealing said steel, and then contacting the cooled element with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to selectively dissolve the uranium. (AEC)

  20. Charged ultrafiltration membranes increase the selectivity of whey protein separations.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, S; Etzel, M R

    2009-04-01

    Ultrafiltration is widely used to concentrate proteins, but fractionation of one protein from another is much less common. This study examined the use of positively charged membranes to increase the selectivity of ultrafiltration and allow the fractionation of proteins from cheese whey. By adding a positive charge to ultrafiltration membranes, and adjusting the solution pH, it was possible to permeate proteins having little or no charge, such as glycomacropeptide, and retain proteins having a positive charge. Placing a charge on the membrane increased the selectivity by over 600% compared to using an uncharged membrane. The data were fit using the stagnant film model that relates the observed sieving coefficient to membrane parameters such as the flux, mass transfer coefficient, and membrane Peclet number. The model was a useful tool for data analysis and for the scale up of membrane separations for whey protein fractionation.

  1. Feature Subset Selection, Class Separability, and Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2004-01-21

    The performance of classification algorithms in machine learning is affected by the features used to describe the labeled examples presented to the inducers. Therefore, the problem of feature subset selection has received considerable attention. Genetic approaches to this problem usually follow the wrapper approach: treat the inducer as a black box that is used to evaluate candidate feature subsets. The evaluations might take a considerable time and the traditional approach might be unpractical for large data sets. This paper describes a hybrid of a simple genetic algorithm and a method based on class separability applied to the selection of feature subsets for classification problems. The proposed hybrid was compared against each of its components and two other feature selection wrappers that are used widely. The objective of this paper is to determine if the proposed hybrid presents advantages over the other methods in terms of accuracy or speed in this problem. The experiments used a Naive Bayes classifier and public-domain and artificial data sets. The experiments suggest that the hybrid usually finds compact feature subsets that give the most accurate results, while beating the execution time of the other wrappers.

  2. Recursive Mahalanobis separability measure for gene subset selection.

    PubMed

    Mao, K Z; Tang, Wenyin

    2011-01-01

    Mahalanobis class separability measure provides an effective evaluation of the discriminative power of a feature subset, and is widely used in feature selection. However, this measure is computationally intensive or even prohibitive when it is applied to gene expression data. In this study, a recursive approach to Mahalanobis measure evaluation is proposed, with the goal of reducing computational overhead. Instead of evaluating Mahalanobis measure directly in high-dimensional space, the recursive approach evaluates the measure through successive evaluations in 2D space. Because of its recursive nature, this approach is extremely efficient when it is combined with a forward search procedure. In addition, it is noted that gene subsets selected by Mahalanobis measure tend to overfit training data and generalize unsatisfactorily on unseen test data, due to small sample size in gene expression problems. To alleviate the overfitting problem, a regularized recursive Mahalanobis measure is proposed in this study, and guidelines on determination of regularization parameters are provided. Experimental studies on five gene expression problems show that the regularized recursive Mahalanobis measure substantially outperforms the nonregularized Mahalanobis measures and the benchmark recursive feature elimination (RFE) algorithm in all five problems.

  3. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of ultra trace molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, A R; Shadabi, S; Mohagheghzadeh, E; Hashemi, P

    2005-05-15

    A new simple and efficient homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of molybdenyl ions was developed. alpha-Benzoin oxime (ABO) was investigated as a complexing ligand, and perfluorooctanoate ion (PFOA(-)) was applied as a phase-separator agent under strongly acidic conditions. Under the optimal conditions ([ABO]=2.1x10(-3)M, [PFOA(-)]=1.8x10(-2)M, [HNO(3)]=1.7M, [acetone]=11.8% (v/v)), 10mug of molybdenum in 5ml aqueous phase could be extracted quantitatively into 40mul of the sedimented phase. The maximum concentration factor was 125-fold. Thiocyanate was applied as a chromogenic reagent for the direct spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in the sedimented phase. The reproducibility of the proposed method is at the most 2.4%. The influence of the type and concentration of acid solution, the concentration of ABO, the type and volume of the water-miscible organic solvent, the concentration of PFOA(-), and the effect of different diverse ions on the extraction and determination of molybdenum(VI) were investigated. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of molybdenum(VI) in natural water, Spinach, and Lucerne samples. A satisfactory agreement exists between the results obtained by the proposed method and those reported by GF-AAS.

  4. Functionalized membranes for environmental remediation and selective separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Li

    Membrane process including microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) have provided numerous successful applications ranging from drinking water purification, wastewater treatment, to material recovery. The addition of functional moiety in the membranes pores allows such membranes to be used in challenging areas including tunable separations, toxic metal capture, and catalysis. In this work, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MF membrane was functionalized with temperature responsive (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAAm) and pH responsive (polyacrylic acid, PAA) polymers. It's revealed that the permeation of various molecules (water, salt and dextran) through the membrane can be thermally or pH controlled. The introduction of PAA as a polyelectrolyte offers an excellent platform for the immobilization of metal nanoparticles (NPs) applied for degradation of toxic chlorinated organics with significantly increased longevity and stability. The advantage of using temperature and pH responsive polymers/hydrogels also includes the high reactivity and effectiveness in dechlorination. Further advancement on the PVDF functionalization involved the alkaline treatment to create partially defluorinated membrane (Def-PVDF) with conjugated double bounds allowing for the covalent attachment of different polymers. The PAA-Def-PVDF membrane shows pH responsive behavior on both the hydraulic permeability and solute retention. The sponge-like PVDF (SPVDF) membranes by phase inversion were developed through casting PVDF solution on polyester backing. The SPVDF membrane was demonstrated to have 4 times more surface area than commercial PVDF MF membrane, allowing for enhanced nanoparticles loading for chloro-organics degradation. The advanced functionalization method and process were also validated to be able to be scaled-up through the evaluation of full-scale functionalized membrane provided by Ultura Inc. California, USA. Nanofiltration (NF

  5. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  6. Dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation and stable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hang; Qu, Shao-Bo; Peng, Wei-Dong; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Jia-Fu; Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie-Qiu; Bai, Peng; Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Zhuo

    2012-05-01

    A new technique of designing a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is presented. This technique is based on a delicately designed topology of L- and Ku-band microwave filters. The two band-pass responses are generated by a capacitively-loaded square-loop frequency selective surface and an aperture-coupled frequency selective surface, respectively. A Faraday cage is located between the two frequency selective surface structures to eliminate undesired couplings. Based on this technique, a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is designed, which possesses large band separation, high selectivity, and stable performance under various incident angles and different polarizations.

  7. Engineering α4β2 nAChRs with reduced or increased nicotine sensitivity via selective disruption of consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Nilza M.; Avilés-Pagán, Emir; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Báez-Pagán, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays a crucial role in nicotine addiction. These receptors are known to desensitize and up-regulate after chronic nicotine exposure, but the mechanism remains unknown. Currently, the structure and functional role of the intracellular domains of the nAChR are obscure. To study the effect of subunit phosphorylation on α4β2 nAChR function and expression, eleven residues located in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop were mutated to alanine and aspartic acid. Two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled epibatidine binding assays were performed on Xenopus oocytes to assess agonist activation and receptor expression. When ACh was used as an agonist, a decrease in receptor activation was observed for the majority of the mutations. When nicotine was used as an agonist, four mutations exhibited a statistically significant hypersensitivity to nicotine (S438D, S469A, Y576A, and S589A). Additionally, two mutations (S516D and T536A) that displayed normal activation with ACh displayed remarkable reductions in sensitivity to nicotine. Binding assays revealed a constitutive up-regulation in these two nicotine mutations with reduced nicotine sensitivity. These results suggest that consensus phosphorylation residues in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit play a crucial role in regulating α4β2 nAChR agonist selectivity and functional expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that disruption of specific interactions at PKC putative consensus sites can render α4β2 nAChRs almost insensitive to nicotine without substantial effects on normal AChR function. Therefore, these PKC consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 nAChR subunit could be a target for smoking cessation drugs. PMID:25957813

  8. Engineering α4β2 nAChRs with reduced or increased nicotine sensitivity via selective disruption of consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit.

    PubMed

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Nilza M; Avilés-Pagán, Emir; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Báez-Pagán, Carlos A; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2015-12-01

    The α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays a crucial role in nicotine addiction. These receptors are known to desensitize and up-regulate after chronic nicotine exposure, but the mechanism remains unknown. Currently, the structure and functional role of the intracellular domains of the nAChR are obscure. To study the effect of subunit phosphorylation on α4β2 nAChR function and expression, eleven residues located in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop were mutated to alanine and aspartic acid. Two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled epibatidine binding assays were performed on Xenopus oocytes to assess agonist activation and receptor expression. When ACh was used as an agonist, a decrease in receptor activation was observed for the majority of the mutations. When nicotine was used as an agonist, four mutations exhibited a statistically significant hypersensitivity to nicotine (S438D, S469A, Y576A, and S589A). Additionally, two mutations (S516D and T536A) that displayed normal activation with ACh displayed remarkable reductions in sensitivity to nicotine. Binding assays revealed a constitutive up-regulation in these two nicotine mutations with reduced nicotine sensitivity. These results suggest that consensus phosphorylation residues in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 subunit play a crucial role in regulating α4β2 nAChR agonist selectivity and functional expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that disruption of specific interactions at PKC putative consensus sites can render α4β2 nAChRs almost insensitive to nicotine without substantial effects on normal AChR function. Therefore, these PKC consensus sites in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α4 nAChR subunit could be a target for smoking cessation drugs.

  9. Dynamic graphene filters for selective gas-water-oil separation.

    PubMed

    Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Seo, Keumyoung; Kwon, Cho-Ah; Park, Ju Hyun; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Ju, Sanghyun

    2015-09-23

    Selective filtration of gas, water, and liquid or gaseous oil is essential to prevent possible environmental pollution and machine/facility malfunction in oil-based industries. Novel materials and structures able to selectively and efficiently filter liquid and vapor in various types of solutions are therefore in continuous demand. Here, we investigate selective gas-water-oil filtration using three-dimensional graphene structures. The proposed approach is based on the adjustable wettability of three-dimensional graphene foams. Three such structures are developed in this study; the first allows gas, oil, and water to pass, the second blocks water only, and the third is exclusively permeable to gas. In addition, the ability of three-dimensional graphene structures with a self-assembled monolayer to selectively filter oil is demonstrated. This methodology has numerous potential practical applications as gas, water, and/or oil filtration is an essential component of many industries.

  10. Dynamic graphene filters for selective gas-water-oil separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Seo, Keumyoung; Kwon, Cho-Ah; Park, Ju Hyun; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Ju, Sanghyun

    2015-09-01

    Selective filtration of gas, water, and liquid or gaseous oil is essential to prevent possible environmental pollution and machine/facility malfunction in oil-based industries. Novel materials and structures able to selectively and efficiently filter liquid and vapor in various types of solutions are therefore in continuous demand. Here, we investigate selective gas-water-oil filtration using three-dimensional graphene structures. The proposed approach is based on the adjustable wettability of three-dimensional graphene foams. Three such structures are developed in this study; the first allows gas, oil, and water to pass, the second blocks water only, and the third is exclusively permeable to gas. In addition, the ability of three-dimensional graphene structures with a self-assembled monolayer to selectively filter oil is demonstrated. This methodology has numerous potential practical applications as gas, water, and/or oil filtration is an essential component of many industries.

  11. Selectivity trend of gas separation through nanoporous graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Zhongfang; Dai, Sheng; ...

    2014-01-29

    We demonstrate that porous graphene can efficiently separate gases according to their molecular sizes using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations,. The flux sequence from the classical MD simulation is H2>CO2>>N2>Ar>CH4, which generally follows the trend in the kinetic diameters. Moreover, this trend is also confirmed from the fluxes based on the computed free energy barriers for gas permeation using the umbrella sampling method and kinetic theory of gases. Both brute-force MD simulations and free-energy calcualtions lead to the flux trend consistent with experiments. Case studies of two compositions of CO2/N2 mixtures further demonstrate the separation capability of nanoporous graphene.

  12. Selectivity trend of gas separation through nanoporous graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Zhongfang; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en

    2014-01-29

    We demonstrate that porous graphene can efficiently separate gases according to their molecular sizes using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations,. The flux sequence from the classical MD simulation is H2>CO2>>N2>Ar>CH4, which generally follows the trend in the kinetic diameters. Moreover, this trend is also confirmed from the fluxes based on the computed free energy barriers for gas permeation using the umbrella sampling method and kinetic theory of gases. Both brute-force MD simulations and free-energy calcualtions lead to the flux trend consistent with experiments. Case studies of two compositions of CO2/N2 mixtures further demonstrate the separation capability of nanoporous graphene.

  13. WATER SEPARATION BY SELECTIVE PERMEATION THROUGH MICROPOROUS MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cellulose acetate to transmit water vapor but to block the passage of permanent gases. A modified dry-vane type commercial compressor was used to produce a high suction level. While positive evidence of vapor transfer and water condensation were observed, problems of complete edgewise sealing of the cellulose acetate membrane and the cooling and suction limitations of the oil-free, modified commercial pump precluded achievement of design water removal rates. Further work to perfect water droplet separation from air

  14. Isotope separation by selective charge conversion and field deflection

    DOEpatents

    Hickman, Robert G.

    1978-01-01

    A deuterium-tritium separation system wherein a source beam comprised of positively ionized deuterium (D.sup.+) and tritium (T.sup.+) is converted at different charge-exchange cell sections of the system to negatively ionized deuterium (D.sup.-) and tritium (T.sup.-). First, energy is added to the beam to accelerate the D.sup.+ ions to the velocity that is optimum for conversion of the D.sup.+ ions to D.sup.- ions in a charge-exchange cell. The T.sup.+ ions are accelerated at the same time, but not to the optimum velocity since they are heavier than the D.sup.+ ions. The T.sup.+ ions are, therefore, not converted to T.sup.- ions when the D.sup.+ ions are converted to D.sup.- ions. This enables effective separation of the beam by deflection of the isotopes with an electrostatic field, the D.sup.- ions being deflected in one direction and the T.sup.+ ions being deflected in the opposite direction. Next, more energy is added to the deflected beam of T.sup.+ ions to bring the T.sup.+ ions to the optimum velocity for their conversion to T.sup.- ions. In a particular use of the invention, the beams of D.sup.- and T.sup.- ions are separately further accelerated and then converted to energetic neutral particles for injection as fuel into a thermonuclear reactor. The reactor exhaust of D.sup.+ and T.sup.+ and the D.sup.+ and T.sup.+ that was not converted in the respective sections is combined with the source beam and recycled through the system to increase the efficiency of the system.

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Highly Selective Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Omar M. Yaghi

    2009-09-28

    This grant was focused on the study of metal-organic frameworks with these specific objectives. (1) To examine the use of MOFs with well-defined open metal sites for binding of gases and small organics. (2) To develop a strategy for producing MOFs that combine large pore size with high surface area for their use in gas adsorption and separation of polycyclic organic compounds. (3) To functionalize MOFs for the storage of inert gases such as methane. A brief outline of our progress towards these objectives is presented here as it forms part of the basis for the ideas to be developed under the present proposal.

  16. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  17. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM, PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY PEROXIDE DISSOLUTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-08-18

    A method is described for separating U/sup 233/ from thorium and fission products. The separation is effected by forming a thorium-nitric acid solution of about 3 pH, adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium and thorium peroxide, treating the peroxides with sodium hydroxide to selectively precipitate the uranium peroxide, and reacting the separated solution with nitric acid to re- precipitate the uranium peroxide.

  18. Applications of nanomaterials in liquid chromatography: opportunities for separation with high efficiency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2006-08-01

    During recent decades, great efforts have been made to improve the chemical stability, selectivity, and separation efficiency of stationary phases in liquid chromatography. Significant progress has been achieved, especially after the introduction of nanomaterials into separation science. This review covers the applications of nanomaterials playing various roles in liquid chromatography. Future possibilities for developing nanomaterial-based stationary phases are also discussed.

  19. Simulation of helium-methane mixture separation on selectively permeable membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumkin, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    In the article, the helium-methane mixture separation on the various types of membranes was considered. A flat membrane module was studied. It was made of two channels connected by a semipermeable membrane. It was shown that high membrane selectivity could not always provide a high degree of mixture separation.

  20. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    van Eikeren, Paul; Brose, Daniel J.; Ray, Roderick J.

    1991-01-01

    An improvement to processes for the selective extractation of organic solutes from organic solvents by water-based extractants is disclosed, the improvement comprising coupling various membrane separation processes with the organic extraction process, the membrane separation process being utilized to continuously recycle the water-based extractant and at the same time selectively remove or concentrate organic solute from the water-based extractant.

  1. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    SciTech Connect

    van Eikeren, P.; Brose, D.J.; Ray, R.J.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes improvement in an organic/aqueous extraction process for the extraction of an organic solute from an organic solvent or solvent mixture with an aqueous-based extractant. The improvement comprises continuously recycling the aqueous-based extractant through a membrane separation process that selectively removes the organic solute from the aqueous-based extractant, the membrane separation process being selected from at least one of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, membrane distillation, pervaporation, membrane contactor and supported-liquid membrane.

  2. Mass selective separation applied to radioisotopes of cesium: Mass selective applied to radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael; Eiden, Greg; Farmer, Orville; Finch, Zach; Liezers, Martin

    2016-07-22

    A developed technique that uses the intrinsic mass-based separation capability of a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used to resolve spectral radiometric interference of two isotopes of the same element. In this work the starting sample was a combination of 137Cs and 134Cs and was (activity) dominated by 137Cs and this methodology separated and “implanted” 134Cs that was later quantified for spectral features and ac- tivity with traditional radiometric techniques. This work demonstrated a 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio enhancement of >4 orders of magnitude and complete removal of 137Cs spectral features from the implanted target mass (i.e., 134).

  3. Introduction of structural affinity handles as a tool in selective nucleic acid separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, III, Richard Coale (Inventor); Cano, Luis Antonio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The method is used for separating nucleic acids and other similar constructs. It involves selective introduction, enhancement, or stabilization of affinity handles such as single-strandedness in the undesired (or desired) nucleic acids as compared to the usual structure (e.g., double-strandedness) of the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids. The undesired (or desired) nucleic acids are separated from the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids due to capture by methods including but not limited to immobilized metal affinity chromatography, immobilized single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein, and immobilized oligonucleotides. The invention is useful to: remove contaminating genomic DNA from plasmid DNA; remove genomic DNA from plasmids, BACs, and similar constructs; selectively separate oligonucleotides and similar DNA fragments from their partner strands; purification of aptamers, (deoxy)-ribozymes and other highly structured nucleic acids; Separation of restriction fragments without using agarose gels; manufacture recombinant Taq polymerase or similar products that are sensitive to host genomic DNA contamination; and other applications.

  4. Highly Selective Membranes For The Separation Of Organic Vapors Using Super-Glassy Polymers

    DOEpatents

    Pinnau, Ingo; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid; Nguyen, Phuong; Segelke, Scott

    1997-11-18

    A process for separating hydrocarbon gases of low boiling point, particularly methane, ethane and ethylene, from nitrogen. The process is performed using a membrane made from a super-glassy material. The gases to be separated are mixed with a condensable gas, such as a C.sub.3+ hydrocarbon. In the presence of the condensable gas, improved selectivity for the low-boiling-point hydrocarbon gas over nitrogen is achieved.

  5. Enhancement of selective separation on molecularly imprinted monolith by molecular crowding agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Hua; Dong, Qian; Ying, Ling-Ling; Chi, Shuai-Shuai; Lan, Yao-Han; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new molecularly imprinted polymer chiral stationary phase (MIP-CSP) was prepared utilizing molecular crowding agent for improvement the selective separation ability. S-amlodipine (S-AML), methacrylic acid (MAA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were selected as template, functional monomer, cross-linker, and molecular crowding agent, respectively. The composition of formulas for MIP-CSP was optimized, and the permeability and structural feature of resultant MIP-CSP were characterized. The effect of mobile-phase composition, including ionic strength, pH, and organic modifier content, was investigated for achieving the selective separation of rac-amlodipine (rac-AML) on MIP-CSP. The baseline separation of rac-AML was achieved with resolution of 1.58, whereas no selective separation was observed on the imprinted monolith without molecular crowding agent. The perturbation chromatography method was successfully applied to evaluate the recognition mechanism of templates on MIP-CSP. The retention time of S-AML detected in typical analytical conditions was obviously greater than the time of negative peak derived from perturbation, which indicated the retention of template may be due to the imprinted cavities on MIP-CSP. Additionally, the result of Van't Hoff analysis indicated that the chiral separation of rac-AML on MIP-CSP was an entropy-driven process, which supported the molecular imprinting theory. These results reveal that molecular crowding is a potential strategy for preparation of MIP-CSP with excellent selective separation ability. Graphical Abstract Improvement of chiral separation on molecularly imprinted monolith by molecular crowding condition.

  6. Selective separation of Eu{sup 3+} using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M.V.

    1994-03-01

    A process to selectively remove {sup 241}Am from liquid radioactive waste was investigated as an actinide separation method applicable to Hanford and other waste sites. The experimental procedures involved removal of Eu, a nonradioactive surrogate for Am, from aqueous solutions at pH 5 using organic polymers in conjunction with ultrafiltration. Commercially available polyacrylic acid (60,000 MW) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) synthesized E3 copolymer ({approximately}10,000 MW) were tested. Test solutions containing 10 {mu}g/mL of Eu were dosed vath each polymer at various concentrations in order to bind Eu (i.e., by complexation and/or cation exchange) for subsequent rejection by an ultrafiltration coupon. Test solutions were filtered with and without polymer to determine if enhanced Eu separation could be achieved from polymer treatment. Both polymers significantly increased Eu removal. Optimum concentrations were 20 {mu}g/mL of polyacrylic acid and 100 {mu}g/mL of E3 for 100% Eu rejection by the Amicon PM10 membrane at 55 psi. In addition to enhancement of removal, the polymers selectively bound Eu over Na, suggesting that selective separation of Eu was possible. This suggests that polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration is a potential process for separation of {sup 241}Am from Hanford tank waste, further investigation of binding agents and membranes effective under very alkaline and high ionic strength is warranted. This process also has potential applications for selective separation of toxic metals from industrial process streams.

  7. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4

  8. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  9. Balancing Selection in Species with Separate Sexes: Insights from Fisher’s Geometric Model

    PubMed Central

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    How common is balancing selection, and what fraction of phenotypic variance is attributable to balanced polymorphisms? Despite decades of research, answers to these questions remain elusive. Moreover, there is no clear theoretical prediction about the frequency with which balancing selection is expected to arise within a population. Here, we use an extension of Fisher’s geometric model of adaptation to predict the probability of balancing selection in a population with separate sexes, wherein polymorphism is potentially maintained by two forms of balancing selection: (1) heterozygote advantage, where heterozygous individuals at a locus have higher fitness than homozygous individuals, and (2) sexually antagonistic selection (a.k.a. intralocus sexual conflict), where the fitness of each sex is maximized by different genotypes at a locus. We show that balancing selection is common under biologically plausible conditions and that sex differences in selection or sex-by-genotype effects of mutations can each increase opportunities for balancing selection. Although heterozygote advantage and sexual antagonism represent alternative mechanisms for maintaining polymorphism, they mutually exist along a balancing selection continuum that depends on population and sex-specific parameters of selection and mutation. Sexual antagonism is the dominant mode of balancing selection across most of this continuum. PMID:24812306

  10. Large-Flow-Area Flow-Selective Liquid/Gas Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Bradley, Karla F.

    2010-01-01

    This liquid/gas separator provides the basis for a first stage of a fuel cell product water/oxygen gas phase separator. It can separate liquid and gas in bulk in multiple gravity environments. The system separates fuel cell product water entrained with circulating oxygen gas from the outlet of a fuel cell stack before allowing the gas to return to the fuel cell stack inlet. Additional makeup oxygen gas is added either before or after the separator to account for the gas consumed in the fuel cell power plant. A large volume is provided upstream of porous material in the separator to allow for the collection of water that does not exit the separator with the outgoing oxygen gas. The water then can be removed as it continues to collect, so that the accumulation of water does not impede the separating action of the device. The system is designed with a series of tubes of the porous material configured into a shell-and-tube heat exchanger configuration. The two-phase fluid stream to be separated enters the shell-side portion of the device. Gas flows to the center passages of the tubes through the porous material and is then routed to a common volume at the end of the tubes by simple pressure difference from a pumping device. Gas flows through the porous material of the tubes with greater ease as a function of the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the water and gas. By careful selection of the dimensions of the tubes (wall thickness, porosity, diameter, length of the tubes, number of the tubes, and tube-to-tube spacing in the shell volume) a suitable design can be made to match the magnitude of water and gas flow, developed pressures from the oxygen reactant pumping device, and required residual water inventory for the shellside volume.

  11. Recent Development of Advanced Materials with Special Wettability for Selective Oil/Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Cheng, Hongfei; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2016-02-22

    The increasing number of oil spill accidents have a catastrophic impact on our aquatic environment. Recently, special wettable materials used for the oil/water separation have received significant research attention. Due to their opposing affinities towards water and oil, i.e., hydrophobic and oleophilic, or hydrophilic and oleophobic, such materials can be used to remove only one phase from the oil/water mixture, and simultaneously repel the other phase, thus achieving selective oil/water separation. Moreover, the synergistic effect between the surface chemistry and surface architecture can further promote the superwetting behavior, resulting in the improved separation efficiency. Here, recently developed materials with special wettability for selective oil/water separation are summarized and discussed. These materials can be categorized based on their oil/water separating mechanisms, i.e., filtration and absorption. In each section, representative studies will be highlighted, with emphasis on the materials wetting properties and innovative aspects. Finally, challenges and future research directions in this emerging and promising research field will be briefly described.

  12. Recent Development of Advanced Materials with Special Wettability for Selective Oil/Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Cheng, Hongfei; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2016-04-27

    The increasing number of oil spill accidents have a catastrophic impact on our aquatic environment. Recently, special wettable materials used for the oil/water separation have received significant research attention. Due to their opposing affinities towards water and oil, i.e., hydrophobic and oleophilic, or hydrophilic and oleophobic, such materials can be used to remove only one phase from the oil/water mixture, and simultaneously repel the other phase, thus achieving selective oil/water separation. Moreover, the synergistic effect between the surface chemistry and surface architecture can further promote the superwetting behavior, resulting in the improved separation efficiency. Here, recently developed materials with special wettability for selective oil/water separation are summarized and discussed. These materials can be categorized based on their oil/water separating mechanisms, i.e., filtration and absorption. In each section, representative studies will be highlighted, with emphasis on the materials wetting properties and innovative aspects. Finally, challenges and future research directions in this emerging and promising research field will be briefly described.

  13. Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

  14. Sulfate Separation by Selective Crystallization with a Bis-iminoguanidinium Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Seipp, Charles A.; Williams, Neil J.; Custelcean, Radu

    2016-01-01

    One simple and effective method for selective sulfate separation from aqueous solutions by crystallization with a bis-guanidinium ligand, 1,4-benzene-bis(iminoguanidinium) (BBIG), is demonstrated. The ligand is synthesized as the chloride salt (BBIG-Cl) by in situ imine condensation of terephthalaldehyde with aminoguanidinium chloride in water, followed by crystallization as the sulfate salt (BBIG-SO4). Alternatively, BBIG-Cl is synthesized ex situ in larger scale from ethanol. Furthermore, the sulfate separation ability of the BBIG ligand is demonstrated by selective and quantitative crystallization of sulfate from seawater. These ligands can then be recycled by neutralization of BBIG-SO4 with aqueous NaOH and crystallization of the neutral bis-iminoguanidine, which can be converted back into BBIG-Cl with aqueous HCl and reused in another separation cycle. Finally, 35S-labeled sulfate and β liquid scintillation counting are employed for monitoring the sulfate concentration in solution. Overall, this protocol will instruct the user in the necessary skills to synthesize a ligand, employ it in the selective crystallization of sulfate from aqueous solutions, and quantify the separation efficiency.

  15. Sulfate Separation by Selective Crystallization with a Bis-iminoguanidinium Ligand

    DOE PAGES

    Seipp, Charles A.; Williams, Neil J.; Custelcean, Radu

    2016-01-01

    One simple and effective method for selective sulfate separation from aqueous solutions by crystallization with a bis-guanidinium ligand, 1,4-benzene-bis(iminoguanidinium) (BBIG), is demonstrated. The ligand is synthesized as the chloride salt (BBIG-Cl) by in situ imine condensation of terephthalaldehyde with aminoguanidinium chloride in water, followed by crystallization as the sulfate salt (BBIG-SO4). Alternatively, BBIG-Cl is synthesized ex situ in larger scale from ethanol. Furthermore, the sulfate separation ability of the BBIG ligand is demonstrated by selective and quantitative crystallization of sulfate from seawater. These ligands can then be recycled by neutralization of BBIG-SO4 with aqueous NaOH and crystallization of the neutralmore » bis-iminoguanidine, which can be converted back into BBIG-Cl with aqueous HCl and reused in another separation cycle. Finally, 35S-labeled sulfate and β liquid scintillation counting are employed for monitoring the sulfate concentration in solution. Overall, this protocol will instruct the user in the necessary skills to synthesize a ligand, employ it in the selective crystallization of sulfate from aqueous solutions, and quantify the separation efficiency.« less

  16. [Synthesis and applications of chiral metal-organic framework in the selective separation of enantiomers].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoyue; Li, Xianjiang; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is a universal phenomenon in nature. Chiral separation is vitally important in drug development, agricultural chemistry, pharmacology, environmental science, biology and many other fields. Chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new group of porous materials with special topology and designable pore structures, as well as their high specific surface area, porosity, excellent thermal stability, solvent resistance, etc. Thus, chiral MOFs are promising with various applications in the field of analytical chemistry. This review summarizes the synthesis strategies of chiral MOFs and their applications in the selective separation of enantiomers, as well as related mechanism.

  17. Chromatographic separation as selection process for prebiotic evolution and the origin of the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, U

    1985-01-01

    A model for the evolution of a translation apparatus has been suggested where oligonucleotides in a hairpin conformation act as primordial adapters. Specifically activated amino acids are assumed to be attached to these hairpin molecules. For the specific activation, a chromatographic separation of, e.g. ala and CMP from gly and GMP can be accomplished on silica (e.g. of volcanic origin) with aqueous salt solutions. Other adsorbents like clays (kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite), different silicates (florisil, magnesium trisilicate, calcium silicate, talc), hydroxyapatite, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride and titanoxide have been examined as model systems for the separation of nucleotides, nucleosides and amino acids on mineral surfaces. The possible role of chromatographic separation of amino acids for the formation of proteinoids, composed of selected amino acids, is also considered.

  18. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yun; Craig, Vincent S J; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-09-01

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications.

  19. Selective comprehensive multidimensional separation for resolution enhancement in high performance liquid chromatography. Part II: applications.

    PubMed

    Groskreutz, Stephen R; Swenson, Michael M; Secor, Laura B; Stoll, Dwight R

    2012-03-09

    In this second paper of a two-part series, we demonstrate the utility of an approach to enhancing the resolution of select portions of conventional 1D-LC separations, which we refer to as selective comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC (sLC × LC), in three quite different example applications. In the first paper of the series we described the principles of this approach, which breaks the long-standing link in online multi-dimensional chromatography between the timescales of sampling the first dimension (¹D) separation and the separation of fractions of ¹D effluent in the second dimension. In the first example, the power of the sLC × LC approach to significantly reduce the analysis time and method development effort is demonstrated by selectively enhancing the resolution of critical pairs of peaks that are unresolved by a one-dimensional separation (1D-LC) alone. Transfer and subsequent ²D separations of multiple fractions of a particular ¹D peak produces a two-dimensional chromatogram that reveals the coordinates of the peaks in the 2D separation space. The added time dimension of sLC × LC chromatograms also facilitates the application of sophisticated chemometric curve resolution algorithms to further resolve peaks that are otherwise chromatographically unresolved. This is demonstrated in this work by the targeted analysis of phenytoin in urban wastewater effluent using UV diode array detection. Quantitation by both standard addition and external calibration methods yielded results that were not statistically different from 2D-LC/MS/MS analysis of the same samples. Next, we demonstrate the utility of sLC × LC for reducing ion suppression due to matrix effects in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry through the analysis of cocaine in urban wastewater effluent. Finally, we explore the flexibility of the approach in its application to two select regions of a single ¹D separation of triclosan and cocaine. The diversity of these applications demonstrates the

  20. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  1. A computational approach to predicting ligand selectivity for the size-based separation of trivalent lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2016-06-20

    An accurate description of solvation effects for trivalent lanthanide ions is a main stumbling block to the qualitative prediction of selectivity trends along the lanthanide series. In this work, we propose a simple model to describe the differential effect of solvation in the competitive binding of a ligand by lanthanide ions by including weakly co-ordinated counterions in the complexes of more than a +1 charge. The success of the approach to quantitatively reproduce selectivities obtained from aqueous phase complexation studies demonstrates its potential for the design and screening of new ligands for efficient size-based separation.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kuklik M, Zemkova D, Kozlowski K. 3-M syndrome in two sisters. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Aug;38(4):419-22. Citation on PubMed Temtamy SA, Aglan MS, Ashour AM, Ramzy MI, Hosny LA, Mostafa MI. 3-M syndrome: a report of three Egyptian cases with review ...

  3. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center

  4. Flame treatment for the selective wetting and separation of PVC and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, R.D.; O'Connell, B

    2003-07-01

    Flame treatment has been used for many years to modify the surface of plastics to allow coatings to be added. The effect of the treatment is to produce hydrophilic species on the surface of the plastic making it water-wettable. The production of hydrophilic plastic surfaces is also required in the selective separation of plastics by froth flotation. For the process to be selective one plastic must be rendered hydrophilic while another remains hydrophobic. In this study the potential for separation of PVC and PET has been investigated. Flame treatment was shown to be very effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on both plastics, although the process was not selective under the conditions investigated. Raising the temperature of the plastics above their softening point produced a hydrophobic recovery. As the softening point of PVC was significantly lower than for PET it was possible to produce a significant difference in hydrophobicity, as judged using contact angle measurement. When immersed in water the contact angle of the PVC was found to be strongly dependent on the pH. Good separation efficiency of the two plastics was achieved by froth flotation from pH 4 to 9. One particular advantage of the technique is that no chemical reagents may be required in the flotation stage. The practicalities of designing a flake treatment system however have to be addressed before considering it to be a viable industrial process.

  5. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method

    SciTech Connect

    Burat, Firat; Gueney, Ali; Olgac Kangal, M.

    2009-06-15

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35 g/cm{sup 3} and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  6. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method.

    PubMed

    Burat, Firat; Güney, Ali; Olgaç Kangal, M

    2009-06-01

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35g /cm(3) and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  7. Selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes from aqueous solution on polydopamine microspheres.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianwei; Xin, Qianqian; Wu, Xuechen; Chen, Zhonghui; Yan, Ya; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Minghuan; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) microspheres, synthesized by a facile oxidation polymerization route, were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes. The adsorption processes towards nine water-soluble dyes (anionic dyes: methyl orange (MO), eosin-Y (EY), eosin-B (EB), acid chrome blue K (ACBK), neutral dye: neutral red (NR), and cationic dyes: rhodamine B (RhB), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), safranine T (ST)) were thoroughly investigated. The adsorption selectivity of organic dyes onto PDA microspheres was successfully applied for the separation of dyes mixtures. Various influential factors such as solution pH, temperature, and contact time were employed to ascertain the optimal condition for adsorption of representative organic dyes including MB, MG and NR. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics process. Five isothermal adsorption models (Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura) were used to investigate the adsorption thermodynamics properties. The results showed that the PDA microspheres owned good selective adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics process conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model was more appropriate for tracing the adsorption behavior than other isotherm models. Thus, we can conclude PDA microspheres may be a high-efficiency selective adsorbent towards some cationic dyes.

  8. Non-selective Separation of Bacterial Cells with Magnetic Nanoparticles Facilitated by Varying Surface Charge

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin-Lei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Xu, Yi-Sheng; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Feng; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Recovering microorganisms from environmental samples is a crucial primary step for understanding microbial communities using molecular ecological approaches. It is often challenging to harvest microorganisms both efficiently and unselectively, guaranteeing a similar microbial composition between original and separated biomasses. A magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based method was developed to effectively separate microbial biomass from glass fiber pulp entrapped bacteria. Buffering pH and nanoparticle silica encapsulation significantly affected both biomass recovery and microbial selectivity. Under optimized conditions (using citric acid coated Fe3O4, buffering pH = 2.2), the method was applied in the pretreatment of total suspended particle sampler collected bioaerosols, the effective volume for DNA extraction was increased 10-folds, and the overall method detection limit of microbial contaminants in bioaerosols significantly decreased. A consistent recovery of the majority of airborne bacterial populations was demonstrated by in-depth comparison of microbial composition using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. Surface charge was shown as the deciding factor for the interaction between MNPs and microorganisms, which helps developing materials with high microbial selectivity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report using MNPs to separate diverse microbial community unselectively from a complex environmental matrix. The technique is convenient and sensitive, as well as feasible to apply in monitoring of microbial transport and other related fields. PMID:27990136

  9. Magnetic deep eutectic solvents molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition and separation of protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Yuzhi; Dai, Qingzhou; Zhou, Yigang

    2016-09-14

    A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results suggested that the imprinted polymers were successfully formed and possessed a charming magnetism. The maximum adsorption capability (Qmax) and dissociation constant (KL) were analyzed by Langmuir isotherms (R(2) = 0.9983) and the value were estimated to be 175.44 mg/g and 0.035 mg/mL for the imprinted particles. And the imprinted particles showed a high imprinting factor of 4.77. In addition, the magnetic DES-MIPs presented outstanding recognition specificity and selectivity so that it can be utilized to separate template protein from the mixture of proteins and real samples. Last but not least, the combination of deep eutectic solvents and molecular imprinted technology in this paper provides a new perspective for the recognition and separation of proteins.

  10. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  11. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  12. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  13. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M. Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac Burat, Firat

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Both PET and PVC have nearly the same densities. • The best pH value will be 4 for optimizing pH values. • Malic acid gave the best results for selective separation of PET and PVC. - Abstract: Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency.

  14. Selective Separation and Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cr) Speciation Forms from Hortic Antrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgariu, D.; Bulgariu, L.

    2009-04-01

    The speciation, inter-phases distribution and biodisponibility of heavy metals in soils represent one of main problem of environmental geochemistry and agro-chemistry. This problem is very important in case of hortic antrosols (soils from glasshouses) for the elimination of agricultural products (fruits, vegetables) contamination with heavy metals. In soils from glass houses, the speciation and inter-phases distribution processes of heavy metals have a particular dynamic, different in comparison with those from non-protected soils. The predominant distribution forms of heavy metals in such soils types are: complexes with low mass organic molecules, organic-mineral complexes, complexes with inorganic ligands (hydroxide-complexes, carbonate-complexes, sulphate-complexes, etc.) and basic salts. All of these have high stabilities in conditions of soils from glass houses, and in consequence, the separation and determination of speciation forms (which is directly connected with biodisponibility of heavy metals) by usual methods id very difficult and has a high uncertain degree. In this study is presented an original method for the selective separation and differentiation of speciation forms of heavy metals from glass houses soils, which is based by the combination of solid-liquid sequential extraction (SPE) with the extraction in aqueous polymer-inorganic salt two-phase systems (ABS). The soil samples used for this study have been sampled from three different locations (glass houses from Iasi, Barlad and Bacau - Romania) where the vegetables cultivation have bee performed by three different technologies. In this way was estimated the applicability and the analytical limits of method proposed by as, in function of the chemical-mineralogical and physical-chemical characteristics of soils. As heavy metals have been studied cadmium, lead and chromium, all being known for their high toxicity. The procedure used for the selective separation and differentiation of speciation

  15. Selective Fluorination and Separation of Metals with NF3 for Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Richard A.; Barinaga, Charles J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2016-03-01

    We report recent progress on the development of a new methodology based on the generation of volatile metal fluorides through the use of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and the separation and measurement of these metal fluorides by electron ionization mass spectrometry. Though unreactive under ambient conditions, NF3 reacts selectively at specified temperatures with various metal-containing species to form volatile metal fluorides. Utilizing these species-dependent traits, elements of a sample may be sequentially produced and thus separated on-line. Metals were reacted inside a thermogravimetric analyzer, the gas outlet of which was directly coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electron impact ionization source via a molecular leak valve. We present results of this project including the electron ionization mass spectrum of gaseous tellurium hexafluoride.

  16. Size-selective separation of DNA fragments by using lysine-functionalized silica particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Jiaqi; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-02-25

    In this work, a facile and efficient approach has been demonstrated for size-selective separation of DNA fragments by using lysine-functionalized silica particles. At a given pH, the environmental ionic strength can be utilized to alter the electrostatic interactions of lysine-functionalized silica particles with DNA fragments and in turn the DNA fragments on the silica particle surfaces, which exhibits a clear dependence on the DNA fragment sizes. By carefully adjusting the environmental pH and salt concentration, therefore, the use of the lysine-functionalized silica particles allows effective separation of binary and ternary DNA mixtures, for example, two different DNA fragments with sizes of 101 and 1073 bp, 101 and 745 bp, 101 and 408 bp, respectively, and three different DNA fragments with sizes of 101, 408 and 1073 bp.

  17. Size-selective separation of DNA fragments by using lysine-functionalized silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingling; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Jiaqi; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a facile and efficient approach has been demonstrated for size-selective separation of DNA fragments by using lysine-functionalized silica particles. At a given pH, the environmental ionic strength can be utilized to alter the electrostatic interactions of lysine-functionalized silica particles with DNA fragments and in turn the DNA fragments on the silica particle surfaces, which exhibits a clear dependence on the DNA fragment sizes. By carefully adjusting the environmental pH and salt concentration, therefore, the use of the lysine-functionalized silica particles allows effective separation of binary and ternary DNA mixtures, for example, two different DNA fragments with sizes of 101 and 1073 bp, 101 and 745 bp, 101 and 408 bp, respectively, and three different DNA fragments with sizes of 101, 408 and 1073 bp.

  18. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  19. Size-selective separation of DNA fragments by using lysine-functionalized silica particles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingling; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Jiaqi; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a facile and efficient approach has been demonstrated for size-selective separation of DNA fragments by using lysine-functionalized silica particles. At a given pH, the environmental ionic strength can be utilized to alter the electrostatic interactions of lysine-functionalized silica particles with DNA fragments and in turn the DNA fragments on the silica particle surfaces, which exhibits a clear dependence on the DNA fragment sizes. By carefully adjusting the environmental pH and salt concentration, therefore, the use of the lysine-functionalized silica particles allows effective separation of binary and ternary DNA mixtures, for example, two different DNA fragments with sizes of 101 and 1073 bp, 101 and 745 bp, 101 and 408 bp, respectively, and three different DNA fragments with sizes of 101, 408 and 1073 bp. PMID:26911527

  20. Preparation of diclofenac-imprinted polymer beads for selective molecular separation in water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tongchang; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2017-01-13

    Molecular imprinting technique is an attractive strategy to prepare materials for target recognition and rapid separation. In this work, a new type of diclofenac (DFC)-imprinted polymer beads was synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization using 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as the functional monomer. The selectivity and capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated in aqueous solution. Equilibrium binding results show that the MIPs have a high selectivity to bind DFC in a wide range of pH values. Moreover, in liquid chromatography experiment, the imprinted polymer beads were packed into column to investigate the binding selectivity under nonequilibrium conditions. The retention time of DFC on the MIP column is significantly longer than its structural analogues. Also, retention of DFC on the MIP column was significantly longer than on the nonimprinted polymer column under aqueous condition. As the new MIP beads can be used to achieve direct separation of DFC from water, the synthetic method and the affinity beads developed in this work opened new possibilities for removing toxic chemicals from environmental and drinking water.

  1. Microchannel anechoic corner for size-selective separation and medium exchange via traveling surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Alazzam, Anas; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-05-05

    We demonstrate a miniaturized acoustofluidic device composed of a pair of slanted interdigitated transducers (SIDTs) and a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for achieving size-selective separation and exchange of medium around polystyrene particles in a continuous, label-free, and contactless fashion. The SIDTs, deposited parallel to each other, produce tunable traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) at desired locations, which, in turn, yield an anechoic corner inside the microchannel that is used to selectively deflect particles of choice from their streamlines. The TSAWs with frequency fR originating from the right SIDT and propagating left toward the microchannel normal to the fluid flow direction, laterally deflect larger particles with diameter d1 from the hydrodynamically focused sample fluid that carries other particles as well with diameters d2 and d3, such that d1 > d2 > d3. The deflected particles (d1) are pushed into the top-left corner of the microchannel. Downstream, the TSAWs with frequency fL, such that fL > fR, disseminating from the left SIDT, deflect the medium-sized particles (d2) rightward, leaving behind the larger particles (d1) unaffected in the top-left anechoic corner and the smaller particles (d3) in the middle of the microchannel, thereby achieving particle separation. A particle not present in the anechoic corner could be deflected rightward to realize twice the medium exchange. In this work, the three-way separation of polystyrene particles with diameters of 3, 4.2, and 5 μm and 3, 5, and 7 μm is achieved using two separate devices. Moreover, these devices are used to demonstrate multimedium exchange around polystyrene particles ∼5 μm and 7 μm in diameter.

  2. Selective excitation for spectral editing and assignment in separated local field experiments of oriented membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroloff, Sophie N.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic assignment of NMR spectra for oriented uniformly labeled membrane proteins embedded in their native-like bilayer environment is essential for their structure determination. However, sequence-specific assignment in oriented-sample (OS) NMR is often complicated by insufficient resolution and spectral crowding. Therefore, the assignment process is usually done by a laborious and expensive "shotgun" method involving multiple selective labeling of amino acid residues. Presented here is a strategy to overcome poor spectral resolution in crowded regions of 2D spectra by selecting resolved "seed" residues via soft Gaussian pulses inserted into spin-exchange separated local-field experiments. The Gaussian pulse places the selected polarization along the z-axis while dephasing the other signals before the evolution of the 1H-15N dipolar couplings. The transfer of magnetization is accomplished via mismatched Hartmann-Hahn conditions to the nearest-neighbor peaks via the proton bath. By optimizing the length and amplitude of the Gaussian pulse, one can also achieve a phase inversion of the closest peaks, thus providing an additional phase contrast. From the superposition of the selective spin-exchanged SAMPI4 onto the fully excited SAMPI4 spectrum, the 15N sites that are directly adjacent to the selectively excited residues can be easily identified, thereby providing a straightforward method for initiating the assignment process in oriented membrane proteins.

  3. A simple and selective method for the separation of Cu radioisotopes from nickel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xianfeng; Parker, David J; Smith, Mike D; Ingram, Andy; Yang, Zhufang; Seville, Jonathan P K

    2006-10-01

    Separation of copper radioisotopes from a nickel target is normally performed using solvent extraction or anion exchange rather than using cationic exchange. A commonly held opinion is that cationic exchangers have very similar thermodynamic complexation constants for metallic ions with identical charges, therefore making the separation very difficult or impossible. The results presented in this article indicate that the selectivity of Chelex-100 (a cationic ion exchanger) for Cu radioisotope and Ni ions not only depends on the thermodynamic complexation constant in the resin but also markedly varies with the concentration of mobile H+. In our developed method, separation of copper radioisotopes from a nickel target was fulfilled in a column filled with Chelex-100 via controlling the HNO3 concentration of the eluent, and the separation is much more effective, simple and economical in comparison with the common method of anion exchange. For an irradiated nickel target with 650 mg Ni, after separation, the loss of Cu radioisotopes in the nickel portion was reduced from 30% to 0.33% of the total initial radioactivity and the nickel mixed into the radioactive products was reduced from 9.5 to 0.5 mg. This significant improvement will make subsequent labeling much easier and reduce consumption of chelating agents and other chemicals during labeling. If the labeled agent is used in human medical applications, the developed method will significantly decrease the uptake of Ni and chelating agents by patients, therefore reducing both the stress on human body associated with clearing the chemicals from blood and tissue and the risk of various types of acute and chronic disorder due to exposure to Ni.

  4. Separating Metallic Beryllium from Plutonium by Selective Dissolution with Ammonium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R A

    2006-11-29

    Plutonium metal is stabilized for long-term storage by calcining to produce PuO{sub 2}. However, if beryllium is present, the calcined product may have a high neutron dose rate because of the {sup 9}Be({alpha},n){sup 12}C reaction in the finely divided oxide mixture. (At LLNL, inadvertent calcining of a mixture of {approx}500 g Pu/50 g Be produced a neutron source of {approx}5 R/hr.) Therefore, for health physics reasons, we would like a convenient procedure to remove beryllium from plutonium with high selectivity. Two reagents, sodium hydroxide and ammonium fluoride, were considered for aqueous processing. Each reagent selectively dissolves beryllium, which can be separated from the insoluble plutonium by decanting/filtering operations followed by water washes to remove the excess reagent. The washed plutonium is calcined for storage; the beryllium and wash fractions are solidified for disposal.

  5. Selective separation of the major whey proteins using ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Goodall, S; Grandison, A S; Jauregi, P J; Price, J

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic microporous membranes with functional groups covalently attached were used to selectively separate beta-lactoglobulin, BSA, and alpha-lactalbumin from rennet whey. The selectivity and membrane performance of strong (quaternary ammonium) and weak (diethylamine) ion-exchange membranes were studied using breakthrough curves, measurement of binding capacity, and protein composition of the elution fraction to determine the binding behavior of each membrane. When the weak and strong anion exchange membranes were saturated with whey, they were both selective primarily for beta-lactoglobulin with less than 1% of the eluate consisting of alpha-lactalbumin or BSA. The binding capacity of a pure beta-lactoglobulin solution was in excess of 1.5 mg/cm2 of membrane. This binding capacity was reduced to approximately 1.2 mg/cm2 when using a rennet whey solution (pH 6.4). This reduction in protein binding capacity can be explained by both the competitive effects of other whey proteins and the effect of ions present in whey. Using binary solution breakthrough curves and rennet whey breakthrough curves, it was shown that alpha-lactalbumin and BSA were displaced from the strong and weak anion exchange membranes by beta-lactoglobulin. Finally, the effect of ionic strength on the binding capacity of individual proteins for each membrane was determined by comparing model protein solutions in milk permeate (pH 6.4) and a 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.4). Binding capacities of beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and BSA in milk permeate were reduced by as much as 50%. This reduction in capacity coupled with the low binding capacity of current ion exchange membranes are 2 serious considerations for selectively separating complex and concentrated protein solutions.

  6. Selective separation of copper over solder alloy from waste printed circuit boards leach solution.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Maryam; Sattari, Anahita; Alamdari, Eskandar Keshavarz; Firozi, Sadegh

    2017-02-01

    The printed circuit boards (PCBs) from electronic waste are important resource, since the PCBs contain precious metals such as gold, copper, tin, silver, platinum and so forth. In addition to the economic point of view, the presence of lead turns this scrap into dangerous to environment. This study was conducted as part of the development of a novel process for selective recovery of copper over tin and lead from printed circuit boards by HBF4 leaching. In previous study, Copper with solder alloy was associated, simultaneously were leached in HBF4 solution using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant at room temperature. The objective of this study is the separation of copper from tin and lead from Fluoroborate media using CP-150 as an extractant. The influence of organic solvent's concentration, pH, temperature and A/O phase ratio was investigated. The possible extraction mechanism and the composition of the extracted species have been determined. The separation factors for these metals using this agent are reported, while efficient methods for separation of Cu (II) from other metal ions are proposed. The treatment of leach liquor for solvent extraction of copper with CP-150 revealed that 20% CP-150 in kerosene, a 30min period of contact time, and a pH of 3 were sufficient for the extraction of Cu(II) and 99.99% copper was recovered from the leached solution.

  7. Selecting a separable parametric spatiotemporal covariance structure for longitudinal imaging data.

    PubMed

    George, Brandon; Aban, Inmaculada

    2015-01-15

    Longitudinal imaging studies allow great insight into how the structure and function of a subject's internal anatomy changes over time. Unfortunately, the analysis of longitudinal imaging data is complicated by inherent spatial and temporal correlation: the temporal from the repeated measures and the spatial from the outcomes of interest being observed at multiple points in a patient's body. We propose the use of a linear model with a separable parametric spatiotemporal error structure for the analysis of repeated imaging data. The model makes use of spatial (exponential, spherical, and Matérn) and temporal (compound symmetric, autoregressive-1, Toeplitz, and unstructured) parametric correlation functions. A simulation study, inspired by a longitudinal cardiac imaging study on mitral regurgitation patients, compared different information criteria for selecting a particular separable parametric spatiotemporal correlation structure as well as the effects on types I and II error rates for inference on fixed effects when the specified model is incorrect. Information criteria were found to be highly accurate at choosing between separable parametric spatiotemporal correlation structures. Misspecification of the covariance structure was found to have the ability to inflate the type I error or have an overly conservative test size, which corresponded to decreased power. An example with clinical data is given illustrating how the covariance structure procedure can be performed in practice, as well as how covariance structure choice can change inferences about fixed effects.

  8. Fluorescent, Magnetic Multifunctional Carbon Dots for Selective Separation, Identification, and Eradication of Drug-Resistant Superbugs

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant superbugs remains a major burden to society. As the mortality rate caused by sepsis due to superbugs is more than 40%, accurate identification of blood infections during the early stage will have a huge significance in the clinical setting. Here, we report the synthesis of red/blue fluorescent carbon dot (CD)-attached magnetic nanoparticle-based multicolor multifunctional CD-based nanosystems, which can be used for selective separation and identification of superbugs from infected blood samples. The reported data show that multifunctional fluorescent magneto-CD nanoparticles are capable of isolating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Salmonella DT104 superbug from whole blood samples, followed by accurate identification via multicolor fluorescence imaging. As multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are resistant to antibiotics available in the market, this article also reports the design of antimicrobial peptide-conjugated multicolor fluorescent magneto-CDs for effective separation, accurate identification, and complete disinfection of MDR superbugs from infected blood. The reported data demonstrate that by combining pardaxin antimicrobial peptides, magnetic nanoparticles, and multicolor fluorescent CDs into a single system, multifunctional CDs represent a novel material for efficient separation, differentiation, and eradication of superbugs. This material shows great promise for use in clinical settings. PMID:28261690

  9. Fluorescent, Magnetic Multifunctional Carbon Dots for Selective Separation, Identification, and Eradication of Drug-Resistant Superbugs.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Avijit; Jones, Stacy; Pedraza, Francisco; Vangara, Aruna; Sweet, Carrie; Williams, Mariah S; Ruppa-Kasani, Vikram; Risher, Sean Edward; Sardar, Dhiraj; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2017-02-28

    The emergence of drug-resistant superbugs remains a major burden to society. As the mortality rate caused by sepsis due to superbugs is more than 40%, accurate identification of blood infections during the early stage will have a huge significance in the clinical setting. Here, we report the synthesis of red/blue fluorescent carbon dot (CD)-attached magnetic nanoparticle-based multicolor multifunctional CD-based nanosystems, which can be used for selective separation and identification of superbugs from infected blood samples. The reported data show that multifunctional fluorescent magneto-CD nanoparticles are capable of isolating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Salmonella DT104 superbug from whole blood samples, followed by accurate identification via multicolor fluorescence imaging. As multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are resistant to antibiotics available in the market, this article also reports the design of antimicrobial peptide-conjugated multicolor fluorescent magneto-CDs for effective separation, accurate identification, and complete disinfection of MDR superbugs from infected blood. The reported data demonstrate that by combining pardaxin antimicrobial peptides, magnetic nanoparticles, and multicolor fluorescent CDs into a single system, multifunctional CDs represent a novel material for efficient separation, differentiation, and eradication of superbugs. This material shows great promise for use in clinical settings.

  10. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen; Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jian; Schaef, Herbert T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nie, Zimin; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Chapman, Karena W.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Hayes, James C.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Krishna, Rajamani; McGrail, B. Peter; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-03-08

    Incorporating, a redox active organometallic molIncorporating, a redox active organometallic molecule within a porous matrix is a useful strategy to form redox active composite materials for emerging applications such as energy storage, electro-catalysis and electro-magnetic separation. Herein we report a new class of stable, redox active metal organic composites for oxygen/air separation with exceptional efficiency. In particular, Ferrocene impregnated in a thermally stable hierarchical porous framework showed a saturation uptake capacity of >51 mg/g for oxygen at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.06. The material shows excellent O2 selectivity from air as evident from experimental and simulated breakthrough experiments. In detail structural analysis using 57Fe-Mössbauer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis show that of O2 adsorption affinity and selectivity originates by the formation Fe3+-O oxide due to the highly reactive nature of the organometallics imbedded in the porous matrix.

  11. Impact of xylanases with different substrate selectivity on gluten-starch separation of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Frederix, Sofie A; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2003-12-03

    The influence on wheat flour gluten-starch separation of a xylanase from Aspergillus aculeatus (XAA) with hydrolysis selectivity toward water extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) and that is not inhibited by wheat flour xylanase inhibitors was compared to that of a xylanase from Bacillus subtilis (XBS) with hydrolysis selectivity toward water unextractable arabinoxylan (WU-AX) and that is inhibited by such inhibitors. XAA improved gluten agglomeration through degradation of WE-AX and concomitant reduction in viscosity, which in the laboratory scale batter procedure with a set of vibrating sieves (400, 250, and 125 microm), increased protein recoveries on the 400 microm sieve. In contrast, XBS had a negative effect as it decreased gluten protein recovery on this sieve, probably as a result of the viscosity increase that accompanied WU-AX solubilization. Hence, it was active even if most likely a considerable part of its activity was prevented by xylanase inhibitors. A combination of XAA and XBS at a low dosage yielded a distribution of gluten proteins on the different sieves comparable to that of the control. At a high combined dosage, the gluten agglomeration was better than that with XAA alone, indicating that both WE-AX and WU-AX have a negative impact on gluten agglomeration. Finally, experiments with endoxylanase addition at different moments during the separation process suggest that the status of the arabinoxylan population during dough mixing is far less critical for its impact on gluten agglomeration than that during the batter phase.

  12. Selection and Separation of Viable Cells Based on a Cell-Lethal Assay

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Herman, Annadele; Phillips, Colleen; Pai, Jeng-Hao; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A method to select and separate viable cells based on the results of a cell-lethal assay was developed. Cells were plated on an array of culture sites with each site composed of closely spaced, releasable micropallets. Clonal colonies spanning multiple micropallets on individual culture sites were established within 72 h of plating. Adjacent sites were widely spaced with 100% of the colonies remaining sequestered on a single culture site during expansion. A laser-based method mechanically released a micropallet underlying a colony to segment the colony into two genetically identical colonies. One portion of the segmented colony was collected with 90% efficiency while viability of both fractions was 100%. The segmented colonies released from the array were fixed and subjected to immunofluorescence staining of intracellular phospho-ERK kinase to identify colonies that were highly resistant or sensitive to phorbol ester-induced activation of ERK. These resistant and sensitive cells were then matched to the corresponding viable colonies on the array. Sensitive and resistant colonies on the array were released and cultured. When these cultured cells were reanalyzed for phorbol ester-induced ERK activity, the cells retained the sensitive or resistant phenotype of the originally screened subcolony. Thus cells were separated and collected based using the result of a cell-lethal assay as selection criteria. These microarrays enabling clonal colony segmentation permitted sampling and manipulation of the colonies at very early times and at small cell numbers to reduce reagent, time and manpower requirements. PMID:21142138

  13. Metal separation from mixed types of batteries using selective precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Provazi, Kellie; Campos, Beatriz Amaral; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study metal separation from a sample composed of a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries, using a hydrometallurgical route, comparing selective precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction separation techniques. The preparation of the solution consisted of: grinding the waste of mixed batteries, reduction and volatile metals elimination using electric furnace and acid leaching. From this solution two different routes were studied: selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide and liquid-liquid extraction using Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphoric acid] as extracting agent. The best results were obtained from liquid-liquid extraction in which Zn had a 99% extraction rate at pH 2.5. More than 95% Fe was extracted at pH 7.0, the same pH at which more than 90% Ce was extracted. About 88% Mn, Cr and Co was extracted at this pH. At pH 3.0, more than 85% Ni was extracted, and at pH 3.5 more than 80% of Cd and La was extracted.

  14. [Hyperspectral Band Selection Based on Spectral Clustering and Inter-Class Separability Factor].

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang-pu; Zhang, Ai-wu; Wang, Shu-min; Meng, Xian-gang; Hu, Shao-xing; Sun, Wei-dong

    2015-05-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology and imaging spectrometer, the resolution of hyperspectral remote sensing image has been continually improved, its vast amount of data not only improves the ability of the remote sensing detection but also brings great difficulties for analyzing and processing at the same time. Band selection of hyperspectral imagery can effectively reduce data redundancy and improve classification accuracy and efficiency. So how to select the optimum band combination from hundreds of bands of hyperspectral images is a key issue. In order to solve these problems, we use spectral clustering algorithm based on graph theory. Firstly, taking of the original hyperspectral image bands as data points to be clustered , mutual information between every two bands is calculated to generate the similarity matrix. Then according to the graph partition theory, spectral decomposition of the non-normalized Laplacian matrix generated by the similarity matrix is used to get the clusters, which the similarity between is small and the similarity within is large. In order to achieve the purpose of dimensionality reduction, the inter-class separability factor of feature types on each band is calculated, which is as the reference index to choose the representative bands in the clusters furthermore. Finally, the support vector machine and minimum distance classification methods are employed to classify the hyperspectral image after band selection. The method in this paper is different from the traditional unsupervised clustering method, we employ spectral clustering algorithm based on graph theory and compute the interclass separability factor based on a priori knowledge to select bands. Comparing with traditional adaptive band selection algorithm and band index based on automatically subspace divided algorithm, the two sets of experiments results show that the overall accuracy of SVM is about 94. 08% and 94. 24% and the overall accuracy of MDC is about 87

  15. The Selective Separation of Anions and Cations in Nuclear Waste Using Commercially Available Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) Products

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, S. R.; Bruening, R. L.; Krakowiak, K. E.; Izatt, R. M.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the use of some of IBC's SuperLig{reg_sign}, MacroLig{reg_sign}, and AnaLig{reg_sign} molecular recognition technology products to effectively and selectively separate and recover cesium, technetium, strontium, and radium from radioactive waste solutions. Distinct advantages are given over conventional separation techniques. Separations are described and results given for the target ions over chemically similar ions often present at much higher concentrations. The separations are performed in solutions of either high or low pH and usually containing high concentrations of salts. Other separations involving components of radioactive and mixed waste are noted.

  16. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Oleksiak, Matthew D.; Ghorbanpour, Arian; Conato, Marlon T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Grabow, Lars C.; Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-10-05

    Designing nanoporous zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications spanning diverse areas such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires the use of an organic structure-directing agent to facilitate the formation of crystals with specific pore size and topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially-viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of unwanted crystal polymorphs (i.e., impurities). Here, we present an organic-free synthesis of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS framework topology) that can be selectively tailored to produce two pure polymorphs: P1 and P2. To this end, we developed kinetic phase diagrams that identify synthesis compositions leading to the formation of GIS (P1 and P2), as well as their structural analogues MER and PHI. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we also show that both GIS polymorphs are highly selective adsorbents for H2O relative to other light gases (e.g,, H2, N2, CO2). These studies highlight the potential application of GIS materials for dehydration processes, while our findings also refute prior theoretical studies postulating that GIS-type zeolites are excellent materials for CO2 separation/sequestration. Moreover, there is an impetus for discovering novel small-pore zeolites that are shape-selective catalysts for the production of value-added chemicals (e.g., light olefins); thus, our discovery of more thermally-stable P2 opens new avenues for exploring the potential role of this material as a high-performance catalyst.

  17. Rationally tuned micropores within enantiopure metal-organic frameworks for highly selective separation of acetylene and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Sheng-Chang; Zhang, Zhangjing; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Hong, Kunlun; Zhao, Xuebo; Ding, De-Rong; Xie, Ming-Hua; Wu, Chuan-De; Das, Madhab C; Gill, Rachel; Thomas, K Mark; Chen, Banglin

    2011-02-22

    Separation of acetylene and ethylene is an important industrial process because both compounds are essential reagents for a range of chemical products and materials. Current separation approaches include the partial hydrogenation of acetylene into ethylene over a supported Pd catalyst, and the extraction of cracked olefins using an organic solvent; both routes are costly and energy consuming. Adsorption technologies may allow separation, but microporous materials exhibiting highly selective adsorption of C(2)H(2)/C(2)H(4) have not been realized to date. Here, we report the development of tunable microporous enantiopure mixed-metal-organic framework (M'MOF) materials for highly selective separation of C(2)H(2) and C(2)H(4). The high selectivities achieved suggest the potential application of microporous M'MOFs for practical adsorption-based separation of C(2)H(2)/C(2)H(4).

  18. Just in time-selection: A rapid semiautomated SELEX of DNA aptamers using magnetic separation and BEAMing.

    PubMed

    Hünniger, Tim; Wessels, Hauke; Fischer, Christin; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Fischer, Markus

    2014-11-04

    A semiautomated two-step method for in vitro selection of DNA aptamers using magnetic separation and solid-phase emulsion polymerase chain reaction has been developed. The application of a magnetic separator allows the simultaneous processing of up to 12 SELEXs (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) with different targets or buffer conditions. Using a magnetic separator and covalent target immobilization on magnetic beads, the selection process was simplified and the substeps of aptamer/target incubation, washing, and elution of the aptamers were merged into one automated procedure called "FISHing". Without further processing the resulting FISHing eluates are suitable for BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics), which includes the amplification by emPCR (emulsion polymerase chain reaction) and strand separation by the implementation of covalently immobilized reverse primers on magnetic beads. The novel selection process has been proved and validated by selecting and characterization of aptamers to the wine fining agent lysozyme.

  19. Evaluation of polymer inclusion membranes containing crown ethers for selective cesium separation from nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D S; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2009-09-30

    Transport behaviour of (137)Cs from nitric acid feed was investigated using cellulose triacetate plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing several crown ether carriers viz. di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), di-benzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) and di-tert-butylbenzo-18-crown-6 (DTBB18C6). The PIM was prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) with various crown ethers and plasticizers. DTBB18C6 and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) were found to give higher transport rate for (137)Cs as compared to other carriers and plasticizers. Effect of crown ether concentration, nitric acid concentration, plasticizer and CTA concentration on the transport rate of Cs was also studied. The Cs selectivity with respect to various fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target was found to be heavily dependent on the nature of the plasticizer. The present work shows that by choosing a proper plasticizer, one can get either good transport efficiency or selectivity. Though TBP plasticized membranes showed good transport efficiency, it displayed poor selectivities. On the other hand, an entirely opposite separation behaviour was observed with 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) plasticized membranes suggesting the possible application of the later membranes for the removal of bulk (137)Cs from the nuclear waste. The stability of the membrane was tested by carrying out transport runs for nearly 25 days.

  20. From an equilibrium based MOF adsorbent to a kinetic selective carbon molecular sieve for paraffin/iso-paraffin separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Zhang, Yiming; Bhatt, Prashant M; He, Hongming; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Perman, Jason A; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-11-24

    We unveil a unique kinetic driven separation material for selectively removing linear paraffins from iso-paraffins via a molecular sieving mechanism. Subsequent carbonization and thermal treatment of CD-MOF-2, the cyclodextrin metal-organic framework, afforded a carbon molecular sieve with a uniform and reduced pore size of ca. 5.0 Å, and it exhibited highly selective kinetic separation of n-butane and n-pentane from iso-butane and iso-pentane, respectively.

  1. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Oleksiak, Matthew D.; Ghorbanpour, Arian; Conato, Marlon T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Grabow, Lars C.; Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-09-02

    Designing zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires an organic structure-directing agent to obtain crystals with specific pore topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially-viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of impurities. Here, we present organic-free syntheses of two polymorphs of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS), P1 and P2. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory calculations, we show that GIS polymorphs are selective adsorbents for H2O relative to other light gases (e.g., H2, N2, CO2).

  2. Rapid and selective separation for mixed proteins with thiol functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Ahn, Chi Young; Lee, Jiho; Lee, Jin Hyung; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2012-05-01

    Thiol group functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Si-MNPs@SH) were synthesized for rapid and selective magnetic field-based separation of mixed proteins. The highest adsorption efficiencies of binary proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA; 66 kDa; p I = 4.65) and lysozyme (LYZ; 14.3 kDa; p I = 11) were shown at the pH values corresponding to their own p I in the single-component protein. In the mixed protein, however, the adsorption performance of BSA and LYZ by Si-MNPs@SH was governed not only by pH but also by the molecular weight of each protein in the mixed protein.

  3. Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) for highly selective separations

    SciTech Connect

    Yaghi, Omar M

    2012-09-17

    Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) have been investigated for the realization as separation media with high selectivity. These structures are held together with strong bonds, making them architecturally, chemically, and thermally stable. Therefore, employing well designed building units, it is possible to discover promising materials for gas and vapor separation. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs and ZIFs with these specific objectives: (i) to develop a strategy for producing MOFs and ZIFs that combine high surface areas with active sites for their use in gas adsorption and separation of small organic compounds, (ii) to introduce active sites in the framework by a post-synthetic modification and metalation of MOFs and ZIFs, and (iii) to design and synthesize MOFs with extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes to accommodate large amounts of guest molecules. By the systematic study, this effort demonstrated how to introduce active functional groups in the frameworks, and this is also the origin of a new strategy, which is termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. One of the solutions to overcome this challenge is an isoreticular expansion of a MOF's structure. With triangular organic linker and square building units, we demonstrated that MOF-399 has a unit cell volume 17 times larger than that of the first reported material isoreticular to it, and it has the highest porosity (94%) and lowest density (0.126 g cm-3) of any MOF reported to date. MOFs are not just low density materials; the guest-free form of MOF-210 demonstrates an ultrahigh porosity, whose BET surface area was estimated to be 6240 m2 g-1 by N2 adsorption measurements.

  4. Separability of stimulus parameter encoding by on-off directionally selective rabbit retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Dobbins, Allan C.; Gawne, Timothy J.; Grzywacz, Norberto M.

    2011-01-01

    The ganglion cell output of the retina constitutes a bottleneck in sensory processing in that ganglion cells must encode multiple stimulus parameters in their responses. Here we investigate encoding strategies of On-Off directionally selective retinal ganglion cells (On-Off DS RGCs) in rabbits, a class of cells dedicated to representing motion. The exquisite axial discrimination of these cells to preferred vs. null direction motion is well documented: it is invariant with respect to speed, contrast, spatial configuration, spatial frequency, and motion extent. However, these cells have broad direction tuning curves and their responses also vary as a function of other parameters such as speed and contrast. In this study, we examined whether the variation in responses across multiple stimulus parameters is systematic, that is the same for all cells, and separable, such that the response to a stimulus is a product of the effects of each stimulus parameter alone. We extracellularly recorded single On-Off DS RGCs in a superfused eyecup preparation while stimulating them with moving bars. We found that spike count responses of these cells scaled as independent functions of direction, speed, and luminance. Moreover, the speed and luminance functions were common across the whole sample of cells. Based on these findings, we developed a model that accurately predicted responses of On-Off DS RGCs as products of separable functions of direction, speed, and luminance (r = 0.98; P < 0.0001). Such a multiplicatively separable encoding strategy may simplify the decoding of these cells' outputs by the higher visual centers. PMID:21325684

  5. Determination of SCFAs in water using GC-FID. Selection of the separation system.

    PubMed

    Banel, Anna; Jakimska, Anna; Wasielewska, Marta; Wolska, Lidia; Zygmunt, Bogdan

    2012-02-24

    In the present study, an analytical procedure was developed for the determination of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater employing injection of aqueous samples to gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Chromatographic conditions such as a separation system, injection volume, oven temperature program were investigated and selected. With two columns, one with a polar (polyethylene glycol) and one with a non-polar (dimethylpolisiloxane) stationary phase, good separation of SCFAs, containing from 2 to 8 carbon atoms, was achieved. The sample volume was 2 μL and the temperature program 80°C (30 s) then 7 °C min(-1) to 220 °C (2 min). LOQs values were below 0.25 mg L(-1). The concentrations of the acids in the landfill leachate studied ranged from 0.45±0,059 (average ± extended uncertainty) mg L(-1) for pentanoic acid to 15.2±0.73 mg L(-1) for ethanoic acid. Concentrations of SCFAs in the municipal wastewater were lower than LOQs.

  6. Separation of PS-PMMA block copolymers from PS precursors via selective adsorption on nanoprous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang Yeol

    2005-03-01

    We report a simple adsorption-based separation method using nanoporous silica in solution via controlling solvent quality to remove polystyrene (PS) homopolymers from polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) diblock copolymers. In particular, the solvent quality is controlled by employing binary mixed solvents of THF (good solvent) and isooctane (nonsolvent for both PS and PMMA). The aim of this work is to qualitatively study the competitive adsorption between PS and PS-PMMA and to provide a correlative understanding of polymer adsorption in nanopores with interaction chromatography techniques. In addition, the quantitative understanding of polymer adsorption is further employed to develop a simple polymer separation scheme for manipulating polymer adsorption via solvent quality. In particular, concentration changes of PS and PS-PMMA in the supernatant solution have been quantitatively measured for the adsorption studies using solvent gradient interaction chromatography techniques. We found that the PS-PMMA (43k-32k) selectively adsorb over PS (43k) precursors at the THF composition window between 42 % and 55% in THF/IO (v/v) mixed solvents. For THF/IO solvents with composition higher than 60 % THF, polymers did not adsorb to the nanoporous silica due to the good solvent quality.

  7. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations.

    PubMed

    Oleksiak, Matthew D; Ghorbanpour, Arian; Conato, Marlon T; McGrail, B Peter; Grabow, Lars C; Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2016-11-02

    Designing zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications, such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires an organic structure-directing agent to produce crystals with specific pore topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of impurities. Herein, we present organic-free syntheses of two polymorphs of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS), P1 and P2. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory calculations, we show that GIS polymorphs are selective adsorbents for H2 O relative to other light gases (e.g., H2 , N2 , CO2 ). Our findings refute prior theoretical studies postulating that GIS-type zeolites are excellent materials for CO2 separation/sequestration. We also show that P2 is significantly more thermally stable than P1, which broadens the operating conditions for GIS-type zeolites in commercial applications and opens new avenues for exploring their potential use in processes such as catalysis.

  8. DNA aptamers for selective identification and separation of flame retardant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Byoung Chan

    2016-09-14

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are group of chemicals which are representative persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and used as brominated flame retardants for many consumer products. PBDEs were phased out since 2009 but are still frequently observed in various environmental matrices and human body. Here, we report ssDNA aptamers which bind to BDE47, one of the PBDE congeners commonly found in various environmental matrices, and show affinity to other major tri-to hepta- BDE congeners. The PBDE specific aptamers were isolated from random library of ssDNA using Mag-SELEX. Two out of 15 sequences, based on their alignment and hairpin loop structures, were chosen to determine dissociation constant with BDE47 and showed from picomolar to nanomolar affinities (200 pM and 1.53 nM). The aptamers displayed high selectivity to the original target, BDE47, and implying general specificity to PBDE backbone with varying affinities to other congeners. Further, we showed that the use of two aptamers together could enhance the separation efficiency of BDE47 and other BDE congeners when dissolved in a solvent compared to use of single aptamer. These aptamers are expected to provide a tool for preliminary screening or quick separation of PBDEs in environmental samples prior to trace quantitative analysis.

  9. Gel electrophoresis using a selective radical for the separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mesgari, Sara; Sundramoorthy, Ashok Kumar; Loo, Leslie S; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2014-01-01

    We have applied agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) that have been pre-reacted with metallic-selective ionic radicals and then re-suspended with sodium cholate (SC) surfactant to obtain highly purified (up to 98%) semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs). The proposed combination method exploits the preferential reactivity with the metallic nanotube of the radicals generated from an azo naphthalene compound (Direct Blue 71(I)) to preferentially increase the surface charge, and therefore the electrophoretic mobilities, of the metallic nanotube population under the influence of the electric field in AGE. The excellent separation achieved was verified by UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopy as well as by the performance of field effect transistors fabricated with semiconducting-enriched SWNTs. FETs fabricated with -assisted AGE-separated semiconducting nanotubes exhibited mobilities of ∼3.6 to 11.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and on/off ratios from 10(2) to 10(6).

  10. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  11. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Ghate, Madhav R.; Yang, Ralph T.

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  13. Partition Coefficients of Selected Compounds Using Ion Exchange Separation of Cesium From High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, James J.; Blanchard, David L.; Arm, Stuart T.; Urie, Michael W.

    2004-04-24

    The removal of cesium radioisotope (137Cs) from the High Level Waste stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site is a formidable chemical separations challenge for the Waste Treatment Plant. An eluatable organic-based ion exchange resin was selected as the baseline technology (1). The baseline technology design employs a proprietary macrocyclic weak-acid ion exchange resin to adsorb the cesium (137Cs) during the process loading cycle in a fixed bed column design. Following loading, the cesium is eluted from the resin using a nitric acid eluant. Previous work provided limited understanding of the performance of the resin, processed with actual wastes, and under multiple load and elute conditions, which are required for the ion exchange technology to be underpinned sufficiently for resolution of all process-related design issues before flowsheet and construction drawings can be released. By performing multiple ion exchange column tests with waste feeds, and measuring the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the waste feeds, column effluents and column eluants, ion exchange stream composition information can be provided for supporting resolution of selected design issues.

  14. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.

  15. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water.

  16. Flotation selectivity of novel alkyl dicarboxylate reagents for apatite-calcite separation.

    PubMed

    Karlkvist, Tommy; Patra, Anuttam; Rao, Kota Hanumantha; Bordes, Romain; Holmberg, Krister

    2015-05-01

    The investigation aims to demonstrate the conceptual thoughts behind developing mineral specific reagents for use in flotation of calcium containing ores. For this purpose, a series of dicarboxylate-based surfactants with varying distance between the carboxylate groups (one, two or three methylene groups) was synthesized. A surfactant with the same alkyl chain length but with only one carboxylate group was also synthesized and evaluated. The adsorption behavior of these new reagents on pure apatite and pure calcite surfaces was studied using Hallimond tube flotation, FTIR and ζ potential measurements. The relation between the adsorption behavior of a given surfactant at a specific mineral surface and its molecular structure over a range of concentrations and pH values, as well as the region of maximum recovery, was established. It was found that one of the reagents, with a specific distance between the carboxylate groups, was much more selective for a particular mineral surface than the other homologues. For example, out of the four compounds synthesized, only the one where the carboxylate groups were separated by a single methylene group floated apatite but not calcite, whereas calcite was efficiently floated with the monocarboxylic reagent, but not with the other reagents synthesized. This selective adsorption of a given surfactant to a particular mineral surface relative to other mineral surfaces as evidenced in the flotation studies was substantiated by ζ potential and infra-red spectroscopy data.

  17. FAHP ranking and selection of pretreatment module for membrane separation processes in textile cluster.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Pravin; Nandy, Tapas; Sargaonkar, Abha; Rathi, Barkha; Karthik, Manikavasagam

    2011-01-01

    Recent development in membrane manufacturing and extensive application of membranes in effluent treatment has opened up a new water resource. The effluent pretreatment module plays a critical role in membrane performance. Appropriate selection of conventional and advanced pretreatment modules in membrane separation processes (MSP) is significant to the success of zero effluent discharge (ZED). This study addresses performance assessment of eight conventional and advanced pretreatment modules implemented for wastewater management in a textile cluster in South India. The comparative pollutant reduction, capital, operation and maintenance (OM) cost of pretreatment modules are discussed. The ranking and interdependence of the pretreatment modules were analyzed through fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) with MATLAB software. The pretreatment module IV ranked third with a composite weight of 15.46%. The integrated study of performance assessment and FAHP resulted in an optimum pretreatment module IV comprising the sequence of chemical precipitation, bio-oxidation processes (activated sludge processes) followed by chemical precipitation, to achieve the ZED. This study provides a techno-economically feasible solution for selection of an effective pretreatment module for MSP in the textile cluster.

  18. Synthesis of homoveratric acid-imprinted polymers and their evaluation as selective separation materials.

    PubMed

    Dana, Mariusz; Luliński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2011-05-05

    A bulk polymerization method was used to easily and efficiently prepare homoveratric acid (3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid)-imprinted polymers from eight basic monomers: 2-vinylpyridine, 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, N-allylaniline, N-allylpiperazine, allylurea, allylthiourea, and allylamine, in the presence of homoveratric acid as a template in N,N-dimethylformamide as a porogen. The imprinted polymer prepared from allylamine had the highest affinity to the template, showing an imprinting factor of 3.43, and allylamine polymers MIP8/NIP8 were selected for further studies. Their binding properties were analyzed using the Scatchard method. The results showed that the imprinted polymers have two classes of heterogeneous binding sites characterized by two pairs of K(d), B(max) values: K(d)(1) = 0.060 μmol/mL, B(max)(1) = 0.093 μmol/mg for the higher affinity binding sites, and K(d)(2) = 0.455 μmol/mL, B(max)(2) = 0.248 μmol/mg for the lower affinity binding sites. Non-imprinted polymer has only one class of binding site, with K(d) = 0.417 μmol/mL and B(max) = 0.184 μmol/mg. A computational analysis of the energies of the prepolymerization complexes was in agreement with the experimental results. It showed that the selective binding interactions arose from cooperative three point interactions between the carboxylic acid and the two methoxy groups in the template and amino groups in the polymer cavities. Those results were confirmed by the recognition studies performed with the set of structurally related compounds. Allylamine polymer MIP8 had no affinity towards biogenic amines. The obtained imprinted polymer could be used for selective separation of homoveratric acid.

  19. Selective liquid chromatographic separation of yttrium from heavier rare earth elements using acetic acid as a novel eluent.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Dejene; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2013-09-13

    One of the major difficulties in the rare earth elements separation is purification of yttrium from heavy rare earth elements. Thus, an HPLC method using acetic acid as novel eluent was explored for selective separation of yttrium form the heavy rare earth elements. When acetic acid is used as a mobile phase yttrium eluted with the lighter lanthanides. This is contrary to its relative position amongst heavier lanthanides when eluents commonly used for separation of rare earth elements were employed. The shift in elution position of yttrium with acetic acid as eluent may reflect a relatively lower stability constant of the yttrium-AcOH complex (in the same order as for the lighter lanthanides) compared to the corresponding AcOH complexes with heavy lanthanides, enabling selective separation of yttrium from the latter. The method was successfully used for selective separation of yttrium in mixed rare earth sample containing about 80% of yttrium and about 20% of heavy rare earth oxides. Thus, the use of AcOH as eluent is an effective approach for separating and determining the trace amounts of heavy rare earth elements in large amounts of yttrium matrix. Separation was performed on C18 column by running appropriate elution programs. The effluent from the column was monitored with diode array detector at absorbance wavelength of 658nm after post column derivatization with Arsenazo III.

  20. Dinosaur extinction: closing the '3 m gap'.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G B; Sargis, Eric J; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G

    2011-12-23

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the '3 m gap', has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K-T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a 'fern spike', and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-T boundary impact event.

  1. Pre-selection of flocculants by the LUMiFuge separation analyser 114.

    PubMed

    Sobisch, T; Lerche, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on lab-scale investigations in relation to pre-selection of flocculants for sludge dewatering with decanter centrifuges. Results obtained were compared with CST-measurements and discussed in relation to findings under field conditions. Experiments were carried out with sewage sludges of different origin and characteristics and a number of commercial flocculants. Kinetics of sedimentation and clarification were measured as well as the compression behaviour and shear sensitivity of sludge sediments. To measure flocculant performance stability against intensive shearing, total solids in the sludge cake obtained and dewaterability of the sludge cake during the first 20-50 s of centrifugation were compared. A screening test procedure was developed. Efficient flocculants should produce high residual total solids and good initial compressibility. Lab-scale investigations deliver more reliable results if the dynamic behaviour of the sludge under centrifugal acceleration is also investigated. The separation analyser LUMiFuge 114 can provide results about the compression behaviour of sludges in the range between 10 and 100 s. So far no other method or device is known which can deliver such results.

  2. High resolution capillary column development for selective separations in gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Przybyciel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of techniques for the preparation of high resolution capillary columns for gas chromatography is presented. Surface roughing, surface deactivation, stationary phase coating, and stationary phase crosslinking are discussed. Criteria for the selection of GC stationary phases and procedures for column evaluation are presented. A method is proposed for the isolation and determination of crude oil contamination in tropical plants and sediments. The method uses Florisil (TM) chromatography for the simultaneous clean-up and fractionation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Crosslinked SE-54 fused silica capillary columns prepared in our laboratory were employed for all GC separations. Mass spectrometry was used to help locate and identify specific oil components despite the intense background of the chromatogram. Crude oil components were identified in extracts of mangrove plant samples collected from the Peck Slip oil spill site at Media Munda, Puerto Rico. Crude oil components were also identified in sediment samples from controlled oil spill of Prudhoe Bay oil at Laguna de Chiriqui, Panama.

  3. Feature Selection and Blind Source Separation in an EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David A.; Knight, James N.; Kirby, Michael J.; Anderson, Charles W.; Thaut, Michael H.

    2005-12-01

    Most EEG-based BCI systems make use of well-studied patterns of brain activity. However, those systems involve tasks that indirectly map to simple binary commands such as "yes" or "no" or require many weeks of biofeedback training. We hypothesized that signal processing and machine learning methods can be used to discriminate EEG in a direct "yes"/"no" BCI from a single session. Blind source separation (BSS) and spectral transformations of the EEG produced a 180-dimensional feature space. We used a modified genetic algorithm (GA) wrapped around a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to search the space of feature subsets. The GA-based search found feature subsets that outperform full feature sets and random feature subsets. Also, BSS transformations of the EEG outperformed the original time series, particularly in conjunction with a subset search of both spaces. The results suggest that BSS and feature selection can be used to improve the performance of even a "direct," single-session BCI.

  4. Ultrafast separation of fluorinated and desfluorinated pharmaceuticals using highly efficient and selective chiral selectors bonded to superficially porous particles.

    PubMed

    Barhate, Chandan L; Breitbach, Zachary S; Pinto, Eduardo Costa; Regalado, Erik L; Welch, Christopher J; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-12-24

    The separation of fluorinated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from their desfluoro analogs is a challenging analytical task due to their structural similarity. In this work, fluorine containing APIs and their corresponding desfluorinated impurities were separated on five new 2.7μm superficially porous particles (SPPs) functionalized with bonded chiral selectors. The unique shape selectivity of bonded macrocyclic glycopeptides and oligosaccharides was utilized to separate seven pairs of fluoro/desfluoro APIs resulting in some unprecedented selectivity values. For example, SPP bonded isopropyl cyclofructan 6 yielded a selectivity of 2.73 for voriconazole and desfluoro voriconazole. Further, the SPP based columns allowed for rapid separations ranging from 9 to 55s with very high efficiencies ranging from 45,000 to 70,000plates/m (at high flow rates) in both reversed phase and polar organic modes. Chromatographic separation and detection by HPLC-ESI-MS was demonstrated using ezetimibe and voriconazole and their desfluorinated impurities. Among the tested phases, SPP hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin separated the most fluorinated and desfluorinated analogs with baseline resolution.

  5. Sequential quantification of methyl mercury in biological materials by selective reduction in the presence of mercury(II), using two gas liquid separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Alcicléa da Conceição Pereira; de Andrade, Ly Santabaia N.; Luna, Aderval S.; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto

    2002-12-01

    The present procedure is based on the sequential selective reduction of mercury(II) and methyl mercury using two gas-liquid separators in series. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used for detection. Mercury(II) is reduced by a 0.01% m/v sodium tetrahydroborate solution and driven to the absorption cell in the first separator. The methyl mercury species is reduced by the same reductant but at a 0.3% m/v concentration, and in the presence of iron(III) chloride. Parameters such as argon flow rate, and the NaBH 4 and dithiophosphoric acid diacyl ester concentrations were optimized. At the optimized conditions, and using aqueous standards for calibration, the corresponding limits of detection (3σ b, n=10) were 400 and 600 ng l -1 for mercury(II) and methyl mercury, respectively. The sample throughput was 12 h -1. The procedure was used for the determination of methyl mercury in dogfish liver and dogfish muscle certified reference materials, and good concordance between found and certified values was observed.

  6. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation.

  7. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Results Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Conclusions Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The “isolated island

  8. Highly selective separation and purification of anthocyanins from bilberry based on a macroporous polymeric adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lijuan; Zhang, Na; Wang, Chenbiao; Wang, Chunhong

    2015-04-08

    Powdered bilberry extract (United States Pharmacopoeia, USP35-NF30), which is prepared from ripe bilberry fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), is the main ingredient of drugs alleviating visual fatigue and diabetic retinopathy because of the rich anthocyanins (purity of 36%). In this study, a method based on a macroporous polymeric adsorbent was established to obtain anthocyanin compounds from bilberry, in which the purity of the anthocyanins was improved to 96%, conducive to further pharmacological research and improvement of the efficiency of the drug. On the basis of the structure of anthocyanins, we designed a series of macroporous polymeric adsorbents based on the copolymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) and ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate (EGDMA). In this situation, EGDMA not only regulated the polarity of the adsorbent but also acted as the cross-linking agent to ensure the matrix structure of the adsorbent, which had a high specific surface area and could provide more interaction sites during adsorption with anthocyanins. Among the synthesized polymeric adsorbents with different contents of EGDMA, the one with 20% EGDMA content (DE-20) was demonstrated to exhibit optimal adsorption capacity and selectivity to anthocyanins compared to various commercial adsorbents through static adsorption and desorption experiments. In addition, the optimum condition of the dynamic adsorption-desorption experiment was further explored. The results indicated that the purity of anthocyanins after rinsing with 20% ethanol was determined to be approximately 96% at a desorption ratio of 83%, which was clearly higher than that in powdered bilberry extract. The established separation and purification method of anthocyanins with high purity is expected to be applied in industrial production.

  9. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

    PubMed

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  10. Selective separation of trivalent f-ions using 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamide ligands in ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Dehaudt, Jeremy; Williams, Neil J.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-13

    1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamide complexants decorated with alkyl chains and imidazolium cations have been studied for extraction of trivalent f-ions into imidazolium ionic liquids. The dicationic complexants are shown to extract Am over Eu with separation factors > 50 and high extraction efficiencies. Lastly, the different size selectivities for lanthanide ions were observed for these two types of the complexants, highlighting the importance of the positive charge in controlling both extraction efficiencies and extraction selectivities.

  11. Rationally tuned micropores within enantiopure metal-organic frameworks for highly selective separation of acetylene and ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Sheng-Chang; Zhang, Zhangjing; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Hong, Kunlun; Zhao, Xuebo; Ding, De-Rong; Xie, Ming-Hua; Wu, Chuan-De; Madhab, Das; Gill, Rachel; Thomas, K Mark; Chen, Banglin

    2011-01-01

    Separation of acetylene and ethylene is an important industrial process because both compounds are essential reagents for a range of chemical products and materials. Current separation approaches include the partial hydrogenation of acetylene into ethylene over a supported Pd catalyst, and the extraction of cracked olefins using an organic solvent; both routes are costly and energy consuming. Adsorption technologies may allow separation, but microporous materials exhibiting highly selective adsorption of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} have not been realized to date. Here, we report the development of tunable microporous enantiopure mixed-metal-organic framework (M'MOF) materials for highly selective separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. The high selectivities achieved suggest the potential application of microporous M'MOFs for practical adsorption-based separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  12. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

  13. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-03-15

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Positive selection of human blood cells using improved high gradient magnetic separation filters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T E; Richards, A J; Roath, O S; Watson, J H; Smith, R J; Lansdorp, P M

    1993-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separators (HGMS) create magnetic field gradients that can be used to attract much smaller and less magnetic particles than those required for conventional magnetic separation techniques. As a result cells can be labeled with submicron magnetic particles and still be separated using an HGMS filter. Typically, HGMS filters consist of random arrays of wire such as stainless steel wool. Wire elements arranged regularly in a filter should allow more efficient separation of cells. Filters were constructed containing ordered wire arrays composed of 430 series stainless steel wire mesh with wire diameters of 50, 100, or 150 microns. The ability of these filters to separate T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cell suspensions was tested and found superior to random arrays of 302 series stainless steel wire (Thomas et al, 1992). Target cells recognized by OKT5 monoclonal antibody were cross-linked to dextran-iron particles of approximately 20 nm in diameter. Separation conditions were optimized and after one passage through the filter 88% of the OKT5+ cells were recovered in the enriched fraction with 85% purity (%OKT5+). Multiple passages (3 times) could achieve 99% purity with 68% recovery. Variations in separation flow rate had a large effect on the balance between purity and recovery. Optimum separation efficiencies were achieved only when > 10(8) cells were processed. The primarily cause of nonspecific entrapment of CD8- cells was not nonspecific magnetic labeling of cells but the physical (nonmagnetic) characteristics of the filter/filter chamber.

  15. Magnetically separable nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity under visible light for the selective transformation of biomass-derived platform molecules

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel magnetically separable TiO2-guanidine-(Ni,Co)Fe2O4 nanomaterials were prepared and characterised by a series of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, N2 physisorption as well as XPS and subsequently tested for their photocatalytic activities in the selective transformation of...

  16. Selective separation of sodium ions from a mixture with phenylalanine by Donnan dialysis with a profiled sulfogroup cation exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Goleva, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of separating ions of metal from a mixture with ampholyte (an amino acid) by Donnan dialysis with an MK-40 sulfogroup cation exchange membrane is demonstrated. Conditions ensuring the selectivity and intensity of the mass transfer of sodium ions from a mixture with bipolar phenylalanine ions into a diffusate containing hydrochloric acid through a cation exchange membrane are found.

  17. Fabrication of COF-MOF Composite Membranes and Their Highly Selective Separation of H2/CO2.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingru; Das, Saikat; Xing, Guolong; Ben, Teng; Valtchev, Valentin; Qiu, Shilun

    2016-06-22

    The search for new types of membrane materials has been of continuous interest in both academia and industry, given their importance in a plethora of applications, particularly for energy-efficient separation technology. In this contribution, we demonstrate for the first time that a metal-organic framework (MOF) can be grown on the covalent-organic framework (COF) membrane to fabricate COF-MOF composite membranes. The resultant COF-MOF composite membranes demonstrate higher separation selectivity of H2/CO2 gas mixtures than the individual COF and MOF membranes. A sound proof for the synergy between two porous materials is the fact that the COF-MOF composite membranes surpass the Robeson upper bound of polymer membranes for mixture separation of a H2/CO2 gas pair and are among the best gas separation MOF membranes reported thus far.

  18. Temperature-/pressure-dependent selective separation of CO(2) or benzene in a chiral metal-organic framework material.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yan-Xi; He, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Presented here is a chiral microporous metal-organic framework material with a three-fold interpenetrating diamond-type structural topology and interesting properties for selective separation. The material has a high storage capacity for CO(2) gas (4.23 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 1 bar) and shows fantastic temperature-dependent selectivity for CO(2) over N(2). Moreover, this multifunctional material, which has a rich π system, can selectively adsorb benzene over cyclohexane at low pressure (0.05 bar) at 298 K.

  19. Separation of selected stable isotopes by liquid-phase thermal diffusion and by chemical exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, W. M.; Jepson, B. E.; Michaels, E. D.

    Useful applications of enriched stable nuclides are unduly restricted by high cost and limited availability. Recent research on liquid phase thermal diffusion (LTD) has resulted in practical processes for separating S34, CL35, and CL37 in significant quantities (100 to 500 g/yr) at costs much lower than those associated with the electromagnetic (Calutron) process. The separation of the isotopes of bromine by LTD is now in progress and BR79 is being produced in relatively simple equivalent at a rate on the order of 0.5 g/day. The results of recent measurements show that the isotopes of Zn can be separated by LTD of zinc alkyls. The isotopes of calcium can be separated by LTD and by chemical exchange. The LTD process is based on the use of aqueous Ca(NO3)2 as a working fluid.

  20. Pervaporation and Vapor Permeation Tutorial: Membrane Processes for the Selective Separation of Liquid and Vapor Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation and vapor permeation are membrane-based processes proposed as alternatives to conventional separation technologies. Applications range from organic solvent removal from water, ethanol or butanol recovery from fermentation broths, solvent/biofuel dehydration to meet ...

  1. Pervaporation & Vapor Permeation Membrane Processes for the Selective Separation of Liquid and Vapor Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation and vapor permeation are membrane-based processes which have been proposed as alternatives to conventional separation technologies. Applications range from organic solvent removal from water, ethanol or butanol recovery from dilute fermentation broths, solvent/biofu...

  2. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation.

    PubMed

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac; Burat, Firat

    2013-09-01

    Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency.

  3. Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

    2012-06-27

    In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the

  4. Separation of synaptic and spike activity in intracellular recordings for selective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hedwig, B; Knepper, M

    1992-04-01

    A software spike filter has been developed which allows the separation of synaptic activity and action potentials in intracellular recordings. The algorithm uses the different velocities of the membrane potential during synaptic and spike activity and a time window to identify action potentials. When spikes are recognized, they are removed and the membrane potential is substituted by interpolated values. The spike filter makes possible a separate quantitative evaluation of postsynaptic potentials and spike activity. Thus a comprehensive characterization of neuron activity can be obtained. The spike filter is part of a modular software package designed for the evaluation of neurobiological data.

  5. Transfer and the Part-Time Student: The Gulf Separating Community Colleges and Selective Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    When representatives from community colleges and selective four-year institutions gather, there is no greater flashpoint than the topic of part-time enrollment. This issue--that students coming from an institution comprising mostly part-time students should be enabled to transfer to selective four-year institutions in which full-time enrollment is…

  6. Solvent selection for cyclohexane-cyclohexene-benzene separation by extractive distillation using non-steady-state gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, A.; Diez, F.; Esteban, R.; Coca, J.

    1997-03-01

    The infinite-dilution activity coefficients of cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and benzene in N,N-dimethylformamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, N,N-dimethylacetamide, phenyl acetate, and dimethyl malonate have been determined at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 C, by non-steady-state gas chromatography. From these data, the limiting selectivity-solvency properties for cyclohexane-benzene, cyclohexene-benzene, and cyclohexane-cyclohexene, in the presence of the aforementioned solvents, are studied, and the solvents tested are considered for the cyclohexane-cyclohexene-benzene separation by extractive distillation. According to the results, N,N-dimethylacetamide seems to be an adequate solvent for the cyclohexane-benzene and cyclohexene-benzene separations. The separation of cyclohexane-cyclohexene is the most difficult, in spite of the difference of boiling points, much higher than for cyclohexane-benzene.

  7. Neuroproteomic profiling of human brain tissue using multidimensional separation techniques and selective enrichment of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Musunuri, Sravani; Shevchenko, Ganna; Bergquist, Jonas

    2012-12-01

    Hydrophobic membrane proteins (MPs) occupy a unique niche in the brain proteome research due to their important physiological roles. Therefore, the extraction, separation, and identification of MPs are of great interest in proteomic analysis. We applied various proteomic techniques to enrich, separate, and analyze the human brain proteome, including membrane proteome. Temperature-induced phase fractionation with the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 was used to simultaneously extract, separate, and concentrate low abundant hydrophobic and high abundant hydrophilic proteins from human brain tissue. The extracted and delipidated proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Approximately 600 spots were detected in the gels. In-solution digestion was performed on 3 kDa spin filters. Tryptic peptides were separated using RP nano-LC and analyzed using two different high performance mass spectrometers, linear ion trap-Fourier transform and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap to reveal the low abundant MPs. In total, 837 and 780 unique proteins were identified by using linear ion trap-Fourier transform and linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, respectively. More than 29% of the identified proteins were classified as MPs with significant biological functions such as ion channels and transporters. Our study establishes a simple and rapid shotgun approach for the characterization of the brain proteome, and allows comprehensive analysis of brain membrane proteomes.

  8. Selection of Genetic and Phenotypic Features Associated with Inflammatory Status of Patients on Dialysis Using Relaxed Linear Separability Method

    PubMed Central

    Bobrowski, Leon; Łukaszuk, Tomasz; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Axelsson, Jonas; Bárány, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Luttropp, Karin; Debowska, Malgorzata; Nordfors, Louise; Schalling, Martin; Waniewski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of risk factors in patients with a particular disease can be analyzed in clinical data sets by using feature selection procedures of pattern recognition and data mining methods. The applicability of the relaxed linear separability (RLS) method of feature subset selection was checked for high-dimensional and mixed type (genetic and phenotypic) clinical data of patients with end-stage renal disease. The RLS method allowed for substantial reduction of the dimensionality through omitting redundant features while maintaining the linear separability of data sets of patients with high and low levels of an inflammatory biomarker. The synergy between genetic and phenotypic features in differentiation between these two subgroups was demonstrated. PMID:24489753

  9. Theoretical Prediction of Am(III)/Eu(III) Selectivity to Aid the Design of Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2015-03-20

    Selective extraction of minor actinides from lanthanides is a critical step in the reduction of radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuels. However, the design of suitable ligands for separating chemically similar 4f- and 5f-block trivalent metal ions poses a significant challenge. Furthermore, first-principles calculations should play an important role in the design of new separation agents, but their ability to predict metal ion selectivity has not been systematically evaluated. We examine the ability of several density functional theory methods to predict selectivity of Am(III) and Eu(III) with oxygen, mixed oxygen–nitrogen, and sulfur donor ligands. The results establish a computational method capable of predicting the correct order of selectivities obtained from liquid–liquid extraction and aqueous phase complexation studies. To allow reasonably accurate predictions, it was critical to employ sufficiently flexible basis sets and provide proper account of solvation effects. The approach is utilized to estimate the selectivity of novel amide-functionalized diazine and 1,2,3-triazole ligands.

  10. Feasibility of ionic liquids as extractants for selective separation of vitamin D₃ and tachysterol₃ by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruisi; Bao, Zongbi; Su, Baogen; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-04-10

    A selective separation of vitamin D₃ and tachysterol₃ by solvent extraction with 7 organic solvents and 11 ionic liquids (ILs) has been reported. Among organic solvents sulfolane showed optimal extraction performance, giving only a selectivity of 1.44 for tachysterol₃ over vitamin D₃. ILs with unsaturated bonds demonstrated high selectivity probably due to their different π-π interactions with the two compounds. A pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid, for example, [BMPr][NTf2], provided the highest selectivity up to 1.77. Acceptable selectivity and distribution coefficients were observed by a combination of organic solvents and ILs as extracting agents. In this work, the effects of concentrations, anions, cations, and substituent of ILs were investigated, which may provide a rational strategy for the design of novel ILs for extractive separation of structural analogues. The purification and recovery of vitamin D₃3 via continuous multistage extractions were simulated, indicating that IL-based liquid-liquid extraction might be superior to traditional organic solvents in practical production.

  11. Theoretical Prediction of Am(III)/Eu(III) Selectivity to Aid the Design of Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Agents

    DOE PAGES

    Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2015-03-20

    Selective extraction of minor actinides from lanthanides is a critical step in the reduction of radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuels. However, the design of suitable ligands for separating chemically similar 4f- and 5f-block trivalent metal ions poses a significant challenge. Furthermore, first-principles calculations should play an important role in the design of new separation agents, but their ability to predict metal ion selectivity has not been systematically evaluated. We examine the ability of several density functional theory methods to predict selectivity of Am(III) and Eu(III) with oxygen, mixed oxygen–nitrogen, and sulfur donor ligands. The results establish a computational method capablemore » of predicting the correct order of selectivities obtained from liquid–liquid extraction and aqueous phase complexation studies. To allow reasonably accurate predictions, it was critical to employ sufficiently flexible basis sets and provide proper account of solvation effects. The approach is utilized to estimate the selectivity of novel amide-functionalized diazine and 1,2,3-triazole ligands.« less

  12. Selectivity evaluation and separation of human immunoglobulin G, Fab and Fc fragments with mixed-mode resins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying-Di; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Yuan, Xiao-Ming; Shi, Wei; Yao, Shan-Jing; Lin, Dong-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption selectivity is critical important for mixed-mode chromatography with specially-designed ligands. Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), Fc and Fab fragments were used in the present work to evaluate adsorption behavior and binding selectivity of four mixed-mode resins with the ligands of 4-mercatoethyl-pyridine (MEP), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 5-aminobenzimidazole (ABI) and tryptophan-5-aminobenzimidazole (W-ABI), respectively. The resins showed an obvious pH-dependent adsorption behavior. High adsorption capacities were found at neutral pH for hIgG, Fc and Fab, and almost no adsorption happened under acidic conditions. An adsorption selectivity index was proposed to evaluate separation efficiency. High specificity of hIgG/Fc was found at pH 8.9 for MEP resin, and for W-ABI resin at pH 8.0 and 8.9. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to evaluate ligand-protein interactions. Finally, the separation of hIgG and Fc (1:1) was optimized with mixed-mode resins, and the best separation performance was obtained with W-ABI-based resin. Loading at pH 8.0 resulted in the flow through of Fc with purity of 90.4% and recovery of 98.8%, while elution at pH 3.6 provided hIgG with purity of 99.7% and recovery of 86.5%.

  13. Use of ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration to selectively separate copper ions from wastewater streams

    SciTech Connect

    Shadizadeh, S.B.

    1992-12-31

    The selective removal of target ions from an aqueous solution containing ions of like charge by ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-MEUF), is presented. In LM-MEUF, surfactant and specially tailored ligand are added to the contaminated stream. The surfactant forms aggregates called micelles, the hydrocarbon core of which the ligand complexed with the target species will solubilize. The surfactant is chosen to have the same charge type as the target ion; therefore, other ions (with similar charge) will not associate with the micelle, which makes the separation of the target ion selective. The solution is then processed by ultrafiltration, using a membrane with pore size small enough to block the passage of the micelles. In this study the divalent copper is the target ion in the solution containing divalent calcium. The surfactant is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and the ligand is 4-hexadecyloxybenzyliminodiacetic acid (C{sub 16}BIDA). Experiments were conducted with batch stirred cells and the results have been compared to separation that take place under a variety of conditions in the LM-MEUF process. Rejections of copper of up to 99.8% are observed, with almost no rejection of calcium, showing that LM-MEUF has excellent selectivity and separation efficiency.

  14. Facile fabrication of hydrophilic nanofibrous membranes with an immobilized metal-chelate affinity complex for selective protein separation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Sun, Gang

    2014-01-22

    In this study, we report a facile approach to fabricate functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membranes as immobilized metal affinity membranes for selective protein separation. Hydrophilic PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membranes with controlled fiber sizes were prepared via a melt extrusion process. A chelating group, iminodiacetic acid (IDA), was covalently attached to cyanuric acid activated membrane surfaces to form coordinative complexes with metal ions. The prepared membranes were applied to recover a model protein, lysozyme, under various conditions, and a high lysozyme adsorption capacity of 199 mg/g membrane was found under the defined optimum conditions. Smaller fiber size with a higher immobilized metal ion density on membrane surfaces showed greater lysozyme adsorption capacity. The lysozyme adsorption capacity remained consistent during five repeated cycles of adsorption-elution operations, and up to 95% of adsorbed lysozyme was efficiently eluted by using a phosphate buffer containing 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M imidazole as an elution media. The successful separation of lysozyme with high purity from fresh chicken egg white was achieved by using the present affinity membrane. These remarkable features, such as high capacity and selectivity, easy regeneration, as well as reliable reusability, demonstrated the great potential of the metal-chelate affinity complex immobilized nanofibrous membranes for selective protein separation.

  15. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM OTHER METAL VALUES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SELECTIVE COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating tri- or tetravalent plutonium from fission products in an aqueous solution by complexing the fission products with oxalate, tannate, citrate, or tartrate anions at a pH value of at least 2.4 (preferably between 2.4 and 4), and contacting a cation exchange resin with the solution whereby the plutonium is adsorbed while the complexed fission products remain in solution.

  16. The method of event selection for nuclei separation with the calorimeter in the PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A. V.; Likhacheva, V. L.; Voronov, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Here we discuss a method for a study of the heavy nuclei cosmic ray composition. The method is based on a charge separation with the PAMELA calorimeter. The work is in progress now. The ability is presented to carry out measurements up to Fe and Ni. As a result we expect to get important data about the abundance of the chemical elements in the cosmic rays.

  17. Selected Hanford reactor and separations operating data for 1960--1964

    SciTech Connect

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this letter report is to reconstruct from available information that data which can be used to develop daily reactor operating history for 1960--1964. The information needed for source team calculations (as determined by the Source Terms Task Leader) were extracted and included in this report. The data on the amount of uranium dissolved by the separations plants (expressed both as tons and as MW) is also included in this compilation.

  18. Selective Separation of Fe-Concentrates in EAF Slags Using Mechanical Dissimilarity of Solid Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung Suk; Jung, Keeyoung; Sohn, Il

    2017-02-01

    We sought to develop an optimized particle size-dependent separation method to lower the Fe content of pulverized glass-ceramic electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for its improved reclamation as construction materials by considering the structures and the mechanical behavior of the discrete solid phases. After an isothermal crystallization process to enhance the spinel growth, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured on the spinel and amorphous phases separately from the solidified slag using indentation methods. The characteristic differences in the hardness of the phases were magnified when this glass-ceramic composite was isothermally crystallized. The hardness of the spinel was observed to be lower in slags with higher FetO/Al2O3 mass ratios due to the triclinic unit cell expansion of the spinel, whereas the hardness of the amorphous phase decreased with increasing isothermal period because of the structural transformation into a silicate-dominant network. Fracture toughness could be calculated based on the hardness and crack length, where the Young's modulus was determined using nanoindentation. The amorphous phase with a lower Fe content and lower fracture toughness resulted in finer powder distribution after pulverization, allowing better separation of the primary crystalline spinel containing higher Fe content from the Fe-deficient amorphous phase according to the particle size.

  19. Size-selective separations of biological macromolecules on mesocylinder silica arrays.

    PubMed

    El-Safty, Sherif; Shenashen, M A

    2011-05-23

    In order to control the design functionality of mesocylinder filters for molecular sieving of proteins, we fabricated tight mesocylinder silica nanotube (NT) arrays as promising filter candidates for size-exclusion separation of high-concentration macromolecules, such as insulin (INS), α-amylase (AMY), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and myosin (MYO) proteins. In this study, hexagonal mesocylinder structures were fabricated successfully inside anodic alumina membrane (AAM) nanochannels using a variety of cationic and nonionic surfactants as templates. The systematic design of the nanofilters was based on densely patterned polar silane coupling agents ("linkers") onto the AAM nanochannels, leading to the fabrication of mesocylinder silica arrays with vertical alignment and open surfaces of top-bottom ends inside AAM. Further surface coating of silica NTs hybrid AAM with hydrophobic agents facilitated the production of extremely robust constructed sequences of membranes without the formation of air gaps among NT arrays. The fabricated membranes with impermeable coated layers, robust surfaces, and uniformly multidirectional cylinder pores in nanoscale sizes rapidly separate large quantities of proteins within seconds. Meanwhile, comprehensive factors that affect the performance of the molecular transport, diffusivity, and filtration rate through nanofilter membranes were discussed. The mesocylinder filters of macromolecules show promise for the efficient separation and molecular transport of large molecular weight and size as well as concentrations of proteins.

  20. Lignin-based microporous materials as selective adsorbents for carbon dioxide separation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing Bo; Weber, Jens

    2014-12-01

    Suitable solid adsorbents are demanded for carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. In this work, a novel microporous polymer is developed by hypercrosslinking of organosolv lignin, which is a renewable resource. Reaction with formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (FDA) via Friedel-Crafts reaction gives microporous networks, with moderate capacity of carbon dioxide but excellent selectivity towards CO2 /N2 mixture as predicted on the basis of ideal adsorption-solution theory (IAST). Pyrolysis of pure organosolv lignin results in microporous carbon powders, while pyrolysis of hypercrosslinked organosolv lignin yields shape-persistent materials with increased CO2 capacity while maintaining very good selectivity.

  1. Natural Gamma Emitters after a Selective Chemical Separation of a TENORM residue: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Alves de Freitas, Antonio; Abrao, Alcidio; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-08-07

    An analytical procedure was established in order to obtain selective fractions containing radium isotopes ({sup 228}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th), and rare earths from RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras), a solid residue rich in rare earth elements, thorium isotopes and small amount of natural uranium generated from the operation of a thorium pilot plant for purification and production of pure thorium nitrate at IPEN -CNEN/SP. The paper presents preliminary results of {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 40}K concentrations in the selective fractions and total residue determined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, considering radioactive equilibrium of the samples.

  2. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth L. Nash

    2009-09-22

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, 2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  3. Magnetically separable polymer (Mag-MIP) for selective analysis of biotin in food samples.

    PubMed

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina; Khan, Sabir; Wong, Ademar; Picasso, Gino; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an efficient method for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (Mag-MIP) through core-shell method for the determination of biotin in milk food samples. The functional monomer acrylic acid was selected from molecular modeling, EGDMA was used as cross-linking monomer and AIBN as radical initiator. The Mag-MIP and Mag-NIP were characterized by FTIR, magnetic hysteresis, XRD, SEM and N2-sorption measurements. The capacity of Mag-MIP for biotin adsorption, its kinetics and selectivity were studied in detail. The adsorption data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model with adsorption equilibrium constant (KF) of 1.46 mL g(-1). The selectivity experiments revealed that prepared Mag-MIP had higher selectivity toward biotin compared to other molecules with different chemical structure. The material was successfully applied for the determination of biotin in diverse milk samples using HPLC for quantification of the analyte, obtaining the mean value of 87.4% recovery.

  4. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen; Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jian; Schaef, Herbert T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nie, Zimin; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Chapman, Karena W.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Hayes, James C.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Krishna, Rajamani; McGrail, B. Peter; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-03-08

    A redox-active metal-organic composite material shows improved and selective O-2 adsorption over N-2 with respect to individual components (MIL-101 and ferrocene). The O-2 sensitivity of the composite material arises due to the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with the pore of the metal-organic framework material.

  5. Ion Selective Ceramics for Waste Separations. Input for Annual Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerke, Erik David

    2015-10-01

    This report discusses“Ion-Selective Ceramics for Waste Separations” which aims to develop an electrochemical approach to remove fission product waste (e.g., Cs+ ) from the LiCl-KCl molten salts used in the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Metal–organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Plonka, Anna M.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-06-13

    Nuclear energy is considered among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel based energy economy.1 The mass-deployment of nuclear energy as an emissions-free source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to mitigate the waste.2 One of the major concerns with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as Xe and Kr. The most mature process for removing these radionuclides is energy- and capital-intensive cryogenic distillation. Alternatively, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb Xe and Kr at ambient conditions.3-8 High-throughput computational screening of large databases of porous materials has identified a calcium-based nanoporous MOF, SBMOF-1, as the most selective for Xe over Kr.9,10 Here, we affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest Xe adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under relevant nuclear reprocessing conditions. The exceptional selectivity of SBMOF-1 is attributed to its pore size tailored to Xe and its dense wall of atoms that constructs a binding site with a high affinity for Xe, as evident by single crystal X-ray diffraction and molecular simulation.

  7. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  8. Control of selectivity via nanochemistry: monolithic capillary column containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for separation of proteins and enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Krenkova, Jana; Lacher, Nathan A; Svec, Frantisek

    2010-10-01

    New monolithic capillary columns with embedded commercial hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been developed and used for protein separation and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The rod-shaped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were incorporated into the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith by simply admixing them in the polymerization mixture followed by in situ polymerization. The effect of percentages of monomers and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monolithic column was explored in detail. We found that the loading capacity of the monolith is on par with other hydroxyapatite separation media. However, the speed at which these columns can be used is higher due to the fast mass transport. The function of the monolithic columns was demonstrated with the separations of a model mixture of proteins including ovalbumin, myoglobin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c as well as a monoclonal antibody and its aggregates with protein A. Selective enrichment and MALDI/MS characterization of phosphopeptides fished-out from complex peptide mixtures of ovalbumin, α-casein, and β-casein digests were also achieved using the hydroxyapatite monolith.

  9. Selective separation of Hg(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian Xian; Ye, Hong Qi; Huang, Nian Dong; Liu, Jun Feng; Zheng, Li Feng

    2009-07-01

    Complexation-ultrafiltration process was investigated to separate selectively Hg(II) and Cd(II) from binary metal solutions by using poly (acrylic acid) sodium salt as a complexing agent. Effects of operating parameters on selective separation factors (beta(Cd/Hg)) of the both metals have been examined in detail. Results indicated that loading rate, pH, concentration of salt added and low-molecular competitive complexing agent affect significantly beta(Cd/Hg) value. Further, a concentration experiment was carried out according to the previous optimum parameters. Rejection coefficient of mercury is close to 1, while that of cadmium is about 0.1. The experiment was characterized by good effectiveness, and enabled the rapid linear increase of mercury concentration and very slow increase of cadmium concentration in the retentate. Then, a diafiltration technique was applied to separate further the both metals. Cadmium concentration in the retentate declines sharply with the diafiltration volume, whereas for mercury it is the contrary.

  10. Toxaphene chemistry: separation and characterisation of selected enantiomers of the Polychloropinene mixtures.

    PubMed

    Trukhin, Alexey; Kruchkov, Fedor; Hansen, Lars Kr; Kallenborn, Roland; Kiprianova, Anastasia; Nikiforov, Vladimir

    2007-04-01

    The primary goal for the study presented here was the preparation and characterisation of enantiomeric pure chlorobornane standards (Toxaphene). In this context, we partially modeled the procedure for Polychloropinene production in the former USSR. The initial reaction was ionic addition of hydrogen chloride to (1S)-alpha-pinene resulting predominantly in (1S)-2-endo-chlorobornane. Further photochlorination gave mixtures of chlorinated terpenes with different average content of Cl per molecule. The resulting mixtures were separated on a silica-gel column and a number of known hepta to decachlorobornanes were identified in fractions with the help of NMR and GC (using electron capture and mass spectrometric detection)--but in very unusual ratios as compared to the technical Toxaphene mixture formerly produced by Hercules (USA). Also several previously unknown congeners were isolated or detected. Three of the isolated congeners were obtained in crystalline state and X-ray crystallography showed their enantiomeric purity.

  11. Separating mitochondrial protein assembly and endoplasmic reticulum tethering by selective coupling of Mdm10.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Lars; Opaliński, Łukasz; Becker, Lars; Krüger, Vivien; Mirus, Oliver; Straub, Sebastian P; Ebell, Katharina; Flinner, Nadine; Stiller, Sebastian B; Guiard, Bernard; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils; Schleiff, Enrico; Wagner, Richard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas

    2016-10-10

    The endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) connects the mitochondrial outer membrane with the ER. Multiple functions have been linked to ERMES, including maintenance of mitochondrial morphology, protein assembly and phospholipid homeostasis. Since the mitochondrial distribution and morphology protein Mdm10 is present in both ERMES and the mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery (SAM), it is unknown how the ERMES functions are connected on a molecular level. Here we report that conserved surface areas on opposite sides of the Mdm10 β-barrel interact with SAM and ERMES, respectively. We generated point mutants to separate protein assembly (SAM) from morphology and phospholipid homeostasis (ERMES). Our study reveals that the β-barrel channel of Mdm10 serves different functions. Mdm10 promotes the biogenesis of α-helical and β-barrel proteins at SAM and functions as integral membrane anchor of ERMES, demonstrating that SAM-mediated protein assembly is distinct from ER-mitochondria contact sites.

  12. Metal-organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Plonka, Anna M.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal-organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  13. Metal-organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M; Plonka, Anna M; Motkuri, Radha K; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B; Haranczyk, Maciej; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-06-13

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal-organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  14. Metal–organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation

    DOE PAGES

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Plonka, Anna M.; ...

    2016-06-13

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. In addition, the existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal–organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorbmore » xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal–organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing.« less

  15. Ion imprinted polymeric nanoparticles for selective separation and sensitive determination of zinc ions in different matrices.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2014-01-03

    Preparation of Zn(2+) ion-imprinted polymer (Zn-IIP) nanoparticles is presented in this report. The Zn-IIP nanoparticles are prepared by dissolving stoichiometric amounts of zinc nitrate and selected chelating ligand, 3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, in 15 mL ethanol-acetonitrile (2:1; v/v) mixture as a porogen solvent in the presence of ethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linking, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. After polymerization, Cavities in the polymer particles corresponding to the Zn(2+) ions were created by leaching the polymer in HCl aqueous solution. The synthesized IIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal analysis techniques. Also, the pH range for rebinding of Zn(2+) ion on the IIP and equilibrium binding time were optimized, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In selectivity study, it was found that imprinting results increased affinity of the material toward Zn(2+) ion over other competitor metal ions with the same charge and close ionic radius. The prepared IIPs were repeatedly used and regenerated for six times without any significant decrease in polymer binding affinities. Finally, the prepared sorbent was successfully applied to the selective recognition and determination of zinc ion in different real samples.

  16. Metal–organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Plonka, Anna M.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B.; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2016-06-13

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. In addition, the existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal–organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal–organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  17. Metal–organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Plonka, Anna M.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal–organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal–organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing. PMID:27291101

  18. What "works" in working memory? Separate systems for selection and updating of critical information.

    PubMed

    Bledowski, Christoph; Rahm, Benjamin; Rowe, James B

    2009-10-28

    Cognition depends critically on working memory, the active representation of a limited number of items over short periods of time. In addition to the maintenance of information during the course of cognitive processing, many tasks require that some of the items in working memory become transiently more important than others. Based on cognitive models of working memory, we hypothesized two complementary essential cognitive operations to achieve this: a selection operation that retrieves the most relevant item, and an updating operation that changes the focus of attention onto it. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, high-resolution oculometry, and behavioral analysis, we demonstrate that these two operations are functionally and neuroanatomically dissociated. Updating the attentional focus elicited transient activation in the caudal superior frontal sulcus and posterior parietal cortex. In contrast, increasing demands on selection selectively modulated activation in rostral superior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate/precuneus. We conclude that prioritizing one memory item over others invokes independent mechanisms of mnemonic retrieval and attentional focusing, each with its distinct neuroanatomical basis within frontal and parietal regions. These support the developing understanding of working memory as emerging from the interaction between memory and attentional systems.

  19. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained.

  20. Predictive framework for shape-selective separations in three-dimensional zeolites and metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    First, Eric L; Gounaris, Chrysanthos E; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2013-05-07

    With the growing number of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) available, computational methods are needed to screen databases of structures to identify those most suitable for applications of interest. We have developed novel methods based on mathematical optimization to predict the shape selectivity of zeolites and MOFs in three dimensions by considering the energy costs of transport through possible pathways. Our approach is applied to databases of over 1800 microporous materials including zeolites, MOFs, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, and hypothetical MOFs. New materials are identified for applications in gas separations (CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H2), air separation (O2/N2), and chemicals (propane/propylene, ethane/ethylene, styrene/ethylbenzene, and xylenes).

  1. Phenylamine-Functionalized rGO/TiO2 Photocatalysts: Spatially Separated Adsorption Sites and Tunable Photocatalytic Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huogen; Xiao, Pian; Tian, Jing; Wang, Fazhou; Yu, Jiaguo

    2016-11-02

    The preferential adsorption of targeted contaminants on a photocatalyst surface is highly required to realize its photocatalytic selective decomposition in a complex system. To realize the tunable preferential adsorption, altering the surface charge or polarity property of photocatalysts has widely been reported. However, it is quite difficult for a modified photocatalyst to realize the simultaneously preferential adsorption for both cationic and anionic dyes. In this study, to realize the selective adsorption for both cationic and anionic dyes on a photocatalyst surface, the negative reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and positive phenylamine (PhNH2) molecules are successfully loaded on the TiO2 surface (PhNH2/rGO-TiO2) with spatially separated adsorption sites, where the negative rGO and positive PhNH2 molecules work as the preferential adsorption sites for cationic and anionic dyes, respectively. It was interesting to find that although all the TiO2 samples (including the naked TiO2, PhNH2/TiO2, rGO-TiO2, and PhNH2/rGO-TiO2) clearly showed a better adsorption performance for cationic dyes than anionic dyes, only the PhNH2/rGO-TiO2 with spatially separated adsorption-active sites exhibited an opposite photocatalytic selectivity, namely, the naked TiO2, PhNH2/TiO2, and rGO-TiO2 showed a preferential decomposition for cationic dyes, while the resultant PhNH2/rGO-TiO2 exhibited an excellently selective decomposition for anionic dyes. In addition, the resultant PhNH2/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst not only realizes the tunable photocatalytic selectivity but also can completely and sequentially decompose the opposite cationic and anionic dyes.

  2. Selective interfacial synthesis of metal-organic frameworks on a polybenzimidazole hollow fiber membrane for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Bishnu P.; Bhaskar, Anand; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K.

    2015-04-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained immense attention as new age materials due to their tuneable properties and diverse applicability. However, efforts on developing promising materials for membrane based gas separation, and control over the crystal growth positions on polymeric hollow fiber membranes still remain key challenges. In this investigation, a new, convenient and scalable room temperature interfacial method for growing MOFs (ZIF-8 and CuBTC) on either the outer or inner side of a polybenzimidazole based hollow fiber (PBI-BuI-HF) membrane surface has been achieved in a controlled manner. This was made possible by the appropriate selection of an immiscible solvent pair and the synthetic conditions. The growth of MOFs on the PBI-BuI-HF membrane by the interfacial method was continuous and showed an appreciable gas separation performance, conveying promise for their applicability.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained immense attention as new age materials due to their tuneable properties and diverse applicability. However, efforts on developing promising materials for membrane based gas separation, and control over the crystal growth positions on polymeric hollow fiber membranes still remain key challenges. In this investigation, a new, convenient and scalable room temperature interfacial method for growing MOFs (ZIF-8 and CuBTC) on either the outer or inner side of a polybenzimidazole based hollow fiber (PBI-BuI-HF) membrane surface has been achieved in a controlled manner. This was made possible by the appropriate selection of an immiscible solvent pair and the synthetic conditions. The growth of MOFs on the PBI-BuI-HF membrane by the interfacial method was continuous and showed an appreciable gas separation performance, conveying promise for their applicability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00299k

  3. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption and separation of vanillin in food samples.

    PubMed

    Ning, Fangjian; Peng, Hailong; Dong, Liling; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Xiong, Hua

    2014-11-19

    Novel water-compatible superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were prepared by coating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with MIPs in a methanol-water reaction system. The M-MIPs were used for the selective adsorption and separation of vanillin from aqueous solution. The M-MIPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that a core-shell structure of M-MIPs was obtained by coating a layer of silica and MIPs on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The obtained M-MIPs possess a loose and porous structure and can be rapidly separated from the solution using a magnet. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of the M-MIPs was significantly higher than that of the superparamagnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (M-NIPs). Meanwhile, the adsorption of M-MIPs reached equilibrium within 100 min, and the apparent maximum adsorption quantity (Qmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were 64.12 μmol g(-1) and 58.82 μmol L(-1), respectively. The Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous binding sites were formed on the M-MIP surface. The recoveries of 83.39-95.58% were achieved when M-MIPs were used for the pre-concentration and selective separation of vanillin in spiked food samples. These results provided the possibility for the separation and enrichment of vanillin from complicated food matrices by M-MIPs.

  4. How to compare separation selectivity of high-performance liquid chromatographic columns properly?

    PubMed

    Andrić, Filip; Héberger, Károly

    2017-03-10

    Comparison and selection of chromatographic columns is an important part of development as well as validation of analytical methods. Presently there is abundant number of methods for selection of the most similar and orthogonal columns, based on the application of limited number of test compounds as well as quantitative structure retention relationship models (QSRR), from among Snyder's hydrophobic-subtraction model (HSM) have been most extensively used. Chromatographic data of 67 compounds were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), non-parametric ranking methods as sum of ranking differences (SRD) and generalized pairwise correlation method (GPCM), both applied as a consensus driven comparison, and complemented by the comparison with one variable at a time (COVAT) approach. The aim was to compare the ability of the HSM approach and the approach based on primary retention data of test solutes (logk values) to differentiate among ten highly similar C18 columns. The ranking (clustering) pattern of chromatographic columns based on primary retention data and HSM parameters gave different results in all instances. Patterns based on retention coefficients were in accordance with expectations based on columns' physicochemical parameters, while HSM parameters provided a different clustering. Similarity indices calculated from the following dissimilarity measures: SRD, GPCM Fisher's conditional exact probability weighted (CEPW) scores; Euclidian, Manhattan, Chebyshev, and cosine distances; Pearson's, Spearman's, and Kendall's, correlation coefficients have been ranked by the consensus based SRD. Analysis of variance confirmed that the HSM model produced statistically significant increases of SRD values for the majority of similarity indices, i.e. HS transformation of original retention data yields significant loss of information, and finally results in lower performance of HSM methodology. The best similarity measures were

  5. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-31

    Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

  6. Separation of alcohol-water mixtures by selective adsorption. Semi-annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, R.J.

    1982-03-23

    The intent is to chemically modify polyvinyl chloride so as to convert it to a material capable of selectively adsorbing ethyl alcohol from alcohol-water mixtures. This concept differs from the more conventional technique in which water is absorbed from the mixture by, for example, molecular sieves. The approach is to attempt to remove alcohol from mixtures containing a low percentage of alcohol. Such a solution might originate directly from the fermentation process and contain approximately 10% alcohol, or it might consist of distillation residues containing low alcohol concentrations that are uneconomical to handle by further distillation.

  7. Separation, real-time migration monitoring and selective zone retrieval using a computer controlled system for automated analysis.

    PubMed

    Gombocz, E; Cortez, E

    1995-01-01

    High throughput routine analysis of dsDNA fragments or molecular weight determination of proteins via electrophoresis still require significant efforts to obtain results of high reproducibility and accuracy. This paper analyses the use of a fully automated multi-purpose real-time gel electrophoresis system in these applications and evaluates the benefits of this new concept for routine and research. By comparing currently used systems with this new approach, it also addresses the analytical use of information resulting from real-time dynamic migration monitoring via fluorescence photometry over commonly obtained results from post-run fixation, visualization and evaluation at a single time of the separation. The simultaneous separation of components in multi-gel systems, pre-concentration of sample components, and the ability to perform in-gel assays for biological activity are discussed on basis of routine gel separations of restriction enzyme digested DNA fragments, native and denaturing protein separations and enzyme activity determination. Interactive, selective retrieval of separated components in the nano- to microgram range is carried out for real-time isolation of proteins or dsDNA fragments. Results are compared to blotting in respect to ease of use and transfer efficiency and for immediate availability of macromolecules for sequencing or mass spectroscopy. The Windows-based operating software is critically reviewed for functionality, user-friendliness, graphical data representation and GLP compliance for LIMS oriented forensic or certified laboratories. A statistical evaluation of lane-to-lane and gel-to-gel reproducibility of mobility data, quantification and molecular weight determination concludes the paper.

  8. Developing imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the selective separation of antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Haq, Isma; Mujahid, Adnan; Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Hussain, Tajamal; Shehzad, Khurram; Ashraf, Hadia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles are designed for selective recognition of different drugs used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, i.e. sitagliptin (SG) and metformin (MF). The SG- and MF-imprinted polymer nanoparticles are synthesized by free-radical initiated polymerization of the functional monomers: methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate; and the crosslinker: ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The surface morphology of resultant MIP nanoparticles is studied by atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra of MIP nanoparticles suggest the presence of reversible, non-covalent interactions between the template and the polymer. The effect of pH on the rebinding of antidiabetic drugs with SG- and MF-imprinted polymers is investigated to determine the optimal experimental conditions. The molecular recognition characteristics of SG- and MF-imprinted polymers for the respective drug targets are determined at low concentrations of SG (50-150 ppm) and MF (5-100 ppm). In both cases, the MIP nanoparticles exhibit higher binding response compared to non-imprinted polymers. Furthermore, the MIPs demonstrate high selectivity with four fold higher responses toward imprinted drugs targets, respectively. Recycled MIP nanoparticles retain 90% of their drug-binding efficiency, which makes them suitable for successive analyses with significantly preserved recognition features.

  9. Selective separation of flavonoid glycosides in Dalbergia odorifera by matrix solid-phase dispersion using titania.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyan; Shi, Hui; Liang, Tu; Feng, Jiatao; Jin, Yu; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2011-06-01

    Dalbergia odorifera contains high concentrations of flavonoid aglycones and trace flavonoid glycosides. In this study, trace flavonoid glycosides were separated from D. odorifera by titania with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). Before the MSPD experiment, four standards, including two isoflavone glycosides (genistin and formononetin-8-C-apiosyl (1-6)-glucoside) and their aglycones (genistein and formononetin), were used to compare their retention on a titania column. The effect of acetonitrile concentration and pH on their retention was investigated and a conclusion was drawn that high acetonitrile concentration and pH lead to the greatest difference in the retention of flavonoid as glycosides and aglycones. Besides hydrophilic interaction and ligand-exchange interaction may exist between sugar moiety of flavonoid glycoside and titania, so that flavonoid glycosides have stronger retention than that of aglycones. Based on the chromatographic rule of flavonoid as glycosides and aglycones on the titania column, the MSPD method was optimized to elute high concentration flavonoid aglycones first with 90% acetonitrile and 10% water containing 100 mM ammonium acetate buffer, and then to elute trace flavonoid glycosides with 20% acetonitrile and 80% water containing 1% trifluoroacetate (TFA). Isolated flavonoid glycosides were further analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS, and their fragmentation in MS(2) showed they are C-glycosyl flavonoids.

  10. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg.

  11. Nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber for selective binding and rapid separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Wang, Hong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-31

    In the current study, a novel nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-Ni(2+)) was prepared in a simple way based on the coordination effect between Ni(2+) and thiol group on the surface of SCF. The composition and element mapping of SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were demonstrated by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Based on the high affinity of Ni(2+) to 6×His on histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins, SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were then further used as an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) adsorbent for selective binding and rapid separation of His-tagged proteins using an in- pipette-tip SPE format. Our results showed that SCF-Ni(2+) adsorbent can selectively capture His-tagged proteins from protein mixture and Escherichia coli cell lysates. Taken together, the developed method provides a rapid, convenient and efficient approach for the purification of His-tagged proteins.

  12. Mechanical- and oil-durable superhydrophobic polyester materials for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    The low stability and complicated fabrication procedures seriously hindered practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we present a facile approach for preparing durable superhydrophobic polyester materials by dip-coating in a nanocomposite solution of polymerized tetraethoxysilane and n-hexadecyltriethoxysilane. The coated samples exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, mechanical and chemical stabilities. This is attributed to the tight binding of the nanocomposite on the polyester fibers and the inherent stability of silicone. The coated samples can quickly absorb petrol, diesel and crude oil, and show very high selectivity in oil/water separation. In addition, the coated samples could maintain their superhydrophobicity, oil absorption capacity and oil/water selectivity after harsh mechanical damage, 90 days of immersion in oils and ten cycles of absorption-desorption. Moreover, this approach is simple and can be easily scaled up for producing samples on a large size, which makes it very promising for practical oil absorption.

  13. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  14. Separation of selected imidazole enantiomers using dual cyclodextrin system in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Abd Wahib, Siti Munirah; Hermawan, Dadan; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-06-01

    Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) method was developed for simultaneous enantioseparation of three imidazole drugs namely tioconazole, isoconazole and fenticonazole. Three easily available and inexpensive cyclodextrins namely 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD) and heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) were evaluated to discriminate the six stereoisomers of the drugs. However, none of the three CDs gave a complete enantioseparation of the drugs. Effective enantioseparation of tioconazole, isoconazole and fenticonazole was achieved using a combination of 35 mM HP-γ-CD and 10 mM DM-β-CD as chiral selectors. The best separation using both HP-γ-CD and DM-β-CD (35 mM:10 mM) as chiral selectors were accomplished in background electrolyte (BGE) containing 35 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 15% (v/v) acetonitrile at 27 kV and 30 °C with all peaks resolved in less than 15 min with resolutions, Rs 1.90-27.22 and peak efficiencies, N > 180 000. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 25-200 mg l(-1) (r(2) > 0.998) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the three imidazole drugs were found to be 2.7-7.7 mg l(-1). The CD-MEKC method was successfully applied to the determination of the three imidazole drugs in spiked human urine sample and commercial cream formulation of tioconazole and isoconazole with good recovery (93.6-106.2%) and good RSDs ranging from 2.30-6.8%.

  15. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  16. Complexes of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Cellulose Nanocrystals as Regenerable, Highly Efficient, and Selective Platform for Protein Separation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiaqi; Filpponen, Ilari; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Mohammadi, Pezhman; Latikka, Mika; Linder, Markus B; Ras, Robin H A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2017-03-13

    We present an efficient approach to develop cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) hybrids with magnetically responsive Fe3O4 nanoparticles that were synthesized using the (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+)) coprecipitation. After 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-catalyzed oxidation of CNC, carbodiimide (EDC/NHS) was used for coupling amine-containing iron oxide nanoparticles that were achieved by dopamine ligand exchange (NH2-Fe3O4 NPs). The as-prepared hybrids (Fe3O4@CNC) were further complexed with Cu(II) ions to produce specific protein binding sites. The performance of magnetically responsive Cu-Fe3O4@CNC hybrids was assessed by selectively separating lysozyme from aqueous media. The hybrid system displayed a remarkable binding capacity with lysozyme of 860.6 ± 14.6 mg/g while near full protein recovery (∼98%) was achieved by simple elution. Moreover, the regeneration of Fe3O4@CNC hybrids and efficient reutilization for protein separation was demonstrated. Finally, lysozyme separation from matrices containing egg white was achieved, thus revealing the specificity and potential of the presented method.

  17. Development of hydrophobicity and selective separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics by mild heat treatment after PAC coating and froth flotation.

    PubMed

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2017-01-05

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing chlorine can release highly toxic materials and persistent organic pollutants if improperly disposed of. The combined technique of powder activated carbon (PAC) coating and mild heat treatment has been found to selectively change the surface hydrophobicity of PVC, enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from heavy plastic mixtures included polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) by means of froth flotation. The combined treatments helped to rearrange the surface components and make PVC more hydrophobic, while the remaining plastics became more hydrophilic. After the treatments at 150°C for 80s the contact angle of the PVC was greatly increased from 90.5 to 97.9°. The SEM and AFM reveal that the surface morphology and roughness changes on the PVC surface. XPS and FT-IR results further confirmed an increase of hydrophobic functional groups on the PVC surface. At the optimized froth flotation and subsequent mixing at 150rpm, 100% of PVC was recovered from the remaining plastic mixture with 93.8% purity. The combined technique can provide a simple and effective method for the selective separation of PVC from heavy plastics mixtures to facilitate easy industrial recycling.

  18. Separation of Arsenic from the Antimony-Bearing Dust through Selective Oxidation Using CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Da-Peng; Li, Lei; Tan, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    A pyrometallurgical process of selective oxidation roasting of the antimony-bearing dust using CuO is put forward, in which the antimony component is oxidized to Sb2O4 staying in the roasted residue, and arsenic is volatilized in the form of As2O3. The addition of CuO has an active effect on the arsenic volatilization, because structures of some complicated As-Sb phases in the dust are destroyed after the "Sb" component in them is oxidized to Sb2O4, and this part of arsenic might be transformed to As2O3, which continues to volatilize. However, the arsenic volatilization rate decreases with the CuO amount in a certain range, which is attributed to the greater formation of Cu3 (AsO4)2 and Cu3As. Under the conditions of roasting temperature of 673 K (400 °C), roasting time of 100 minutes, CuO amount of 34.54 mass pct, and N2 flow rate of 30 mL/min, 91.50 pct arsenic and only 8.63 pct antimony go into the smoke.

  19. Separation of Arsenic from the Antimony-Bearing Dust through Selective Oxidation Using CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Da-Peng; Li, Lei; Tan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    A pyrometallurgical process of selective oxidation roasting of the antimony-bearing dust using CuO is put forward, in which the antimony component is oxidized to Sb2O4 staying in the roasted residue, and arsenic is volatilized in the form of As2O3. The addition of CuO has an active effect on the arsenic volatilization, because structures of some complicated As-Sb phases in the dust are destroyed after the "Sb" component in them is oxidized to Sb2O4, and this part of arsenic might be transformed to As2O3, which continues to volatilize. However, the arsenic volatilization rate decreases with the CuO amount in a certain range, which is attributed to the greater formation of Cu3 (AsO4)2 and Cu3As. Under the conditions of roasting temperature of 673 K (400 °C), roasting time of 100 minutes, CuO amount of 34.54 mass pct, and N2 flow rate of 30 mL/min, 91.50 pct arsenic and only 8.63 pct antimony go into the smoke.

  20. Selective flotation-separation and spectrophotometric determination of cadmium using phenanthraquinone monophenythiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Akl, M A; Khalifa, M E; Ghazy, S E; Hassanien, M M

    2002-11-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive procedure is described for the preconcentration by flotation followed by spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of Cd(II). Cadmium forms an intense red 1:2 complex with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH > or = 6. The colored Cd-PPT complex was floated quantitatively with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant at pH 6.5, exhibiting maximum absorbance at 520 nm and having a molar absorptivity of 2.4 x 10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The stability constant of the formed complex is 1.5 x 10(12); log K = 12.2. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range 0.01-0.34 mg/L. The Sandell sensitivity and relative standard deviation are 0.4 ng/cm2 and 2.6%, respectively. The results obtained spectrophotometrically were compared to those obtained by AAS analysis. The analytical parameters affecting flotation and hence determination have been thoroughly investigated. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of Cd(II) traces in certified and real human hair samples as well as in natural waters. The structure of the complex formed and the mechanism of flotation were proposed.

  1. Using a Buffer Gas Modifier to Change Separation Selectivity in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto; Wu, Ching; Hill, Herbert H.

    2010-01-01

    The mobilities of a set of common α-amino acids, four tetraalkylammonium ions, 2,4-dimethyl pyridine (2,4-lutidine), 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine (DTBP), and valinol were determined using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-QMS) while introducing 2-butanol into the buffer gas. The mobilities of the test compounds decreased by varying extents with 2-butanol concentration in the mobility spectrometer. When the concentration of 2-butanol increased from 0.0 to 6.8 mmol m−3 (2.5×102 ppmv), percentage reductions in mobilities were: 13.6% (serine), 12.2% (threonine), 10.4% (methionine), 10.3% (tyrosine), 9.8% (valinol), 9.2% (phenylalanine), 7.8% (tryptophan), 5.6% (2,4-lutidine), 2.2% (DTBP), 1.0% (tetramethylammonium ion, TMA, and tetraethylammonium ion, TEA), 0.0% (tetrapropylammonium ion, TPA), and 0.3% (tetrabutylammonium ion, TBA). These variations in mobility depended on the size and steric hindrance on the charge of the ions, and were due to formation of large ion-2-butanol clusters. This selective variation in mobilities was applied to the resolution of a mixture of compounds with similar reduced mobilities such as serine and valinol, which overlapped in N2-only buffer gas in the IMS spectrum. The relative insensitivity of tetraalkylammonium ions and DTBP to the introduction of 2-butanol into the buffer gas was explained by steric hindrance of the four alkyl substituents in tetraalkylammonium ions and the two tert-butyl groups in DTBP, which shielded the positive charge of the ion from the attachment of 2-butanol molecules. Low buffer gas temperatures (100 °C) produced the largest reductions in mobilities by increasing ion-2-butanol interactions and formation of clusters; high temperatures (250 °C) prevented the formation of clusters, and no reduction in ion mobility was obtained with the introduction of 2-butanol into the buffer gas. Low temperatures and high concentrations of 2-butanol produced a series of

  2. The analysis of various size, visually selected and density and magnetically separated fractions of Luna 16 and 20 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Gowar, A. P.; Jull, A. J. T.; Pillinger, C. T.; Agrell, S. O.; Agrell, J. E.; Long, J. V. P.; Bowie, S. H. U.; Simpson, P. R.; Beckinsale, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of Luna 16 and 20 have been separated according to size, visual appearance, density, and magnetic susceptibility. Selected aliquots were examined in eight British laboratories. The studies included mineralogy and petrology, selenochronology, magnetic characteristics, Mossbauer spectroscopy, oxygen isotope ratio determinations, cosmic ray track and thermoluminescence investigations, and carbon chemistry measurements. Luna 16 and 20 are typically mare and highland soils, comparing well with their Apollo counterparts, Apollo 11 and 16, respectively. Both soils are very mature (high free iron, carbide, and methane and cosmogenic Ar), while Luna 16, but not Luna 20, is characterized by a high content of glassy materials. An aliquot of anorthosite fragments, handpicked from Luna 20, had a gas retention age of about 4.3 plus or minus 0.1 Gy.

  3. Wide Angle, Single Screen, Gridded Square-Loop Frequency Selective Surface for Diplexing Two Closely Separated Frequency Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The design and performance of a wide angle, single screen, frequency selective surface (FSS) with gridded square-loop path elements are described for diplexing closely separated signal bands, for example, X- and Ku-band signals in an Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (OVLBI) earth station reflector antenna system, as well as other applications such as military and commercial communications via satellites. Excellent agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured results of this FSS design using the gridded square-loop patch elements sandwiched between 0.0889 cm thick tetrafluoroethylene fluorocarbon polymer (PTFE) slabs. Resonant frequency drift is reduced by 1 GHz with an incidence angle from 0 deg normal to 40 deg from normal.

  4. Selective separation of copper(II) and nickel(II) from aqueous media using the complexation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Raffaele; Poerio, Teresa; Argurio, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The polyethylenimine (PEI) as complexing agent was used to study the complexation-ultrafiltration (CP-UF) process in the selective removal of Cu(II) from Ni(II) contained in aqueous media. Preliminary tests showed that optimal chemical conditions for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexation by the PEI polymer were pH>6.0 and 8.0, respectively, and polymer/metal weight ratio of 3.0 and 6.0, respectively. The effect of some important operating parameters on process selectivity was studied by performing UF tests at different parameters: pH, polymer/metal weight ratio, transmembrane pressure (TMP), and membrane cut-off in a batch experimental set-up. It was observed that process selectivity was achieved by choosing the pH value for obtaining a preferential copper complexation (pH 6.0), and the polymer/metal ratio needed to bound only the copper ion (3.0). The selective separation by UF tests was performed by using both a laboratory aqueous solution and a real aqueous effluent (water from Emoli torrent, Rende (CS)). The Iris 30 membrane at TMP of 200 kPa (2 bar) for both aqueous media gave the best results. A complete nickel recovery was reached, and copper recovery was the highest for this membrane (94% and 92%). Besides at this pressure, a lower water amount was needed to obtain total nickel recovery by diafiltration. A little higher membrane fouling was obtained by using the river effluent due to the presence of dissolved organic and inorganic matter.

  5. Development of a fast and selective separation method to determine histamine in tuna fish samples using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Piovezan, Marcel; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Micke, Gustavo A

    2013-03-15

    This paper reports on the development of a fast and selective separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of histamine in tuna fish samples. The background electrolyte was composed of 60 mmol L(-1) hydroxyisobutyric acid and 10 mmol L(-1) sodium hydroxide at pH 3.3. The internal standard used was imidazole. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary (32 cm total length, 8.5 cm effective length and 50 μm internal diameter) with direct UV detection at 210 nm. The samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically (50 mbar, 3s) from the outlet capillary end (nearest to the detector) and the electrophoretic system was operated under normal polarity and constant voltage conditions of 30 kV (positive polarity on the injection side). The migration time of histamine in the proposed method was only 0.34 min. The method was then validated and different tuna fish samples were analyzed. Good linearity (R(2)>0.999), a limit of detection 0.14 mg L(-1), intra-day precision better than 3.5% (peak area of sample), and recovery in the range of 94-108% were obtained. The results of the histamine concentration determined in the samples by the CZE method were compared with the LC-MS/MS method.

  6. Well-defined nanostructured surface-imprinted polymers for highly selective magnetic separation of fluoroquinolones in human urine.

    PubMed

    He, Yonghuan; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Liu, Xiangjun; Liu, Guoquan; Zhao, Rui

    2014-06-25

    The construction of molecularly imprinted polymers on magnetic nanoparticles gives access to smart materials with dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the superparamagnetic surface-molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were prepared via surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using ofloxacin (OFX) as template for the separation of fluoroquinolones (FQs). Benefiting from the living/controlled nature of RAFT reaction, distinct core-shell structure was successfully constructed. The highly uniform nanoscale MIP layer was homogeneously grafted on the surface of RAFT agent TTCA modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, which favors the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The target binding assays demonstrate the desirable adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of Fe3O4@MIP. High selectivity of Fe3O4@MIP toward FQs (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and gatifloxacin) was exhibited by competitive binding assay. The Fe3O4@MIP nanoparticles were successfully applied for the direct enrichment of five FQs from human urine. The spiked human urine samples were determined and the recoveries ranging from 83.1 to 103.1% were obtained with RSD of 0.8-8.2% (n = 3). This work provides a versatile approach for the fabrication of well-defined MIP on nanomaterials for the analysis of complicated biosystems.

  7. Mechanistic Investigation of Solvent Extraction Based on Anion-Functionalized Ionic Liquids for Selective Separation of Rare-Earth Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, solvation has been found to be a dominant mechanism in a comprehensive ionic liquid based extraction system for rare earth elements (REEs). Trioctylmethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([TOMA][DEHP]), an ionic-liquid extractant, was used in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Cnmim][NTf2], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][BETI], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) for the separation of REEs. Surprisingly, a very similar extraction behavior was observed even as the carbon chain length on the ionic-liquid (IL) cation increased from butyl (C4) to hexyl (C6), to octyl (C8), to decyl (C10). This behavior is in sharp contrast to that exhibited by the conventional neutral extractants, whose extraction efficiencies are strongly dependent on the hydrophobicity of IL cations. Furthermore, the addition of IL cations ([Cnmim]+) or IL anions ([NTf2]- or [BETI]-) to the aqueous phase had little effect on the extraction behavior of the above extraction system, ruling out the strong involvement of the ion-exchange mechanism associated with traditional IL-based extraction systems. Results showed that the extractabilities and selectivities of REEs using [TOMA][DEHP] in [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI] are several orders of magnitude better than those achieved using conventional organic solvent, diisopropylbenzene (DIPB). This study highlights the potential of developing a comprehensive IL-based extraction strategy for REEs separations.

  8. Methyl parathion imprinted polymer nanoshell coated on the magnetic nanocore for selective recognition and fast adsorption and separation in soils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiying; Guo, Changjuan; Li, Yongxian; Yu, Zerong; Wei, Chaohai; Tang, Youwen

    2014-01-15

    Core-shell magnetic methyl parathion (MP) imprinted polymers (Fe3O4@MPIPs) were fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. In order to take full advantage of the synergistic effect of hydrogen-binding interactions and π-π accumulation between host and guest for molecular recognition, methacrylic acid and 4-vinyl pyridine were chosen as co-functional monomers and their optimal proportion were investigated. The core-shell and crystalline structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Fe3O4@MPIPs were characterized. The MP-imprinted nanoshell was almost uniform and about 100nm thick. Binding experiments demonstrated that Fe3O4@MPIPs possessed excellent binding properties, including high adsorption capacity and specific recognition, as well as fast adsorption kinetics and a fast phase separation rate. The equilibration adsorption capacity reached up to 9.1mg/g, which was 12 times higher than that of magnetic non-imprinted polymers, while adsorption reached equilibrium within 5min at a concentration of 0.2mmol/L. Furthermore, Fe3O4@MPIPs successfully provided selective separation and removal of MP in soils with a recovery and detection limit of 81.1-87.0% and 5.2ng/g, respectively.

  9. A Tri-Band Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) to Diplex Widely Separated Bands for Millimeter Wave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poojali, Jayaprakash; Ray, Shaumik; Pesala, Bala; Chitti, Krishnamurthy V.; Arunachalam, Kavitha

    2016-10-01

    A substrate-backed frequency selective surface (FSS) is presented for diplexing the widely separated frequency spectrum centered at 55, 89, and 183 GHz with varying bandwidth for spatial separation in the quasi-optical feed network of the millimeter wave sounder. A unit cell composed of a crossed dipole integrated with a circular ring and loaded inside a square ring is optimized for tri-band frequency response with transmission window at 89 GHz and rejection windows at 55 and 183 GHz. The reflection and transmission losses predicted for the optimized unit cell (728 μm × 728 μm) composed of dissimilar resonant shapes is less than 0.5 dB for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations and wide angle of incidence (0°-45°). The FSS is fabricated on a 175-μm-thick quartz substrate using microfabrication techniques. The transmission characteristics measured with continuous wave (CW) terahertz transmit receive system are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  10. Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, novel magnetic polymeric core-shell structured microspheres with immobilized Ce(IV), Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV), were designed rationally and synthesized successfully via a facile route for the first time. Magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were first prepared by directly coating a thin layer of silica onto Fe3O4 magnetic particles using a sol-gel method, a poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) shell was then coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres to form Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through a radical polymerization reaction, and finally Ce(IV) ions were robustly immobilized onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through strong chelation between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties in the PVPA. The applicability of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides from proteolytic digests of standard and real protein samples was investigated. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres with abundant Ce(IV) affinity sites and excellent magnetic responsiveness can effectively purify phosphopeptides from complex biosamples for MS detection taking advantage of the rapid magnetic separation and the selective affinity between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties of the phosphopeptides. Furthermore, they can be effectively recycled and show good reusability, and have better performance than commercial TiO2 beads and homemade Fe3O4@PMAA-Ce(IV) microspheres. Thus the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres can benefit greatly the mass spectrometric qualitative analysis of phosphopeptides in phosphoproteome research.

  11. Selective Breeding for Infant Rat Separation-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations: Developmental Precursors of Passive and Active Coping Styles

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Susan A.; Hofer, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate “anxious”/“depressed” phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an “aggressive” phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting “coping styles” with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID

  12. Computational identification of a metal organic framework for high selectivity membrane-based CO2/CH4 separations: Cu(hfipbb)(H2hfipbb)0.5.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Taku; Keskin, Seda; Nair, Sankar; Sholl, David S

    2009-12-28

    The identification of membrane materials with high selectivity for CO(2)/CH(4) mixtures could revolutionize this industrially important separation. We predict using computational methods that a metal organic framework (MOF), Cu(hfipbb)(H(2)hfipbb)(0.5), has unprecedented selectivity for membrane-based separation of CO(2)/CH(4) mixtures. Our calculations combine molecular dynamics, transition state theory, and plane wave DFT calculations to assess the importance of framework flexibility in the MOF during molecular diffusion. This combination of methods should also make it possible to identify other MOFs with attractive properties for kinetic separations.

  13. Efficient 3M PBS enhancing miniature projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Zhisheng; Nevitt, Timothy; Willett, Stephen; Mortenson, Dave; Le, John; McDowell, Erin; Kent, Susan; Wong, Timothy; Beniot, Gilles J.; Ouderkirk, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, 3M has developed a number of mobile projectors, with a goal towards providing the world's smallest, most efficient projection systems. Compact size and efficiency are required characteristics for projection systems used in mobile devices and more lately, in augmented reality systems. In this paper we summarize the main generations of 3M light engine optical designs. We present the optical architectures of four light engines, including the rationale behind the illumination designs and the projection systems. In particular, we describe various configurations relating to the 3M polarizing beam splitter (PBS) which is key to enhanced efficiency of the miniature projection systems.

  14. Summarizing results on the performance of a selective set of atmospheric plasma jets for separation of photons and reactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Simon; Jarzina, Fabian; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Golda, Judith; Layes, Vincent; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth; Benedikt, Jan

    2015-11-01

    A microscale atmospheric-pressure plasma jet is a remote plasma jet, where plasma-generated reactive particles and photons are involved in substrate treatment. Here, we summarize our efforts to develop and characterize a particle- or photon-selective set of otherwise identical jets. In that way, the reactive species or photons can be used separately or in combination to study their isolated or combined effects to test whether the effects are additive or synergistic. The final version of the set of three jets—particle-jet, photon-jet and combined jet—is introduced. This final set realizes the highest reproducibility of the photon and particle fluxes, avoids turbulent gas flow, and the fluxes of the selected plasma-emitted components are almost identical in the case of all jets, while the other component is effectively blocked, which was verified by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Schlieren-imaging and a fluid dynamics simulation show the stability of the gas flow. The performance of these selective jets is demonstrated with the example of the treatment of E. coli bacteria with the different components emitted by a He-only, a He/N2 and a He/O2 plasma. Additionally, measurements of the vacuum UV photon spectra down to the wavelength of 50 nm can be made with the photon-jet and the relative comparison of spectral intensities among different gas mixtures is reported here. The results will show that the vacuum UV photons can lead to the inactivation of the E.coli bacteria.

  15. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from ash and pyrite. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.; Raichur, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    The selective separation of pyrite and ash-forming minerals from coal can be accomplished by flotation, agglomeration and selective flocculation. The methods currently used for selective flocculation of coals include addition of natural or synthetic polymeric flocculants along with precise pH control. In some cases, these flocculants are nonselective or work imperfectly. It is known that many highly charged planktonic algae and bacteria will adhere to certain solid surfaces if the charge or hydrophobic interaction between the organism and the solids are favorable for adhesion. The resultant microorganism-mineral entities, if formed, can flocculate and can be separated. In addition, many living organisms produce extracellular biopolymers that can also cause flocculation. The microorganism, M. phlei, has the properties of being both highly charged and highly hydrophobic. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effectiveness of M. phlei and biopolymers derived from the organism for selective flocculation and separation of fine coal from pyrite and ash.

  16. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective separation and determination of metronidazole in cosmetic samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jun-Jie; Su, Xiao-Meng; Wu, Zong-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Lei, Fu-Hou; Tan, Xue-Cai; Shi, Zhan-Wang

    2015-05-01

    In this study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were developed as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and used for the selective separation of metronidazole (MNZ) in cosmetics; MNZ was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the co-precipitation of Fe(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in an ammonia solution; then oleic acid (OA) was modified onto the surface of Fe3O4NPs. Finally, the MMIP was prepared by aqueous suspension polymerization, involving the copolymerization of Fe3O4NPs@OA with MNZ as the template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol maleic rosinate acrylate (EGMRA) as the cross-linking agent, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The MMIP materials showed high selective adsorption capacity and fast binding kinetics for MNZ; the maximum adsorption amount of the MMIP to MNZ was 46.7 mg/g. The assay showed a linear range from 0.1 to 20.0 μg/mL for MNZ with the correlation coefficient 0.999. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of intra- and inter-day ranging from 0.71 to 2.45% and from 1.06 to 5.20% were obtained. The MMIP can be applied to the enrichment and determination of MNZ in cosmetic products with the recoveries of spiked toner, powder, and cream cosmetic samples ranging from 90.6 to 104.2, 84.1 to 91.4, and 90.3 to 100.4%, respectively, and the RSD was <3.54%.

  17. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  18. Disperse fine equiaxed alpha alumina nanoparticles with narrow size distribution synthesised by selective corrosion and coagulation separation

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Sanxu; Li, Lu; Ma, Ji; Lu, Fuliang; Li, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with narrow size distribution are important materials in nanotechnology and nanomaterials, but syntheses of disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles usually result in fine γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles or large α-Al2O3 nanoparticles larger than 15 nm. α-Al2O3 has a higher surface energy than γ-Al2O3 and becomes thermodynamically not stable with respect to γ-Al2O3 at specific surface areas larger than 100 m2/g (at sizes smaller than 15 nm for spherical particles) at room temperature. So disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles smaller than 15 nm with narrow size distribution are extremely difficult to synthesise. Here we show the successful synthesis of disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with average sizes below 10 nm and narrow size distribution by selective corrosion and refined fractionated coagulation separation. An almost fully dense nanocrystalline α-Al2O3 ceramic with a relative density of 99.5% and an average grain size of 60 nm can be sintered from disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. PMID:26166455

  19. Identification of RNase-resistant RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts: Separation from chromosomal DNA by selective precipitation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Blanca V; Malczewskyj, Eric T; Cabiya, Joshua M; Lewis, L Kevin; Maeder, Corina

    2016-01-01

    High-quality chromosomal DNA is a requirement for many biochemical and molecular biological techniques. To isolate cellular DNA, standard protocols typically lyse cells and separate nucleic acids from other biological molecules using a combination of chemical and physical methods. After a standard chemical-based protocol to isolate chromosomal DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then treatment with RNase A to degrade RNA, two RNase-resistant bands persisted when analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Interestingly, such resistant bands did not appear in preparations of Escherichia coli bacterial DNA after RNase treatment. Several enzymatic, chemical, and physical methods were employed in an effort to remove the resistant RNAs, including use of multiple RNases and alcohol precipitation, base hydrolysis, and chromatographic methods. These experiments resulted in the development of a new method for isolation of S. cerevisiae chromosomal DNA. This method utilizes selective precipitation of DNA in the presence of a potassium acetate/isopropanol mixture and produces high yields of chromosomal DNA without detectable contaminating RNAs.

  20. Selective separation of ABS/PC containing BFRs from ABSs mixture of WEEE by developing hydrophilicity with ZnO coating under microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-05-05

    This study reports a simple and facile method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS-based plastics (blends of ABS) in waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) by froth flotation after inducing hydrophilization by ZnO coating under microwave treatment. ABS-based plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can release hazardous substances, such as hydrogen bromide and brominated dioxins, during disposal or recycling activities. ABS and ABS-based plastics are typical styrene plastics with similar properties and it is, therefore, difficult to separate them selectively for recycling. We used 2-min microwave treatment to rearrange and change the molecular mobility on the surface of the ZnO-coated ABS with increased hydrophilic surfaces, which eased the selective separation of the ABS/polycarbonate (PC) blend containing BFRs from the remaining plastics. Therefore, the combined ZnO coating and microwave treatments can facilitate the selective separation of ABS/PC blend plastics with a recovery and purity of 100% and 91.7%, respectively, in a short flotation time of 2min. Based on these findings, the combination of ZnO coating-microwave treatment and froth flotation can be applied for the selective separation of ABS-based plastics, leading to improved plastic recycling quality.

  1. Unusual trend of increasing selectivity and decreasing flux with decreasing thickness in pervaporation separation of ethanol/water mixtures using sodium alginate blend membranes.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Eoin J; Keane, Donal; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

    2012-03-15

    Pervaporation membranes were produced comprising a 4:1 sodium-alginate:poly(vinyl-alcohol) polymer blend selective layer with a plasticizing agent (glycerol). Membranes were supported on a poly(acrylonitrile) mesoporous support layer and non-woven fabric base. Pervaporation separation of ethanol/water mixtures was carefully followed as a function of film thickness and time. It was found, contrary to what might be expected from literature, that these films showed increased selectivity and decreased flux as film thickness was reduced. It is argued that the morphology and structure of the polymer blend changes with thickness and that these structural changes define the efficiency of the separation in these conditions.

  2. Sustainable and Selective Separation of PVC and ABS from a WEEE Plastic Mixture Using Microwave and/or Mild-Heat Treatment with Froth Flotation.

    PubMed

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-10-04

    This study reports simple, selective, and sustainable separation of chlorinated plastic (polyvinyl chloride, PVC) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from mixed waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plastics using microwave and/or mild-heat treatment. Microwave treatment after plastic coating with powdered activated carbon (PAC) selectively increased the hydrophilicity of the PVC surface, which facilitated PVC separation (100% recovery and purity) from the WEEE plastic mixture under the optimum flotation conditions. A further mild-heat treatment for 100 s facilitated selective separation with the highest recovery and purity (100%) of PAC-coated ABS containing BFRs from the remaining plastic mixture due to selective formation of a twisted structure with a lower density than water and the untreated ABS. Mild-heat treatment only of PAC-coated WEEE plastic mixture resulted in successful recovery of (100%) the ABS and PVC. However, the recovered PVC had slightly reduced purity (96.8%) as compared to that obtained using the combined heat and microwave treatments. The combination of both treatments with flotation facilitated selective and sustainable separation of PVC and ABS from WEEE plastics to improve their recycling quality.

  3. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  4. 76 FR 70443 - Decision on Waiver Application From 3M

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA conditionally granted the request from 3M for a waiver from testing tetrabromobisphenol A (CASRN 79-94-7). Regulations issued by EPA under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act... application is submitted to EPA and is approved. EPA received such a request for a waiver from these...

  5. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  6. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  7. UTSA-74: A MOF-74 Isomer with Two Accessible Binding Sites per Metal Center for Highly Selective Gas Separation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng; Yan, Changsheng; Dang, Lilong; Krishna, Rajamani; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Hui; Dong, Xinglong; Han, Yu; Hu, Tong-Liang; O'Keeffe, Michael; Wang, Lingling; Luo, Mingbiao; Lin, Rui-Biao; Chen, Banglin

    2016-05-04

    A new metal-organic framework Zn2(H2O)(dobdc)·0.5(H2O) (UTSA-74, H4dobdc = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid), Zn-MOF-74/CPO-27-Zn isomer, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. It has a novel four coordinated fgl topology with one-dimensional channels of about 8.0 Å. Unlike metal sites in the well-established MOF-74 with a rod-packing structure in which each of them is in a five coordinate square pyramidal coordination geometry, there are two different Zn(2+) sites within the binuclear secondary building units in UTSA-74 in which one of them (Zn1) is in a tetrahedral while another (Zn2) in an octahedral coordination geometry. After activation, the two axial water molecules on Zn2 sites can be removed, generating UTSA-74a with two accessible gas binding sites per Zn2 ion. Accordingly, UTSA-74a takes up a moderately high and comparable amount of acetylene (145 cm(3)/cm(3)) to Zn-MOF-74. Interestingly, the accessible Zn(2+) sites in UTSA-74a are bridged by carbon dioxide molecules instead of being terminally bound in Zn-MOF-74, so UTSA-74a adsorbs a much smaller amount of carbon dioxide (90 cm(3)/cm(3)) than Zn-MOF-74 (146 cm(3)/cm(3)) at room temperature and 1 bar, leading to a superior MOF material for highly selective C2H2/CO2 separation. X-ray crystal structures, gas sorption isotherms, molecular modeling, and simulated and experimental breakthroughs comprehensively support this result.

  8. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  9. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM BY EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for the recovery and separation of uranium and thorium values contained in an aqueous nitric acid solution which is more than 3 M in nitric acid. The uranium and thorium containing solution preferable about 7 M in nitric acid is contacted with tributyl phosphatekerosene mixture. Both U and Th are extracted by the immiscible organic. After phase separation the Th is selectively back extracted by contacting with an aqueous nitric acid solution preferably between 0.1 to 1.5 M in nitric acid. The uranium which is still in the organic extractant phase may be recovered by contacting with water.

  10. Polyoxometalates-based heterometallic organic-inorganic hybrid materials for rapid adsorption and selective separation of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fei-Yan; Zhu, Wei; Dang, Song; Li, Jian-Ping; Wu, Dai; Li, Yun-hui; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2015-02-25

    A series of LnCu-polyoxometalates (POMs) were used for dye-wastewater treatment with rapid (within 1 min) and large-scale adsorption (up to 391.3 mg g(-1)) as well as excellent selective separation of cationic dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be easily desorbed, and the POMs still work very efficiently even after three cycles.

  11. Biotin-conjugated N-methylisatoic anhydride: a chemical tool for nucleic acid separation by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation of RNA.

    PubMed

    Ursuegui, S; Chivot, N; Moutin, S; Burr, A; Fossey, C; Cailly, T; Laayoun, A; Fabis, F; Laurent, A

    2014-06-01

    An isatoic anhydride derivative conjugated to a biotin and a disulfide linker was specifically designed for the separation of nucleic acids. Starting from a DNA-RNA mixture, a selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation of RNAs followed by capture with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and cleavage of the disulfide led to elution of RNAs.

  12. Selective separation of americium from europium using 2,9-bis(triazine)-1,10-phenanthrolines in ionic liquids: a new twist on an old story.

    PubMed

    Williams, Neil J; Dehaudt, Jérémy; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Luo, Huimin; Abney, Carter W; Dai, Sheng

    2017-02-28

    Bis-triazine phenanthrolines have shown great promise for f-block metal separations, attributable to their highly preorganized structure, nitrogen donors, and more enhanced covalent bonding with actinides over lanthanides. However, their limited solubility in traditional solvents remains a technological bottleneck. Herein we report our recent work using a simple 2,9-bis(triazine)-1,10-phenanthroline (Me-BTPhen) dissolved in an ionic liquid (IL), demonstrating the efficacy of IL extraction systems for the selective separation of americium from europium, achieving separation factors in excess of 7500 and selectively removing up to 99% of the americium. Characterization of the coordination environment was performed using a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  13. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  14. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  15. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  16. Combination of three-stage sink-float method and selective flotation technique for separation of mixed post-consumer plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Pongstabodee, Sangobtip; Kunachitpimol, Napatr; Damronglerd, Somsak

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to separate the different plastics of a mixed post-consumer plastic waste by the combination of a three-stage sink-float method and selective flotation. By using the three-stage sink-float method, six mixed-plastic wastes, belonging to the 0.3-0.5 cm size class and including high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers (ABS) were separated into two groups, i.e., a low density plastic group (HDPE and PP) and a high density plastic group (PET, PVC, PS and ABS) by tap water. Plastic whose density is less than that of the medium solution floats to the surface, while the one whose density is greater than that of the medium solution sinks to the bottom. The experimental results elucidated that complete separation of HDPE from PP was achieved by the three-stage sink-float method with 50% v/v ethyl alcohol. To succeed in the separation of a PS/ABS mixture from a PET/PVC mixture by the three-stage sink-float method, a 30% w/v calcium chloride solution was employed. To further separate post-consumer PET/PVC and PS/ABS based on plastic type, selective flotation was carried out. In order to succeed in selective flotation separation, it is necessary to render hydrophilic the surface of one or more species while the others are kept in a hydrophobic state. In flotation studies, the effects of wetting agent, frother, pH of solution and electrolyte on separation were determined. The selective flotation results showed that when using 500 mg l(-1) calcium lignosulfonate, 0.01 ppm MIBC, and 0.1 mg l(-1) CaCl2 at pH 11, PET could be separated from PVC. To separate ABS from PS, 200 mg l(-1) calcium lignosulfonate and 0.1 mg l(-1) CaCl2 at pH 7 were used as a flotation solution. Wettability of plastic increases when adding CaCl2 and corresponds to a decrease in its contact angles and to a reduction in the recovery of plastic in

  17. APPLICATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-MODIFIED MICELLAR ELECTRONKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE SEPARATIONS OF SELECTED NEUTRAL PESTICIDES AND THEIR ENANTIOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental chemistry of chiral pesticides is receiving increased attention - enantiomeric ratios are being measured and enantioselective degradation processes are being reported. The requisite analysis involves separation of the various enantiomers. Mixtures of three class...

  18. Ethene/ethane and propene/propane separation via the olefin and paraffin selective metal-organic framework adsorbents CPO-27 and ZIF-8.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Ulrike; Barth, Benjamin; Paula, Carolin; Kuhnt, Andreas; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Mundstock, Alexander; Caro, Jürgen; Hartmann, Martin

    2013-07-09

    Two types of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized and evaluated in the separation of C2 and C3 olefins and paraffins. Whereas Co2(dhtp) (=Co-CPO-27 = Co-MOF-74) and Mg2(dhtp) show an adsorption selectivity for the olefins ethene and propene over the paraffins ethane and propane, the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 behaves in the opposite way and preferentially adsorbs the alkane. Consequently, in breakthrough experiments, the olefins or paraffins, respectively, can be separated.

  19. Correlation and prediction of partition coefficient using nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model for solvent system selection in counter-current chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Ding, Qiong; Chen, Chen; Ouyang, Mei-Lan

    2013-08-02

    Selection of a suitable solvent system is the first and foremost step for a successful counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation. In this paper, a thermodynamic model, nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model (NRTL-SAC) which uses four types of conceptual segments to describe the effective surface interactions for each solvent and solute molecule, was employed to correlate and predict the partition coefficients (K) of a given compound in a specific solvent system. Then a suitable solvent system was selected according to the predicted partition coefficients. Three solvent system families, heptane/methanol/water, heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (Arizona) and hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water, and several solutes were selected to investigate the effectiveness of the NRTL-SAC model for predicting the partition coefficients. Comparison between experimental results and predicted results showed that the NRTL-SAC model is of potential for estimating the K value of a given compound. Also a practical separation case on magnolol and honokiol suggests the NRTL-SAC model is effective, reliable and practical for the purpose of predicting partition coefficients and selecting a suitable solvent system for CCC separation.

  20. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  1. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  2. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  3. Enhanced Control of PWR Primary Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation Systems for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson

    2006-02-28

    The objective of this project is to develop systems that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed systems will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' primary coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.

  4. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Berdowska, Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process - the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  5. Separated Families and Children Who Refuse Access to a Parent. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Emilia

    On the whole, professionals agree that there is an advantage in both parents having access to the child or children after separation. This paper provides (1) an overview of the controversy over the value of such access; (2) a description of various contexts of access disputes and perspectives involved in the assessment of access situations; (3) a…

  6. High-Flux Graphene Oxide Membranes Intercalated by Metal-Organic Framework with Highly Selective Separation of Aqueous Organic Solution.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yunpan; Liu, Dahuan; Zhang, Weixin; Ma, Jing; Huang, Hongliang; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2017-01-18

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes assembled by single-atom thick GO nanosheets have displayed huge potential application both in gas and liquid separation processes due to its facile and large-scale preparation resulting from various functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, and epoxide groups. Taking advantage of these characters, GO membranes intercalated by superhydrophilic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as strengthening separation fillers were prepared on modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support by a novel pressure-assisted self-assembly (PASA) filtration technique instead of traditional vacuum filtration method for the first time. The synthesized MOF@GO membranes were characterized with several spectroscopic techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with GO membrane, these MOF@GO membranes combine the unique properties of MOF and GO and thus have significant enhancements of pervaporation (PV) permeation flux and separation factor simultaneously for ethyl acetate/water mixtures (98/2, w/w) through the PV process, which are also superior to the reported other kinds of membranes. Especially, for MOF@GO-0.3 membrane (corresponding MOF loading: 23.08 wt %), the increments are 159% and 244%, respectively, at 303 K, and the permeate water content can reach as high as 99.5 wt % (corresponding separation factor, 9751) with a high permeation flux of 2423 g m(-2) h(-1). Moreover, the procedures of both the synthesis of MOF and membranes preparation are environmentally friendly that only water was used as solvent. Such a nanosized MOF-intercalating approach may be also extended to other laminated membranes, providing valuable insights in designing and developing of advanced membranes for effective separation of aqueous organic solution through nanostructure manipulation of the nanomaterials.

  7. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  8. Immobilization of Ag(i) into a metal-organic framework with -SO3H sites for highly selective olefin-paraffin separation at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ganggang; Huang, Minhui; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-02-18

    Introduction of Ag(i) ions into a sulfonic acid functionalized MOF ((Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H) significantly enhances its interactions with olefin double bonds, leading to its much higher selectivities for the separation of C2H4-C2H6 and C3H6-C3H8 at room temperature over the original (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H and other adsorbents at room temperature.

  9. Identifying important structural features of ionic liquid stationary phases for the selective separation of nonpolar analytes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Ingram, Isaiah C; Hantao, Leandro W; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-03-20

    A series of dicationic ionic liquid (IL)-based stationary phases were evaluated as secondary columns in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons from kerosene. In order to understand the role that structural features of ILs play on the selectivity of nonpolar analytes, the solvation parameter model was used to probe the solvation properties of the IL-based stationary phases. It was observed that room temperature ILs containing long free alkyl side chain substituents and long linker chains between the two cations possess less cohesive forces and exhibited the highest resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The anion component of the IL did not contribute significantly to the overall separation, as similar selectivities toward aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed when examining ILs with identical cations and different anions. In an attempt to further examine the separation capabilities of the IL-based GC stationary phases, columns of the best performing stationary phases were prepared with higher film thickness and resulted in enhanced selectivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model for real-life counter-current chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-05-08

    Solvent system selection is the first step toward a successful counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation. This paper introduces a systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient (NRTL-SAC) model, which is efficient in predicting the solute partition coefficient. Firstly, the application of the NRTL-SAC method was extended to the ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water and chloroform/methanol/water solvent system families. Moreover, the versatility and predictive capability of the NRTL-SAC method were investigated. The results indicate that the solute molecular parameters identified from hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system family are capable of predicting a large number of partition coefficients in several other different solvent system families. The NRTL-SAC strategy was further validated by successfully separating five components from Salvia plebeian R.Br. We therefore propose that NRTL-SAC is a promising high throughput method for rapid solvent system selection and highly adaptable to screen suitable solvent system for real-life CCC separation.

  11. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  12. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  13. Observations of 3-m auroral irregularities during the ERRRIS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, J. D.; Farley, D. T.; Swartz, W. E.; Providakes, J. F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1992-06-01

    In the late winter of 1988 and 1989, three NASA sounding rockets were flown through the auroral electrojet from ESRANGE (Sweden) as part of the E-region Rocket-Radar Instability Study (ERRRIS). Many ground-based instruments supported these flights, including the EISCAT, STARE, and CUPRI radars, as well as all-sky cameras, riometers, and magnetometers. In this paper the observations of the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), which detected coherent backscatter from 3-m irregularities in the auroral E-region are summarized. Twenty hours of power spectra and interferometry data are available, and, during the 1989 campaign, three weeks of nearly continuous Range-Time-Intensity (RTI) and first moment data were recorded.

  14. Selective extraction and separation of oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens Ait. extract by silica-confined ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted the application of a two-stepped extraction method for extraction and separation of oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens Ait. extract by utilizing silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbent. The optimized silica-confined ionic liquid was firstly mixed with plant extract to adsorb oxymatrine. Simultaneously, some interference, such as matrine, was removed. The obtained suspension was then added to a cartridge for solid phase extraction. Through these two steps, target compound was adequately separated from interferences with 93.4% recovery. In comparison with traditional solid phase extraction, this method accelerates loading and reduces the use of organic solvents during washing. Moreover, the optimization of loading volume was simplified as optimization of solid/liquid ratio.

  15. Product separator

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  16. Multiyear measurements of Position Angle and Separation of selected binary stars from the Washington Double Star Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Rafael J.; Cersosimo, Juan C.; Lopez, Andy J.; Vergara, Nelson; Torres, Brian; Mendoza, Lizyan; Ortiz, Deliris; Del Valle, Yashira; Espinosa, Gabriela; Reyes, Marjory

    2016-01-01

    We present here the multiyear data sets on separation and position angle of binary stars obtained at the NURO telescope, located east of Flagstaff Arizona at an elevation of 7200 feet. The data was analyzed at the Humacao University Observatory of the University of Puerto Rico and will be submitted for publication at the Journal of Double Star Observations. We describe the methodology for the analysis of the images we obtained.

  17. Longitudinal selectivity in aging populations: separating mortality-associated versus experimental components in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Singer, Tania; Baltes, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    The authors examined 3.7-year selectivity in the Berlin Aging Study by comparing the T1 parent sample (N = 516) with the T3 sample (N = 206). Selectivity was partitioned into a mortality-associated component, reflecting the degree to which individuals still alive at T3 (T3 survivors, N = 313) differ from the T1 parent sample (N = 516) from which they originated, and an experimental component, reflecting the degree to which the T3 sample (N = 206) differed from T3 survivors (N = 313). Across 48 variables representing medical, sensorimotor, cognitive, personality-related, and socioeconomic domains, the mortality-associated component accounted for 64% of total selectivity, and the experimental component for 36% (0.18 vs 0.10 SD units; t = 7.20, p <.01). Except for age and intelligence, experimental selectivity effects regarding means and prevalence rates were generally small. Partitioning selectivity into mortality-associated and experimental components is a useful tool in the longitudinal study of aging populations.

  18. Experimental investigation of the permeability and selectivity of supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2/He separation at temperatures up to 125° C

    SciTech Connect

    Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    Supported liquid membranes have been prepared by impregnation of commercial porous polymer films with the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquid has been characterized, and the membranes have been tested to determine performance in the selective separation of CO2 from He. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure system, and pure gas permeability/selectivity data are reported. Membranes prepared with polysulfone supports have been found to be stable to 125 °C. The CO2 permeability of the membranes increases from 744 to 1200 barrer as the temperature increases from 37 to 125 °C. The CO2/He selectivity decreased from 8.7 to 3.1 over the same temperature range.

  19. Transport and separation of Ag(+) and Zn(2+) by donnan dialysis through a monovalent cation selective membrane.

    PubMed

    Cherif, A T; Gavach, C; Molenat, J; Elmidaoui, A

    1998-08-01

    Donnan Dialysis of Ag(+) and Zn(2+) was investigated through a cation exchange membrane (CMS Neosepta) when a proton concentration difference was maintained between the two sides of the membrane. Developed for the production of brine from sea water, CMS Neosepta showed a higher permeability to monovalent than to bivalent cations. Several physico-chemical parameters have been determined (electrical resistance, membrane potential, sorption of electrolytes, Zn(2+) and Ag(+) diffusion coefficients). The flux of Ag(+) and the diffusion potential in the membrane increase with HNO(3) concentrations. Ag(+) and Zn(2+) can be separated because of the preferential membrane transfer for Ag(+).

  20. Size-selective separation and overall-amplification of cell-free fetal DNA fragments using PCR-based enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Du, Zhenwu; Song, Yang; Gao, Sujie; Yu, Shan; Zhu, He; Ren, Ming; Zhang, Guizhen

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a method for the selective amplification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma and preserve the integrity of DNA fragments during amplification, thereby providing a sufficient amount of cffDNA to meet the requirement of routine non-invasive prenatal testing. We amplified DNA molecules in a one-reaction system without considering their particular sequences and lengths (overall amplification) by using PCR-based enrichment. We then modified PCR conditions to verify the effect of denaturation temperature on DNA amplification on various lengths of DNA (selective overall amplification). Finally, we used an optimum temperature range to amplify cffDNA selectively. Amplification results were validated by electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR. Our PCR-based enrichment efficiently amplified all DNA fragments with differing lengths within a single reaction system, as well as preserving the integrity of the DNA fragments. cffDNA was significantly amplified along with the selective amplification of small fragment maternal plasma DNA in an appropriate range of denaturation temperatures. We have established a PCR-based method for the simultaneous enrichment and amplification of cffDNA in order to meet the requirements of high cffDNA quantity for routine non-invasive prenatal testing. PMID:28102322

  1. Size-selective separation and overall-amplification of cell-free fetal DNA fragments using PCR-based enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Du, Zhenwu; Song, Yang; Gao, Sujie; Yu, Shan; Zhu, He; Ren, Ming; Zhang, Guizhen

    2017-01-19

    This study aimed to establish a method for the selective amplification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma and preserve the integrity of DNA fragments during amplification, thereby providing a sufficient amount of cffDNA to meet the requirement of routine non-invasive prenatal testing. We amplified DNA molecules in a one-reaction system without considering their particular sequences and lengths (overall amplification) by using PCR-based enrichment. We then modified PCR conditions to verify the effect of denaturation temperature on DNA amplification on various lengths of DNA (selective overall amplification). Finally, we used an optimum temperature range to amplify cffDNA selectively. Amplification results were validated by electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR. Our PCR-based enrichment efficiently amplified all DNA fragments with differing lengths within a single reaction system, as well as preserving the integrity of the DNA fragments. cffDNA was significantly amplified along with the selective amplification of small fragment maternal plasma DNA in an appropriate range of denaturation temperatures. We have established a PCR-based method for the simultaneous enrichment and amplification of cffDNA in order to meet the requirements of high cffDNA quantity for routine non-invasive prenatal testing.

  2. SEPARATION OF URANYL AND RUTHENIUM VALUES BY THE TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranyl values from ruthenium values contained in an aqueous 3 to 4 M nitric acid solution. After the addition of hydrogen peroxide to obtain a concentration of 0.3 M, the uranium is selectively extracted with kerosene-diluted tributyl phosphate.

  3. A generic analysis of energy use and solvent selection for CO2 separation from post-combustion flue gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation was performed to determine the theoretical minimum energy used to separate CO2 from a coal combustion flue gas in a typical adsorption-desorption system. Under ideal conditions, the minimum energy required to separate CO2 from post-combustion flue gas and produce pure CO2 at 1 atmospheric pressure was only about 1183 kJ/kg CO2. This amount could double with the addition of the driving forces of mass and heat transfer and the adverse impacts of absorption heat release on adsorption capacity. Thermodynamic analyses were also performed for the aqueous amine-based absorption process. Two CO2 reaction mechanisms, the carbamate formation reaction with primary/secondary amines and the CO2 hydration reaction with tertiary amines, were included in the absorption reaction. The reaction heat, sensible heat, and stripping heat were all important to the total heat requirement. The heat use of an ideal tertiary amine amounted to 2786 kJ/kg, compared to 3211 kJ/kg for an ideal primary amine. The heat usage of an ideal amine was about 20% lower than that of commercially available amines. Optimizing the absorption process configuration could further reduce energy use. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting (New Orleans, LA 4/6-10/2008).

  4. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  5. Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane@Fe3O4@SiO2@fluoropolymer sponges for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Li, Bucheng; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-03-04

    Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponges were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then dip-coating in a fluoropolymer (FP) aqueous solution. The sponges were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other analytical techniques. The effects of CVD time of TEOS and FP concentration on wettability, mechanical properties, oil absorbency, and oil/water selectivity of the sponges were also investigated. The sponges exhibit fast magnetic responsivity and excellent superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity (CAwater = 157° and CAoil ≈ 0°). The sponges also show very high efficiency in oil/water separation and could, driven by a magnet, quickly absorb floating oils on the water surface and heavy oils under water. Moreover, the PU@Fe3O4@SiO2@FP sponges could be used as membranes for oil/water separation and for continuous separation of large amounts of oil pollutants from the water surface with the help of a pump. The in turn binding of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, SiO2, and FP can also improve mechanical properties of the PU sponge. The sponges maintain the superhydrophobicity even when they are stretched with 200% strain or compressed with 50% strain. The sponges also show excellent mechanical stability, oil stability, and reusability in terms of superhydrophobicity and oil absorbency. The magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic PU sponges are very promising materials for practical oil absorption and oil/water separation.

  6. Separation scheme for selective and quantitative isolation of cobalt from neutron-irradiated biological materials by ion exchange and extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Maleszewska, H.

    1994-01-01

    Highly reliable radiochemical separation scheme for selective and quantitative isolation of trace amounts of cobalt from neutron-irradiated biological materials was elaborated. The method consists in wet-ashing of the sample with HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} (1:1) mixture plus vanadium salt (oxidation catalyst), removal of silica by evaporation with HF and separation of cobalt from accompanying ions successively on 3 columns with Dowex 1-X8[Cl{sup -}] from 0.5 M HCl, Dowex 1-X8[Cl{sup -}] from 8 M HCl + 2 M MgCl{sub 2} and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer, from 7 M HCl solution, respectively. Cobalt of very high radiochemical purity is finally recovered in 1.2 M HCl solution with practically 100% yield. The separation scheme is universally applicable, to biological samples of both animal and plant origin and was devised to become an integral part of the very accurate ({open_quotes}definitive{close_quotes}) method of cobalt determination by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Preliminary results on Co determination by NAA in some certified reference materials confirmed high reliability of the devised separation scheme.

  7. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  8. A fluorescence reagent for the highly selective recognition and separation of lead ion (II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Jun; Yan, Yuhua; Chen, Liping; Cao, Weiguang; Li, Hongwei; Yang, Liting; Wu, Yuqing

    2012-11-02

    A new fluorescence reagent, N,N-bi[4(1-pyrene)-butyroyl]-lysine (1) was synthesized. The new fluorescence sensor showed high sensitivity (detection limit up to 20.7 μg L(-1)) and specific selectivity for Pb(2+) over other metal ions examined in aqueous solutions. It could also be used to remove Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions by filtering the insoluble 1-Pb(2+) complex with sufficient reversibility.

  9. Preparation of zirconium oxy ion-imprinted particle for the selective separation of trace zirconium ion from water.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yueming; Liu, Pingxin; Liu, Xiaoli; Feng, Jing; Fan, Zhuangjun; Luan, Tianzhu

    2014-10-01

    Zr(IV) oxy ion-imprinted particle (Zr-IIP) was prepared using the metal ion imprinting technique in a sol-gel process on the surface of amino-silica. The dosages of zirconium ions as imprinted target, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) as a functional monomer and teraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a cross-linker were optimized. The prepared Zr-IIP and Zr(IV) oxy ion non-imprinted particle (Zr-NIP) were characterized. pH effect, binding ability and the selectivity were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Zr-IIP had an excellent binding capacity and selectivity in the water. The equilibrium data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir model for Zr(IV) binding onto Zr-IIP, respectively. The saturate binding capacity of Zr-IIP was found to be 196.08 μmol g(-1), which was 18 times higher than that of Zr-NIP. The sequence of binding efficiency of Zr-IIP for various ions was Zr(IV)>Cu(II)>Sb(III)>Eu(III). The coordination number has an important effect on the dimensional binding capacity. The equilibrium binding capacity of Zr-IIP for Zr(IV) decreased little under various concentrations of Pb(II) ions. The analysis of relative selectivity coefficient (Kr) indicated that the Zr-IIP had an appreciable binding specificity towards Zr(IV) although the competitive ions coexisted in the water. The Zr-IIP could serve as an efficient selective material for recovering or removing zirconium from the water environment.

  10. Selective extraction, separation, and identification of anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. using solid phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (time-of-flight /ion trap).

    PubMed

    Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel A; Cortacero-Ramírez, Sonia; Beltrán, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge; Dinelli, Giovanni; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    A method for selective extraction using SPE, electrophoretic separation at basic condition and the identification by using exact masses and fragmentation patterns has been developed in order to know the anthocyanins in dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. A detailed and comparative study of several extraction procedures has been carried out to obtain the maximum number of anthocyanidins from the calyces and then a CE-TOF-MS method in positive mode using ESI has been developed for the separation and rapid identification of anthocyanins in H. sabdariffa L. Delphinidin-3-sambubioside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside have been detected as main components and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and chlorogenic acid as minor constituents. The confirmation of the anthocyanidins and chlorogenic acid was carried out using fragmentation ions with the IT-mass spectrometer (IT-MS).

  11. Importance of MS selectivity and chromatographic separation in LC-MS/MS-based methods when investigating pharmaceutical metabolites in water. Dipyrone as a case of study.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, M; Gracia-Lor, E; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants of increasing concern because of their presence in the aquatic environment and potential to reach drinking-water sources. After human and/or veterinary consumption, pharmaceuticals can be excreted in unchanged form, as the parent compound, and/or as free or conjugated metabolites. Determination of most pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the environment is commonly made by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). LC coupled to tandem MS is the technique of choice nowadays in this field. The acquisition of two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions together with the retention time is the most widely accepted criterion for a safe quantification and confirmation assay. However, scarce attention is normally paid to the selectivity of the selected transitions as well as to the chromatographic separation. In this work, the importance of full spectrum acquisition high-resolution MS data using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight analyser and/or a suitable chromatographic separation (to reduce the possibility of co-eluting interferences) is highlighted when investigating pharmaceutical metabolites that share common fragment ions. For this purpose, the analytical challenge associated to the determination of metabolites of the widely used analgesic dipyrone (also known as metamizol) in urban wastewater is discussed. Examples are given on the possibilities of reporting false positives of dypirone metabolites by LC-MS/MS under SRM mode due to a wrong assignment of identity of the compounds detected.

  12. Comparison of two feature selection methods for the separability analysis of intertidal sediments with spectrometric datasets in the German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Richard; Ehlers, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The spectral features of intertidal sediments are all influenced by the same biophysical properties, such as water, salinity, grain size or vegetation and therefore they are hard to separate by using only multispectral sensors. This could be shown by a previous study of Jung et al. (2015). A more detailed analysis of their characteristic spectral feature has to be carried out to understand the differences and similarities. Spectrometry data (i.e., hyperspectral sensors), for instance, have the opportunity to measure the reflection of the landscape as a continuous spectral pattern for each pixel of an image built from dozen to hundreds of narrow spectral bands. This reveals a high potential to measure unique spectral responses of different ecological conditions (Hennig et al., 2007). In this context, this study uses spectrometric datasets to distinguish between 14 different sediment classes obtained from a study area in the German Wadden Sea. A new feature selection method is proposed (Jeffries-Matusita distance bases feature selection; JMDFS), which uses the Euclidean distance to eliminate the wavelengths with the most similar reflectance values in an iterative process. Subsequent to each iteration, the separation capability is estimated by the Jeffries-Matusita distance (JMD). Two classes can be separated if the JMD is greater than 1.9 and if less than four wavelengths remain, no separation can be assumed. The results of the JMDFS are compared with a state-of-the-art feature selection method called ReliefF. Both methods showed the ability to improve the separation by achieving overall accuracies greater than 82%. The accuracies are 4%-13% better than the results with all wavelengths applied. The number of remaining wavelengths is very diverse and ranges from 14 to 213 of 703. The advantage of JMDFS compared with ReliefF is clearly the processing time. ReliefF needs 30 min for one temporary result. It is necessary to repeat the process several times and to average

  13. Fouling Resistant CA/PVA/TiO2 Imprinted Membranes for Selective Recognition and Separation Salicylic Acid from Waste Water

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaopeng; Mi, Xueyang; He, Zhihui; Meng, Minjia; Li, Hongji; Yan, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Highly selective cellulose acetate (CA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) imprinted membranes were synthesized by phase inversion and dip coating technique. The CA blend imprinted membrane was synthesized by phase inversion technique with CA as membrane matrix, polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the functional polymer, and the salicylic acid (SA) as the template molecule. The CA/PVA/TiO2 imprinted membranes were synthesized by dip coating of CA blend imprinted membrane in PVA and different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 wt %) of TiO2 nanoparticles aqueous solution. The SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of membrane was strongly influenced by the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Compared with CA/PVA-TiO2(0.05, 0.1, 0.2%)-MIM, the CA/PVA-TiO2(0.4%)-MIM possessed higher membrane flux, kinetic equilibrium adsorption amount, binding capacity and better selectivity for SA. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was studied to describe the kinetic of CA/PVA-TiO2(0.2%)-MIM judging by multiple regression analysis. Adsorption isotherm analysis indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity for SA were 24.43 mg g−1. Moreover, the selectivity coefficients of CA/PVA-TiO2 (0.2%)-MIM for SA relative to p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB) and methyl salicylate (MS) were 3.87 and 3.55, respectively. PMID:28184369

  14. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities.

  15. Preparation of comb-type N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogel beads and their application for size-selective separation media.

    PubMed

    Annaka, Masahiko; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Kasai, Masaki; Nakahira, Takayuki; Hara, Yoshiaki; Okano, Teruo

    2003-01-01

    A series of the comb-type poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAM) gel beads were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization techniques. The comb-type NIPAM gel beads exhibited large volume change at 30 degrees C, and their deswelling rate, defined as the time required for half-shrinking, was 10 times faster than that of the normal-type NIPAM gel beads. The gel beads were utilized to concentrate dilute aqueous solutions of albumin, gamma-globulin, and vitamin B(12). The separation efficiencies of albumin and gamma -globulin with the comb-type NIPAM gel were 80% and 85%, respectively. Whereas those with normal-type NIPAM gel were 55% and 60%, respectively. The incorporation of grafted chains into gel makes the effective mesh size smaller. Therefore it induces the additional obstruction effects between the solutes and network and excludes the high molecular weight solutes. After they have extracted water, their rapid deswelling property makes the gel regenerate effectively by warming to release the absorbed water.

  16. A biotin-conjugated pyridine-based isatoic anhydride, a selective room temperature RNA-acylating agent for the nucleic acid separation.

    PubMed

    Ursuegui, S; Yougnia, R; Moutin, S; Burr, A; Fossey, C; Cailly, T; Laayoun, A; Laurent, A; Fabis, F

    2015-03-28

    Isatoic anhydride derivatives, including a biotin and a disulfide linker were specifically designed for nucleic acid separation. 2'-OH selective RNA acylation, capture of biotinylated RNA adducts by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and disulfide chemical cleavage led to isolation of highly enriched RNA samples from an initial 9/1 DNA-RNA mixture. Starting from the parent compound N-methylisatoic anhydride A which was used at 65 °C, we improved the extraction process by designing a new generation of isatoic anhydrides that are able to react under smoother conditions. Among them, a pyridine-based isatoic anhydride derivative 15f was found to be reactive at room temperature, leading to enhance the efficiency and selectivity of the extraction process by significantly reducing DNA side extraction. The extracted and purified RNAs can then be detected by RT-PCR.

  17. Affinity dialysis - a method of continuous, rapid metal ion separation using dialysis membranes and selective, water-soluble polymers as extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Valus, R.J.; Lawrence, E.G.

    1988-08-01

    A membrane process utilizing dialysis and selective complexation by water-soluble polymers has been developed. This process, termed affinity dialysis, has been shown to be selectively extract and concentrate both cations and anions in a manner similar to ion exchange or solvent extraction. The selective removal of calcium from sodium with selectivity of about 30, removal of chromate ion from dilute streams, and separation of transition metal ions such as Cu/Fe and Cu/Zn have all been successfully demonstrated. Effects of different polymers, polymer concentration, temperature, and flow rates have been studied. The effect of increased polymer concentration is to increase product concentration if appropriate changes in feed, polymer solution, and strip flow rates are made. A continuous polymer solution recycle and regeneration system has been constructed and operated with Cu/Zn and chromate/chloride feed streams. Removal of over 95% of the desired ion in one pass and concentration factors of product over effluent in excess of 100 have been achieved at feed flow rates of 24 gal/d. Product concentrations of greater than 3% from as little as 400 ppm feed have been demonstrated in a continuous process. In addition, the degree of polymer loss to the effluent stream has been shown to be less than 0.01%/d for a typical system. Metal removal from typical feeds is about 0.9 g/m/sup 2/ per 1000 ppm metal in the feed. It is expected that this technique may be useful in the separation of organic and biological materials, as well as for ionic species.

  18. Layered Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) Membranes with Enhanced Water Separation Selectivity and Performance.

    PubMed

    Soto Puente, J A; Fatyeyeva, K; Chappey, C; Marais, S; Dargent, E

    2017-02-22

    A three-layered membrane based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed EVA-poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), was elaborated by the surface hydrolysis of a dense EVA membrane. Because of the chemical modifications, the three-layered EVOH/EVA/EVOH membrane was characterized by the particular microstructure (amorphous EVA and semicrystalline EVOH) and the tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance. Also, these modifications led to the membrane with the selective barrier properties compared with the pure EVA and completely hydrolyzed EVOH membranes. The water barrier behavior was related to the strong hydrogen-bond interactions of water and vinyl alcohol groups, whereas the weak chemical interactions were revealed for gases (N2 and O2). Furthermore, the influence of the polymer rubbery or glassy state on the permeation kinetics was established. In the case of the three-layered membrane, the considerably high selectivity values were obtained for H2O/O2 (∼11 900) and H2O/N2 (∼48 000) at 25 °C. In addition to these highly selective properties, the three-layered structure does not present delamination features due to its elaboration procedure. Thus, these new layered membranes are very promising as selective materials for the water and gas separation and can be potentially used in food packaging or for the gas dehydration.

  19. Selective ionic liquid ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for simultaneous preconcentration/separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a selective ionic liquid ferrofluid has been used in dispersive solid phase extraction (IL-FF-D-SPE) for simultaneous preconcentration and separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. To improve the selectivity of the ionic liquid ferrofluid, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with a magnetic core as sorbent was modified by loading 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol. Due to the rapid injection of an appropriate amount of ionic liquid ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. In addition, based on the attraction of the ionic liquid ferrofluid to a magnet, no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. The experimental parameters of IL-FF-D-SPE were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations of 2.2% and 2.4% were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively (n=7). The limit of detections were 1.21 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.21 µg L(-1) for Cd(II). The preconcentration factors were 250 for lead and 200 for cadmium and the maximum adsorption capacities of the sorbent were 11.18 and 9.34 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  20. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  1. Collision-induced release, ion mobility separation, and amino acid sequence analysis of subunits from mass-selected noncovalent protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Deepali; Dodds, Eric D

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a valuable tool for detecting and characterizing protein-protein interactions and for measuring the masses and subunit stoichiometries of noncovalent protein complexes. The gas-phase dissociation of noncovalent protein assemblies via tandem mass spectrometry can be useful in confirming subunit masses and stoichiometries; however, dissociation experiments that are able to yield subunit sequence information must usually be conducted separately. Here, we furnish proof of concept for a method that allows subunit sequence information to be directly obtained from a protein aggregate in a single gas-phase analysis. The experiments were carried out using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with a traveling-wave ion mobility separator. This instrument configuration allows for a noncovalent protein assembly to be quadrupole selected, then subjected to two successive rounds of collision-induced dissociation with an intervening stage of ion mobility separation. This approach was applied to four model proteins as their corresponding homodimers: glucagon, ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and β-lactoglobulin. In each case, b- and y-type fragment ions were obtained upon further collisional activation of the collisionally-released subunits, resulting in up to 50% sequence coverage. Owing to the incorporation of an ion mobility separation, these results also suggest the intriguing possibility of measuring complex mass, complex collisional cross section, subunit masses, subunit collisional cross sections, and sequence information for the subunits in a single gas-phase experiment. Overall, these findings represent a significant contribution towards the realization of protein interactomic analyses, which begin with native complexes and directly yield subunit identities.

  2. Collision-Induced Release, Ion Mobility Separation, and Amino Acid Sequence Analysis of Subunits from Mass-Selected Noncovalent Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Deepali; Dodds, Eric D.

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a valuable tool for detecting and characterizing protein-protein interactions and for measuring the masses and subunit stoichiometries of noncovalent protein complexes. The gas-phase dissociation of noncovalent protein assemblies via tandem mass spectrometry can be useful in confirming subunit masses and stoichiometries; however, dissociation experiments that are able to yield subunit sequence information must usually be conducted separately. Here, we furnish proof of concept for a method that allows subunit sequence information to be directly obtained from a protein aggregate in a single gas-phase analysis. The experiments were carried out using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with a traveling-wave ion mobility separator. This instrument configuration allows for a noncovalent protein assembly to be quadrupole selected, then subjected to two successive rounds of collision-induced dissociation with an intervening stage of ion mobility separation. This approach was applied to four model proteins as their corresponding homodimers: glucagon, ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and β-lactoglobulin. In each case, b- and y-type fragment ions were obtained upon further collisional activation of the collisionally-released subunits, resulting in up to 50% sequence coverage. Owing to the incorporation of an ion mobility separation, these results also suggest the intriguing possibility of measuring complex mass, complex collisional cross section, subunit masses, subunit collisional cross sections, and sequence information for the subunits in a single gas-phase experiment. Overall, these findings represent a significant contribution towards the realization of protein interactomic analyses, which begin with native complexes and directly yield subunit identities.

  3. Sample selection algorithm to improve quality of genotyping from plasma-derived DNA: to separate the wheat from the chaff.

    PubMed

    Schoenborn, Veit; Gohlke, Henning; Heid, Iris M; Illig, Thomas; Utermann, Gerd; Kronenberg, Florian

    2007-11-01

    Plasma and serum samples were often the only biological material collected for earlier epidemiological studies. These studies have a huge informative content, especially due to their long follow-up and would be an invaluable treasure for genetic investigations. However, often no banked DNA is available. To use the small amounts of DNA present in plasma, in a first step, we applied magnetic bead technology to extract this DNA, followed by a whole-genome amplification (WGA) using phi29-polymerase. We assembled 88 sample pairs, each consisting of WGA plasma DNA and the corresponding whole-blood DNA. We genotyped nine highly polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs) and 23 SNPs in both DNA sources. The average within-pair discordance was 3.8% for SNPs and 15.9% for STR genotypes, respectively. We developed an algorithm based on one-half of the sample pairs and validated on the other one-half to identify the samples with high WGA plasma DNA quality to assure low genotyping error and to exclude plasma DNA samples with insufficient quality: excluding samples showing homozygosity at five or more of the nine STR loci yielded exclusion of 22.7% of all samples and decreased average discordance for STR and SNP markers to 3.92% and 0.63%, respectively. For SNPs, this is very close to the error observed for genomic DNA in many laboratories. Our workflow and sample selection algorithm offers new opportunities to recover reliable DNA from stored plasma material. This algorithm is superior to testing the amount of input DNA.

  4. Highly selective separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen and methane by nitrile/glycol-difunctionalized ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs).

    PubMed

    Hojniak, Sandra D; Silverwood, Ian P; Khan, Asim Laeeq; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Dehaen, Wim; Kazarian, Sergei G; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-07-03

    Novel difunctionalized ionic liquids (ILs) containing a triethylene glycol monomethyl ether chain and a nitrile group on a pyrrolidinium or imidazolium cation have been synthesized and incorporated into supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). These ILs exhibit ca. 2.3 times higher CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 gas separation selectivities than analogous ILs functionalized only with a glycol chain. Although the glycol moiety ensures room temperature liquidity of the pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs, the two classes of ILs benefit from the presence of a nitrile group in different ways. The difunctionalized pyrrolidinium ILs exhibit an increase in CO2 permeance, whereas the permeances of the contaminant gases rise negligibly, resulting in high gas separation selectivities. In the imidazolium ILs, the presence of a nitrile group does not always increase the CO2 permeance nor does it increase the CO2 solubility, as showed in situ by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic method. High selectivity of these ILs is caused by the considerably reduced permeances of N2 and CH4, most likely due to the ability of the -CN group to reject the nonpolar contaminant gases. Apart from the CO2 solubility, IL-CO2 interactions and IL swelling were studied with the in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Different strengths of the IL-CO2 interactions were found to be the major difference between the two classes of ILs. The difunctionalized ILs interacted stronger with CO2 than the glycol-functionalized ILs, as manifested in the smaller bandwidths of the bending mode band of CO2 for the latter.

  5. The holistic 3M modality of drug delivery nanosystems for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of human death worldwide. There are many challenges in the treatment of cancer and the rapidly developing area of nanotechnology has shown great potential to open a new era in cancer therapy. This article, rather than being exhaustive, focuses on the striking progress in the drug delivery nanosystems (DDNS) for cancer therapy and selects typical examples to point out the emerging mode of action of DDNS from our perspective. Among the outstanding advances in DDNS for cancer therapy is the development of ``multicomponent delivery systems'', ``multifunctional nanocarriers'' and ``multistage delivery systems''. However, these represent only one aspect of DDNS research. In addition, nature is the best teacher and natural evolution pressure has meant that virions conform to the ``multitarget, multistage and multicomponent'' (3M) mode of action. Amazingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used for over 4000 years in China, also displays the same mode of action. Integrating the previous notable progress in nanoparticle technology, learned from the building mode of natural virions and the action concept of TCM, we propose an integrity-based 3M mode DDNS for cancer therapy: multitarget, multistage and multicomponent, which are not fragmented parts but an interconnected integrity. Based on the physiological multitarget and the pharmacokinetic multistage, multicomponent DDNS are rationally designed, where different components with individual specific functions act in a synergistic manner against each target at each disposition stage to maximize the targeted delivery effectiveness. In this article, we introduce each component of 3M DDNS in detail and describe some typical cases to realize the tumor-homing purposes.

  6. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  7. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  9. Meniscus membranes for separations

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  10. Molecularly imprinted SPE coupled with HPLC for the selective separation and enrichment of alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Xia, Gao; Jing, Fan; Guifen, Zhu; Xiaolong, Wang; Jianji, Wang

    2013-10-01

    A novel 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid surface imprinted solid-phase sorbent was synthesized. The as-prepared material was characterized by SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis and Fourier Transform IR measurements. Then its adsorption properties for alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids, including adsorption capacities, adsorption kinetics, and properties of selective separation and enrichment were studied in detail. It was shown that the ionic liquid surface imprinted polymer exhibited high selective recognition characteristics for the imidazolium chloride ionic liquids with short alkyl chains (C(n)mimCl, n = 2, 4, 6, 8) and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 25 min. Various parameters were optimized for the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid surface imprinted polymer SPE column, such as flow rate, eluent solvent, selectivity, and reusability of the column. Then, the SPE column coupled with HPLC was used for the determination of alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids. Experimental results showed that the existence of their structural analogs and common concomitants in environmental matrices did not affect the enrichment of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid. The average recoveries of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in spiked water samples were in the range of 92.0-102.0% with the RSD lower than 5.8%.

  11. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  12. Selective Separation and Extraction of Vanadium (V) Over Manganese (II) from Co-Leaching Solution of Roasted Stone Coal and Pyrolusite Using Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z. L.; Feng, Y. L.; Zhou, Y. Z.; Li, H. R.; Wang, W. D.

    2013-11-01

    Based on the novel technology for selective separation and extraction of vanadium (V) over manganese (II) from co-leaching solution of roasted stone coal and pyrolusite using solvent extraction, the extraction effect of vanadium (V) and manganese (II) has been studied and many technical conditions have also been optimized. Meanwhile, countercurrent simulation experiments were conducted to verify the results of the experiments. The results indicated that with three countercurrent extraction stages, 99.21% vanadium (V) was extracted using 5% (v/v) N235 and 5% (v/v) secondary octyl alcohol at initial aqueous pH of 3.0 and O/A phase ratio of 1.0. Vanadium (V) could be completely stripped after three-stage countercurrent experiments with 20 wt.% NH4Cl at O/A phase ratio of 1.0. The process flow sheet for the recovery of vanadium (V), as well as manganese (II), was proposed.

  13. Public opinion and awareness towards MSW and separate collection programmes: a sociological procedure for selecting areas and citizens with a low level of knowledge.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2010-06-01

    The principal aim of this study was to define and apply a procedure based on a structured questionnaire survey useful to analyze the people's environmental knowledge in order to select the areas and age groups with a low level of knowledge in a municipality (in Southern Italy) and, therefore, suggest a specific educational campaign for each. The detailed sampling procedure made it possible to carry out a meticulous statistical analysis of the results. The youngest and oldest people showed the lowest level of awareness for each district. A high level of education did not necessarily imply a high level of environmental awareness as well as a greater acceptance of MSW facilities. The satisfaction level of the recycling program was higher amongst the oldest age group. All the citizens in the several areas were unanimous in pointing out the presence of dirt in the street as the main shortcoming of the bring separate collection program. Only the youngest age group self-criticised, considering that they revealed a low level of participation to the separate collection program. While, the oldest people retaining them less influential, claimed that the citizens were not responsible for the failure of the separate collection program. The prevailing opinion of the sample was that people protested against the construction of waste facilities because they were not well-informed, with the most significant opinion of all the age subdivisions being that incineration is a hazardous treatment. The presence of criminal organizations was indicated as the main reason why the Campania Region suffers a serious solid waste emergency. While, the percentage of people pointing their finger at politicians increases with the average age of the respondents with there being a very strong correlation (r(2)=0.9903).

  14. New reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for selective separation of yttrium from all rare earth elements employing nitrilotriacetate complexes in anion exchange mode.

    PubMed

    Dybczyński, Rajmund S; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Pyszynska, Marta; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna

    2015-03-20

    Separation of Y from other rare earth elements (REE) is difficult because of similarity of its ionic radius to ionic radii of Tb, Dy and Ho. In the new RP-HPLC system with C18 column, tetra-n-butyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) as an ion interaction reagent (IIR), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a complexing agent at pH=2.8-3.5, and post column derivatization with Arsenazo III, yttrium is eluted in the region of light REE, between Nd and Sm and is base line separated from Nd and Sm and even from promethium. Simple model employing literature data on complex formation of REE with NTA and based on anion exchange mechanism was developed to foresee the order of elution of individual REE. The model correctly predicted that lanthanides up to Tb will be eluted in the order of increasing Atomic Number (At.No.) but all heavier REE will show smaller retention factors than Tb. Concurrent UV/VIS detection at 658nm and the use of radioactive tracers together with γ-ray spectrometric measurements made possible to establish an unique elution order of elution of REE: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Y, Sm, Er, Ho, Tm, Yb, Eu, Lu, Dy+Gd, Tb, Sc. The real place of Y however, in this elution series differs from that predicted by the model (Y between Sm and Eu). The method described in this work enables selective separation of Y from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm and all heavier REE treated as a group.

  15. Towards a selective adsorbent for arsenate and selenite in the presence of phosphate: Assessment of adsorption efficiency, mechanism, and binary separation factors of the chitosan-copper complex.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Jamila S; Lounsbury, Amanda W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2016-01-01

    The potential for a chitosan-copper polymer complex to select for the target contaminants in the presence of their respective competitive ions was evaluated by synthesizing chitosan-copper beads (CCB) for the treatment of (arsenate:phosphate), (selenite:phosphate), and (selenate:sulfate). Based on work by Rhazi et al., copper (II) binds to the amine moiety on the chitosan backbone as a monodentate complex (Type I) and as a bidentate complex crosslinking two polymer chains (Type II), depending on pH and copper loading. In general, the Type I complex exists alone; however, beyond threshold conditions of pH 5.5 during synthesis and a copper loading of 0.25 mol Cu(II)/mol chitosan monomer, the Type I and Type II complexes coexist. Subsequent chelation of this chitosan-copper ligand to oxyanions results in enhanced and selective adsorption of the target contaminants in complex matrices with high background ion concentrations. With differing affinities for arsenate, selenite, and phosphate, the Type I complex favors phosphate chelation while the Type II complex favors arsenate chelation due to electrostatic considerations and selenite chelation due to steric effects. No trend was exhibited for the selenate:sulfate system possibly due to the high Ksp of the corresponding copper salts. Binary separation factors, α12, were calculated for the arsenate-phosphate and selenite-phosphate systems, supporting the mechanistic hypothesis. While, further research is needed to develop a synthesis method for the independent formation of the Type II complexes to select for target contaminants in complex matrices, this work can provide initial steps in the development of a selective adsorbent.

  16. Thin layer chromatography/plasma assisted multiwavelength laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for facile separation and selective identification of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialing; Zhou, Zhigui; Yang, Jianwang; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2012-02-07

    A novel plasma assisted multiwavelength (1064, 532, and 355 nm) laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PAMLDI-MS) system was fabricated and applied in the analysis of low molecular weight compounds through combination with thin layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC/PAMLDI-MS system successfully integrated TLC, the multiwavelength laser ablation, and the excitated state plasma from direct analysis in real time (DART) and was proved to be effective in the facile separation and selective identification of low molecular weight compounds. An automated three-dimensional platform was utilized to facilitate the analysis procedures with all the parameters of the TLC/PAMLDI-MS systematically optimized, and the desorption/ionization mechanisms were discussed. The successful combination of three-wavelength laser with DART based system extended the range of the analytes and provided broad possibilities for the compound desorption from the TLC. The experimental results clearly showed that the laser desorption was wavelength dependent. The PAMLDI-MS system was successfully applied in the detection of low molecular weight compounds from different kinds of samples separated on a normal-phase silica gel, such as dye mixtures, drug standards, and tea extract, with the detection level of 5 ng/mm(2).

  17. Yolk-shell nanostructured Fe3O4@NiSiO3 for selective affinity and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Guangchuan; Xiao, Yun; Yang, Yuling; Tang, Ruikang

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments of nanotechnology encourage novel materials for facile separations and purifications of recombinant proteins, which are of great importance in disease diagnoses and treatments. We find that Fe3O4@NiSiO3 with yolk-shell nanostructure can be used to specifically purify histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins from mixtures of lysed cells with a recyclable process. Each individual nanoparticle composes by a mesoporous nickel silicate shell and a magnetic Fe3O4 core in the hollow inner, which is featured by its great loading efficiency and rapid response toward magnetic fields. The abundant Ni(2+) cations on the shell provide docking sites for selective coordination of histidine and the reversible release is induced by excess imidazole solution. Because of the Fe3O4 cores, the separation, concentration, and recycling of the nanocomposites become feasible under the controls of magnets. These characteristics would be highly beneficial in nanoparticle-based biomedical applications for targeted-drug delivery and biosensors.

  18. Properties near magnetic instability of heavy-electron compounds Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13, with M=Co, Rh and Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebarski, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    In this review, we report the thermodynamic, magnetic and electronic transport properties of the skutterudite-related Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13 intermetallic compounds with M = Co, Rh and Ru, which display a variety of behaviours. Ce3M4Sn13 exhibit a large increase in C/T with a maximum value of about 4 JK-2mol-1Ce due to strong electron and short-range magnetic correlations. These compounds show a crossover from a magnetically correlated heavy-fermion state to a single impurity state in applied magnetic fields. In order to study the proximity of Ce3Co4Sn13 to the possible magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), we investigated the system of Ce3-xLaxCo4Sn13 alloys. We found the critical concentration ?, which separates the magnetically correlated state (?) from a single impurity state (?), however the low-T C(T)/T and the magnetic susceptibility behaviours are not characteristic of the QCP. With increasing of the magnetic field, resistivity follows power law behaviour for the samples ?, with n strongly field dependent. The ?-anomaly is discussed on the base of spin-fluctuation theory of Moriya and Takimoto. Specific heat data show that La3M4Sn13 are typical BCS superconductors, however, La3Rh4Sn13 and La3Ru4Sn13 exhibit a second superconducting phase, characteristic of inhomogeneous superconductors.

  19. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from ash and pyrite; First quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.; Raichur, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the progress made during the first quarter of the research project entitled ``A Novel Microorganism for Selective Separation of Coal from Ash and Pyrite,`` DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-93PC93215. The objective of this project is to study the effectiveness of a novel hydrophobic microorganism, Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei), for the selective flocculation of coal from pyrite and ash-forming minerals. During the reporting period, three different coal samples: Illinois No. 6 coal, Kentucky No. 9 coal and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were collected to be used in the investigation. The microorganism, M. phlei, was obtained as freeze-dried cultures and the growth characteristics of the bacteria were studied. Scanning electron microphotographs revealed that M. phlei cells are coccal in shape and are approximately 1 {mu}m in diameter. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples had an isoelectric point (IEP) around pH 6 whereas M. phlei had an IEP around pH 1.5. Electrokinetic measurements of the ruptured microorganisms exhibited an increase in IEP. The increase in IEP of the ruputured cells was due to the release of fatty acids and polar groups from the cell membrane.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a surface-grafted Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer for selective separation of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Feng, Changgen; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Gan, Qiang; Yang, Haiyan

    2015-03-01

    A novel Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) was prepared with surface imprinting technology by using cadmium chloride as a template and allyl thiourea (ATU) as a functional monomer for on-line solid-phase extraction of trace Cd(II) ion and selective separation Cd(II) ion in water samples. The Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good chemical performance and thermal stability. Kinetics studies showed that the equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 8.0 min and the adsorption process can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Compared to the Cd(II) non-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-NIP), the Cd(II)-IIP had a higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Cd(II) ion. The maximum adsorption capacities of the Cd(II)-IIP and Cd(II)-NIP for Cd(II) were 38.30 and 13.21 mg g-1, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficients of the adsorbent for Cd(II) in the presence of Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ were 2.86, 6.42, 11.50, 9.46 and 3.73, respectively. In addition, the Cd(II) ion adsorbed was easy to remove from sorbent and the Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good stability and reusability. The adsorption capacity had no obvious decrease after being used six times. The accuracy of this method was verified by the standard reference material, it was then applied for cadmium ion determination in different types of water samples.

  1. Separated Shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments ...

  2. Particle separation

    DOEpatents

    Moosmuller, Hans [Reno, NV; Chakrabarty, Rajan K [Reno, NV; Arnott, W Patrick [Reno, NV

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  3. Particle separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moosmuller, Hans (Inventor); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Inventor); Arnott, W. Patrick (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  4. Abscinazole-E3M, a practical inhibitor of abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase for improving drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Mega, Ryosuke; Kanno, Yuri; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant water use and drought tolerance. However, agricultural applications of ABA have been limited because of its rapid inactivation in plants, which involves hydroxylation of ABA by ABA 8′-hydroxylase (CYP707A). We previously developed a selective inhibitor of CYP707A, (−)-Abz-E2B, by structurally modifying S-uniconazole, which functions as an inhibitor of CYP707A and as a gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme. However, its synthetic yield is too low for practical applications. Therefore, we designed novel CYP707A inhibitors, Abz-T compounds, that have simpler structures in which the 1,2,3-triazolyl ring of (−)-Abz-E2B has been replaced with a triple bond. They were successfully synthesised in shorter steps, resulting in greater yields than that of (−)-Abz-E2B. In the enzymatic assays, one of the Abz-T compounds, (−)-Abz-E3M, acted as a strong and selective inhibitor of CYP707A, similar to (−)-Abz-E2B. Analysis of the biological effects in Arabidopsis revealed that (−)-Abz-E3M enhanced ABA’s effects more than (−)-Abz-E2B in seed germination and in the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Treatment with (−)-Abz-E3M induced stomatal closure and improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, (−)-Abz-E3M also increased the ABA response in rice and maize. Thus, (−)-Abz-E3M is a more practical and effective inhibitor of CYP707A than (−)-Abz-E2B. PMID:27841331

  5. Asymmetric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, R. F.; Zampini, A.

    1984-12-04

    Asymmetric gas separation membranes of materials having selective permeation of at least one gas of a gaseous mixture over that of one or more remaining gases of the gaseous mixture, exhibit significantly improved permeation selectivities for the at least one gas when the asymmetric membrane is contacted on one or both surfaces with an effective amount of a Lewis acid. The improved asymmetric gas separation membranes, process for producing the improved membrane, and processes utilizing such membranes for selectively separating at least one gas from a gaseous mixture by permeation are disclosed.

  6. Asymmetric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, R. F.; Zampini, A.

    1984-09-18

    Asymmetric gas separation membranes of materials having selective permeation of at least one gas of a gaseous mixture over that of one or more remaining gases of the gaseous mixture, exhibit significantly improved permeation selectivities for the at least one gas when the asymmetric membrane is contacted on one or both surfaces with an effective amount of a Br nsted-Lowry acid. The improved asymmetric gas separation membranes, process for producing the improved membrane, and processes utilizing such membranes for selectively separating at least one gas from a gaseous mixture by permeation are disclosed.

  7. Experience and Challenges in Implementing Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment on Meteor-3M Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Newsom, Jerry; Rawls, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Implementation of Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) is a joint science mission between the Rosavioskosmos, also called Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under the global collaboration agreement established by President Clinton and Yeltsin in 1995 between the United States and Russia, space was one of the major areas identified for joint scientific collaboration. There were several collaborative projects identified under space, earth, human exploration of space and aeronautics. SAGE was one of the key Earth Science instruments selected common to both countries' interests in ozone research. SAGE has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for the last 15-year period. It has provided a vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed in the overall ozone depletion research. SAGE II, the fourth instrument has been flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) for the last 14 years. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. SAGE III for Russian Meteor-3M mission is a third generation design with more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage and intelligent terrestrial software. The Russian collaboration required a complete integration of SAGE III on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite and a launch on a Zenit-2 launch vehicle manufactured in Ukraine. The whole complex is scheduled to be launched from Baikonur cosmodrome in early 2001. This cooperative mission has presented a number of management, technical and logistical challenges on both sides. This paper makes an attempt to review and document such experiences.

  8. Ultracapacitor separator

    DOEpatents

    Wei, Chang; Jerabek, Elihu Calvin; LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris

    2001-03-06

    An ultracapacitor includes two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. The electrolyte is a polar aprotic organic solvent and a salt. The porous separator comprises a wet laid cellulosic material.

  9. Separation and preconcentration of chromium species by selective absorption on Lemna minor and determination by slurry atomisation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Li, S

    2001-08-01

    A novel method for the separation and preconcentration of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) with Lemna minor and determination by slurry atomization electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. A sample solution was added to a polyethylene beaker containing 10 mg of 160 mesh pre-treated Lemna minor, adjusted to pH 1.0, stirred for 8 min for selective absorption of Cr(III) and then centrifuged. The upper layer of solution was transferred into another polyethylene beaker containing 10 mg of 160 mesh pre-treated Lemna minor, adjusted to pH 5.0, stirred for 12 min for adsorption of the residual Cr(VI) and centrifuged. The two residues in two centrifuge tubes were washed twice with water, 2 ml of agar solution added, stirred for 2 min, then two slurries were prepared and used for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by ETAAS. Detection limits (3sigma) of 0.01 microg L(-1) for Cr(III) and 0.03 microg L(-1) for Cr(VI) were obtained. The relative standard deviation was 2.8% for Cr(III) and 3.3% for Cr(VI) at the 1 microg L(-1) level. The method was applied to the determination of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) in water samples. The analytical recoveries of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) added to samples were 97-102 and 96-103%, respectively.

  10. Selective IR multiphoton dissociation of molecules in a pulsed gas-dynamically cooled molecular flow interacting with a solid surface as an alternative to low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, G. N.; Petin, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of studies on the isotope-selective infrared multiphoton dissociation (IR MFD) of SF6 and CF3I molecules in a pulsed, gas-dynamically cooled molecular flow interacting with a solid surface. The productivity of this method in the conditions of a specific experiment (by the example of SF6 molecules) is evaluated. A number of low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation based on the use of infrared lasers for selective excitation of molecules are analysed and their productivity is estimated. The methods are compared with those of selective dissociation of molecules in the flow interacting with a surface. The advantages of this method compared to the low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation and the IR MPD method in the unperturbed jets and flows are shown. It is concluded that this method could be a promising alternative to the low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation.

  11. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  12. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, K.S.

    1975-10-03

    A photochromatographic method for isotope separation is described. An isotopically mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. (BLM)

  13. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    1977-01-01

    An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes.

  14. New Approach to Selective Stem Cell Sorting: Separation of Undifferentiated Stem Cells from Differentiated Stem Cells by Using Iron Oxide Core Shell Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisa, Fikrullah

    An alternative approach to stem cell enrichment in another words sorting methods without changing the microenvironment of the cells to avoid the detrimental effects of present cell sorting methods by adopting iron-oxide gold (cFeAu) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) is the focus of this thesis. Each chapter of this thesis focuses on different preliminary research in order to engender the adoption of cFeAu NPs for the selective killing of the mouse embryonic stem cells that are immunolabeled with the nanoparticles. The first part of the research focuses on the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles with the co-precipitation method and coating the nanoparticles with colloidal gold (cAu) to stabilize the characteristics of the nanoparticles. Detailed information regarding the chemistry of iron-oxide nanoparticles, common synthesis methods, and some of the factors that affect nanoparticle growth and synthesis have been investigated. The heating ability of the nanoparticles under an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) and the size distribution of the particles under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) are shown. The second part of the research focuses on selectively killing the RAW 264.7 macrophages which have internalized the synthesized nanoparticles in order to prove the biocompatibility and effectiveness of the nanoparticles. The particles' effect on the cells, the mechanism of killing, and the effectiveness of nanoparticles coated with colloidal gold and bovine serum albumin are investigated. The last part of the research focuses on effectively labeling the mESCs with a specific antibody conjugated to cFeAu nanoparticles that has an affinity to stage specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1). The influence of the OMF and the effects of immunolabeling on cell growth were investigated. The successful conjugation of the nanoparticles onto the cell surface is shown under scanning electron microscope. The damage inflicted by the nanoparticles on the cells

  15. N,N'-Dialkyl-N,N'-diaryl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamides as donor ligands for separation of rare earth elements with a high and unusual selectivity. DFT computational and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ustynyuk, Yu A; Borisova, N E; Babain, V A; Gloriozov, I P; Manuilov, A Y; Kalmykov, S N; Alyapyshev, M Yu; Tkachenko, L I; Kenf, E V; Ustynyuk, N A

    2015-05-01

    N,N'-Dialkyl-N,N'-diaryl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamides (IV) were predicted (DFT simulation) and then were proved experimentally to be efficient donor ligands with high and unusual selectivity for the extraction separation of lanthanides. Distribution coefficients D of lanthanide cations in two-phase aqueous solution-polar organic solvent decrease with increasing Ln(3+) atomic number. The selectivity factors SFLn1/Ln2 for adjacent lanthanide ions were found to be about 3.

  16. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  17. Optimizing Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility (3M)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    3M conducted an in-house motor system study in 29 buildings at the 3M Center. The company evaluated approximately 1,000 electric motors and upgraded systems, resulting in reduced electricity use and cost savings of $77,554 per year.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of 3 m open tubular capillary columns with a zwitterionic polymeric porous layer for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhu, Manman; Zhang, Lingyi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    A 3 m zwitterionic polymeric porous layer open tubular column (3 m × 25 μm id × 375 μm od) with a polymeric porous layer thickness of 4 μm was fabricated by the copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide). The effects of the diameter of the capillary, reaction temperature, and polymerization time on the preparation of the open tubular column were investigated. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the zwitterionic layer was observed to be rough and throughout the fused-silica capillary homogenously, which increased the phase ratio. The separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds demonstrates the strong hydrophilicity of the poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide coating. In addition, the poly[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide porous layer open tubular column was applied for the analysis of flavonoids from the rootstalk of licorice, revealing the potential in separating complex samples. The relative standard deviation of retention time for run-to-run (n = 5), day-to-day (n = 3), and column-to-column (n = 3) of toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide, formamide, and thiourea were below 1.2%, exhibiting good repeatability.

  19. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyunjin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2009-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M3 is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3. This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K+ channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K+ currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca2+ currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca2+ currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:19931239

  20. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyun Jin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2010-02-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M(3) is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K(+) channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca(2+) currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level.

  1. pH triggered superior selective adsorption and separation of both cationic and anionic dyes and photocatalytic activity on a fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer based nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Saha, Arka; Panda, Asit Baran; Pal, Sagar

    2015-11-18

    A fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer amylopectin based nanocomposite, with pH responsive superior selective adsorption, separation of both cationic (MB: 599 mg g(-1) at pH 9) and anionic (MO: 558 mg g(-1) at pH 3) dyes and photodegradation properties, has been realized through simultaneous in situ layered titanate formation, exfoliation and polymerization.

  2. Chiral Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalcup, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of chiral separations to researchers who are versed in the area of analytical separations but unfamiliar with chiral separations. To researchers who are not familiar with this area, there is currently a bewildering array of commercially available chiral columns, chiral derivatizing reagents, and chiral selectors for approaches that span the range of analytical separation platforms (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical-fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis). This review begins with a brief discussion of chirality before examining the general strategies and commonalities among all of the chiral separation techniques. Rather than exhaustively listing all the chiral selectors and applications, this review highlights significant issues and differences between chiral and achiral separations, providing salient examples from specific classes of chiral selectors where appropriate.

  3. Water separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. F.; Austin, I. G. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    An apparatus for separating liquids from gases or gaseous fluids is described. Features of the apparatus include: (1) the collection and removal of the moisture in the fluid is not dependent upon, or affected by gravity; (2) all the collected water is cyclically drained from the apparatus irrespective of the attitude of the separator; and (3) a fluid actuator is utilized to remove the collected water from the separator.

  4. Nanoscale force induced size-selective separation and self-assembly of metal nanoparticles: sharp colloidal stability thresholds and hcp ordering.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanhui; Lalander, Cecilia H; Bach, Udo

    2010-11-14

    A simple and versatile nanoscale force induced precipitation approach for the separation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. The AuNPs show sharp size-dependent colloidal stability thresholds as a function of salt concentration. Upon separation, the AuNPs were electrostatically self-assembled onto silicon substrates by fine-tuning interparticle and particle-substrate forces, forming 2D AuNP networks with a high degree of hexagonal closest pack (hcp) superstructures.

  5. Comparing the selectivity and chiral separation of d- and l- fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride protected amino acids in analytical high performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography; evaluating throughput, economic and environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Vera, C M; Shock, D; Dennis, G R; Farrell, W; Shalliker, R A

    2017-04-14

    The chiral separation of d- and l- FMOC amino acids was undertaken using the Lux Cellulose-1 polysaccharide based chiral column in HPLC (normal phase and reverse phase) and SFC conditions. This was done to compare the relative selectivity and separation between the three separation modes and to evaluate the potential benefits of SFC separations with regards to resolution, throughput, economic and environmental impact. It was established that the separation of d- and l- FMOC amino acids in SFC displayed behaviours that were similar to both normal phase and reversed phase, rather than distinctly one or the other. Additionally, although reversed phase conditions yielded significantly higher resolution values between enantiomers across the range of amino acids studied, improvements in selectivity in SFC via the introduction of higher concentrations of formic acid in the mobile phase allowed for better resolution per unit of time. Moreover since the SFC mobile phase is composed mostly of recyclable CO2, there is a reduction in organic solvent consumption, which minimises the economic and environmental costs.

  6. Selective IR multiphoton dissociation of molecules in a pulsed gas-dynamically cooled molecular flow interacting with a solid surface as an alternative to low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, G N; Petin, A N

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of studies on the isotope-selective infrared multiphoton dissociation (IR MFD) of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 3}I molecules in a pulsed, gas-dynamically cooled molecular flow interacting with a solid surface. The productivity of this method in the conditions of a specific experiment (by the example of SF{sub 6} molecules) is evaluated. A number of low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation based on the use of infrared lasers for selective excitation of molecules are analysed and their productivity is estimated. The methods are compared with those of selective dissociation of molecules in the flow interacting with a surface. The advantages of this method compared to the low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation and the IR MPD method in the unperturbed jets and flows are shown. It is concluded that this method could be a promising alternative to the low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation. (laser separation of isotopes)

  7. 101. JOB NO. 1347F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. JOB NO. 1347-F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ONE-EIGHTH SCALE OF OFFICES - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 115. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; BOILER SETTING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  10. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  11. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Obenschain, Art (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  12. The selective conversion of glutamic acid in amino acid mixtures using glutamate decarboxylase--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids (AAs) derived from hydrolysis of protein rest streams are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry due to their functionality. However, separation of AAs is required before they can be used for further applications. Electrodialysis may be applied to separate AAs, but its efficiency is limited when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. To aid the separation, specific conversion of an AA to a useful product with different charge behavior to the remaining compounds is desired. Here the separation of L-aspartic acid (Asp) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) was studied. L-Glutamate α-decarboxylase (GAD, Type I, EC 4.1.1.15) was applied to specifically convert Glu into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA has a different charge behavior from Asp therefore allowing a potential separation by electrodialysis. Competitive inhibition and reduced operational stability caused by Asp could be eliminated by maintaining a sufficiently high concentration of Glu. Immobilization of GAD does not reduce the enzyme's initial activity. However, the operational stability was slightly reduced. An initial study on the reaction operating in a continuous mode was performed using a column reactor packed with immobilized GAD. As the reaction mixture was only passed once through the reactor, the conversion of Glu was lower than expected. To complete the conversion of Glu, the stream containing Asp and unreacted Glu might be recirculated back to the reactor after GABA has been removed. Overall, the reaction by GAD is specific to Glu and can be applied to aid the electrodialysis separation of Asp and Glu.

  13. Inorganic separator technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smatko, J. S.; Weaver, R. D.; Kalhammer, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    Testing and failure analyses of silver zinc cells with largely inorganic separators were performed. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objective of the silver-zinc cell development program were essentially accomplished and led to recommendations for cell composition, design, and operation that should yield further improvement in wet and cycle life. A series of advanced inorganic materials was successfully developed and formulated into rigid and semiflexible separator samples. Suitable screening tests for evaluation of largely inorganic separators were selected and modified for application to the separator materials. The results showed that many of these formulations are potentially superior to previously used materials and permitted selection of three promising materials for further evaluation in silver-zinc cells.

  14. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions.

  15. The effects of solid rocket motor effluents on selected surfaces and solid particle size, distribution, and composition for simulated shuttle booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, D. W.; Linton, R. C.; Russell, W. M.; Trenkle, J. J.; Wilkes, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A series of three tests was conducted using solid rocket propellants to determine the effects a solid rocket plume would have on thermal protective surfaces (TPS). The surfaces tested were those which are baselined for the shuttle vehicle. The propellants used were to simulate the separation solid rocket motors (SSRM) that separate the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the shuttle launch vehicle. Data cover: (1) the optical effects of the plume environment on spacecraft related surfaces, and (2) the solid particle size, distribution, and composition at TPS sample locations.

  16. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  17. Stereoisomers Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Piotr

    The use of capillary electrophoresis for enantiomer separation and optical purity determination is presented. The contents start with basic information about the nature of stereoizomers and the mechanism of enantioseparation using capillary electrophoresis techniques. The molecules to be separated show identical chemical structure and electrochemical behavior. Therefore, the chiral recognition of enantiomers is possible only by bonding to chiral selector and the separation based on very small differences in complexation energies of diastereomer complexes formed. This method is useful for this purpose due to the fact that different compounds can be used as chiral selectors. The mostly used chiral selectors like cyclodextrins, crown ethers, chiral surfactants, macrocyclic antibiotics, transition metal complexes, natural, and synthetic polymers and their application for this purpose is also discussed. Finally, examples of practical applications of electromigration techniques for enantiomers separation and determination are presented.

  18. Selective Ion Transporting Polymerized Ionic Liquid Membrane Separator for Enhancing Cycle Stability and Durability in Secondary Zinc-Air Battery Systems.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Chi, Won Seok; Kwon, Ohchan; Lee, Jin Goo; Kim, Jong Hak; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2016-10-05

    Rechargeable secondary zinc-air batteries with superior cyclic stability were developed using commercial polypropylene (PP) membrane coated with polymerized ionic liquid as separators. The anionic exchange polymer was synthesized copolymerizing 1-[(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl]-3-butylimidazolium hydroxide (EBIH) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) monomers by free radical polymerization for both functionality and structural integrity. The ionic liquid induced copolymer was coated on a commercially available PP membrane (Celguard 5550). The coat allows anionic transfer through the separator and minimizes the migration of zincate ions to the cathode compartment, which reduces electrolyte conductivity and may deteriorate catalytic activity by the formation of zinc oxide on the surface of the catalyst layer. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data revealed the copolymer-coated separator showed less zinc element in the cathode, indicating lower zinc crossover through the membrane. Ion coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis confirmed over 96% of zincate ion crossover was reduced. In our charge/discharge setup, the constructed cell with the ionic liquid induced copolymer casted separator exhibited drastically improved durability as the battery life increased more than 281% compared to the pure commercial PP membrane. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during the cycle process elucidated the premature failure of cells due to the zinc crossover for the untreated cell and revealed a substantial importance must be placed in zincate control.

  19. Mist separator

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.M.

    1984-04-17

    An apparatus for the removal of particulates from a flowing gas stream and a process for its use are provided. A perforated screen separator formed as a plate having parallel rows of perforations formed by pushing alternating strips of the plate material forward and backward from the plane of the plate is used. The perforated screen separator may be used alone or with a fiber bed mist eliminator for increased particulate removal.

  20. An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines and a theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardana, Udeni Rajaratna

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Chapter 1, An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration, describes a theoretical model and experimental investigations which used the semi-equilibrium-dialysis method with N-n-dodecyl iminodiacetic acid as the ligand. In Chapter 2, Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines, polyamines with a substituted ligand group are synthesized and used in investigating selective separation of copper ions from aqueous solution. In Chapter 3, A theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines, a novel approach to explain the titration behavior of polymeric amines based on the binding behavior of counterions is described. The application of this study is to the investigation of inexpensive and efficient methods of industrial waste water treatment.

  1. Application of a beta-cyclodextrin sulfate-immobilized precolumn to selective on-line enrichment and separation of heparin-binding proteins by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, K; Fukunaga, K; Irie, T; Uekama, K; Ohta, T; Nakamura, H

    1997-05-09

    A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system which consisted of a beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) sulfate-immobilized hydrophilic vinyl-polymer gel precolumn and a reversed-phase analytical column was developed for the selective on-line enrichment and separation of heparin-binding proteins. Of 15 proteins investigated, 10 proteins having heparin-binding activity were retained on the beta-CD sulfate precolumn almost quantitatively, in contrast 5 proteins having no heparin-binding activity were not retained. Calibration graphs for basic fibroblast growth factor constructed at various sample volumes were nearly identical, indicating that the protein could be enriched by this system. The system was successfully used for the selective separation of lysozyme in egg white. The beta-CD sulfate-immobilized precolumn showed no loss of analytical performance over 2 years during which about 400 samples were analysed.

  2. Interplay of Metalloligand and Organic Ligand to Tune Micropores within Isostructural Mixed-Metal Organic Frameworks (M MOFs) for Their Highly Selective Separation of Chiral and Achiral Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Madhab, Das; He, Yabing; Kim, Jaheon; Guo, Qunsheng; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Hong, Kunlun; Xiang, Sheng-Chang; Zhang, Zhangjing; Thomas, K Mark; Krishna, Rajamani; Chen, Banglin

    2012-01-01

    Four porous isostructural mixed-metal-organic frameworks (M'MOFs) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The pores within these M'MOFs are systematically tuned by the interplay of both the metalloligands and organic ligands which have enabled us not only to direct their highly selective separation of chiral alcohols 1-phenylethanol (PEA), 2-butanol (BUT), and 2-pentanol (2-PEN) with the highest ee up to 82.4% but also to lead highly selective separation of achiral C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} separation. The potential application of these M'MOFs for the fixed bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} has been further examined and compared by the transient breakthrough simulations in which the purity requirement of 40 ppm in the outlet gas can be readily fulfilled by the fixed bed M'MOF-4a adsorber at ambient conditions.

  3. Manipulation of electronic structure via alteration of local orbital environment in [(SrIrO3)m,(SrTi O3)] (m =1 ,2 ,and ∞ ) superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeun; Kim, Choong H.; Sandilands, L. J.; Sohn, C. H.; Matsuno, J.; Takagi, H.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Moon, S. J.; Noh, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of [(SrIrO3)m,(SrTi O3)] (m =1 ,2 ,and ∞ ) superlattice (SL) thin films with optical spectroscopy and first principles calculations. Our optical results confirmed the existence of the Jeff= 1 /2 states in SL samples, similar to the bulk Ruddlesden-Popper series S rn+1I rnO3 n +1 iridates. Apart from this similarity, in the SL samples, we observed red shifts of the characteristic optical excitations in the Jeff= 1 /2 state and an enhancement of the low-energy spectral weight, which implies a reduction in the effective electron correlation for bands near the Fermi energy. The density functional theory plus Coulomb interactions (DFT +U ) calculations suggested that the SrTi O3 layer intervened between SrIr O3 layers in the SLs activated additional hopping channels between the Ir ions, thus increasing the bandwidth and reducing the effective strength of the correlations. This paper demonstrates that fabrication of iridium-based heterostructures can be used to finely tune electronic structures via alteration of their local orbital environments.

  4. Hydrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  5. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  6. Carbogenic molecular sieves for reaction and separation by design: A novel approach to shape selective super base, super acid and catalytic membranes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Henry C.

    2002-03-18

    This report details the findings of three years of research plus one year of a no-cost extension. Primary results are the work with supported nanoporous carbon membranes for separation and reaction as well as with cesium-nanoporous carbon catalysts. The work resulted in 17 plus 2 papers (2 are in progress) and partial or full support for five Ph.D. students. Two patents were filed based on this research.

  7. 3M Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay: AOAC Official Methods 995.22 and 2002.09.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Deann L; Crowley, Erin S; Bird, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the 3M Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay (VIA; 3M Food Safety, St. Paul, MN) was conducted at Q Laboratories, Inc., Cincinnati, OH. The 3M Tecra Listeria VIA method was compared to the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method for the analysis of five ready-to-eat (RTE) meats: deli turkey, hot dogs, liver pate, raw fermented sausage, and deli ham, and on a stainless steel environmental surface. Twenty replicates of each of the five food matrixes were analyzed at a low and a high inoculum level. The low-level test portions were inoculated with 0.2-2 CFU/25 g, and the high-level test portions with 2-5 CFU/25 g. In addition, 20 replicates of one environmental surface were analyzed at a low and a high inoculum level. The low-level sampling area was inoculated with 0.2-2 CFU/5 cm2, and the high-level area with 2-5 CFU/5 cm2. Five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/25 g (uninoculated) for the foods and at 0 CFU/5 cm2 for the environmental sampling area. There was no significant difference in the number of positives detected by the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA and the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method for four of the RTE meats and the stainless steel environmental surface analyzed in this study. For the raw, fermented sausage, there was a significant difference in the number of positives detected for the high inoculum level by the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA and the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method, with the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA method detecting more positives.

  8. Flux growth of MBO3 (M=Fe, Ga, In, Sc, Lu) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Rudenko, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The temperatures for saturation of the MBO3 (M=Fe, Ga, In, Sc, Lu) compounds in the M2O3-B2O3- (70 PbO-30 PbF2, wt%) solvents are determined. The growth rates of FeBO3 and GaBO3 crystal faces as functions of the flux supercooling are obtained. It is demonstrated that the bulk FeBO3 and GaBO3 crystals can be grown in a narrow flux supercooling range using a controlled seeding technique. The MBO3 (M=In, Sc, Lu) crystals in the form of (111) plates are synthesized by spontaneous crystallization.

  9. Model experience in the Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The model building, development, and testing experience gained during 8 years of operation of the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) is summarized. The summary is divided into four portions: (1) models tested in the 0.3-m TCT's original octagonal test section; (2) models tested in the present two dimensional test section; (3) models tested as a part of tunnel calibration and the development of advanced technology airfoils; and (4) development of a new way to construct two dimensional airfoil models. Design requirements imposed on the models by high Reynolds number testing at cryogenic temperatures are reviewed.

  10. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  11. Separation of p-divinylbenzene by selective room-temperature adsorption inside Mg-CUK-1 prepared by aqueous microwave synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saccoccia, Beau; Bohnsack, Alisha M; Waggoner, Nolan W; Cho, Kyung Ho; Lee, Ji Sun; Hong, Do-Young; Lynch, Vincent M; Chang, Jong-San; Humphrey, Simon M

    2015-04-27

    A new Mg(II) -based version of the porous coordination polymer CUK-1 with one-dimensional pore structure was prepared by microwave synthesis in water. Mg-CUK-1 is moisture-stable, thermally stable up to 500 °C, and shows unusual reversible soft-crystal behavior: dehydrated single crystals of the material selectively adsorb a range of organic molecules at ambient temperature and pressure. Both polar and apolar aromatic compounds, including pyridine, benzene, p-xylene, and p-divinylbenzene (p-DVB), are all readily adsorbed, while other isomers from complex mixtures of xylenes or DVBs are selectively excluded. The solvent-loaded structures have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Time-dependent liquid sorption experiments using commercially available DVB demonstrate a high and rapid selective adsorption of p-DVB and exclusion of m-DVB and ethylvinylbenzene isomers.

  12. Fine tuning of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend nanoscale phase separation via selective solvent annealing toward high-performance polymer photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bin; Fang, Gang; Fu, Yingying; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lixiang

    2013-12-06

    Solution-processable polymer solar cells show great promise for providing a cost-effective route to create lightweight and flexible solar energy conversion devices. The photoactive layer comprising the conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor must be optimized to form bicontinuous nanoscale phase separation in order for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection due to the short exciton diffusion length of organic semiconductors. The donor polymer poly[9-(heptadecan-9-yl)-9H-carbazole- 2,7-diyl-alt-(5,6-bis(hexyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2- yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)-5,5-diyl] (PCDTBT-OR) has a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital level compared to its counterpart PCDTBT, and shows promise in increasing the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells. The phase separation evolution of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend with various weight ratios under tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapor annealing and its influence on the photovoltaic performance is investigated in detail. It is found that THF vapor annealing can promote the acceptor PC71BM aggregation from the donor PCDTBT-OR matrix to form nanoscale donor/acceptor phase separation for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection depending on the donor/acceptor weight ratio and the annealing time. The THF vapor-annealed PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM solar cells exhibit remarkable enhancement, with a PCE of 7.01% compared to 3.25% of the as-cast solar cells with the same active layer thickness. This work provides a general methodology to construct nano-interpenetrating networks for homogeneous polymer/fullerene blends and is potentially applicable to the roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer solar cells.

  13. Fine tuning of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend nanoscale phase separation via selective solvent annealing toward high-performance polymer photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Bin; Fang, Gang; Fu, Yingying; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lixiang

    2013-12-01

    Solution-processable polymer solar cells show great promise for providing a cost-effective route to create lightweight and flexible solar energy conversion devices. The photoactive layer comprising the conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor must be optimized to form bicontinuous nanoscale phase separation in order for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection due to the short exciton diffusion length of organic semiconductors. The donor polymer poly[9-(heptadecan-9-yl)-9H-carbazole- 2,7-diyl-alt-(5,6-bis(hexyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2- yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)-5,5-diyl] (PCDTBT-OR) has a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital level compared to its counterpart PCDTBT, and shows promise in increasing the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells. The phase separation evolution of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend with various weight ratios under tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapor annealing and its influence on the photovoltaic performance is investigated in detail. It is found that THF vapor annealing can promote the acceptor PC71BM aggregation from the donor PCDTBT-OR matrix to form nanoscale donor/acceptor phase separation for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection depending on the donor/acceptor weight ratio and the annealing time. The THF vapor-annealed PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM solar cells exhibit remarkable enhancement, with a PCE of 7.01% compared to 3.25% of the as-cast solar cells with the same active layer thickness. This work provides a general methodology to construct nano-interpenetrating networks for homogeneous polymer/fullerene blends and is potentially applicable to the roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer solar cells.

  14. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

  15. Plasma separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    This process employs a thermal plasma for the separation and production of oxygen and metals. It is a continuous process that requires no consumables and relies entirely on space resources. The almost complete absence of waste renders it relatively clean. It can be turned on or off without any undesirable side effects or residues. The prime disadvantage is its high power consumption.

  16. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E. Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10−6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5–10, p = 3.3 x 10−6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC. PMID:26372210

  17. Attenuation of kindling-induced decreases in NT-3 mRNA by thyroid hormone depletion.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Smith, M A; Post, R M; Rosen, J B

    1998-02-01

    The expression of neurotrophins is altered by amygdala kindled seizures. Because thyroid hormone can regulate the transcription of neurotrophins, we asked whether thyroid hormone regulates neurotrophin mRNA expression following amygdala kindling. Rats with electrodes implanted in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala were either depleted of thyroid hormone or given excess thyroid hormone. The rats were then kindled daily until they had one generalized seizure. The brains were removed 4 h after the seizure and processed for in situ hybridization of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNAs. In non-kindled rats, thyroid hormone depletion increased the levels of BDNF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. NGF and NT-3 mRNA expression was not altered. In addition, thyroid hormone manipulations had no effect on kindling or on kindling-induced BDNF and NGF mRNA. However, the kindling-induced decrease in NT-3 mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer was significantly attenuated by thyroid hormone depletion. These effects were reversed by thyroid hormone replacement. The results indicate that thyroid hormone plays a modulatory role in the seizure-induced changes of NT-3 mRNA expression found in the dentate gyrus.

  18. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10-6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5-10, p = 3.3 x 10-6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC.

  19. A DS106 Thing Happened on the Way to the 3M Tech Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockridge, Rochelle; Levine, Alan; Funes, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates how DS106, a computer science course in Digital Storytelling from the University of Mary Washington (UMW) and accessible as an open course on the web, is being explored in a corporate environment at 3M, an American multinational corporation based in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build community, collaboration, and more…

  20. METHOD OF SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented fer separating uranium, plutonium, and fission products ions from uranyl nitrate solutions having a pH value between 1 and 3 obtained by dissolving neutron irradiated uranium. The method consists in passing such solutions through a bed of cation exchange resin, which may be a sulfonated phenol formaidehyde type. Following the adsorption step the resin is first treated with a solution of 0.2M to 0.3M sulfuric acid to desorb the uranium. Fission product ions are then desorbed by treating the resin in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid. Lastly, the plutonium may be desorbed by treating the resin with a solution approximately 0.8M in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid.

  1. Separation science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-12-31

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO{sub 2} films in reaction with chlorophenol.

  2. Shear in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F plumes observed over Sanya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guozhu; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Abdu, M. A.; Wan, Weixing; Hu, Lianhuan

    2015-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radars near magnetic equator regularly measured a vertical shear in zonal drifts of the evening background plasma, with westward drifts below the equatorial F region peak and eastward drifts above. We report here observations of a clear shear structure in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F (SF) backscatter plumes measured with a 47.5 MHz coherent scatter radar operated at a low-latitude site Sanya (18.4°N, 109.6°E; dip latitude 12.8°N). The radar interferometry analysis on the zonal drifts of the 3 m irregularities yields results consistent with that estimated from the irregularity echo Doppler velocity measurements with multiple beams. It is shown that the SF 3 m irregularities move westward at the lowest altitudes, while at higher altitudes in the same SF plume structure, the 3 m irregularities drift eastward. One interesting point is that the vertical shear of zonal drifts was centered at ~300 km altitude over Sanya, which maps to an apex altitude of ~650 km at magnetic equator and is thus apparently higher than the apex altitudes 250-450 km where the zonal velocity shear has usually been observed. Analysis of the observations suggests that while the possibility of local generation of the shear flow of the irregularities can exist, the possibility of a plasma vortex appearing at relative high altitudes causing the zonal drift shear of F region 3 m irregularities measured over Sanya cannot be totally ruled out.

  3. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P < 0.05) lower cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P < 0.05) in dry heating than in moist heating, and was characterized by the prevalence of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. On the whole, the response to cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  5. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  6. Dust separator

    SciTech Connect

    Borow, H.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a gas filter apparatus for separating solids from a gas stream comprising a housing having a top, base, and side walls defining a chamber, a partition wall extending across the chamber and separating the chamber into an upper compartment and a lower compartment. A gas inlet conveyor tube in the chamber passes downwardly of the partition and into the lower compartment, the portion of the conveyor tube passing through the upper compartment being impervious and the portion of the conveyor tube extending downwardly into the lower compartment being provided with exit means including exit apertures at least in the area of the conveyor tube adjacent the partition wall. The partition wall is provided with openings surrounding the conveyor tube and communicates the lower compartment with the upper compartment. A filter means in the form of filter tubes covers each opening in the partition wall and extends downwardly in the lower compartment and parallel to the conveyor tube, at least one gas outlet communicating with the upper compartment. A suction means is associated with the gas outlet to provide a reduced pressure within the chamber. A discharge means at the base of the housing is associated with the lower compartment for discharging solid matter separated from the gas stream. The solid laden gas is conveyed into the lower compartment downwardly by the conveying tube and the gas of the stream is drawn from the conveyor tube immediately past the partition, through the surrounding filter tubes in order to prevent the formation of counter gas flows to the gravity discharge of the solids being separated from the gas stream.

  7. Variable recoveries of fatty acids following the separation of lipids on commercial silica gel TLC plates Selective loss of unsaturated fatty acids on certain brands of plates.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Jennifer M; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2004-12-25

    Since we recently noticed poor recoveries of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) when the parent lipids were first separated on TLC plates, we investigated the source of this error by examining several variables, including the brand of TLC plate, nature of the lipid, and conditions of methylation. Of the five commercial brands of plates used, two (Baker and Whatman) showed loss of UFA, and three (Alltech Hardlayer, Alltech Softlayer, and Merck) did not. This loss occurred in both neutral and phospholipids, did not affect saturated acids, and was independent of the methylation reagent used. No loss occurred, however, if the lipids were eluted from the silica gel before methylation, indicating that the loss is due to oxidation of UFA in presence of certain brands of silica gel. These results show that some brands of TLC plates may be unsuitable for lipid analysis, if the aim is to determine the fatty acid composition by GC using direct methylation.

  8. Selection of background electrolyte for CZE analysis by a chemometric approach. Part I. Separation of a mixture of acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Furlanetto, Sandra; Lanteri, Silvia; Orlandini, Serena; Gotti, Roberto; Giannini, Iacopo; Pinzauti, Sergio

    2007-03-12

    This paper is the first part of the presentation of a chemometric approach for the rapid selection of a suitable background electrolyte (BGE) in CZE analysis of small drug molecules. The strategy is based on principal component analysis and experimental design. In this first section, the approach is applied to the analysis of a mixture of six arylpropionic anti-inflammatory drugs. Initially, 222 possible aqueous background electrolytes (objects) were characterized using as descriptors pH, conductivity, ionic strength and relative viscosity. In order to allow the dissociation of the acidic analytes, this original data set was reduced to 154 background electrolytes with pH values higher than or equal to 5. Principal component analysis made it possible to graphically represent the new set of objects, described by the four variables, in a two-dimensional space. Among these electrolytes, Kennard-Stone algorithm selected ten objects to be tested by CZE, covering homogeneously principal component space. CZE analyses were carried out with the selected electrolytes, and 0.1 M borax was identified as the most suitable one for the specified application. Finally, the characteristics of the analysis were finely tuned by means of a response surface study, which allowed the best conditions to be determined: borax concentration, 0.09 M; methanol, 6% (v/v); temperature, 24 degrees C, voltage, 20 kV. Applying these conditions, a baseline resolution among the six compounds was obtained in less than 10 min.

  9. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  10. Energy transfer and charge separation in photosystem I: P700 oxidation upon selective excitation of the long-wavelength antenna chlorophylls of Synechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed Central

    Pålsson, L O; Flemming, C; Gobets, B; van Grondelle, R; Dekker, J P; Schlodder, E

    1998-01-01

    Photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus contains two spectral pools of chlorophylls called C-708 and C-719 that absorb at longer wavelengths than the primary electron donor P700. We investigated the relative quantum yields of photochemical charge separation and fluorescence as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature in trimeric and monomeric photosystem I complexes of this cyanobacterium. The monomeric complexes are characterized by a reduced content of the C-719 spectral form. At room temperature, an analysis of the wavelength dependence of P700 oxidation indicated that all absorbed light, even of wavelengths of up to 750 nm, has the same probability of resulting in a stable P700 photooxidation. Upon cooling from 295 K to 5 K, the nonselectively excited steady-state emission increased by 11- and 16-fold in the trimeric and monomeric complexes, respectively, whereas the quantum yield of P700 oxidation decreased 2.2- and 1.7-fold. Fluorescence excitation spectra at 5 K indicate that the fluorescence quantum yield further increases upon scanning of the excitation wavelength from 690 nm to 710 nm, whereas the quantum yield of P700 oxidation decreases significantly upon excitation at wavelengths longer than 700 nm. Based on these findings, we conclude that at 5 K the excited state is not equilibrated over the antenna before charge separation occurs, and that approximately 50% of the excitations reach P700 before they become irreversibly trapped on one of the long-wavelength antenna pigments. Possible spatial organizations of the long-wavelength antenna pigments in the three-dimensional structure of photosystem I are discussed. PMID:9591685

  11. Stimulation of high-frequency breakdown of gas in Uragan-3M torsatron by runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, I. K.; Tarasov, M. I.; Sitnikov, D. A.; Pashnev, V. K.; Lytova, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments on confinement and heating of plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron, the method of high-frequency breakdown of the working gas is used. In these experiments, in conditions of a relatively stable magnetic field, the rf power supplied to the setup chamber has a frequency close to the ion-cyclotron frequency. Such a method of gas breakdown is not always sufficiently reliable. In our experiments, preliminary ionization of the working gas by the run-away electron beam is used for stabilizing the breakdown. This work contains the results of experiments on enhancement of the runaway electron beam and on the interaction of the runaway electron beam in the Uragan-3M torsatron with the HF electromagnetic pump field. This enables us to formulate a number of recommendations for using spontaneously formed beams of accelerated particles for stimulating the rf breakdown. Our results confirm the possibility of gas breakdown by runaway electrons.

  12. Separation membrane development

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  13. SEPARATION OF FLUID MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Lipscomb, R.; Craig, A.; Labrow, S.; Dunn, J.F.

    1958-10-28

    An apparatus is presented for separating gaseous mixtures by selectively freezing a constituent of the mixture and subsequently separating the frozen gas. The gas mixture is passed through a cylinder fltted with a cooling jacket, causing one gas to freeze on the walls of the cylinder. A set of scraper blades are provided in the interior of the cyllnder, and as the blades oscillate, the frozen gas is scraped to the bottom of the cylinder. Means are provided for the frozen material to pass into a heating chamber where it is vaporized and the product gas collected.

  14. Electrochromatographic separation of proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basak, S. K.; Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a modified electrochromatography system which minimizes Joule heating at electric field strengths up to 125 V/cm. A non-linear equilibrium model is described which incorporates electrophoretic mobility, hydrodynamic flow velocity, and an electrically induced concentration polarization at the surface of the stationary phase. This model is able to provide useful estimates of protein retention time and velocity in a column packed with Sephadex gel and subjected to an electric field. A correlation of electrophoretic mobility of peptide and proteins with respect to their charge, molecular mass, and asymmetry enables the selection of solute target molecules for electrochromatographic separations. Good separation of protein mixtures have been obtained.

  15. Effect of pressure on the selectivity of polymeric C18 and C30 stationary phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Increased separation of isomeric fatty acid methyl esters, triacylglycerols, and tocopherols at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Okusa, Kensuke; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kuroda, Ikuma; Miwa, Shohei; Ohira, Masayoshi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ikegami, Tohru; McCalley, David V; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-04-25

    A high-density, polymeric C18 stationary phase (Inertsil ODS-P) or a polymeric C30 phase (Inertsil C30) provided improved resolution of the isomeric fatty acids (FAs), FA methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and tocopherols with an increase in pressure of 20-70MPa in reversed-phase HPLC. With respect to isomeric C18 FAMEs with one cis-double bond, ODS-P phase was effective for recognizing the position of a double bond among petroselinic (methyl 6Z-octadecenoate), oleic (methyl 9Z-octadecenoate), and cis-vaccenic (methyl 11Z-octadecenoate), especially at high pressure, but the differentiation between oleic and cis-vaccenic was not achieved by C30 phase regardless of the pressure. A monomeric C18 phase (InertSustain C18) was not effective for recognizing the position of the double bond in monounsaturated FAME, while the separation of cis- and trans-isomers was achieved by any of the stationary phases. The ODS-P and C30 phases provided increased separation for TAGs and β- and γ-tocopherols at high pressure. The transfer of FA, FAME, or TAG molecules from the mobile phase to the ODS-P stationary phase was accompanied by large volume reduction (-30∼-90mL/mol) resulting in a large increase in retention (up to 100% for an increase of 50MPa) and improved isomer separation at high pressure. For some isomer pairs, the ODS-P and C30 provided the opposite elution order, and in each case higher pressure improved the separation. The two stationary phases showed selectivity for the isomers having rigid structures, but only the ODS-P was effective for differentiating the position of a double bond in monounsaturated FAMEs. The results indicate that the improved isomer separation was provided by the increased dispersion interactions between the solute and the binding site of the stationary phase at high pressure.

  16. Florida hospital saves 5.3 M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Florida hospital saves 5.3M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing. Surgery cancellations have been slashed from 13% of cases to less than 3%, while emergency department admissions have increased by 20%. Those are just two of the results of a quality improvement project at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL, that focused on using the principles of lean manufacturing to improve patient flow in the five-hospital system

  17. A 3 m. y. record of Pliocene-Pleistocene loess in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.A.; Stemper, B.A. ); Pewe, T.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Many distal tephra beds exist in the thick, fossiliferous loess deposits near Fairbanks interior Alaska. Isothermal plateau fission-track ages, determined on glass shards from tephra beds, in conjunction with tephrostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic techniques, indicate that loess deposition began in the late Pliocene-an antiquity previously unsuspected. Hence, there is the opportunity now to reconstruct a detailed, well-dated record of environmental changes in interior Alaska during the past 3 m.y.

  18. Ultra Barrier Topsheet Film for Flexible Photovoltaics with 3M Company

    SciTech Connect

    Funkenbusch, Arnie; Ruth, Charles

    2014-12-30

    In this DOE sponsored program, 3M achieved the critical UBT features to enable durable flexible high efficiency modules to be produced by a range of customers who have now certified the 3M UBT and are actively developing said flexible modules. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the work under this program were; Scale-up the current Generation-1 UBT from 12” width, as made on 3M’s pilot line, to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing, while maintaining baseline performance metrics (see table below); This objective was fully met; Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime demanded by the photovoltaic market; Aggressive testing revealed potential failure modes in the Gen 1 UBT. Deficiencies were identified and corrective action taken in the Gen 2 UBT; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance relative to baseline, including higher %T (percent transmission), lower water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) with targets based on what the technology needs for 25 year lifetime, proven lifetime of 25 years in solar module construction in the field, and lower cost; Testing of UBT Gen 2 under a wide range of conditions presented in this report failed to reveal any failure mode. Therefore UBT Gen 2 is known to be highly durable. 3M will continue to test towards statistically validating a 25 year lifetime under 3M funding; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line within three years; and This objective was fully met.

  19. Fundamental experiments of radio astronomy by the paraboloidal antenna of 3.3 m diameter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Kuji, S.; Hara, T.; Fujishita, M.; Horiai, K.; Iwadate, K.; Sato, K.; Tsubokawa, T.; Tamura, Y.; Takano, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Asari, K.

    The 3.3 m diameter paraboloidal antenna was moved at early 1985 for fundamental experiments of radio astronomy at the International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa. The antenna was originally manufactured for the telecomunication experiments at 4 GHz. The authors fitted up a new feed horn of 8 GHz-band for their experiments. The driving system was renewed as suitable for astronomical use by using DC servomotors, optical encoders and a micro-computer.

  20. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  1. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  2. Preparation of xylenol orange functionalized silica gel as a selective solid phase extractor and its application for preconcentration--separation of mercury from waters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Wu, Chunlai; Wei, Yafang; Peng, Chuanyun; Peng, Pingan

    2007-06-25

    A new selective solid phase extractor was prepared from silica gel modified with xylenol orange (SGMXO). The solid phase extractor is stable in 6molL(-1) HCl, common organic solvents, and pH 1.0-9.0 buffer solutions. In the batch experiments, Hg(II) can be adsorbed on SGMXO at pH 1.0 with 90.0% retention, whereas the retention of other common coexisting metal ions such as Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) is less than 4.1%.. The adsorption equilibration for Hg(II) was achieved within 3min. At optimum conditions, the adsorption capacity of the extractor is 18.26micromolg(-1) of dry modified silica gel, and the preconcentration factor is as high as 333. The recovery is still higher than 95% for the preconcentration of 10ngmL(-1) Hg(II). The new solid phase extractor has been used for the preconcentration of low level of Hg(II) in surface water, tap water in chemistry laboratory and student's dormitory and a simulated sea water samples, recoveries of 98.2-100.6% were obtained. It is showed that low level of Hg(II) can be effectively preconcentrated by this new selective solid phase extractor.

  3. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  4. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  5. Molecular octopus: octa functionalized calix[4]resorcinarene-hydroxamic acid [C4RAHA] for selective extraction, separation and preconcentration of U(VI).

    PubMed

    Jain, Vinod K; Pillai, Shibu G; Pandya, Rujul A; Agrawal, Yaduvendra K; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2005-01-30

    A solvent extraction separation of uranium, in the presence of thorium, cerium and lanthanides with a new calix[4]resorcinarene bearing eight hydroxamic acid groups (C4RAHA) is described. Quantitative extraction of uranium is possible in ethyl acetate solution of C4RAHA at pH 8.0. The lambda(max) and molar absorptivity (varepsilon) for uranium is 356nm and 8352Lmol(-1)cm(-1). The Binding ratio of uranium with C4RAHA as evaluated by Job's method is 4:1. The system obeys Beer's law over the range 0.075-6.0mugml(-1) of uranium with Sandell sensitivity 0.0284mugcm(-2). A preconcentration factor of 142 was achieved by directly aspirating the extract for GF-AAS measurements. The two-phase stability constant evaluated at 25 degrees C for uranium is 15.91. The complexation is characterized by favorable enthalpy and entropy changes. A liquid membrane transport study of uranium was carried out from source to the receiving phase under controlled conditions and a mechanism of transport is proposed. Uranium has been determined in standard and environmental samples.

  6. Selective Encaging of N2O in N2O-N2 Binary Gas Hydrates via Hydrate-Based Gas Separation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youjeong; Shin, Donghoon; Choi, Seunghyun; Woo, Yesol; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Dongseon; Shin, Hee-Young; Cha, Minjun; Yoon, Ji-Ho

    2017-02-22

    The crystal structure and guest inclusion behaviors of nitrous oxide-nitrogen (N2O-N2) binary gas hydrates formed from N2O/N2 gas mixtures are determined through spectroscopic analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction results indicate that the crystal structure of all the N2O-N2 binary gas hydrates is identified as the structure I (sI) hydrate. Raman spectra for N2O-N2 binary gas hydrate formed from N2O/N2 (80/20, 60/40, 40/60 mol %) gas mixtures reveal that N2O molecules occupy both large and small cages of the sI hydrate. In contrast, there is a single Raman band of N2O molecules for N2O-N2 binary gas hydrate formed from N2O/N2 (20/80 mol %) gas mixture, indicating that N2O molecules are trapped in only large cages of sI hydrate. From temperature-dependent Raman spectra and the Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) model calculation, we confirm the self-preservation of N2O-N2 binary gas hydrates in the temperature range of 210-270 K. Both the experimental measurements and the PSRK model calculations demonstrate the preferential occupation of N2O molecules rather than N2 molecules in the hydrate cages, leading to a possible process for separating N2O from gas mixtures via hydrate formation. The phase equilibrium conditions, pseudo pressure-composition (P-x) diagram, and gas storage capacity of N2O-N2 binary gas hydrates are discussed in detail.

  7. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  8. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  9. Validation of the 3M molecular detection system for the detection of listeria in meat, seafood, dairy, and retail environments.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Esther D; David, John; Koeritzer, Bob; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-05-01

    There is a continued need to develop improved rapid methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this project was to evaluate the 3M Molecular Detection System (3M MDS), which uses isothermal DNA amplification, and the 3M Molecular Detection Assay Listeria using environmental samples obtained from retail delicatessens and meat, seafood, and dairy processing plants. Environmental sponge samples were tested for Listeria with the 3M MDS after 22 and 48 h of enrichment in 3M Modified Listeria Recovery Broth (3M mLRB); enrichments were also used for cultural detection of Listeria spp. Among 391 samples tested for Listeria, 74 were positive by both the 3M MDS and the cultural method, 310 were negative by both methods, 2 were positive by the 3M MDS and negative by the cultural method, and one sample was negative by the 3M MDS and positive by the cultural method. Four samples were removed from the sample set, prior to statistical analyses, due to potential cross-contamination during testing. Listeria isolates from positive samples represented L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. seeligeri. Overall, the 3M MDS and culture-based detection after enrichment in 3M mLRB did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) with regard to the number of positive samples, when chi-square analyses were performed for (i) number of positive samples after 22 h, (ii) number of positive samples after 48 h, and (iii) number of positive samples after 22 and/or 48 h of enrichment in 3M mLRB. Among 288 sampling sites that were tested with duplicate sponges, 67 each tested positive with the 3M MDS and the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, further supporting that the 3M MDS performs equivalently to traditional methods when used with environmental sponge samples.

  10. Analysis of Separation Pay Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    approach to reduce the ranks also has affected senior enlisted sailors, who are finding themselves pushed into early retirement if they don’t advance...historical experience with Voluntary Separation Incentive (VSI), Special Separation Bonus (SSB), Temporary Early Retirement Authority (TERA), and...HYT Years by PaygradeFiscal Year Table 1. High Year Tenure Adjustments by Paygrade (FY 93-43 and 02-03) c. Selective Early Retirement Selective

  11. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Reed, J.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Boyer, K.; Greiner, N.R.

    1975-11-26

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light is described. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  12. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Boyer, Keith; Greiner, Norman R.

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  13. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1987-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  14. Particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10) are provided for separating and classifying particles (48,50,56) by dispersing the particles within a fluid (52) that is upwardly flowing within a cone-shaped pipe (12) that has its large end (20) above its small end (18). Particles of similar size and shape (48,50) migrate to individual levels (A,B) within the flowing fluid. As the fluid is deflected by a plate (42) at the top end of the pipe (12), the smallest particles are collected on a shelf-like flange (40). Ever larger particles are collected as the flow rate of the fluid is increased. To prevent particle sticking on the walls (14) of the pipe (12), additional fluid is caused to flow into the pipe (12) through holes (68) that are specifically provided for that purpose. Sticking is further prevented by high frequency vibrators (70) that are positioned on the apparatus (10).

  15. Selective separation and determination of the synthetic colorants in beverages by magnetic solid-phase dispersion extraction based on a Fe3 O4 /reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Ning; Han, Qing; Yang, Zaiyue; Wu, Jinhua; Xue, Cheng; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin; Jiang, Huijun

    2015-06-01

    A facile adsorbent, a nanocomposite of Fe3 O4 and reduced graphene oxide, was fabricated for the selective separation and enrichment of synthetic aromatic azo colorants by magnetic solid-phase dispersion extraction. The nanocomposite was synthesized in a one-step reduction reaction and characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The colorants in beverages were quickly adsorbed onto the surface of the nanocomposite with strong π-π interactions between colorants and reduced graphene oxide, and separated with the assistance of an external magnetic field. Moreover, the four colorants in beverages were detected at different wavelengths by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. A linear dependence of peak area was obtained over 0.05-10 μg/mL with the limits of detection of 10.02, 11.90, 10.41, 15.91 ng/mL for tartrazine, allure red, amaranth, and new coccine, respectively (signal to noise = 3). The recoveries for the spiked colorants were in the range of 88.95-95.89% with the relative standard deviation less than 2.66%. The results indicated that the nanocomposite of Fe3 O4 and reduced graphene oxide could be used as an excellent selective adsorbent for aromatic compounds and has potential applications in sample pretreatment.

  16. Selective separation and characterization of the stress degradation products of ondansetron hydrochloride by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Murali V N Kumar; Keshari, Kundan Kumar; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Srinivas, Ragampeta

    2015-05-01

    Ondansetron hydrochloride was subjected to forced degradation studies under various conditions of hydrolysis (acidic, basic, and neutral), oxidation, photolysis, and thermal as prescribed by International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q1A (R2). A simple, selective, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed on a Waters Xterra C18 (150 × 4.6 mm id, 3.5 μm) column using 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 3.0)/methanol as a mobile phase in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The method was extended to liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for identification and structural characterization of stress degradation products of ondansetron. The drug showed significant degradation in base hydrolytic and photolytic stress conditions in the liquid state, while it was found to be stable in neutral, acidic, thermal, and oxidative stress conditions. A total of five degradation products were characterized and most probable mechanisms for the formation of degradation products have been proposed on the basis of a comparison of the fragmentation of the [M + H](+) ions of the drug and its degradation products. Finally, the developed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q2 (R1).

  17. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  18. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  19. Unique expression features of cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 mRNA expression in human colon and lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously identified the cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (Ct-OATP1B3) mRNA in several human colon and lung cancer tissues. Ct-OATP1B3 is a variant of the liver-type OATP1B3 (Lt-OATP1B3) mRNA, which is a hepatocyte plasma membrane transporter with broad substrate specificity. However, in cancer tissues, both the detailed characteristics of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression and its biological functions remain unclear. With this point in mind, we sought to characterize Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression in colon and lung cancer tissues. In addition, we attempted to obtain functional implication of Ct-OATP1B3 in cancer cells. Methods Matched pairs of cancer and normal tissues were collected from 39 colon cancer and 28 lung cancer patients. The OATP1B3 mRNA expression levels in each of these tissues were separately determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test were used in statistical analysis. The Ct-OATP1B3 functional expression in colon cancer cells was then examined by Western blotting and transport analyses. Results Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA, but not Lt-OATP1B3 mRNA, was abundantly expressed in colon cancer tissues at a higher detection frequency (87.2%) than that of the adjacent normal tissues (2.6%). Furthermore, it was found that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression was often detected in early colon cancer stages (88.9%, n = 18), and that its expression was associated with well-differentiated colon cancer statuses. On the other hand, Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA also showed a predominant and cancer-associated expression profile in lung tissues, although at frequencies and expression levels that were lower than those obtained from colon cancer. As for attempts to clarify the Ct-OATP1B3 functions, neither protein expression nor transport activity could be observed in any of the cell lines examined. Conclusions Based on the unique characteristics of the Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression profile identified in

  20. De novo somatic mutations in components of the PI3K-AKT3-mTOR pathway cause hemimegalencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Huynh, My; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Kim, Sangwoo; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Heiberg, Andrew; Scott, Eric; Bafna, Vineet; Hill, Kiley J; Collazo, Adrienne; Funari, Vincent; Russ, Carsten; Gabriel, Stacey B; Mathern, Gary W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with HME can be relieved by the surgical treatment hemispherectomy, allowing sampling of diseased tissue. Exome sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis in paired brain-blood samples from individuals with HME (n = 20 cases) identified de novo somatic mutations in 30% of affected individuals in the PIK3CA, AKT3 and MTOR genes. A recurrent PIK3CA c.1633G>A mutation was found in four separate cases. Identified mutations were present in 8–40% of sequenced alleles in various brain regions and were associated with increased neuronal S6 protein phosphorylation in the brains of affected individuals, indicating aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Thus HME is probably a genetically mosaic disease caused by gain of function in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT3-mTOR signaling. PMID:22729223

  1. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Pinnau, Ingo; Segelke, Scott

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  2. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  3. ANION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Raby, B.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for selectively separating radium, bismuth, poloniums and lead values from a metallic mixture of thc same. The mixture is dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid and the acidity is adjusted to between 1 to 2M in hydrochloric acid to form the anionic polychloro complexes of polonium and bismuth. The solution is contacted with a first anion exchange resin such as strong base quaternary ammonia type to selectively absorb the polonium and bismuth leaving the radium and lead in the effluent. The effluent, after treatment in hydrochloric acid to increase the hydrochloric acid concentration to 6M is contacted with a second anion exchange iesin of the same type as the above to selectively adsorb the lead leaving the radium in the effluent. Radium is separately recovered from the effluent from the second exchange column. Lead is stripped from the loaded resin of the second column by treatment with 3M hydrochloric acid solution. The loaded resin of the first column is washed with 8M hydrochloric acid solution to recover bismuth and then treated with strong nitric acid solution to recover polonium.

  4. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3' UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3' extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3-aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis.

  5. Finishing of display glass for mobile electronics using 3M Trizact diamond tile abrasive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianbin; Fletcher, Tim; Na, Tee Koon; Sventek, Bruce; Romero, Vince; Lugg, Paul S.; Kim, Don

    2010-10-01

    This paper will describe a new method being used during the finishing of glass displays for mobile electronics including mobile hand held devices and notebook computers. The new method consists of using 3M TrizactTM Diamond Tile Abrasive Pads. TrizactTM Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive grinding technology developed by 3M Company. The TrizactTM Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder) - inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology can be applied in both double and single side grinding applications. A unique advantage of TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology is the combination of high stock removal and low sub-surface damage. Grinding results will be presented for both 9 micron and 20 micron grades of TrizactTM Diamond Tile abrasive pads used to finish several common display glasses including Corning GorillaTM glass and Soda Lime glass.

  6. [11'-Deoxyverticillin A induces caspase-dependent cell apoptosis in PC3M cells].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingdi; Zhang, Yingqiu; Ni, Yangxiao; Shi, Guoli; Yang, Huaiyi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years, the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer have increased dramatically in China. At earlier stages, most diagnosed prostate cancers are responsive to androgen depletion treatment, yet, nearly all patients will eventually progress to metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), which still has no effective therapeutic method or drug to deal with. 11'-Deoxyverticillin A (C42) belongs to the family of epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs), an interesting class of fungal toxins that inhibit farnesyl transferase. Compounds holding such a property have been explored as putative anticancer agents. In this study, using PC3M cells, an AIPC cell line, we investigated the effect of the compound on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism. It revealed that C42 markedly enhanced the activity of caspase-3/7 and increased the accumulation of the cleaved PARP, all of which are the markers of apoptosis. It also revealed that C42 either decreased cell viability or inhibited the growth of PC3M cells. Moreover, we observed that the loss of cell viability and cell growth inhibition induced by C42 were both time- and dosage dependent. Taken together, we indicated that C42 can induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in AIPC cells, and the results presented here will broaden our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which C42 exerts its anticancer activity, and future work in this direction may provide valuable information in the development of these compounds into effective cancer therapeutic strategies against androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  7. 29 CFR 516.27 - “Board, lodging, or other facilities” under section 3(m) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âBoard, lodging, or other facilitiesâ under section 3(m) of...” under section 3(m) of the Act. (a) In addition to keeping other records required by this part, an... these terms are used in sec. 3(m) of the Act) furnished to them by the employer or by an...

  8. 29 CFR 516.27 - “Board, lodging, or other facilities” under section 3(m) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBoard, lodging, or other facilitiesâ under section 3(m) of...” under section 3(m) of the Act. (a) In addition to keeping other records required by this part, an... these terms are used in sec. 3(m) of the Act) furnished to them by the employer or by an...

  9. Polyaniline Membranes for Separation Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    High quality membranes of poly aniline/ethylaniline copolymers along with polyaniline /polyimide blends have been synthesized . Water permeates... polyaniline is among the most selective membranes yet developed for water/acetic acid separations: e.g. at 50% water/50% acetic acid the selectivity alpha is

  10. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  11. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Jamriska, David

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  12. Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.

  13. The refurbished 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope at Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) announced the opportunity to "assume responsibility for operation of the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope." A group of astronomers/educators from institutions across the USA successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the observatory and operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT Consortium has been established between Francis Marion University, the Planetary Science Institute, South Carolina State University, Villanova University, and Western Kentucky University to oversee the refurbishment and automation, and operate the telescope to successfully achieve its research and education goals. The RCT was commissioned in 1964 as the Remotely Controlled Telescope and utilized that epoch's computing and communication technology to provide unattended operation from NOAO headquarters in Tucson, about 90 km distant. The original incarnation of the RCT allowed astronomers to gain experience in the remote operation of observatories in order to both develop techniques for operating space-based telescopes and to increase the productivity of ground-based telescopes (Maran 1967 Science 158, 867). While these tests worked as well as could be expected given the technology of the time, the telescope and observatory were refitted in 1969 for classical, attended operations. The second life of the 1.3-m was as a heavily subscribed KPNO visitor facility, first with photoelectric photometers and later as an important testbed for the newest infrared instrumentation. In 1996 the telescope was removed from the list of available KPNO facilities and stood idle until the RCT Consortium hired EOS Technologies, Inc. to refurbish and automate the observatory. In winter 2003 most of the observatory systems have been refurbished and the commissioning has begun. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  14. Modeling the hydrothermal circulation and the hydrogen production at the Rainbow site with Cast3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Charlou, J.; Jean-baptiste, P.

    2012-12-01

    On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Rainbow venting site is described as an ultramafic-hosted active hydrothermal site and releases high fluxes of methane and hydrogen [1, 2]. This behavior has first been interpreted as the result of serpentinization processes. But geochemical reactions involving olivine and plagioclase assemblages, and leading to chlorite, tremolite, talc and magnetite assemblages, could contribute to the observed characteristics of the exiting fluid [2]. The predominance of one of these geochemical reactions or their coexistence strongly depend on the hydrothermal fluid circulation. We developed and validated a 2D/3D numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in the framework of the Cast3M code [3, 4]. We also developed a numerical model for hydrogen production and transport that is based on experimental studies of the serpentinization processes [5-6]. This geochemical model takes into account the exothermic and water-consuming behavior of the serpentinization reaction and it can be coupled to our thermo-hydrogeological model. Our simulations provide temperatures, mass fluxes and venting surface areas very close to those estimated in-situ [7]. We showed that a single-path model [8] was necessary to simulate high values such as the in-situ measured temperatures and estimated water mass fluxes of the Rainbow site [7]. This single-path model will be used to model the production and transport of hydrogen at the Rainbow hydrothermal site. References [1]Charlou et al. (2010) AGU Monograph series. [2]Seyfried et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 1574-1593. [3]http://www-cast3m.cea.fr. [4]Martin & Fyfe (1970) Chem. Geol. 6, 185-202. [5] Marcaillou et al. (2011) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 303, 281-290. [6]Malvoisin et al. (2012) JGR, 117, B01104. [7]Perez et al. (2012) submited to Computational Geosciences. [8]Lowell & Germanovich (2004) AGU, Washington DC, USA.

  15. An intracellular redox sensor for reactive oxygen species at the M3-M4 linker of GABAAρ1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Gasulla, Javier; Calvo, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally involved in cell oxidative stress but also play a role as cellular messengers in redox signalling; for example, modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, the direct actions of ROS on GABAA receptors were not previously demonstrated. In the present work, we studied the effects of ROS on GABAAρ1 receptor function. Experimental Approach GABAAρ1 receptors were expressed in oocytes and GABA-evoked responses electrophysiologically recorded in the presence or absence of ROS. Chemical protection of cysteines by selective sulfhydryl reagents and site-directed mutagenesis studies were used to identify protein residues involved in ROS actions. Key Results GABAAρ1 receptor-mediated responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by H2O2. Potentiating effects were attenuated by a free radical scavenger, lipoic acid or an inhibitor of the Fenton reaction, deferoxamine. Each ρ1 subunit contains only three cysteine residues, two extracellular at the Cys-loop (C177 and C191) and one intracellular (C364) at the M3-M4 linker. Mutant GABAAρ1 receptors in which C364 was exchanged by alanine were completely insensitive to modulation, implying that this site, rather than a cysteine in the Cys-loop, is essential for ROS modulation. Conclusion and Implications Our results show that the function of GABAAρ1 receptors is enhanced by ROS and that the intracellular C364 is the sensor for ROS actions. PMID:24428763

  16. Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

  17. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  18. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  19. PMHS impact response in 3 m/s and 8 m/s nearside impacts with abdomen offset.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carl S; Madura, Nathaniel H; Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-11-01

    Lateral impact tests were performed using seven male post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to characterize the force-deflection response of contacted body regions, including the lower abdomen. All tests were performed using a dual-sled, side-impact test facility. A segmented impactor was mounted on a sled that was pneumatically accelerated into a second, initially stationary sled on which a subject was seated facing perpendicular to the direction of impact. Positions of impactor segments were adjusted for each subject so that forces applied to different anatomic regions, including thorax, abdomen, greater trochanter, iliac wing, and thigh, could be independently measured on each PMHS. The impactor contact surfaces were located in the same vertical plane, except that the abdomen plate was offset 5.1 cm towards the subject. The masses of the sleds and the force- deflection characteristics of the energy-absorbing interface material between the sleds were set to provide the impactor sled with a velocity profile that matched the average driver door velocity history produced in a series of side NCAP tests. Impactor padding was also selected so that average ATD pelvis and thorax responses from the same series of side NCAP tests were reproduced when the ATD used in these tests was impacted using the average door-velocity history. Each subject was first impacted on one side of the body using an initial impactor speed of 3 m/s. If a post-test CT scan and strain-gage data revealed two or fewer non-displaced rib fractures, then the PMHS was impacted on the contralateral side of the body at a speed of 8 m/s or 10 m/s. The results of tests in the 3 m/s and 8 m/s conditions were used to develop force-deflection response corridors for the abdomen, force history response corridors for the pelvis (iliac wing and greater trochanter), the midthigh, and the thorax. Response corridors for the lateral acceleration of the pelvis were also developed. Future work will compare side impact ATD

  20. Selective extraction and analysis of catecholamines in rat blood microdialysate by polymeric ionic liquid-diphenylboric acid-packed capillary column and fast separation in high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinguang; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-08-28

    Concentration of blood catecholamines (CAs) is linked to a host of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and stenocardia. The matrix interferences and low concentration require tedious sample pretreatment methods before quantitative analysis by the gold standard method of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been widely used as the pretreatment technique. Here, a facile polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-diphenylboric acid (DPBA)-packed capillary column was prepared to selectively extract dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE) and epinephrine (E) prior to their quantitative analysis by a fast separation in HPLC-ECD method, while microdialysis sampling method was applied to get the analysis sample. Parameters that influenced desorption efficiency, such as pH, salt concentration, acetonitrile content and wash time, were examined and optimized. The proposed method, combining microdialysis sampling technique, SPE and HPLC-ECD system, was successfully applied to detect CAs in rat blood microdialysate with high sensitivity and selectivity in small sample volumes (5-40μl) and a short analysis time (8min), yielding good reproducibility (RSD 6.5-7.7%) and spiked recovery (91-104.4%).

  1. NIOBIUM-TANTALUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Foos, R.A.

    1959-01-27

    The usual method for the separation of tantalum and niobium consists of a selective solvent extraction from an aqueous hydrofluoric acid solution of the metals. A difficulty encountered in this process is the fact that the corrosion problems associated with hydrofluoric acid are serious. It has been found that the corrosion caused by the hydrofluoric acid may be substantially reduced by adding to the acidic solution an amine, such as phenyl diethanolamine or aniline, and adjusting pH value to between 4 and 6.

  2. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  3. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  4. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task {open_quotes}Develop and Test Sorbents,{close_quotes} the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management`s Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A&M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report.

  5. Observation of 20-400 kHz fluctuations in the U-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Slavnyj, A. S.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Kulaga, A. E.; Zamanov, N. V.; Hirose, A.

    2016-02-01

    First observations of quasi-coherent fluctuations in the frequency range of 20-400 kHz in Alfvén-wave-heated plasmas of the U-3M torsatron are presented. The excitation conditions of these modes depend on the radio frequency antenna type and the plasma density, the appearance of the modes correlating with the presence of both suprathermal electrons and high-energy ions in the plasma, which supports our opinion that the modes are excited by energetic particles. Complicated evolution of the mode frequencies with abrupt changes at the instants of plasma confinement transitions is observed at the initial stage of each discharge. The frequencies become stable at the stage of the plasma current flattop. Raw estimates show that toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes could be responsible for the 150-400 kHz fluctuations. Low-frequency 20-70 kHz bursts are observed during plasma confinement transitions. The poloidal mode number of one of these bursts with the frequency of 20 kHz burst was determined to be m = 2. This mode rotated in the electron diamagnetic rotation direction with a frequency lower than the geodesic acoustic mode frequency and can be identified as a drift-sound-type mode.

  6. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C.; Engle, S.; Guinan, E.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  7. Characteristics of ICR-produced peripheral plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedin, N. T.; Chechkin, V. V.; Fomin, I. P.

    Some plasma parameters outside the confinement volume near the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) and in the divertor fluxes were studied by probe and microwave techniques during ICR production and heating of the plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron. When moving around the LCMS, the steepness of the radial density, electron temperature, and potential profiles increase with distance away from the 'rib' of the LCMS. The quasi-steady radial electric field E(sub r) near the LCMS exceeds 100 V/cm and is directed outwards, opposite to the calculated ambipolar electric field inside the confinement volume. It is shown that the total flow of the diverted plasma in the spacing between two helical windings consists of a weakly mobile non-resonant component which is presumably formed at the periphery due to ionization, and a component whose value and poloidal location are sensitive to resonance conditions for RF power absorption, this flow being apparently formed by a plasma diffusing through the LCMS and/or generated near the LCMS, where the filed E(sub r) is localized. Based on plasma parameters measurements after the RF pulse is switched off, a qualitative model of peripheral plasma dynamics after the end of the RF heating is constructed.

  8. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  9. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  10. Cleaning of inner vacuum surfaces in the Uragan-3M facility by radio-frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lozin, A. V. Moiseenko, V. E.; Grigor’eva, L. I.; Kozulya, M. M.; Kulaga, A. E.; Lysoivan, A. I.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Romanov, V. S.; Chernyshenko, V. Ya.; Chechkin, V. V.; Collaboration: Uragan-3M Team

    2013-08-15

    A method for cleaning vacuum surfaces by a low-temperature (T{sub e} ∼ 10 eV) relatively dense (n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}) plasma of an RF discharge was developed and successfully applied at the Uragan-3M torsatron. The convenience of the method is that it can be implemented with the same antenna system and RF generators that are used to produce and heat the plasma in the operating mode and does not require retuning the frequencies of the antennas and RF generators. The RF discharge has a high efficiency from the standpoint of cleaning vacuum surfaces. After performing a series of cleanings by the low-temperature RF discharge plasma (about 20000 pulses), (i) the intensity of the CIII impurity line was substantially reduced, (ii) a quasi-steady operating mode with a duration of up to 50 ms, a plasma density of n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, and an electron temperature of up to T{sub e} ∼ 1 keV was achieved, and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis of the residual gas in the chamber indicated a significant reduction in the impurity content.

  11. GRACOS: Scalable and Load Balanced P3M Cosmological N-body Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, Alexander; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The GRACOS (GRAvitational COSmology) code, a parallel implementation of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (P3M) algorithm for distributed memory clusters, uses a hybrid method for both computation and domain decomposition. Long-range forces are computed using a Fourier transform gravity solver on a regular mesh; the mesh is distributed across parallel processes using a static one-dimensional slab domain decomposition. Short-range forces are computed by direct summation of close pairs; particles are distributed using a dynamic domain decomposition based on a space-filling Hilbert curve. A nearly-optimal method was devised to dynamically repartition the particle distribution so as to maintain load balance even for extremely inhomogeneous mass distributions. Tests using 800(3) simulations on a 40-processor beowulf cluster showed good load balance and scalability up to 80 processes. There are limits on scalability imposed by communication and extreme clustering which may be removed by extending the algorithm to include adaptive mesh refinement.

  12. Hydrogen isotope separation from water

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

  13. Shoulder separation - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder - aftercare; Acromioclavicular joint separation - aftercare; A/C separation - aftercare ... Most shoulder separation injuries are caused by falling onto the shoulder. This causes a tear in the tissue that connects the ...

  14. Clinical evaluation of the 3M Littmann Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 in 150 cats.

    PubMed

    Blass, Keith A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Scansen, Brian A; Visser, Lance C; Lu, Jennifer; Smith, Danielle N; Ward, Jessica L

    2013-10-01

    Detection of murmurs and gallops may help to identify cats with heart disease. However, auscultatory findings may be subject to clinically relevant observer variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electronic stethoscope (ES) in cats. We hypothesized that the ES would perform at least as well as a conventional stethoscope (CS) in the detection of abnormal heart sounds. One hundred and fifty consecutive cats undergoing echocardiography were enrolled prospectively. Cats were ausculted with a CS (WA Tycos Harvey Elite) by two observers, and heart sounds were recorded digitally using an ES (3M Littmann Stethoscope Model 3200) for off-line analysis. Echocardiography was used as the clinical standard method for validation of auscultatory findings. Additionally, digital recordings (DRs) were assessed by eight independent observers with various levels of expertise, and compared using interclass correlation and Cohen's weighted kappa analyses. Using the CS, a heart murmur (n = 88 cats) or gallop sound (n = 17) was identified in 105 cats, whereas 45 cats lacked abnormal heart sounds. There was good total agreement (83-90%) between the two observers using the CS. In contrast, there was only moderate agreement (P <0.001) between results from the CS and the DRs for murmurs, and poor agreement for gallops. The CS was more sensitive compared with the DRs with regard to murmurs and gallops. Agreement among the eight observers was good-to-excellent for murmur detection (81%). In conclusion, DRs made with the ES are less sensitive but comparably specific to a CS at detecting abnormal heart sounds in cats.

  15. Qualification Of Kapton Pretreatment Process Using 3M Scotch Weld 2216 For Solar Panel Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, B. R.; Krishna, Priya G.; Venkatesh, K.; Nagendra, H. R.; Nanjundaswamy, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    Substrates for solar arrays intended to be used on satellite systems are generally made of aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) face skin. Two mil thick KaptonTM sheets are co cured on one side of the aluminum /CFRP composite structure while realizing the substrate panels. This Kapton sheet would serve as an insulator over which solar cell blankets are bonded with suitable adhesive for the satellite solar panels. The satellite solar panels demands highest degree of quality and reliability and one of the prime factors in this regards is the bond strength of adhesive which is used to bond the solar cell blankets. Various methods of pretreatments of Kapton surface are in use for increasing the surface energy, which in turn results in improved bond strengths. These methods generally provide roughened surface of the Kapton which is achieved either by abrasive means like scrubbing the surface using fine silica chip, or plasma etching or alternatively by an additive process wherein suitable polyester, phenolic or other resins are coated on to the Kapton surface to achieve the desired results. For spacecraft solar panel applications at ISRO, polyester resin coating on to the Kapton surface was used as pretreatment prior to adhesive application. This process had provided adequate bond strengths between the solar cells and Kapton. Due to issues related to the supply of the polyester resin material from the vendor alternative methods of pretreatments were explored. In this paper, a novel process developed for Kapton pretreatment is described along with results of relevant qualifications for the satellite solar panel application. This newly developed pretreatment process for Kapton successfully adopts an epoxy based material 3M Scotch weld 2216 which is widely used in spacecraft electronic hardware.

  16. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases. PMID:22989054

  17. Initial Operation and Checkout of Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment and Meteor-3M Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, L.; Chu, W.; Salikhov, R.; Moore, A.; Trepte, C.; Cisewski, M.

    2002-01-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10,2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA s Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center s (LaRC) management. This paper presents innovative approaches deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational issues

  18. Initial operation and checkout of stratospheric aerosol gas experiment and Meteor-3M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, Leonid; Chu, William P.; Salikhov, Rashid; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Trepte, Charles R.; Cisewski, Michael S.

    2003-04-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10, 2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M(1) satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. This paper presents the process and approach deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational

  19. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  20. The 3M Experience: Use of External Databases in a Large Diversified Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Karen L.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines traditional and nontraditional information services developed at a large, highly diversified firm to exploit power and value of online databases and support goals of the Independent Searching Program. Highlights include awareness, set-up and vendor selection; training and continuing support; local database building; electronic search…

  1. [The experience of using Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE) - the advantages of bulk fill flowable restoratives].

    PubMed

    Sharova, T N

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents clinical cases illustrating the advantages of bulk fill flowable restoratives, such as Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). The material showed good clinical results for class I and class II restorations.

  2. Modifications to Langley 0.3-m TCT adaptive wall software for heavy gas test medium, phase 1 studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    The scheme for two-dimensional wall adaptation with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as test gas in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) is presented. A unified version of the wall adaptation software has been developed to function in a dual gas operation mode (nitrogen or SF6). The feature of ideal gas calculations for nitrogen operation is retained. For SF6 operation, real gas properties have been computed using the departure function technique. Installation of the software on the 0.3-m TCT ModComp-A computer and preliminary validation with nitrogen operation were found to be satisfactory. Further validation and improvements to the software will be undertaken when the 0.3-m TCT is ready for operation with SF6 gas.

  3. Separation of organic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, M.

    1993-08-24

    The method is described for concentrating a charge solution containing methanol and methyl t-butyl ether which comprises maintaining, as pervaporation membrane, a high molecular weight ion exchange resin bearing a pendant acid group, which resin is characterized by the formula: -(CF[sub 2]CF[sub 2])[sub m]-C(-CF[sub 2]-)FO(CF[sub 2]C(-CF[sub 3])FO)[sub n]CF[sub 2]CF[sub 2]SO[sub 3]-M[sup +] wherein M is a metal, said membrane having been contacted with an aqueous solution sodium chloride; maintaining a pressure drop across said pervaporation membrane; passing a charge solution containing methanol and methyl t-butyl into contact with the high pressure side of said pervaporation membrane whereby at least a portion of said methanol in said charge solution and an lesser portion of said methyl t-butyl ether pass by pervaporation through said pervaporation membrane as a lean mixture containing more methanol and less methyl t-butyl ether than are present in said charge solution and said charge solution is converted to a rich mixture containing less methanol and more methyl t-butyl ether than are present in said charge solution; recovering as permeate from the low pressure side of said pervaporation membrane said lean mixture containing a lower methanol content and a higher methyl t-butyl ether content than are present in said charge solution; recovering as retentate from the high pressure side of said pervaporation membrane said rich mixture containing less methanol and more methyl t-butyl ether than are present in said charge solution, said method enabling attainment of a balance between separation factor and flux.

  4. Shape selective properties of the Al-fumarate metal-organic framework in the adsorption and separation of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cyclo-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bozbiyik, Belgin; Lannoeye, Jeroen; De Vos, Dirk E; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2016-01-28

    The primary goal of this work is to study the adsorption of a wide range of hydrocarbon adsorbates in the Al-fumarate metal-organic framework in order to identify and explore trends in adsorption behaviour that can be related to the sorbate's molecular properties and as well as the properties of this MOF. The pulse chromatographic technique was used to study the adsorption properties of C5-C8 linear, branched, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons in vapour phase at low coverage and at high temperatures (150-250 °C). Chromatograms of alkanes having the same number of carbon atoms (C5-C8) clearly show that the linear alkane is retained the longest over its branched and cyclic isomers. Moreover, xylene isomers are also clearly separated by Al-fumarate, with retention times increasing in the order: ortho-xylene < meta-xylene < para-xylene. Differences in adsorption enthalpy of more than 10 kJ mol(-1) between linear alkanes and their di/tri-branched or cyclo-alkane isomers were observed, clearly showing that steric effects imposed by the pore structure of the adsorbent cause the difference in adsorption between linear alkanes and their isomers. In conclusion, Al-fumarate behaves as a shape selective material with respect to structural isomers of linear alkanes, with properties resembling those of medium pore size zeolites.

  5. Solid-phase extractors based on 8-aminoquinoline and 2-aminopyridine covalently bonded to silica gel for the selective separation and determination of calcium in natural water and pharmaceutical samples.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ezzat M; Ahmed, Salwa A

    2010-01-01

    Two new silica-gel phases were produced directly via the chemical interaction of 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane modified silica gel with 8-aminoquioline, phase I and 2-aminopyridine, phase II under reflux conditions. The selectivity properties exhibited by the phases under investigation for the uptake of Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) were determined at different pH values and shaking times under static conditions. The immobilization process and binding of metal ions to the phases were proved via infrared spectra. The phases showed high performance towards Ca(II) extraction at pH 10.00. The equilibrium data were better fitted with a Langmuir model (r(2) = 0.985). The adsorption kinetics data were best fitted with the pseudo-second-order type. Good validation was obtained on applications of the two phases for the separation and determination of Ca(II) in natural water and pharmaceutical samples with no matrix interferences at pH 10.00 under dynamic conditions prior to determination by AAS.

  6. Ferrofluid separator for nonferrous scrap separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, R.; Mir, L.

    1974-01-01

    Behavior of nonmagnetic objects within separator is essentially function of density, and independent of size or shape of objects. Results show close agreement between density of object and apparent density of ferrofluid required to float it. Results also demonstrate that very high separation rates are achievable by ferrofluid sink-float separation.

  7. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  8. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, A; Chincoli, A; de Gennaro, A C; DʼAddario, V; Cicinelli, E

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk.

  9. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, A.; Chincoli, A.; de Gennaro, A. C.; DʼAddario, V.; Cicinelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk. PMID:27453585

  10. Coordinated observations of F region 3 m field-aligned plasma irregularities associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. F.; Wang, C. Y.; Su, C. L.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.; Chu, Y. H.

    2016-04-01

    Three meter field-aligned irregularities (3 m FAIs) associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) that occurred on 5 February 2008 were observed by using the Chung-Li 52 MHz coherent scatter radar. Interferometry measurements show that the plasma structures responsible for the 3 m FAI echoes are in a clumpy shape with a horizontal dimension of about 10-78 km in a height range of 220-300 km. In order to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the plasma irregularities at different scales in the bottomside of F region, the VHF radar echo structures from the 3 m FAIs combined with the 630 nm airglow images provided by the Yonaguni all-sky imager are compared and analyzed. The results show that the radar echoes were located at the west edge of the depletion zones of the 630 nm airglow image of the MSTIDs. The bulk echo structures of the 3 m FAIs drifted eastward at a mean trace velocity of about 30 m/s that is in general agreement with the zonal trace velocity of the MSTIDs shown in the 630 nm airglow images. These results suggest that the observed F region 3 m FAIs for the present case can be regarded as the targets that are frozen in the local region of the MSTIDs. In addition, the radar-observed 3 m FAI echo intensity and spectral width bear high correlations to the percentage variations of the 630 nm emission intensity. These results seem to suggest that through the nonlinear turbulence cascade process, the MSTID-associated 3 m FAIs are very likely generated from the kilometer-scale plasma irregularities with large amplitude excited by the gradient drift instability.

  11. P3 mAb: An Immunogenic Anti-NeuGcGM3 Antibody with Unusual Immunoregulatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Darel; Rodríguez, Nely; Griñán, Tania; Rondón, Teresa; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando; Hernández, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycosylated gangliosides, sulfatides, and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast, and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self-immunoglobulin, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the present paper we show that the high immunogenicity of P3 mAb depends not only on CD4 but also on CD8(+) T cells, since the depletion of CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells led to the loss of P3 mAb immunogenicity in the syngeneic model. Furthermore, the immunization with P3 mAb enhanced the recovery of the CD8(+) T cell population in mice treated with an anti-CD8a antibody. Additionally, the immunization with P3 mAb restored the capacity of immunosuppressed mice to reject allogeneic tumors, a mechanism mediated by the action of CD8(+) T cells. Finally, in mice with cyclophosphamide induced lymphopenia, the administration of P3 mAb accelerated the recovery of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results show new possibilities for B and CD8(+) T cells interactions during the immune response elicited by a self-protein. Furthermore they point to P3 mAb as a potential interesting candidate for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

  12. Ethanol Conversion on Cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Fang, Zongtang; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-03-06

    Oxides of molybdenum and tungsten are an important class of catalytic materials with applications ranging from isomerization of alkanes and alkenes, partial oxidation of alcohols, selective reduction of nitric oxide and metathesis of alkeness.[1-10] While many studies have focused on the structure - function relationships, the nature of high catalytic activity is still being extensively investigated. There is a general agreement that the activity of supported MOx (M = W, Mo) catalysts is correlated with the presence of acidic sites, where the catalytic activity is strongly affected by the type of oxide support, delocalization of electron density, structures of tungsten oxide domains and presence of protons

  13. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  14. Gas separations using inorganic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, B.Z.; Singh, S.P.N.; Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results from a research and development program to develop, fabricate, and evaluate inorganic membranes for separating gases at high temperatures and pressures in hostile process environments encountered in fossil energy conversion processes such as coal gasification. The primary emphasis of the research was on the separation and recovery of hydrogen from synthesis gas. Major aspects of the program included assessment of the worldwide research and development activity related to gas separations using inorganic membranes, identification and selection of candidate membrane materials, fabrication and characterization of membranes using porous membrane technology developed at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and evaluation of the separations capability of the fabricated membranes in terms of permeabilities and fluxes of gases.

  15. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-23

    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.

  16. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, J.; Plötzing, T.; Rohe, D.; Pieranski, P.

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay “dry”. This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  17. Maternal uniparental isodisomy and heterodisomy on chromosome 6 encompassing a CUL7 gene mutation causing 3M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Okamoto, N; Kosaki, K; Yorifuji, T; Shimokawa, O; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K-i; Harada, N

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of segmental uniparental maternal hetero- and isodisomy involving the whole of chromosome 6 (mat-hUPD6 and mat-iUPD6) and a cullin 7 (CUL7) gene mutation in a Japanese patient with 3M syndrome. 3M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation that was recently reported to involve mutations in the CUL7 or obscurin-like 1 (OBSL1) genes. We encountered a patient with severe growth retardation, an inverted triangular gloomy face, an inverted triangle-shaped head, slender long bones, inguinal hernia, hydrocele testis, mild ventricular enlargement, and mild mental retardation. Sequence analysis of the CUL7 gene of the patient revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.2975G>C. Genotype analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed two mat-hUPD and two mat-iUPD regions involving the whole of chromosome 6 and encompassing CUL7. 3M syndrome caused by complete paternal iUPD of chromosome 6 involving a CUL7 mutation has been reported, but there have been no reports describing 3M syndrome with maternal UPD of chromosome 6. Our results represent a combination of iUPDs and hUPDs from maternal chromosome 6 involving a CUL7 mutation causing 3M syndrome.

  18. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A ... help both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. ...

  19. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  20. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  1. Combined cation-exchange and solid phase extraction for the selective separation and preconcentration of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury and cobalt among others using azo-dye functionalized resin.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Srivastava, Bhavya; Barman, Milan K; Mandal, Bhabatosh

    2016-04-01

    A facile synthesis of an ion exchange material (FSG-PAN) has been achieved by functionalizing silica gel with an azo-dye. Its composition and structure are well assessed by systematic analysis. Extractor possesses high BET surface area (617.794m(2)g(-1)), exchange capacity and break-through capacity (BTC) (Q0 Zn(II): 225; Cd(II): 918; Hg(II): 384, Cu(II): 269 and Co(II): 388μMg(-1)). The sorption process was endothermic (+ΔH), entropy-gaining (+ΔS) and spontaneous (-ΔG) in nature. Preconcentration factor has been optimized at 172(Zn(II)); 157.2(Cd(II)); 193.6(Hg(II)); 176(Cu(II)); 172.4(Co(II)). Density functional theory calculation has been performed to analyze the sorption pathway. BTC (μMg(-1)) of FSG-PAN was found to be the product of its frontier orbitals and state of sorbed metal ion species, x (at x=1, mononuclear and x>1, a polynuclear species; i.e., BTC=[amount of HOMO]×x). FSG-PAN is used for the selective separation and preconcentration of Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cu(II),Co(II) from large volume sample (800mL) of low concentration (0.017-0.40mML(-1)) in presence of foreign ions (50-300mML(-1)) at optimum conditions (pH: 7.0±1.5, flow rate: 2.5mLmin(-1), temperature: 27°C, equilibration-time: 5min). The method was found to be effective for real samples also.

  2. Hydrocyclone separation system

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, J.R.; Wakley, W.D.; Young, G.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a hydrocyclone separation system for separating a fluid mixture into at least two components having differing densities. It comprises: a first hydrocyclone separator and a second hydrocyclone separator contained within an elongated protective conduit and each being substantially parallel to a longitudinal axis of the conduit, each hydrocyclone separator having a tangential fluid inlet, an overflow fluid outlet and an underflow fluid outlet; and the first hydrocyclone separator and the second hydrocyclone separator being oppositely disposed with respect to each other with the underflow fluid outlet of the first hydrocyclone separator being spaced immediately adjacent to the tangential fluid inlet of the second hydrocyclone separator and the overflow fluid outlet of the first hydrocyclone separator being spaced immediately adjacent the underflow fluid outlet of the second hydrocyclone separator.

  3. Synthesis of new visible light active photocatalysts of Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 (M' = Nb, Ta): a band gap engineering strategy based on electronegativity of a metal component.

    PubMed

    Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Park, Hyunwoong; Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Sun Jin; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2005-08-11

    We have synthesized new, efficient, visible light active photocatalysts through the incorporation of highly electronegative non-transition metal Pb or Sn ions into the perovskite lattice of Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 (M = Sn, Pb; M' = Nb, Ta). X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopic, and energy dispersive spectroscopic microprobe analyses reveal that tetravalent Pb or Sn ions exist in the B-site of the perovskite lattice, along with In and Nb/Ta ions. According to diffuse UV-vis spectroscopic analysis, the Pb-containing quaternary metal oxides Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 possess a much narrower band gap (E(g) approximately 1.48-1.50 eV) when compared to the ternary oxides Ba(In(1/2)M'(1/2))O3 (E(g) approximately 2.97-3.30 eV) and the Sn-containing Ba(In(1/3)Sn(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 derivatives (E(g) approximately 2.85-3.00 eV). Such a variation of band gap energy upon the substitution is attributable to the broadening of the conduction band caused by the dissimilar electronegativities of the B-site cations. In contrast to the ternary or the Sn-substituted quaternary compounds showing photocatalytic activity under UV-vis irradiation, the Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 compounds induce an efficient photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). The present results highlight that the substitution of electronegative non-transition metal cations can provide a very powerful way of developing efficient visible light harvesting photocatalysts through tuning of the band structure of a semiconductive metal oxide.

  4. Organic containment separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  5. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Mar, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  6. Spectral and statistical analysis of fluctuations in the SOL and diverted plasmas of the Uragan-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beletskii, A. A.; Grigor'eva, L. I.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Chechkin, V. V.; Sorokovoy, Y. L.; Volkov, Ye. D.; Burchenko, P. Ya.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Tsybenko, S. A.; Lozin, A. V.; Slavnyj, A. S.; Lavrenovich, Yu. S.; Zamanov, N. V.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.

    2009-10-01

    In the l = 3/ m = 9 Uragan-3M (U3-M) torsatron ( R 0 = 1 m, ā ≈ 0.12 m, ι( ā)/2π ˜ 0.3) with an open helical divertor and a plasma produced and heated by RF fields (ω ≲ ωci), studies of low frequency (5-100 kHz) density and potential fluctuations in the SOL plasma and in the diverted plasma flows (DPFs), have been carried out. It is shown, that in the SOL to more (less) distantly located points relative to the last closed magnetic surface, higher (lower) frequency fluctuations are inherent. Such a spectral splitting in two sub-ranges occurs in the DPFs too. A peculiarity of the spatial distribution of DPF fluctuation spectra is that lower frequency fluctuations dominate on the ion toroidal B × ∇ B drift side. During L-H-like transition in U-3M simultaneously with strong E r shear formation, a suppression of lower frequency fluctuations and a decrease of local radial turbulent particle flux take place. Results are presented of investigation of plasma density fluctuations in SOL with the use of probability distribution function (PDF) analysis. Evaluations of skewness and kurtosis of fluctuations have been made. The analysis of I s fluctuations in DPF have been carried out in a similar way.

  7. Effect of 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps on edema and function of the burned hand: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lowell, M; Pirc, P; Ward, R S; Lundy, C; Wilhelm, D A; Reddy, R; Held, B; Bernard, J

    2003-01-01

    Edema and limited function are common acute problems associated with hand burns. This case study examined the effects of 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps on edema and function in a 59-year-old male (46% TBSA flame injury) with newly skin grafted dorsally burned hands. At the time of each dressing change, circumferential measurements were taken of both hands and weekly active range of motion and grip strength measurements were recorded. The nine-hole peg test was used to appraise dexterity. During the 4-week study period, there was less edema, greater active range of motion and grip strength, and greater dexterity in the hand with 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps as compared with the control hand. This case study suggests that 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps were effective in reducing edema in the skin-grafted hand after skin grafting. It further appeared that the reduced edema may have contributed to improved hand function and that 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps as a compressive dressing do not impede hand function

  8. Evaluation of 3M Molecular Detection System and ANSR Pathogen Detection System for rapid detection of Salmonella from egg products.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Ma, L M; Zheng, S; He, X; Wang, H; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S; Zhang, G

    2016-11-02

    Isothermal amplification assay is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Detection System (PDS) for the detection of Salmonella in egg products as compared to the Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method and a modified culture method (3M MDS and ANSR PDS preferred method). Two Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (18579, PT4; CDC_2010K_1441, PT8), one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (607310-1), and one Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (0723) isolates were used in this study. Seven wet egg products and 13 dry egg products were inoculated with these strains individually at 1 to 5 CFU/25 g. One set of test portions was prepared following FDA BAM procedures [with lactose broth (LB) as pre-enrichment broth]. Another set of test portions was prepared using buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broth, as instructed by the 2 detection systems. Results from 3M MDS and ANSR PDS were 100% in agreement with their BPW-based culture method results. When LB was used as pre-enrichment broth, the number of Salmonella positive test portions (80 tested), identified with the BAM, 3M MDS, and ANSR PDS, were 63, 61, and 60, respectively. In conclusion, both 3M MDS and ANSR PDS Salmonella assays were as effective as their BPW based culture methods and were equivalent to the BAM culture method for the detection of Salmonella in egg products. These sensitive isothermal assays can be used as rapid detection tools for Salmonella in egg products provided that BPW is used as pre-enrichment broth.

  9. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    DOEpatents

    Khym, J.X.

    1959-03-10

    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  10. The separation of stable isotopes of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oziashvili, E. D.; Egiazarov, A. S.

    1989-04-01

    The present state of work on the separation of carbon isotopes by diffusion, fractional distillation, chemical isotopic exchange, and the selective excitation and dissociation of molecules in electrical discharges or in the field of laser radiation has been examined. The characteristics of new laboratory and industrial assemblies for separating carbon isotopes have been described. Promising directions of study aimed at developing effective technological processes for separating carbon isotopes have been noted. The bibliography contains 148 references.

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  12. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE SELECTED ION MONITORING MODE USING A TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMABLE LARGE VOLUME INJECTOR WITH PRE-SEPARATION COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of a temperature-programmable pre-separation column in the gas chromatographic injection port permits determination of a wide range of semi-volatile pesticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, and anilines in fatty composite dietary samples while reduci...

  13. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  14. Isotope separation by laser means

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1982-06-15

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  15. Cell separation using electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, Joseph A. (Inventor); Eppich, Henry M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention involves methods and devices which enable discrete objects having a conducting inner core, surrounded by a dielectric membrane to be selectively inactivated by electric fields via irreversible breakdown of their dielectric membrane. One important application of the invention is in the selection, purification, and/or purging of desired or undesired biological cells from cell suspensions. According to the invention, electric fields can be utilized to selectively inactivate and render non-viable particular subpopulations of cells in a suspension, while not adversely affecting other desired subpopulations. According to the inventive methods, the cells can be selected on the basis of intrinsic or induced differences in a characteristic electroporation threshold, which can depend, for example, on a difference in cell size and/or critical dielectric membrane breakdown voltage. The invention enables effective cell separation without the need to employ undesirable exogenous agents, such as toxins or antibodies. The inventive method also enables relatively rapid cell separation involving a relatively low degree of trauma or modification to the selected, desired cells. The inventive method has a variety of potential applications in clinical medicine, research, etc., with two of the more important foreseeable applications being stem cell enrichment/isolation, and cancer cell purging.

  16. Cell separation using electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, Joseph (Inventor); Eppich, Henry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention involves methods and devices which enable discrete objects having a conducting inner core, surrounded by a dielectric membrane to be selectively inactivated by electric fields via irreversible breakdown of their dielectric membrane. One important application of the invention is in the selection, purification, and/or purging of desired or undesired biological cells from cell suspensions. According to the invention, electric fields can be utilized to selectively inactivate and render non-viable particular subpopulations of cells in a suspension, while not adversely affecting other desired subpopulations. According to the inventive methods, the cells can be selected on the basis of intrinsic or induced differences in a characteristic electroporation threshold, which can depend, for example, on a difference in cell size and/or critical dielectric membrane breakdown voltage. The invention enables effective cell separation without the need to employ undesirable exogenous agents, such as toxins or antibodies. The inventive method also enables relatively rapid cell separation involving a relatively low degree of trauma or modification to the selected, desired cells. The inventive method has a variety of potential applications in clinical medicine, research, etc., with two of the more important foreseeable applications being stem cell enrichment/isolation, and cancer cell purging.

  17. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  18. Physics of Forced Unsteady Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Lawrence W. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in April 1990. This workshop was jointly organized by NASA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Army Research Office (ARO), and was directed toward improved understanding of the physical processes that cause unsteady separation to occur. The proceedings contain the written contributions for the workshop, and include selected viewgraphs used in the various presentations.

  19. N- and O-linked glycosylation site profiling of the human basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Piras, Valentina; Liori, Barbara; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Vincenzoni, Federica; Cordaro, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213.

  20. Confinement bifurcation initiated by plasma current profile and toroidal electric field perturbations in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Bulanin, V. V.; Kornev, V. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2011-03-01

    The results of the experimental study of confinement mode bifurcation performed on the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. As a trigger of confinement mode switching, plasma current ramp-up/-down or magnetic compression/decompression is used. It is found that the possibility and direction of confinement mode switching are correlated not with plasma current profile perturbation (peaking or broadening) but with the sign of toroidal electric field perturbation. A model connecting confinement bifurcation and toroidal electric field perturbation through the perturbation of the radial electric field is used to describe the phenomena observed in all eight scenarios investigated. This model ascribes the radial electric field generation to the non-compensated Ware drift of banana electrons at the TUMAN-3M peripheral plasma, where \

  1. On the multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3 m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright p Ψ q -functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  2. On the multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright pΨq-functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  3. Engineered proteins with Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor scaffold to manipulate RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng; Tanaka Hall, Traci M

    2013-08-01

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins are characterized by a sequence-specific RNA-binding domain. This unique single-stranded RNA recognition module, whose sequence specificity can be reprogrammed, has been fused with functional modules to engineer protein factors with various functions. We summarize the advances made with respect to developing RNA regulatory tools, as well as opportunities for the future.

  4. Magnetic separation of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  5. Separation anxiety in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in ...

  6. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  7. Heat flux measurements of Tb3M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. C. B.; Lombardi, G. A.; dos Reis, R. D.; Freitas, H. E.; Cardoso, L. P.; Mansanares, A. M.; Gandra, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb3M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb3Co and Tb3Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R3M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb3Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, -∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb3Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ0∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R3M materials.

  8. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  9. Double L{sub 3}M ionization of Pd induced by impact with medium-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Schenker, J.-L.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.

    2011-02-15

    The electron-induced L{sub 3}M two-step double ionization cross sections of metallic Pd were determined experimentally for incident electron beam energies ranging from the double ionization threshold up to 18 keV. The double L{sub 3}M ionization cross sections were derived from the intensity ratios (I{sub L{alpha}M}:I{sub L{alpha}}) of the resolved M satellites to the parent diagram lines. The sample was bombarded with monoenergetic electrons from an energy-tunable 20-kV electron gun. The diagram and M-satellite x-ray lines were measured by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, using a reflection-type von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer. The two-step partial cross sections were determined by subtracting from the measured total double ionization cross sections the contributions due to the shake process and L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions. Despite the thick target employed in the present study, the dependence of the two-step cross sections on the incoming electron energy could be derived using a target slice decomposition method. It is shown that the obtained energy dependence can be well reproduced by the semiempirical parametrization model of Pattard and Rost.

  10. Deposition of LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al)-Oriented Films by Spray Combustion Flame Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Hiromichi; Shiwa, Yuzo; Nagano, Masamitsu

    1994-10-01

    LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films were prepared on sintered alumina, sapphire (001) and MgO(100) at 500 900°C by spraying ultrasonically atomized aqueous solutions of nitrates into a combustion flame (spray combustion flame technique). LaNiO3 and LaCoO3 on MgO(100) crystallized in high-temperature phases (cubic) while LaCrO3 and LaAlO3 crystallized in room-temperature phases. LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films on MgO(100) were highly oriented to (100), (100), (001) and (100), respectively, while the films on sintered alumina and sapphire were not. The electric resistivities of the dense LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr) films were as low as those of bulk ceramics. LaNiO3 film deposited on MgO above 700°C showed the lowest resistivity of about 6×10-6 Ω m. It was suggested that the reactivities of the constituent metal atoms with OH in the flame are associated with the preferred phase and the morphology of the films.

  11. Anti-CD3 mAb treatment cures PDL1-/-.NOD mice of diabetes but precipitates fatal myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mfarrej, Bechara; Keir, Mary; Dada, Shirine; Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Sharpe, Arlene H; Guleria, Indira

    2011-07-01

    Anti-CD3 mAb is an effective therapy that can reverse diabetes in NOD mice and has therapeutic potential in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We administered anti-CD3 to PDL1-/-.NOD mice in order to determine whether this treatment would reverse the development of diabetes in these mice. Mice injected with anti-CD3 mAb neonatally were protected from T1D. However, all of these anti-CD3 mAb treated PDL1-/-.NOD mice developed a wasting disease between 12 and 20 weeks of age with sudden deterioration and weight loss, leading to death within 3-5 days of development of illness. Histology revealed severe inflammation in the heart and skeletal muscles. These results suggest that deficiency of PDL1 in NOD background has the potential to lead to immune-mediated tissue damage in organs other than the pancreas, but this cannot be appreciated in PDL1-/-.NOD mice as the mice develop T1D at an early age and die from diabetes prior to manifesting other autoimmune diseases.

  12. Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric capture and gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure C02 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as welL To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from un-reacted carbon oxides (C02- CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents, zeolites, and new technologies. This paper and presentation will summarize the results of an extensive literature review and laboratory evaluations of candidate technologies for the capture and separation of C02 and other relevant gases.

  13. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  14. SF3M 2.0: improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction interface based on freely available software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael R.; Pérez, Rafael; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    During recent years, a number of tools based on Structure-from-Motion algorithms have been released for full image-based 3D reconstruction either freely (e.g. Bundler, PMVS2, VisualSFM, MicMac) or commercially (e.g. Agisoft PhotoScan). The SF3M interface was developed in Matlab® to use link software developments (VisualSFM, CloudCompare) and new applications to create a semi-automated workflow including reconstruction, georeferencing and point-cloud filtering, and has been tested for gully erosion assessment with terrestrial images (Castillo et al., 2015). The main aim of this work to provide an improved freely-available and easy-to-use alternative for 3D reconstruction intended for public agencies, non-profit organisations, researchers and other stakeholders interested in 3D modelling. In this communication we present SF3M 2.0, a new version of the graphical user interface. In this case, the SfM module is based on MicMac, an open-software tool (Pierrot-Deseilligny and Cléry, 2011) which provides advanced features such as camera calibration and constrained bundle adjustment using ground control points. SF3M 2.0 will be tested in two scenarios: a) using the same ground-based image set tested in Castillo et al. (2015) to compare the performance of both versions and b) using aerial images taken from a helium balloon to assess a gully network in a 40-hectares catchment. In this study we explore the advantages of SF3M 2.0, explain its operation and evaluate its accuracy and performance. This tool will be also available for free download. References Castillo, C., James, M.R., Redel-Macías, M. D., Pérez, R., and Gómez, J.A.: SF3M software: 3-D photo-reconstruction for non-expert users and its application to a gully network, SOIL, 1, 583-594. Pierrot-Deseilligny, M and Cléry, I. APERO, an Open Source Bundle Adjusment Software for Automatic Calibration and Orientation of a Set of Images. Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission V Symposium, Image Engineering and Vision

  15. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  16. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  17. Safety shutdown separators

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  18. Separation of solids by varying the bulk density of a fluid separating medium

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Palmer L.; Duffy, James B.; Tokarz, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating objects having a density greater than a selected density value from objects having a density less than said selected density value. The method typically comprises: (a) providing a separation vessel having an upper and lower portion, said vessel containing a liquid having a density exceeding said selected density value; (b) reducing the apparent density of the liquid to said selected density value by introducing solid, bubble-like bodies having a density less than that of the liquid into the lower portion of the vessel and permitting them to rise therethrough; (c) introducing the objects to be separated into the separation vessel and permitting the objects having a density greater than the apparent density of the liquid to sink to the lower portion of the vessel, while the objects having a density less than said selected density value float in the upper portion of the vessel; and (d) separately removing the higher density objects in the lower portion and the lower density objects in the upper portion from the separation vessel. The apparatus typically comprises: (a) a vessel containing a liquid having a density such that at least part of said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value will float therein; (b) means to place said objects into said vessel; (c) means to reduce the effective density of at least a portion of said liquid to said selected density value, whereby said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value sink into said liquid and said objects having a density less than said selected density value remain afloat, said means to adjust the effective density comprising solid, bubble-like bodies having a density less than said selected density value and means for introducing said bodies into said liquid; and (d) means for separately removing said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value and said objects having a density less than said selected density value

  19. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  20. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.