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Sample records for 3m vacuum ultraviolet

  1. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

  2. Z-DNA: vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed Z-DNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions. In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230- to 300-nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the B and Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) is 3 M C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of doublehelical DNA structures.

  3. Z-DNA Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed ZDNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions (Pohl, F.M. and Jovin, T.M. (1972) J. Mol. Biol. 67, 675-696). In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low-salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230 to 300 nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the Band Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) in 3 M Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of double-helical DNA structures.

  4. Large-Area Vacuum Ultraviolet Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Franz, David

    2012-01-01

    Pt/(n-doped GaN) Schottky-barrier diodes having active areas as large as 1 cm square have been designed and fabricated as prototypes of photodetectors for the vacuum ultraviolet portion (wavelengths approximately equal 200 nm) of the solar spectrum. In addition to having adequate sensitivity to photons in this wavelength range, these photodetectors are required to be insensitive to visible and infrared components of sunlight and to have relatively low levels of dark current.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet absorption in a hydrogen arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy was utilized to measure the ground state atomic hydrogen number density in the plasma produced in a low power hydrogen arcjet. A microwave driven hydrogen plasma was used as the source of radiation resonant with the vacuum ultraviolet Lyman alpha transition. The suitability of this radiation source is discussed. The optical depth of this transition prevented measurements at locations where the ground state atomic hydrogen number density was larger than 3 x 10 exp 19/cu m. These results indicate that other single-photon optical diagnostic techniques are equally ineffective in locations of higher hydrogen number density unless the spectral line shape of the atomic hydrogen absorbers is known.

  6. Vacuum Ultraviolet Action Spectroscopy of Polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Vernier, Arnaud; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    We studied the optical properties of gas-phase polysaccharides (maltose, maltotetraose, and maltohexaose) ions by action spectroscopy using the coupling between a quadrupole ion trap and a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility (France) in the 7 to 18 eV range. The spectra provide unique benchmarks for evaluation of theoretical data on electronic transitions of model carbohydrates in the VUV range. The effects of the nature of the charge held by polysaccharide ions on the relaxation processes were also explored. Finally the effect of isomerization of polysaccharides (with melezitose and raffinose) on their photofragmentation with VUV photons is presented.

  7. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-01

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet detector for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schug, Kevin A; Sawicki, Ian; Carlton, Doug D; Fan, Hui; McNair, Harold M; Nimmo, John P; Kroll, Peter; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Harrison, Dale

    2014-08-19

    Analytical performance characteristics of a new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography (GC) are reported. GC-VUV was applied to hydrocarbons, fixed gases, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, pesticides, drugs, and estrogens. Applications were chosen to feature the sensitivity and universal detection capabilities of the VUV detector, especially for cases where mass spectrometry performance has been limited. Virtually all chemical species absorb and have unique gas phase absorption cross sections in the approximately 120-240 nm wavelength range monitored. Spectra are presented, along with the ability to use software for deconvolution of overlapping signals. Some comparisons with experimental synchrotron data and computed theoretical spectra show good agreement, although more work is needed on appropriate computational methods to match the simultaneous broadband electronic and vibronic excitation initiated by the deuterium lamp. Quantitative analysis is governed by Beer-Lambert Law relationships. Mass on-column detection limits reported for representatives of different classes of analytes ranged from 15 (benzene) to 246 pg (water). Linear range measured at peak absorption for benzene was 3-4 orders of magnitude. Importantly, where absorption cross sections are known for analytes, the VUV detector is capable of absolute determination (without calibration) of the number of molecules present in the flow cell in the absence of chemical interferences. This study sets the stage for application of GC-VUV technology across a wide breadth of research areas.

  9. Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, U; Schmutz, H; Agner, J A; Sommavilla, M; Merkt, F

    2017-01-07

    Frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy has been extended to the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Coherent VUV laser radiation is produced by resonance-enhanced sum-frequency mixing (νVUV=2νUV+ν2) in Kr and Xe using two near-Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses of frequencies νUV and ν2. Sidebands generated in the output of the second laser (ν2) using an electro-optical modulator operating at the frequency νmod are directly transferred to the VUV and used to record FM spectra. Demodulation is demonstrated both at νmod and 2νmod. The main advantages of the method compared to VUV absorption spectroscopy are its background-free nature, the fact is that its implementation using table-top laser equipment is straightforward and that it can be used to record VUV absorption spectra of cold samples in skimmed supersonic beams simultaneously with laser-induced-fluorescence and photoionization spectra. To illustrate these advantages, we present VUV FM spectra of Ar, Kr, and N2 in selected regions between 105000 cm(-1) and 122000 cm(-1).

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  11. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  12. High temperature furnace system for vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, C M; Naber, R H; Tilford, S G; Ginter, M L

    1973-08-01

    An improved furnace system for use in vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic studies of atomic and molecular species stable at high temperatures (800-2500 degrees C) is described in detail. A new and improved high resolution spectrum of Mg I and several impurity spectra produced in the furnace are presented.

  13. Cleaning of inner vacuum surfaces in the Uragan-3M facility by radio-frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lozin, A. V. Moiseenko, V. E.; Grigor’eva, L. I.; Kozulya, M. M.; Kulaga, A. E.; Lysoivan, A. I.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Romanov, V. S.; Chernyshenko, V. Ya.; Chechkin, V. V.; Collaboration: Uragan-3M Team

    2013-08-15

    A method for cleaning vacuum surfaces by a low-temperature (T{sub e} ∼ 10 eV) relatively dense (n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}) plasma of an RF discharge was developed and successfully applied at the Uragan-3M torsatron. The convenience of the method is that it can be implemented with the same antenna system and RF generators that are used to produce and heat the plasma in the operating mode and does not require retuning the frequencies of the antennas and RF generators. The RF discharge has a high efficiency from the standpoint of cleaning vacuum surfaces. After performing a series of cleanings by the low-temperature RF discharge plasma (about 20000 pulses), (i) the intensity of the CIII impurity line was substantially reduced, (ii) a quasi-steady operating mode with a duration of up to 50 ms, a plasma density of n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, and an electron temperature of up to T{sub e} ∼ 1 keV was achieved, and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis of the residual gas in the chamber indicated a significant reduction in the impurity content.

  14. Communication: Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption of interstellar icy thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Lo, Jen-Iu; Sekhar, B. N. Raja; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Pradeep, Thalappil; Mason, Nigel John

    2014-12-01

    Following the recent identification of ethanethiol in the interstellar medium (ISM) we have carried out Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) spectroscopy studies of ethanethiol (CH3CH2SH) from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. These results are compared with those of methanethiol (CH3SH), the lower order thiol also reported to be present in the ISM. VUV spectra recorded at higher temperature reveal conformational changes in the ice and phase transitions whilst evidence for dimer production is also presented.

  15. CIV Polarization Measurements Using a Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry Perot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) is developing a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry Perot that will be launched on a sounding rocket for high throughput, high-cadence, extended field of view CIV (155nm) measurements. These measurements will provide (i) Dopplergrams for studies of waves, oscillations, explosive events, and mass motions through the transition region, and, (ii), polarization measurements to study the magnetic field in the transition region. This paper will describe the scientific goals of the instrument, a brief description of the optics and the polarization characteristics of the VUV Fabry Perot.

  16. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Quigley, Gerard P.

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  17. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  18. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  19. Nonthermal combined ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet curing process for organosilicate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Li, W.; Blatz, J.; Hsu, K.; Benjamin, D.; Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Porous SiCOH films are of great interest in semiconductor fabrication due to their low-dielectric constant properties. Post-deposition treatments using ultraviolet (UV) light on organosilicate thin films are required to decompose labile pore generators (porogens) and to ensure optimum network formation to improve the electrical and mechanical properties of low-k dielectrics. The goal of this work is to choose the best vacuum-ultraviolet photon energy in conjunction with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons without the need for heating the dielectric to identify those wavelengths that will have the most beneficial effect on improving the dielectric properties and minimizing damage. VUV irradiation between 8.3 and 8.9 eV was found to increase the hardness and elastic modulus of low-k dielectrics at room temperature. Combined with UV exposures of 6.2 eV, it was found that this "UV/VUV curing" process is improved compared with current UV curing. We show that UV/VUV curing can overcome drawbacks of UV curing and improve the properties of dielectrics more efficiently without the need for high-temperature heating of the dielectric.

  20. Absolute calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph system for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Numada, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Cho, T.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2004-10-01

    A space- and time-resolving vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrograph system has been applied to diagnose impurity ions behavior in plasmas produced in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10 and the reversed field pinch TPE-RX. We have carried out ray tracing calculations for obtaining the characteristics of the VUV spectrograph and calibration experiments to measure the absolute sensitivities of the VUV spectrograph system for the wavelength range from 100 to 1100 A. By changing the incident angle, 50.6 deg. -51.4 deg., to the spectrograph whose nominal incident angle is 51 deg., we can change the observing spectral range of the VUV spectrograph. In this article, we show the ray tracing calculation results and absolute sensitivities when the angle of incidence into the VUV spectrograph is changed, and the results of VUV spectroscopic measurement in both GAMMA 10 and TPE-RX plasmas.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of uranium hexafluoride/argon mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krascella, N. L.

    1976-01-01

    The transmission properties of room temperature helium at pressures up to 20 atmospheres were determined in the wavelength range from 80 to 300 nm. Similarly, the transmission properties of uranium hexafluoride at 393 K (pressures less than 1.0 mm) were determined in the wavelength range from 80 to about 120 nm. The results show that high pressure helium is sufficiently transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet region (provided trace contaminants are removed) to be utilized as a transparent purge gas in future fissioning gaseous uranium plasma reactor experiments. Absorption cross sections for uranium hexafluoride were calculated from the data between 80 and 120 nm and were of the order of 10 to the -17 power sq cm.

  2. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2016-06-01

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9-14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  3. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media.

    PubMed

    Todt, Michael A; Albert, Daniel R; Davis, H Floyd

    2016-06-01

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9-14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  4. Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics probed by Vacuum Ultraviolet Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cryan, James; Champenois, Elio; Shivaram, Niranjan; Wright, Travis; Yang, Chan-Shan; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali

    2014-05-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the relaxation dynamics in small molecular systems (CO2 and C2H4) following ultraviolet (UV) photo-excitation. We probe these excitations through photoionization and velocity map imaging (VMI) spectroscopy. Vacuum and extreme ultraviolet (VUV/XUV) pump and probe pulses are created by exploiting strong-field high harmonic generation (HHG) from our state-of-the-art 30 mJ, 1 kHz laser system. Three dimensional photoelectron and photoion momentum images recorded with our VMI spectrometer reveal non-Born Oppenheimer dynamics in the vicinity of a conical intersection, and allow us track the state of the system as a function of time. We also present initial experiments with the goal of controlling the dynamics near a conical intersection using a strong-field IR pulse. Finally, we will show progress towards measurements of time-resolved molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (TRMFPADs) by applying our VUV/XUV pulse sequence to an aligned molecular ensemble. Supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences division of BES/DOE.

  5. Frequency Combs for Spectroscopy in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, David R.

    This dissertation explores frequency comb spectroscopy and, in particular, its extension to the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength regimes through a technique called intracavity high harmonic generation (IHHG). By combining the techniques of passive pulse amplification in an enhancement cavity with high harmonic generation, IHHG enables the direct conversion of near-infrared radiation to the VUV/XUV while still maintaining the underlying comb structure. As part of this work, a series of numerical simulations was performed to investigate the plasma that is formed in the IHHG process and its implications for the resulting VUV comb. It was demonstrated that a fundamental limitation to the performance of IHHG experiments is due to the single-pass ionization phase shift acquired by the pulse circulating in the enhancement cavity. Furthermore, we showed that a static background plasma accumulates between pulses and complicates cavity stabilization. Insights gained from the simulations led to the development of a novel pump-probe technique using the enhancement cavity that allowed a direct measurement of the intracavity plasma and its decay dynamics in real-time. Because the plasma lifetime plays such a crucial role in the operation of these cavities, it was important to have a method to test ways of reducing it. To build on our initial IHHG results showing record-level powers in the XUV, we implemented a fully phase-coherent dual comb spectrometer consisting of two identical IHHG systems operating in parallel. The system is designed for precision spectroscopy in the VUV and is based on a pair of homemade ytterbium fiber lasers that use a parabolic amplification scheme to achieve 80 fs pulses after amplification to 50 W of average power. Initial dual comb data showing system performance at the fundamental frequency and third harmonic are presented.

  6. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  7. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, E. Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Cefalas, A. C.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Kakabakos, S.; Velentzas, A. D.

    2014-09-14

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm⁻²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  8. Permanent gas analysis using gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Fan, Hui; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Wong, Derek; Wetz, David; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-04-03

    The analysis of complex mixtures of permanent gases consisting of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, inert gases, and toxic species plays an increasingly important role in today's economy. A new gas chromatography detector based on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy (GC-VUV), which simultaneously collects full scan (115-240 nm) VUV and UV absorption of eluting analytes, was applied to analyze mixtures of permanent gases. Sample mixtures ranged from off-gassing of decomposing Li-ion and Li-metal batteries to natural gas samples and water samples taken from private wells in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Gas chromatography separations were performed with a porous layer open tubular column. Components such as C1-C5 linear and branched hydrocarbons, water, oxygen, and nitrogen were separated and detected in natural gas and the headspace of natural gas-contaminated water samples. Of interest for the transport of lithium batteries were the detection of flammable and toxic gases, such as methane, ethylene, chloromethane, dimethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, CS2, and methylproprionate, among others. Featured is the capability for deconvolution of co-eluting signals from different analytes.

  9. High-Reflectivity Coatings for a Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kubo, Masahito; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Giono, Gabriel; Kano, Ryouhei; Bando, Takamasa; Tsuneta, Saku; Auchère, Frédéric; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; McCandless, Jim; Chen, Jianrong; Choi, Joanne

    2017-03-01

    Precise polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region are expected to be a new tool for inferring the magnetic fields in the upper atmosphere of the Sun. High-reflectivity coatings are key elements to achieving high-throughput optics for precise polarization measurements. We fabricated three types of high-reflectivity coatings for a solar spectropolarimeter in the hydrogen Lyman-α (Lyα; 121.567 nm) region and evaluated their performance. The first high-reflectivity mirror coating offers a reflectivity of more than 80 % in Lyα optics. The second is a reflective narrow-band filter coating that has a peak reflectivity of 57 % in Lyα, whereas its reflectivity in the visible light range is lower than 1/10 of the peak reflectivity (˜ 5 % on average). This coating can be used to easily realize a visible light rejection system, which is indispensable for a solar telescope, while maintaining high throughput in the Lyα line. The third is a high-efficiency reflective polarizing coating that almost exclusively reflects an s-polarized beam at its Brewster angle of 68° with a reflectivity of 55 %. This coating achieves both high polarizing power and high throughput. These coatings contributed to the high-throughput solar VUV spectropolarimeter called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP), which was launched on 3 September, 2015.

  10. Simulated Space Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Exposure Testing for Polymer Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Pietromica, Anthony J.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Messer, Russell K.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation of wavelengths between 115 and 200 nm produced by the sun in the space environment can cause degradation to polymer films producing changes in optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. These effects are particularly important for thin polymer films being considered for ultra-lightweight space structures, because, for most polymers, VUV radiation is absorbed in a thin surface layer. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed facilities and methods for long-term ground testing of polymer films to evaluate space environmental VUV radiation effects. VUV exposure can also be used as part of sequential simulated space environmental exposures to determine combined damaging effects. This paper will describe the effects of VUV on polymer films and the necessity for ground testing. Testing practices used at Glenn Research Center for VUV exposure testing will be described including characterization of the VUV radiation source used, calibration procedures traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and testing techniques for VUV exposure of polymer surfaces.

  11. Solar CIV Vacuum-Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; McKay, Jack A.; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: A tunable, high spectral resolution, high effective finesse, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-Perot interferometer (PPI) is designed for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CIV (155 nm). Methods: The integral part of the CIV narrow passband filter package (with a 2-10 pm FWHM) consists of a multiple etalon system composed of a tunable interferometer that provides high-spectral resolution and a static low-spectral resolution interferometer that allows a large effective free spectral range. The prefilter for the interferometers is provided by a set of four mirrors with dielectric high-reflective coatings. A tunable interferometer, a VUV piezoelectric-control etalon, has undergone testing using the surrogate F2 eximer laser line at 157 nm for the CIV line. We present the results of the tests with a description of the overall concept for a complete narrow-band CIV spectral filter. The static interferometer of the filter is envisioned as being hudt using a set of fixed MgF2 plates. The four-mirror prefilter is designed to have dielectric multilayer n-stacks employing the design concept used in the Ultraviolet Imager of NASA's Polar Spacecraft. A dual etalon system allows the effective free spectral range to be commensurate with the prefilter profile. With an additional etalon, a triple etalon system would allow a spectrographic resolution of 2 pm. The basic strategy has been to combine the expertise of spaceflight etalon manufacturing with VUV coating technology to build a VUV FPI which combines the best attributes of imagers and spectrographs into a single compact instrument. Results. Spectro-polarimetry observations of the transition region CIV emission can be performed to increase the understanding of the magnetic forces, mass motion, evolution, and energy release within the solar atmosphere at the base of the corona where most of the magnetic field is approximately force-free. The 2D imaging

  12. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  13. Vacuum Ultraviolet Images of the Large Magellanic Cloud: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Robert S.

    1990-06-01

    In the paper "Vacuum Ultraviolet Images of the Large Magellanic Cloud" by Andrew M. Smith, Robert H. Cornett, and Robert S. Hill (Ap. J., 320, 609 [1987]), an error was made in the dereddening formulae for vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) magnitudes on page 613. For 30 Dor dereddening, the formulae should be m_0(1500)_ = m_1500_ - 10.47 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.05 x E(B - V)_Gal_, and m_0(1900)_ = m_1900_ - 8.87 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.28 x E(B - V)_Gal_. For non-30 Dor dereddening, the formulae should be m_0(1500)_ = m_1500_ -8.72 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.05 x E(B - V)_Gal_, and m_0(1900) = m_1900_ - 8.21 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.28 x E(B - V)_Gal_. The ramifications of this error spread through several results. However, it must be noted that the overall effect is to make our original estimates of intrinsic VUV flux too low. As a result, our primary argument on energetics actually becomes stronger: there is ample energy flux in the southwestern Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to sustain into the next generation of stars the star-formation front visible in our VUV images. The three tables of observational results are replaced by the results given here in Table 1, in which intrinsic VUV fluxes are corrected (other quantities remain as they were). The discussion of Table 2 needs to be amended. This table compares ionizing fluxes computed by different methods for VUV sources (OB associations) that can be identified with 6 cm radio sources (H II regions). The aggregate ionizing fluxes for this set of objects derived from the two wavelength regimes are no longer so nearly equal as they were. However, as we pointed out, any such equality would be fortuitous, since the two derivations yield results differing by typically a factor of 2 for any given individual association. The discussion of Table 3 also needs to be amended. This table combines ionizing fluxes from OB associations (derived from VU photometry) with ionizing fluxes from 6 cm sources that do not coincide with any OB association. In this

  14. Effect of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet Irradiation on capacitance-voltage characteristics of low-k-porous organosilicate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, H.; Lauer, J. L.; Nichols, M. T.; Shohet, J. L.; Antonelli, G. A.; Nishi, Y.

    2010-02-01

    High frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements are used to determine the effects of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on defect states in porous low-k organosilicate (SiCOH) dielectrics. The characteristics show that VUV photons depopulate trapped electrons from defect states within the dielectric creating trapped positive charge. This is evidenced by a negative shift in the flat-band voltage of the C-V characteristic. UV irradiation reverses this effect by repopulating the defect states with electrons photoinjected from the silicon substrate. Thus, UV reduces the number of trapped positive charges in the dielectric and can effectively repair processing-induced damage.

  15. Experiments on the effect of ultraviolet on contamination in vacuum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, R.; Shapiro, H.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments designed to investigate the effect of irradiating a portion of a vacuum system with ultraviolet (UV) light are discussed. Data obtained with the quartz crystal microbalance show that, under ultraviolet irradiation, clean and contaminated mean different things than in situations that do not involve irradiation. The history of the chamber appears to be of paramount importance, not the pumping mechanism. UV irradiation check for contamination is recommended in critical experiments.

  16. Tunable thin film polarizer for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Minghong; Cobet, Christoph; Esser, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    A low pass polarizer that suppresses higher-order diffraction light from vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray monochromators is presented in this paper. This vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray polarizer is based on a concept of sandwiched metal-dielectric-metal triple reflection configuration. By appropriate optimization of material and angle of incidence, the proposed Au-SiC-Au polarizer demonstrates the capability of matching to desired cutoff edge of photon energy. Furthermore, the optimized soft x-ray polarizer shows the possibility to tune cutoff photon energy in a broadband spectral region ranging from 80 down to down to 20 eV.

  17. A continuously operating source of vacuum ultraviolet below 500 angstrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Duo plasmatron type source of ultraviolet radiation operates in the wavelength region below 500 angstrom. Since the spectra produced are determined almost completely by the gas injected, and because the source operates continuously, this arrangement is beneficial in the development and calibration of filters and detectors within discrete wavelength ranges.

  18. An Undergraduate Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Laboratory at Georgia Tech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James R.; Bartlett, Roger J.

    Experimental techniques are taught in a laboratory course designed with some student options available. Eight experiments which use vacuum systems, radiation sources, dispersion and detection systems are outlined. A course outline and time table are given. The final examination is described as 30 minutes of individual practical work and dialogue…

  19. Comparing Vacuum and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation for Postionization of Laser Desorbed Neutrals from Bacterial Biofilms and Organic Fullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspera, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moored, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation from 8 - 24 eV generated at a synchrotron was used to postionize laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotic-treated biofilms and a modified fullerene using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). Results show detection of the parent ion, various fragments, and extracellular material from biofilms using LDPI-MS with both vacuum and extreme ultraviolet photons. Parent ions were observed for both cases, but extreme ultraviolet photons (16-24 eV) induced more fragmentation than vacuum ultraviolet (8-14 eV) photons.

  20. Vacuum-ultraviolet instrumentation for solar irradiance and thermospheric airglow

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, T.N.; Rottman, G.J. . High Altitude Observatory); Bailey, S.M.; Solomon, S.C. . Lab. for Atmospheric and Space Physics)

    1994-02-01

    A NASA sounding rocket experiment was developed to study the solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance and its effect on the upper atmosphere. Both the solar flux and the terrestrial molecular nitrogen via the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) region were measured remotely from a sounding rocket on October 27, 1992. The rocket experiments also includes EUV instruments from Boston University, but only the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR)/University of Colorado's (CU) four solar instruments and one airglow instrument are discussed. The primary solar EUV instrument is a 0.25-m Rowland circle EUV spectrograph that has flown on three rockets since 1988 measuring the solar spectral irradiance from 30 to 110 nm with 0.2-nm resolution. Another solar irradiance instrument is an array of six silicon soft x-ray (XUV) photodiodes, each having different metallic filters coated directly on the photodiodes. The other solar irradiance instrument is a silicon avalanche photodiode coupled with pulse height analyzer electronics. The fourth solar instrument is a XUV imager that images the sun at 17.5 nm with a spatial resolution of 20 arc sec. The airglow spectrograph measures the terrestrial FUV airglow emissions along the horizon from 125 to 160 nm with 0.2-nm spectral resolution.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in materials reactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven; Leger, Lubert; Albyn, Keith; Cross, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which indicate that low fluxes of vacuum UV (VUV) radiation exert a pronounced influence on the atomic oxygen reactivity of such fluorocarbon and fluorocarbon spacecraft materials as the FEP Teflon and PCTFE that are under consideration for the Space Station Freedom. With simultaneous exposure to VUV fluxes comparable to those experienced in LEO, the reactivity of these materials becomes comparable to that of Kapton; VUV radiation has also been shown to increase the reactivity of Kapton with thermal-energy oxygen atoms.

  2. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra of Condensed Methyl Acetate on Cold Astrochemical Dust Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J.-I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B.-M.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  3. Generation of a vacuum ultraviolet to visible Raman frequency comb in H_2-filled kagomé photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, M. K.; Novoa, D.; Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Abdolvand, A.; St. J. Russell, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the fiber-gas system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-order fiber modes. The results pave the way towards tunable fiber-based sources of deep- and vacuum ultraviolet light for applications in, e.g., spectroscopy and biomedicine.

  4. [Development of soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet spectrum sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ni, Qi-liang; Cao, Jian-lin; Li, Fu-tian; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-03-01

    The soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet sources developed in CIOMP are presented. The wall-stabilized argon arc source with spectrum stability and repeatability of +/-0.3% is applied to the calibration of spectrum intensity distribution of the vacuum ultraviolet instruments as an absolute standard source. The Penning source, duobplasma source and hollow cathode source are able to produce atomic and ionic line spectra as a wavelength standard source, which covers a few nanometers to several tens nanometers with spectrum radiation stability and repeatability of +/-1.0%. In particular, the low debris laser produced plasma source with liquid aerosol spray target recently developed can emit stronger soft X-ray for soft X-ray lithography and metrology, which has a transfer efficiency as high as 0.75%/2pi x sr/2% bandwidth.

  5. Ionization energy of acetone by vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Han; Kang, Do Won; Hong, Yong Jun; Hwang, Hyonseok; Kim, Hong Lae; Kwon, Chan Ho

    2013-04-01

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer using coherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing (FWDFM) in Kr has been constructed and utilized to obtain the accurate ionization energy of acetone. From the MATI onsets measured from various applied pulsed fields, the ionization energy to the ionic ground state of acetone has been determined to be 9.7074 ± 0.0019 eV.

  6. Laser-induced two-photon blackbody radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, L. J.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.; Lukasik, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of a new type of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source are reported. It is shown that the maximum source brightness, within its narrow linewidth, is that of a blackbody at the temperature of a metastable storage level. The laser-induced emission at 569 A from a He glow discharge corresponded to a metastable temperature of 22,700 K and was over 100 times brighter than the 584-A He resonance line.

  7. Pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy by a high-power 90 nm vacuum-ultraviolet laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoki; Suzuki, Yoshi-ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori; Adachi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    We present pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of Kr and NO using a high-power vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser at a wavelength of 90 nm. Clear quantum beats are observed in the photoelectron angular distributions as well as in the photoelectron yields, resulting from the coherent excitation of two Kr Rydberg states by the VUV pump. The entire Franck-Condon envelope of the NO A(2Σ+) excited state is also successfully captured by the VUV probe.

  8. Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    A spontaneous patterning technique via parallel vacuum ultraviolet is developed for fabricating large-scale, complex electronic circuits with 1 μm resolution. The prepared organic thin-film transistors exhibit a low contact resistance of 1.5 kΩ cm, and high mobilities of 0.3 and 1.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the devices with channel lengths of 1 and 5 μm, respectively.

  9. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  10. Intensity and Energy Level Analysis of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectrum of Four Times Ionize Nickel (Ni V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jacob Wolfgang; Nave, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) wavelengths in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) have been taken using the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrograph (NIVS) with a sliding spark light source with invar electrodes. The wavelengths observed in those measurements make use of high resolution photographic plates with the majority of observed lines having uncertainties of approximately 3mÅ. In addition to observations made with photographic plates, the same wavelength region was observed with phosphor image plates, which have been demonstrated to be accurate as a method of intensity calibration when used with a deuterium light source. This work will evaluate the use of phosphor image plates and deuterium lamps as an intensity calibration method for the Ni V spectrum in the 1200-1600Å region of the VUV. Additionally, by pairing the observed wavelengths of Ni V with accurate line intensities, it is possible to create an energy level optimization for Ni V providing high accuracy Ritz wavelengths. This process has previously been applied to Fe V and produced Ritz wavelengths that agreed with the above experimental observations.

  11. Communication: vacuum ultraviolet laser photodissociation studies of small molecules by the vacuum ultraviolet laser photoionization time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Gao, Hong; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C Y; Jackson, William M

    2011-08-21

    We demonstrate that the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation dynamics of N(2) and CO(2) can be studied using VUV photoionization with time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging (VUV-PI-VMI) detection. The VUV laser light is produced by resonant sum frequency mixing in Kr. N(2) is used to show that when the photon energy of the VUV laser is above the ionization energy of an allowed transition of one of the product atoms it can be detected and characterized as the wavelength is varied. In this case a β parameter = 0.57 for the N((2)D°) was measured after exciting N(2)(o(1)Π(u), v(') = 2, J(') = 2) ← N(2)(X(1)Σ(g) (+), v(") = 0, J(") = 1). Studies with CO(2) show that when there is no allowed transition, an autoionization resonance can be used for the detection of a product atom. In this case it is shown for the first time that the O((1)D) atom is produced with CO((1)Σ(+)) at 92.21 nm. These results indicate that the VUV laser photodissociation combined with the VUV-PI-VMI detection is a viable method for studying the one-photon photodissociation from the ground state of simple molecules in the extreme ultraviolet and VUV spectral regions.

  12. Analysis of Fe V and Ni V Wavelength Standards in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jacob Wolfgang; Nave, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The recent publication[1] by J.C. Berengut et al. tests for a potential variation in the fine-structure constant in the presence of high gravitational potentials through spectral analysis of white-dwarf stars.The spectrum of the white-dwarf star studied in the paper, G191-B2B, has prominent Fe V and Ni V lines, which were used to determine any variation in the fine-structure constant via observed shifts in the wavelengths of Fe V and Ni V in the vacuum ultraviolet region. The results of the paper indicate no such variation, but suggest that refined laboratory values for the observed wavelengths could greatly reduce the uncertainty associated with the paper's findings.An investigation of Fe V and Ni V spectra in the vacuum ultraviolet region has been conducted to reduce wavelength uncertainties currently limiting modern astrophysical studies of this nature. The analyzed spectra were produced by a sliding spark light source with electrodes made of invar, an iron nickel alloy, at peak currents of 750-2000 A. The use of invar ensures that systematic errors in the calibration are common to both species. The spectra were recorded with the NIST Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrograph on phosphor image plate and photographic plate detectors. Calibration was done with a Pt II spectrum produced by a Platinum Neon Hollow Cathode lamp.[1] J. C. Berengut, V. V. Flambaum, A. Ong, et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 010801 (2013)

  13. Pseudo-absolute quantitative analysis using gas chromatography - Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy - A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Qiu, Changling; McNair, Harold M; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-02-08

    The vacuum ultraviolet detector (VUV) is a new non-destructive mass sensitive detector for gas chromatography that continuously and rapidly collects full wavelength range absorption between 120 and 240 nm. In addition to conventional methods of quantification (internal and external standard), gas chromatography - vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy has the potential for pseudo-absolute quantification of analytes based on pre-recorded cross sections (well-defined absorptivity across the 120-240 nm wavelength range recorded by the detector) without the need for traditional calibration. The pseudo-absolute method was used in this research to experimentally evaluate the sources of sample loss and gain associated with sample introduction into a typical gas chromatograph. Standard samples of benzene and natural gas were used to assess precision and accuracy for the analysis of liquid and gaseous samples, respectively, based on the amount of analyte loaded on-column. Results indicate that injection volume, split ratio, and sampling times for splitless analysis can all contribute to inaccurate, yet precise sample introduction. For instance, an autosampler can very reproducibly inject a designated volume, but there are significant systematic errors (here, a consistently larger volume than that designated) in the actual volume introduced. The pseudo-absolute quantification capability of the vacuum ultraviolet detector provides a new means for carrying out system performance checks and potentially for solving challenging quantitative analytical problems. For practical purposes, an internal standardized approach to normalize systematic errors can be used to perform quantitative analysis with the pseudo-absolute method.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet light source utilizing rare gas scintillation amplification sustained by photon positive feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena (Inventor); Chen, Danli (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A source of light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region includes a reflective UV-sensitive photocathode supported in spaced parallel relationship with a mesh electrode within a rare gas at low pressure. A high positive potential applied to the mesh electrode creates an electric field which causes drifting of free electrons occurring between the electrodes and producing continuous VUV light output by electric field-driven scintillation amplification sustained by positive photon feedback mediated by photoemission from the photocathode. In one embodiment the lamp emits a narrow-band continuum peaked at 175 nm.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of methylcyclohexane in the supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songhee; Yoo, Hyun Sik; Ahn, Doo-Sik; Choi, Young S.; Kim, Sang Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectrum of supersonically cooled methylcyclohexane has been obtained to give the precise adiabatic ionization energy of 9.6958 ± 0.0025 eV for the chair equatorial conformer. Vibrationally resolved MATI spectrum has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory and Franck-Condon calculations. The MATI spectrum reflects the structural change upon ionization and its origin is discussed by inspecting the shapes of the valence orbitals involved in the ionization process. The spectroscopic implication of the structural interconversion above the certain energy level is discussed with theoretical calculations of molecular structures and energetics.

  16. Variability in the vacuum-ultraviolet transmittance of magnesium fluoride windows.

    PubMed

    Herzig, H; Fleetwood, C M; Toft, A R

    1992-01-01

    In the course of the development of a domed magnesium fluoride detector window for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, slated to be a second-generation instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, sample window materials from various commercial sources displayed a wide variability in vacuum ultraviolet transmittance. As a result a test program was undertaken in cooperation with the supplier of a prototype domed window to maximize transmittance. Results of the program have provided clues to the causes of the variations experienced, and they point to careful selection of raw materials and strict process control to achieve optimization.

  17. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Desorption of Molecular Contaminants Deposited on Quartz Crystal Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith; Burns, Dewitt

    2006-01-01

    Recent quartz crystal microbalance measurements made in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Photo-Deposition Facility, for several materials, recorded a significant loss of deposited contaminants when the deposition surface of the microbalance was illuminated by a deuterium lamp. These measurements differ from observations made by other investigators in which the rate of deposition increased significantly when the deposition surface was illuminated with vacuum ultraviolet radiation. These observations suggest that the accelerated deposition of molecular contaminants on optically sensitive surfaces is dependant upon the contaminant being deposited and must be addressed during the materials selection process by common material screening techniques.

  18. Note: Measurement of saturable absorption by intense vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser using fluorescent material.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Y; Yoneda, H; Higashiya, A; Ishikawa, T; Kimura, H; Kumagai, T; Morimoto, S; Nagasono, M; Ohashi, H; Sato, F; Tanaka, T; Togashi, T; Tono, K; Yabashi, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Kodama, R

    2010-03-01

    Advances in free electron lasers (FELs) which generate high energy photons are expected to open novel nonlinear optics in the x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions. In this paper, we report a new method for performing VUV-FEL focusing experiments. A VUV-FEL was focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics on a multilayer target, which contains fused silica as a fluorescent material. By measuring the fluorescence, a 5.6x4.9 microm(2) focal spot was observed in situ. Fluorescence was used to measure the saturable absorption of VUV pulses in the tin layer. The transmission increases nonlinearly higher with increasing laser intensity.

  19. CIV Polarization Measurements using a Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Gary, G. Allen; Cirtain, Jonathan; David, John; Kobayashi, Ken; Pietraszewski, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) is developing a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-P rot Interferometer that will be launched on a sounding rocket for high throughput, high-cadence, extended field of view CIV (155nm) measurements. These measurements will provide (i) Dopplergrams for studies of waves, oscillations, explosive events, and mass motions through the transition region, and, (ii), polarization measurements to study the magnetic field in the transition region. This paper will describe the scientific goals of the instrument, a brief description of the optics and the polarization characteristics of the VUV Fabry P rot.

  20. Evaluation of a hydrogen laser vacuum ultraviolet source for photoionization mass spectrometry of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Finch, Jeffrey W; Toerne, Kevin A; Schram, Karl H; Denton, M Bonner

    2005-01-01

    A photoionization hydrogen laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer system (H2-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the rapid analysis of drugs of abuse and pharmaceutical agents extracted from prescription tablets and spiked urine samples. The spectra obtained using the H2-TOFMS showed primarily intact molecular ions (M+*) after introduction by a heated probe and irradiation with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons from the laser. Samples analyzed by this technique required only a simple solid-phase extraction step; no chromatographic separation or derivatization was necessary to identify the drugs of abuse or pharmaceutical agents.

  1. Proton transfer in acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters: Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization experiment and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-03-01

    Acetaldehyde, a probable human carcinogen and of environmental importance, upon solvation provides a test bed for understanding proton transfer pathways and catalytic mechanisms. In this study, we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters. Appearance energies of protonated clusters are extracted from the experimental photoionization efficiency curves and compared to electronic structure calculations. The comparison of experimental data to computational results provides mechanistic insight into the fragmentation mechanisms of the observed mass spectra. Using deuterated water for isotopic tagging, we observe that proton transfer is mediated via acetaldehyde and not water in protonated acetaldehyde-water clusters.

  2. Luminescence studies of Ce:YAG using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Yongjun; Zhou Guoqing; Jun Xu . E-mail: xujun@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Zhao Guangjun; Su Fenglian; Su Liangbi; Zhang Guobin; Zhang Danhong; Li Hongjun; Si JiLiang

    2006-10-12

    Photoluminescence spectrum of Ce:YAG single crystal was studied employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. Intrinsic absorption edge at about 52,000 cm{sup -1} was observed in the absorption spectrum. From the VUV excitation spectrum, the energy of the highest d-component of 53,191 cm{sup -1} (188 nm) for the Ce{sup 3+} ions in YAG was obtained at 300 K. The disappearance of the third 5d level at 37,735 cm{sup -1} (265 nm) in absorption and excitation spectra in our samples may be due to the impurity Fe{sup 3+} ions absorption.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet fluorine laser formation of corrosion-resistant iron thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Awaihara, Yuta; Yamashita, Tsugito; Inoue, Narumi

    2015-06-01

    Corrosion-, chemical-resistant pure iron thin films were formed by the vacuum ultraviolet fluorine laser of 157 nm wavelength induced surface modification of 30- to 50-nm-thick iron thin films. Transmission electron microscope and electron energy-loss spectroscopy were conducted to analyze structure and oxidation state of the thin modified layer of iron thin films. No rust was observed on the surface of the fluorine laser-irradiated iron thin films in air for 2 years. The samples also showed high chemical resistance to a HNO3 aqueous solution to fabricate a micropattern of pure iron thin films.

  4. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser based spectrometer for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rui; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph; Giesber, Henry G.; Egan, John J.; Kaminski, Adam

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser as a photon source. The photon source is based on the fourth harmonic generation of a near IR beam from a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a CW green laser and tunable between 5.3 eV and 7 eV. The most important part of the set-up is a compact, vacuum enclosed fourth harmonic generator based on potassium beryllium fluoroborate crystals, grown hydrothermally in the US. This source can deliver a photon flux of over 1014 photon/s. We demonstrate that this energy range is sufficient to measure the kz dispersion in an iron arsenic high temperature superconductor, which was previously only possible at synchrotron facilities.

  5. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser based spectrometer for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Rui; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Kaminski, Adam; McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph; Giesber, Henry G.; Egan, John J.

    2014-03-15

    We have developed an angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser as a photon source. The photon source is based on the fourth harmonic generation of a near IR beam from a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a CW green laser and tunable between 5.3 eV and 7 eV. The most important part of the set-up is a compact, vacuum enclosed fourth harmonic generator based on potassium beryllium fluoroborate crystals, grown hydrothermally in the US. This source can deliver a photon flux of over 10{sup 14} photon/s. We demonstrate that this energy range is sufficient to measure the k{sub z} dispersion in an iron arsenic high temperature superconductor, which was previously only possible at synchrotron facilities.

  6. Facility and Methods Developed for Simulated Space Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Testing of Polymer Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Pietromica, Anthony J.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Messer, Russell K.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation of wavelengths between 115 and 200 nm produced by the Sun in the space environment can degrade polymer films, producing changes in their optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. These effects are particularly important for thin polymer films being considered for ultralightweight space structures, because, for most polymers, VUV radiation is absorbed in a thin surface layer. The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed facilities and methods for long-term ground testing of polymer films to evaluate space environmental VUV radiation effects. VUV exposure can also be used as part of combined or sequential simulated space environmental exposures to determine combined damaging effects with other aspects of the space environment, which include solar ultraviolet radiation, solar flare x-rays, electron and proton radiation, atomic oxygen (for low-Earth-orbit missions), and temperature effects. Because the wavelength sensitivity of VUV damage is not well known for most materials, Glenn's VUV facility uses a broad-spectrum deuterium lamp with a magnesium fluoride window that provides output between 115 and 200 nm. Deuterium lamps of this type were characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and through measurements at Glenn. Spectral irradiance measurements show that from approximately 115 to 160 nm, deuterium lamp irradiance can be many times that of air mass zero solar irradiance, and as wavelength increases above approximately 160 nm, deuterium lamp irradiance decreases in comparison to the Sun. The facility is a cryopumped vacuum chamber that achieves a system pressure of approximately 5310(exp -6) torr. It contains four individual VUV-exposure compartments in vacuum, separated by water-cooled copper walls to minimize VUV radiation and any sample contamination cross interactions between compartments. Each VUV-exposure compartment contains a VUV deuterium lamp, a motor-controlled sample stage coupled with a

  7. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on DC93-500 Silicone Film Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Yan, Li

    2005-01-01

    A space-qualified silicone polymer, DC93-500 (Dow Corning, Midland, MI), has been used as a spacecraft solar cell adhesive and has been proposed for use in a Fresnel lens solar concentrator for space power applications. Applications of DC93-500 for exterior space system surfaces require an understanding of its overall space environmental durability. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is among the space environment elements that can be hazardous to the properties of DC93-500, causing degradation in optical and mechanical properties. For materials or components that have not been tested previously for long-duration performance in space, such as DC93-500 in freestanding film form, ground laboratory testing is an important tool for assuring durability. However, differences between the space environment and ground laboratory testing environments lead to complexities in interpreting the ground test results. Two important differences between space and laboratory vacuum ultraviolet exposure conditions are irradiance spectra and light intensity. These important differences were the basis for laboratory experiments conducted to examine VUV wavelength dependence and VUV intensity dependence of DC93-500 degradation. Testing conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center along with additional data provided through a grant with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, has advanced the understanding of VUV effects on DC93-500 and has provided important conclusions regarding the use of ground laboratory VUV testing to predict the space environment performance of DC93-500.

  8. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  9. CIV Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers for Transition-Region Magnetography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter; Li, Jianzhao

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet region allows remote sensing of the upper levels of the solar atmosphere where the magnetic field dominates the physics. Obtaining an imaging interferometer that observes the transition region is the goal of this program. This paper gives a summary of our instrument development program (1998-2005) for a high-spectral-resolution, piezoelectric tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometer (VUV FPI) for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CN (155nm). A VUV interferometer will allow us to observe the magnetic field, flows, and heating events in the mid-transition region. The MSFC VUV FPI has measured values of FWHM approx. 9pm, FSR approx. 62pm, finesse approx. 5.3 and transmittance approx. 50% at 157nm. For the measurements, the University of Toronto's F2 eximer laser was used as an appropriate proxy for CIV 155nm. This has provided the first tunable interferometer with a FWHM compatible to VUV filter magnetograph.

  10. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  11. [Design and study of a high resolution vacuum ultraviolet imaging spectrometer carried by satellite].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-yu; Qu, Yi; Wang, Shu-rong; Wang, Long-qi

    2011-12-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet imaging spectrometer prototype carried by satellite applied to the atmosphere detection of particles distribution in 115-300 nm was developed for remote sensing. First, based on the analysis of advanced loads, the optical system including an off-axis parabolic mirror as the telescope and Czerny-Turner structure as the imaging spectrometer was chosen Secondly, the 2-D photon counting detector with MCP was adopted for the characteristic that the radiation is weak in vacuum ultraviolet waveband. Then the geometric method and 1st order differential calculation were introduced to improve the disadvantages that aberrations in the traditional structure can not be corrected homogeneously to achieve perfect broadband imaging based on the aberration theory. At last, an advanced example was designed. The simulation and calculation of results demonstrate that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of total field of view is more than 0.6 in the broadband, and the spectral resolution is 1.23 nm. The structure is convenient and predominant. It proves that the design is feasible.

  12. Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry of antibiotic-treated bacterial biofilms using tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-09-01

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0-12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics and extracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both from neat and intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  13. Effects of space vacuum and solar ultraviolet irradiation (254 nanometers) on the colony forming ability of Bacillus subtilis spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Wollenhaupt, H.

    1973-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores are highly resistant to harsh environments. Therefore, in the Apollo 16 Microbial Response to Space Environment Experiment (M191), these spores were exposed to space vacuum or solar ultraviolet irradiation, or both, to estimate the change of survival for terrestrial organisms in space. The survival of the spores was determined in terms of colony-forming ability. Comparison of the flight results with results of simulation experiments on earth applying high vacuum or ultraviolet irradiation, or both, revealed no remarkable difference. Simultaneous exposure to both these space factors resulted in a synergistic effect (that is, an ultraviolet supersensitivity). Therefore, the change of survival in space is assumed to depend on the degree of protection against solar ultraviolet irradiation.

  14. Photochemical abiotic synthesis of amino-acid precursors from simulated planetary atmospheres by vacuum ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Masuda, Hitomi; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Teruo

    2005-07-01

    For the purpose of investigating the photon energy dependence of the photoinduced abiotic synthesis of organic molecules, gas mixtures that simulate typical planetary atmospheres, including a carbon source (CO or CH4), a nitrogen source (N2 or NH3), and H2O, were irradiated with synchrotron radiation through a vacuum-ultraviolet transmitting window. Three kinds of window material, fused silica, synthetic quartz, and MgF2, were used as a high-energy-cutting filter, whose absorption-edge energies are 6.4, 8.1, and 10.5 eV, respectively. Three types of gas mixture, Titan-type (CH4-N2-H2O), comet-type (CO-NH3-H2O), and primitive-Earth-type (CO-N2-H2O), were irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet photons in the three energy ranges. After the irradiation, amino-acid formation yields in the acid-hydrolyzed solution of the product were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatograph method. From the Titan- and comet-type mixtures, amino acids were detected by irradiation with photons lower than 8.1 eV. For both mixtures, the averaged quantum yields of glycine generation in the photon energy region of 7-10.5 eV were of the order of 10-5, which was larger by about one order than that in the region 5-8 eV. On the other hand, from the primitive-Earth-type mixture, amino-acid formation was difficult to detect even with irradiation as high as 10.5 eV, even though amino acids were generated in comparable yields from the Titan- and comet-type mixtures by irradiation with soft x rays or proton beam, whose energies are much higher. These results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet light is a more effective energy source for the generation of the precursors of bioorganic compounds in extraterrestrial environments than in primitive-Earth atmosphere.

  15. A synchrotron-radiation-based variable angle ellipsometer for the visible to vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, M. D. Cobet, C.; Esser, N.; Kaser, H.; Kolbe, M.; Gottwald, A.; Richter, M.

    2014-05-15

    A rotating analyzer spectroscopic polarimeter and ellipsometer with a wide-range θ-2θ goniometer installed at the Insertion Device Beamline of the Metrology Light Source in Berlin is presented. With a combination of transmission- and reflection-based polarizing elements and the inherent degree of polarization of the undulator radiation, this ellipsometer is able to cover photon energies from about 2 eV up to 40 eV. Additionally, a new compensator design based on a CaF{sub 2} Fresnel rhomb is presented. This compensator allows ellipsometric measurements with circular polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range and thus, for example, the characterization of depolarizing samples. The new instrument was initially used for the characterization of the polarization of the beamline. The technical capabilities of the ellipsometer are demonstrated by a cohesive wide-range measurement of the dielectric function of epitaxially grown ZnO.

  16. Infrared Spectra of Acetylene Diluted in Solid Nitrogen upon Irradiation with Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Jong; Chuang, Shiang-Jiun; Chen, Sian-Cong; Huang, Tzu-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Infrared spectra and chemical reactions of acetylene diluted in solid nitrogen at 10 K upon irradiation with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light and energetic electrons were investigated in separate experiments. Irradiation of the matrix sample with VUV light peaking at 160 and 121.6 nm yielded simple products, including C2H, CN, and isomers of C2N2. In contrast, electron irradiation of a similar sample generated N3, C2H, and various nitriles. The reaction mechanisms for photolysis and radiolysis of the matrix samples are discussed. Our results may help explain the distribution of trace species detected in the atmosphere of Titan. In addition, the UV absorption spectrum of the electron-bombarded icy sample was obtained and might be useful for future spectral investigations of Pluto by New Horizons.

  17. Luminescence from Vacuum-Ultraviolet-Irradiated Cosmic Ice Analogs and Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report a study of the optical luminescent properties for a variety of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV)-irradiated cosmic ice analogs and the complex organic residues produced. Detailed results are presented for the irradiated, mixed molecular ice: H2O: CH3OH:NH3:CO(100:50:1:1), a realistic representation for an interstellar/precometary ice that reproduces all the salient infrared spectral features associated with interstellar ices. The irradiated ices and the room-temperature residues resulting from this energetic processing have remarkable photoluminescent properties in the visible (520-570 nm). The luminescence dependence on temperature, thermal cycling, and VUV exposure is described. It is suggested that this type of luminescent behavior might be applicable to solar system and interstellar observations and processes for various astronomical objects with an ice heritage. Some examples include grain temperature determination and vaporization rates, nebula radiation balance, albedo values, color analysis, and biomarker identification.

  18. Luminescence from Vacuum-Ultraviolet-Irradiated Cosmic Ice Analogs and Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report a study of the optical luminescent properties for a variety of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV)- irradiated cosmic ice analogs and the complex organic residues produced. Detailed results are presented for the irradiated, mixed molecular ice: H2O:CH3OH:NH3:CO (100:50:1:1), a realistic representation for an interstellar/precometary ice that reproduces all the salient infrared spectral features associated with interstellar ices. The irradiated ices and the room-temperature residues resulting from this energetic processing have remarkable photoluminescent properties in the visible (520-570 nm). The luminescence dependence on temperature, thermal cycling, and VUV exposure is described. It is suggested that this type of luminescent behavior might be applicable to solar system and interstellar observations and processes for various astronomical objects with an ice heritage. Some examples include grain temperature determination and vaporization rates, nebula radiation balance, albedo values, color analysis, and biomarker identification.

  19. Detection of chlorobenzene derivatives using vacuum ultraviolet ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tonokura, Kenichi; Nakamura, Tomohisa; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2003-08-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) has been applied for the detection of chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, and o-chlorophenol as surrogates for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxine/furans (PCDD/F). The photoionization mass spectra of these compounds appear to be fragmentation free in the ionization processes by the VUV-SPI at 10.2 eV (121.6 nm). Quantum chemical calculations support no fragmentation in the photoionization of chlorobenzene derivatives at around 10 eV. The absolute photoionization cross-sections of chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, and o-chlorophenol were estimated at 10.2 eV. The photoionization cross-section is an important parameter in the detection of chlorobenzene derivatives by the single-photon ionization technique. The detection limit for chlorobenzene is on the order of tenth parts-per-billion volume (ppbv) in the present experimental setup.

  20. Photochemical/Microchannel Plasma Reactors Driven By High Power Vacuum Ultraviolet Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chul; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Experiments are being conducted in which molecular dissociation or other chemical reactions in microchannel plasmas are accelerated by the introduction of vacuum ultraviolet photons. Initial emphasis is being placed on recently-developed Xe2 lamps that are efficient sources of 172 nm (h ν 7.2 eV) photons. Thin, flat lamps, fabricated from fused silica and having microcavity arrays internal to the lamp, have been developed by the University of Illinois and Eden Park Illumination and produce intensities above 200 mW/cm2. Integrating such lamps into a microcavity plasma reactor yields a hybrid photochemical/plasma system in which product yield and power consumption can be optimized. The selectivity of photodissociation in generating radicals and atomic fragments offers new synergies in plasma processing. Data concerning CO2 dissociation in arrays of microchannel plasmas, and the modification of this process by external 172 nm radiation, will be presented.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet field emission lamp consisting of neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride thin film as phosphor.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takayuki; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Tanemura, Masaki; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd(3+) : LuF3) thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd(3+) : LuF3 crystal. Moreover, application of an acceleration voltage effectively increased the emission intensity. These results contribute to the performance enhancement of the lamp operating in the VUV region.

  2. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3x10(exp 17) and 9x10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  3. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  4. Selective irradiation of radicals for biomedical treatment using vacuum ultraviolet light from an excimer lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Zen, Shungo; Yonemori, Seiya

    2014-10-01

    In plasma medicine, radicals are considered to play important roles. However, the medical effect of each radical, such as OH and O, is unknown. To examine the effect of each radical, selective production of radicals is needed. We developed selective production of radicals for biomedical treatment using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light emitted from an excimer lamp. Selective irradiation of OH radicals can be achieved by irradiating the 172-nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp to a humid helium flow in a quartz tube. The water molecules are strongly photodissociated by the VUV light to produce OH radicals. A photochemical simulation for the selective OH production is developed to calculate the OH density. The calculated OH density is compared with OH density measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Selective production of other radicals than OH is also discussed.

  5. Vacuum Ultraviolet Field Emission Lamp Consisting of Neodymium Ion Doped Lutetium Fluoride Thin Film as Phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takayuki; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Tanemura, Masaki; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd3+ : LuF3) thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd3+ : LuF3 crystal. Moreover, application of an acceleration voltage effectively increased the emission intensity. These results contribute to the performance enhancement of the lamp operating in the VUV region. PMID:25302320

  6. The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation on photopatternable low-k dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M. T.; Mavrakakis, K.; Shohet, J. L.; Lin, Q.

    2013-09-14

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on photopatternable low-k (PPLK) dielectric materials are investigated. In order to examine these effects, current-voltage measurements were made on PPLK materials before and after exposure to a variety of inert plasma-exposure conditions. In order to examine the effects of photon irradiation alone, PPLK samples were also exposed to monochromatic synchrotron radiation with 10 eV photon energy. It was found that plasma exposure causes significant degradation in electrical characteristics, resulting in increased leakage-currents and decreased breakdown voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements also show appreciable carbon loss near the sample surface after plasma exposure. Conversely, VUV exposure was found to increase breakdown voltage and reduce leakage-current magnitudes.

  7. Amplification properties of vacuum ultraviolet Ar2* produced by infrared high-intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Masanori; Harano, Shinya; Matsumoto, Ryota; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2011-07-01

    We report optical amplification of Ar2* at 126nm, pumped by optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) created by an infrared high-intensity laser. A gain--length product of 0.84 was obtained by using multipass amplification with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) cavity. The gain--length product was increased up to 4.3 through the use of single-pass amplification with a VUV reflector and a hollow 5.0cm-long fiber. Similar small signal gain coefficients of 0.84 and 0.86cm-1 were obtained in two different experiments, in which OFI Ar plasma gain media were produced in free space filled with Ar and inside an Ar-filled hollow fiber.

  8. Development of an imaging vacuum-ultraviolet monochromator in the normal incidence region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koog, J.; Iwasaki, K.; Sato, K.; Hamada, Y.; Toi, K.; JIPP T-IIU Group

    1996-11-01

    An imaging vacuum-ultraviolet monochromator has been developed to provide the space-resolved impurity line emissions from magnetically confined plasmas. With minor modifications of a commercial normal incidence monochromator, a pinhole entrance slit and a microchannel plate detector displaced away from the exit slit, the instrument performs two-dimensional spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 Å. Ray tracing has been performed to understand the spatial imaging properties in the practical geometric configuration. The measured spatial resolution is about 0.5 and 1 mrad in dispersion and vertical plane, respectively, with the entrance slit of 0.1 mm width and height. The results of the testing experiments and the measurements carried out on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasma are presented and discussed.

  9. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17)/cu cm. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  10. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism reveals DNA duplex formation between short strands of adenine and thymine.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2012-11-21

    Absorbance spectroscopy is used extensively to tell when two DNA single strands come together and form a double strand. Here we show that circular dichroism in the vacuum ultraviolet region provides an even stronger indication for duplex formation in the case of short strands of adenine and thymine (4 to 16 bases in each strand). Indeed, our results show that a strong positive CD band appears at 179 nm when double strands are formed. Melting experiments were done in aqueous solution with and without added Na(+) counter ions. With additional salt present a huge increase in the 179 nm CD band was observed when lowering the temperature. A 179 nm CD marker band for duplex formation can be used to measure the kinetics for the association of two single strands. Such experiments rely on large changes at one particular wavelength since it is too time-consuming to record a full-wavelength spectrum.

  11. Bandgap measurements of low-k porous organosilicate dielectrics using vacuum ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Ryan, V.; Nishi, Y.

    2014-02-10

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is used to investigate the effect of VUV radiation on porous organosilicate (SiCOH) dielectrics during plasma processing. By comparing photoemission spectroscopic results before and after VUV exposure, VUV irradiation with photon energies less than 9.0 eV was found to be beneficial in depleting accumulated charge in SiCOH films while VUV photons with higher energies did not have this effect. Moreover, VUV irradiation with 8.9 eV photons depletes the most charge. From this result, it can be concluded that 8.9 eV is the bandgap plus the electron affinity energy of SiCOH dielectrics.

  12. Modification of organosilicate glasses low-k films under extreme and vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimova, T. V.; Rakhimov, A. T.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Lopaev, D. V.; Kovalev, A. S.; Vasil'eva, A. N.; Proshina, O. V.; Braginsky, O. V.; Zyryanov, S. M.; Kurchikov, K.; Novikova, N. N.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    Degradation of chemical composition of porous low-k films under extreme and various vacuum ultraviolet emissions is studied using specially developed sources. It is shown that the most significant damage is induced by Xe line emission (147 nm) in comparison with Ar (106 nm), He (58 nm), and Sn (13.5 nm) emissions. No direct damage was detected for 193 nm emission. Photoabsorption cross-sections and photodissociation quantum yields were derived for four films under study. 147 nm photons penetrate deeply into low-k films due to smaller photoabsorption cross-section and still have sufficient energy to excite Si-O-Si matrix and break Si-CH3 bonds.

  13. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  14. A new optical scheme for large-extraction small-aberration vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation beamlines.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Vacuum-ultraviolet radiation delivered by bending-magnet sources is used at numerous synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide. As bending-magnet radiation is inherently much less collimated compared with undulator sources, the generation of high-quality intense bending-magnet vacuum-ultraviolet photon beams is extremely demanding in terms of the optical layout due to the necessary larger collection apertures. In this article, an optimized optical layout which takes into account both the optical and electron beam properties is proposed. This layout delivers an improved beam emittance of over one order of magnitude compared with existing vacuum-ultraviolet bending-magnet beamlines that, up to now, do not take into account electron beam effects. The arrangement is made of two dedicated mirrors, a cylindrical and a cone-shaped one, that focus independently both the horizontal and the vertical emission of a bending-magnet source, respectively, and has been already successfully applied in the construction of the infrared beamline at the Brazilian synchrotron. Using this scheme, two vacuum-ultraviolet beamline designs based on a SOLEIL synchrotron bending-magnet source are proposed and analysed. They would be useful for future upgrades to the DISCO beamline at SOLEIL and could be readily implemented at other synchrotron radiation facilities.

  15. Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector

    DOEpatents

    Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

  16. Interpretation of the photoelectron, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of bromobenzene by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT computations

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Michael H. Ridley, Trevor E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it Jones, Nykola C. E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Coreno, Marcello E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; and others

    2015-10-28

    New photoelectron, ultraviolet (UV), and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for bromobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work. This, together with use of ab initio calculations with both configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theoretical methods, has led to major advances in interpretation. The VUV spectrum has led to identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The Franck-Condon (FC) analyses including both hot and cold bands lead to identification of the vibrational structure of both ionic and electronically excited states including two Rydberg states. The UV onset has been interpreted in some detail, and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. In a similar way, the 6 eV absorption band which is poorly resolved is analysed in terms of the presence of two ππ* states of {sup 1}A{sub 1} (higher oscillator strength) and {sup 1}B{sub 2} (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The detailed analysis of the vibrational structure of the 2{sup 2}B{sub 1} ionic state is particularly challenging, and the best interpretation is based on equation-of-motion-coupled cluster with singles and doubles computations. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet excited states show that the molecular structure is less subject to variation than corresponding studies for iodobenzene. The equilibrium structures of the 3b{sub 1}3s and 6b{sub 2}3s (valence shell numbering) Rydberg states have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ionic limit structures.

  17. Interpretation of the photoelectron, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of bromobenzene by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT computations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk

    2015-10-28

    New photoelectron, ultraviolet (UV), and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for bromobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work. This, together with use of ab initio calculations with both configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theoretical methods, has led to major advances in interpretation. The VUV spectrum has led to identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The Franck-Condon (FC) analyses including both hot and cold bands lead to identification of the vibrational structure of both ionic and electronically excited states including two Rydberg states. The UV onset has been interpreted in some detail, and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. In a similar way, the 6 eV absorption band which is poorly resolved is analysed in terms of the presence of two ππ* states of (1)A1 (higher oscillator strength) and (1)B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The detailed analysis of the vibrational structure of the 2(2)B1 ionic state is particularly challenging, and the best interpretation is based on equation-of-motion-coupled cluster with singles and doubles computations. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet excited states show that the molecular structure is less subject to variation than corresponding studies for iodobenzene. The equilibrium structures of the 3b13s and 6b23s (valence shell numbering) Rydberg states have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ionic limit structures.

  18. Effect of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on the dielectric constant of low-k organosilicate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L.; Ryan, E. T.; Nishi, Y.

    2014-11-17

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation is generated during plasma processing in semiconductor fabrications, while the effect of VUV irradiation on the dielectric constant (k value) of low-k materials is still an open question. To clarify this problem, VUV photons with a range of energies were exposed on low-k organosilicate dielectrics (SiCOH) samples at room temperature. Photon energies equal to or larger than 6.0 eV were found to decrease the k value of SiCOH films. VUV photons with lower energies do not have this effect. This shows the need for thermal heating in traditional ultraviolet (UV) curing since UV light sources do not have sufficient energy to change the dielectric constant of SiCOH and additional energy is required from thermal heating. In addition, 6.2 eV photon irradiation was found to be the most effective in decreasing the dielectric constant of low-k organosilicate films. Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy shows that these 6.2 eV VUV exposures removed organic porogens. This contributes to the decrease of the dielectric constant. This information provides the range of VUV photon energies that could decrease the dielectric constant of low-k materials most effectively.

  19. Photoionization capable, extreme and vacuum ultraviolet emission in developing low temperature plasmas in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Beeson, S.; Laity, G.; Trienekens, D.; Joshi, R. P.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental observation of photoionization capable extreme ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet emission from nanosecond timescale, developing low temperature plasmas (i.e. streamer discharges) in atmospheric air is presented. Applying short high voltage pulses enabled the observation of the onset of plasma formation exclusively by removing the external excitation before spark development was achieved. Contrary to the common assumption that radiative transitions from the b{{}1}{{\\Pi}u} (Birge-Hopfield I) and b{{}\\prime 1}Σu+ (Birge-Hopfield II) singlet states of N2 are the primary contributors to photoionization events, these results indicate that radiative transitions from the c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ (Carroll-Yoshino) singlet state of N2 are dominant in developing low temperature plasmas in air. In addition to c{}4\\prime transitions, photoionization capable transitions from atomic and singly ionized atomic oxygen were also observed. The inclusion of c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ transitions into a statistical photoionization model coupled with a fluid model enabled streamer growth in the simulation of positive streamers.

  20. Effects of Various Wavelength Ranges of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation on Teflon FEP Film Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; McCracken, Cara A.

    2004-01-01

    Teflon Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FTP) films (DuPont) have been widely used for spacecraft thermal control and have been observed to become embrittled and cracked upon exposure to the space environment. This degradation has been attributed to a synergistic combination of radiation and thermal effects. A research study was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of different wavelength ranges of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation on the degradation of the mechanical properties of FEP. This will contribute to an overall understanding of space radiation effects on Teflon FEP, and will provide information necessary to determine appropriate techniques for using laboratory tests to estimate space VUV degradation. Research was conducted using inhouse facilities at Glenn and was carried out, in part, through a grant with the Cleveland State University. Samples of Teflon FEP film of 50.8 microns thickness were exposed to radiation from a VUV lamp from beneath different cover windows to provide different exposure wavelength ranges: MgF2 (115 to 400 nm), crystalline quartz (140 to 400 nm), and fused silica (FS, 155 to 400 nm). Following exposure, FEP film specimens were tensile tested to determine the ultimate tensile strength and elongation at failure as a function of the exposure duration for each wavelength range. The graphs show the effect of ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of the FEP samples.

  1. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, D; Fierro, A; Dickens, J; Neuber, A

    2014-10-01

    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 μm. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF6, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  2. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ryberg, D.; Fierro, A.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2014-10-15

    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 μm. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF{sub 6}, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  3. Flash vacuum-ultraviolet source utilizing a surface-discharge substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagae, Michiaki; Sato, Eiichi; Shikoda, Arimitsu; Oizumi, Teiji; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Shishido, Koro; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental studies for the flash vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) source utilizing a surface- discharge substrate are described. This flash VUV source consists of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion-type high-voltage pulser with a condenser capacity of 14.3 nF, an oil diffusion pump, and a flash VUV chamber with a glass body. The VUV chamber employed a surface-discharge ferrite substrate that's pattern was formed by means of the copper vacuum evaporation and was connected to an oil diffusion pump with a pressure of 1.3 X 10-3 Pa. The combined ceramic condenser in the pulser was charged from 10 to 30 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the radiation chamber after closing a gap switch. Then the flash VUV rays were generated. The maximum values of the cathode voltage and the tube current were about -21 kV and 1.7 kA, respectively. The VUV outputs were measured by a combination of a plastic scintillator and a photomultiplier. The pulse durations of the VUV rays were nearly equivalent to the durations of the damped oscillations of the voltage and current, and their values were about 10 microsecond(s) .

  4. Wettability control of a polymer surface through 126 nm vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozumi, Atsushi; Shirahata, Naoto; Nakanishi, Youichiro; Asakura, Shuuichi; Fuwa, Akio

    2004-07-01

    The control of the surface wettability of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates has been successfully demonstrated using an Ar2* excimer lamp radiating 126 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. Each of the samples was exposed to 126 nm VUV light in air over the pressure range of 2×10-4-105 Pa. Although at the process pressures of 10, 103, and 105 Pa, the PMMA surfaces became relatively hydrophilic, the degree of hydrophilicity depended markedly on the pressure. The minimum water contact angles of the samples treated at 10, 103, and 105 Pa were about 50°, 33°, and 64°, respectively. These values were larger than those of PMMA substrates hydrophilized through 172 nm VUV irradiation conducted under the same conditions. On the other hand, after 126 nm VUV irradiation conducted under the high vacuum condition of 2×10-4 Pa, the PMMA substrate surface became carbon-rich, probably due to preferential cross-linking reactions, as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This surface was hydrophobic, showing a water contact angle of about 101°. Although the 126 nm VUV-irradiated surfaces appeared relatively smooth when observed by atomic force microscope, very small particles with diameters of 30-60 nm, which probably originated from the readhesion of photodecomposed products, existed on all of the sample surfaces. .

  5. Photooxidation of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane film by 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation in dilute oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, S.

    2006-08-01

    Plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane films irradiated under different partial pressures of oxygen with a 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light were investigated in order to clarify the roles of molecular oxygen and photons in photooxidation. The thickness, densities, surface roughness, elemental compositions, and molecular structures of the irradiated and unirradiated films were examined by using glazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, Rutherford backscattering, infrared, and x-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Photooxidation is hardly promoted by irradiation in a high vacuum of 1x10{sup -4} Pa, though photodesorption of the methyl group and formation of Si-H bonds were observed. Silica films thicker than 140 nm were formed at room temperature by irradiating them in low pressure oxygen gases. The degree of oxidation was smaller for the oxygen pressure of 10 kPa than for 83 Pa. Si K-edge XAS was performed to clarify the change of coordination environment of silicon by photooxidation in dilute oxygen flow containing less than 5 ppm of molecular oxygen.

  6. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation and Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of HST Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Bellows-type thermal shields were used on the bi-stems of replacement solar arrays installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the first HST servicing mission (SMI) in December 1993. These thermal shields helped reduce the problem of thermal gradient- induced jitter observed with the original HST solar arrays during orbital thermal cycling and have been in use on HST for eight years. This paper describes ground testing of the candidate solar array bi-stem thermal shield materials including backside aluminized Teflon(R)FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) with and without atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet radiation protective surface coatings for durability to AO and combined AO and vacuum ultraviolet (VOV) radiation. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) conducted VUV and AO exposures of samples of candidate thermal shield materials at HST operational temperatures and pre- and post-exposure analyses as part of an overall program coordinated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine the on-orbit durability of these materials. Coating adhesion problems were observed for samples having the AO- and combined AO/UV-protective coatings. Coating lamination occurred with rapid thermal cycling testing which simulated orbital thermal cycling. This lack of adhesion caused production of coating flakes from the material that would have posed a serious risk to HST optics if the coated materials were used for the bi-stem thermal shields. No serious degradation was observed for the uncoated aluminized Teflon(R) as evaluated by optical microscopy, although atomic force microscopy (AFM) microhardness testing revealed that an embrittled surface layer formed on the uncoated Teflon(R) surface due to vacuum ultraviolet radiation exposure. This embrittled layer was not completely removed by AO erosion, No cracks or particle flakes were produced for the embrittled uncoated material upon exposure to VUV and AO at operational temperatures to an equivalent exposure of

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet spectral emission properties of Ga, In and Sn droplet-based laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Brandstätter, Markus; Abhari, Reza S.

    2016-08-01

    The Emission Spectra of gallium, indium and tin droplet-based laser produced plasmas are presented in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) emission range from 30 nm to 160 nm. The Ga ion transitions are investigated in detail as a function of background pressure level and laser irradiance. Different wavelength emission regions were detected according to the level of background gas. At short wavelengths (i.e. 30-50 nm) the line emission from the higher charge states is reduced with increasing pressure, while at longer wavelengths (i.e. 100-160 nm) the trend is inverted, as the plasma emission intensity of the lower charge states increases with higher background gas pressure level. The emitted lines are fitted with Voigt profiles to determine the electron density. The electron temperature is obtained from a fit based on the Planck distribution. These estimations are then used to identify the relevant processes that lead to the different charge state emissions as a function of background gas. Langmuir Probe measurements are also reported for evaluating the ion kinetic energy as a function of background gas. The gallium spectra are calibrated in units of spectral radiance, together with spectra from indium and tin. This calibration allows absolute power estimations from the light source in the VUV region. The presented experimental results are relevant as fundamental plasma emission spectroscopic measurements in an almost unexplored wavelength region as well as for applications such as Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography to determine the so-called Out-of-Band (OoB) radiation emission and for metrology applications for future inspection tools.

  8. Interpretation of the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of iodobenzene by ab initio computations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2015-04-07

    Identification of many Rydberg states in iodobenzene, especially from the first and fourth ionization energies (IE1 and IE4, X(2)B1 and C(2)B1), has become possible using a new ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectrum, in the region 29 000-87 000 cm(-1) (3.60-10.79 eV), measured at room temperature with synchrotron radiation. A few Rydberg states based on IE2 (A(2)A2) were found, but those based on IE3 (B(2)B2) are undetectable. The almost complete absence of observable Rydberg states relating to IE2 and IE3 (A(2)A2 and B(2)B2, respectively) is attributed to them being coupled to the near-continuum, high-energy region of Rydberg series converging on IE1. Theoretical studies of the UV and VUV spectra used both time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) and multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles-configuration interaction methods. The theoretical adiabatic excitation energies, and their corresponding vibrational profiles, gave a satisfactory interpretation of the experimental results. The calculations indicate that the UV onset contains both 1(1)B1 and 1(1)B2 states with very low oscillator strength, while the 2(1)B1 state was found to lie under the lowest ππ(∗) 1(1)A1 state. All three of these (1)B1 and (1)B2 states are excitations into low-lying σ(∗) orbitals. The strongest VUV band near 7 eV contains two very strong ππ(∗) valence states, together with other weak contributors. The lowest Rydberg 4b16s state (3(1)B1) is very evident as a sharp multiplet near 6 eV; its position and vibrational structure are well reproduced by the TDDFT results.

  9. Generation of a vacuum ultraviolet to visible Raman frequency comb in H2-filled kagomé photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Mridha, M K; Novoa, D; Bauerschmidt, S T; Abdolvand, A; St J Russell, P

    2016-06-15

    We report on the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the "fiber + gas" system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-order fiber modes. The results pave the way toward tunable fiber-based sources of deep and vacuum ultraviolet light for applications in, e.g., spectroscopy and biomedicine.

  10. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Glownia, James H.; Sander, Robert K.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but to higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  11. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

    1982-06-29

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but no higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  12. Secondary Structure Prediction of Protein Constructs Using Random Incremental Truncation and Vacuum-Ultraviolet CD Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pukáncsik, Mária; Orbán, Ágnes; Nagy, Kinga; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Maurin, Damien; Hart, Darren; Kézsmárki, István; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2016-01-01

    A novel uracil-DNA degrading protein factor (termed UDE) was identified in Drosophila melanogaster with no significant structural and functional homology to other uracil-DNA binding or processing factors. Determination of the 3D structure of UDE is excepted to provide key information on the description of the molecular mechanism of action of UDE catalysis, as well as in general uracil-recognition and nuclease action. Towards this long-term aim, the random library ESPRIT technology was applied to the novel protein UDE to overcome problems in identifying soluble expressing constructs given the absence of precise information on domain content and arrangement. Nine constructs of UDE were chosen to decipher structural and functional relationships. Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectroscopy was performed to define the secondary structure content and location within UDE and its truncated variants. The quantitative analysis demonstrated exclusive α-helical content for the full-length protein, which is preserved in the truncated constructs. Arrangement of α-helical bundles within the truncated protein segments suggested new domain boundaries which differ from the conserved motifs determined by sequence-based alignment of UDE homologues. Here we demonstrate that the combination of ESPRIT and VUVCD spectroscopy provides a new structural description of UDE and confirms that the truncated constructs are useful for further detailed functional studies. PMID:27273007

  13. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples.

  14. Outgassing Measurements for Three Materials, Combined with Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Illumination of the Volatile Condensable Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The photolysis of three organic materials, by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, has been quantified using 15-MHz temperature-controlled quartz microbalances (TQCM's). The rate at which molecular species, released from the individual samples, condensed on two TQCM s was measured for periods of up to 139.9-hours. The individual samples were heated in an effusion cell and the emitted molecular species collected on a pair of TQCM's which were maintained at -40 degrees Celsius. At several points during the deposition measurement, the deposition surface of one TQCM was illuminated by a 30 Watt deuterium lamp, and the loss of material from that surface was observed. V W illumination of the TQCM, concurrent with condensation, reduced the rate that material was lost from the deposition surface. These measurements present a contrasting picture of molecular deposition, in the presence of VUV, to that presented by other investigators who observed an enhanced rate of molecular deposition, when the deposition surface was illuminated by VUV.

  15. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O'Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  16. Permanent hydrophilic modification of polypropylene and poly(vinyl alcohol) films by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Guilherme Kretzmann; Charles, German; Strumia, Miriam Cristina; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) both synthetics polymers but one of them biodegradable, were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. After VUV irradiation in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, the films were exposed to oxygen gas. The treated films were characterized by water contact angle measurements (WCA), optical profilometry, FTIR-ATR, XPS, UPS and NEXAFS techniques. PP and PVA VUV-treated films reached superhydrophilic conditions (WCAs <10°) in about 30 min of irradiation under our experimental conditions. It was observed that when the WCAs reached about 35-40° the hydrophilicity was permanent in both polymers. These results contrasted with typical plasma treatments were a rapid hydrophobic recovery with aging time is usually observed. UPS and XPS data showed the presence of new functionalities on the PP and PVA surfaces that were assigned to COO, Cdbnd O, Csbnd O and Cdbnd C functional groups. Finally, grafting of styrene (ST) as a typical monomer was tested on PP films. It was confirmed that only in the VUV irradiated region an efficient grafting of ST or polymerized ST was found. Outside the irradiated regions no ST grafted was observed. Our results showed the potential use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region.

  17. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  18. Sterilization of Bacillus atrophaeus using OH radicals supplied by vacuum ultraviolet method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Sterilization by cold plasma has widely been performed. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a potential of sterilization. However, it is not clear which ROS is effective on sterilization because a lot of types of ROS are produced in plasma. In this study, sterilization effect of OH radicals by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) method was investigated. This method utilizes photodissociation reaction to produce ROS so it can produce ROS selectively. Wet and dry helium with and without 1% O2 gas was used to demonstrate sterilization effect of OH radicals. Gases were flowed in a quartz tube (inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm) at a flow rate of 1.5 L/min. The produced ROS flowed out of the quartz tube nozzle. A Xe2 excimer lamp emitting 172 +/- 7 nm VUV light was placed parallel to the quartz tube with a distance of 8 mm. The distance between the lower end of the lamp and the nozzle of quartz tube was changed from 3 to 15 cm. As a target of sterilization, Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) was used. The density of OH radicals was measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). As a result, sterilization using VUV method was verified. This result showed that OH radicals sterilized the bacteria.

  19. On the Dynamics of Xylene Isomers Excited in the Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Region.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Christina C; Kaziannis, Spiridon; Kosmidis, Constantine

    2016-08-04

    We report on the dynamics of electronically excited o-, m-, and p-xylene on the femtosecond timescale by employing the vacuum-ultraviolet pump-IR probe mass spectrometry technique. The molecules were excited by the fifth harmonic (λ=160 nm) of a Ti:sapphire laser at a superposition of the S3 valence with several Rydberg states. The relaxation pathways were investigated by studying the parent P(+) and the fragment [P-H](+) and [P-CH3 ](+) time-resolved signals generated after interaction with the fundamental beam (λ=800 nm). Relaxation from the excited valence states was found to depend on the relative positions of the methyl groups on the ring. An increasing trend in the order o

  20. High-intensity coherent vacuum ultraviolet source using unfocussed commercial dye lasers.

    PubMed

    Albert, Daniel R; Proctor, David L; Davis, H Floyd

    2013-06-01

    Using two or three commercial pulsed nanosecond dye lasers pumped by a single 30 Hz Nd:YAG laser, generation of 0.10 mJ pulses at 125 nm (6 × 10(13) photons∕pulse) has been demonstrated by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of collimated (unfocussed) laser beams in mercury (Hg) vapor. Phase matching at various vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths is achieved by tuning one laser in the vicinity of the 6 (1)S0 → 6 (3)P1 resonance near 253.1 nm. A number of different mixing schemes are characterized. Our observations using broadband lasers (~0.15 cm(-1) bandwidths) are compared to previous calculations pertaining to four-wave mixing of low intensity narrowband laser beams. Prospects for further increases in pulse energies are discussed. We find that VUV tuning curves and intensities are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The utility of the VUV light source is demonstrated by "soft universal" single-photon VUV ionization in crossed molecular beam studies and for generation of light at 130.2 nm for oxygen atom Rydberg time-of-flight experiments.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects on two-dimensional MoS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMorrow, Julian J.; Cress, Cory D.; Arnold, Heather N.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Schmucker, Scott W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2017-02-01

    Atomically thin MoS2 has generated intense interest for emerging electronics applications. Its two-dimensional nature and potential for low-power electronics are particularly appealing for space-bound electronics, motivating the need for a fundamental understanding of MoS2 electronic device response to the space radiation environment. In this letter, we quantify the response of MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) total ionizing dose radiation. Single-layer (SL) and multilayer (ML) MoS2 FETs are compared to identify differences that arise from thickness and band structure variations. The measured evolution of the FET transport properties is leveraged to identify the nature of VUV-induced trapped charge, isolating the effects of the interface and bulk oxide dielectric. In both the SL and ML cases, oxide trapped holes compete with interface trapped electrons, exhibiting an overall shift toward negative gate bias. Raman spectroscopy shows no variation in the MoS2 signatures as a result of VUV exposure, eliminating significant crystalline damage or oxidation as possible radiation degradation mechanisms. Overall, this work presents avenues for achieving radiation-hard MoS2 devices through dielectric engineering that reduces oxide and interface trapped charge.

  2. The effects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation on low-k dielectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, H.; Ren, H.; Nichols, M. T.; Lauer, J. L.; Shohet, J. L.; Tomoyasu, M.; Russell, N. M.; Jiang, G.; Antonelli, G. A.; Fuller, N. C.; Engelmann, S. U.; Lin, Q.; Ryan, V.; Nishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Plasmas, known to emit high levels of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, are used in the semiconductor industry for processing of low-k organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric device structures. VUV irradiation induces photoconduction, photoemission, and photoinjection. These effects generate trapped charges within the dielectric film, which can degrade electrical properties of the dielectric. The amount of charge accumulation in low-k dielectrics depends on factors that affect photoconduction, photoemission, and photoinjection. Changes in the photo and intrinsic conductivities of SiCOH are also ascribed to the changes in the numbers of charged traps generated during VUV irradiation. The dielectric-substrate interface controls charge trapping by affecting photoinjection of charged carriers into the dielectric from the substrate. The number of trapped charges increases with increasing porosity of SiCOH because of charge trapping sites in the nanopores. Modifications to these three parameters, i.e., (1) VUV induced charge generation, (2) dielectric-substrate interface, and (3) porosity of dielectrics, can be used to reduce trapped-charge accumulation during processing of low-{kappa} SiCOH dielectrics. Photons from the plasma are responsible for trapped-charge accumulation within the dielectric, while ions stick primarily to the surface of the dielectrics. In addition, as the dielectric constant was decreased by adding porosity, the defect concentrations increased.

  3. Photoluminescence excitation spectra of lanthanide doped YAlO3 in vacuum ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yuhei; Ueda, Kazushige; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    To understand luminescent mechanisms of lanthanide (Ln) doped phosphors, it is important to know the energy positions of unoccupied Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d states, as well as occupied Ln3+ 4f states, relative to the energy bands of host materials. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of Ln doped YAlO3 were measured in a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region and the energy positions of Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d states in the wide-gap YAlO3 were elucidated. Peaks assignable to host lattice excitation were observed in all samples at approximately 8 eV in the PLE spectra. PLE peaks derived from charge transfer (CT) and 4f-5d transitions were observed at lower energy than the bandgap energy. Ln2+ 4f energy levels were obtained from the PLE peak energies for the CT transitions along with the valence band maximum. In contrast, Ln3+ 5d energy levels were evaluated from those for the 4f-5d transitions along with the Ln3+ 4f energy levels, which were obtained previously from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The elucidated Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d energy levels were exhibited in an energy diagram together with Ln3+ 4f energy levels and host energy bands. The experimental Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d energy levels were in good agreement with the reported theoretical data.

  4. Photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections for formaldehyde in the vacuum-ultraviolet energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H. K.; Prudente, F. V.; Medina, A.; Marinho, R. R. T.; Homem, M. G. P.; Machado, L. E.; Fujimoto, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    We report a theoretical-experimental investigation on the interaction of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation with formaldehyde (H2CO) in the gas phase. Experimentally, the absolute photoabsorption cross sections and the photoionization quantum yields were measured in the (11.0-21.5) eV range using the double-ion chamber technique. Also, the absolute photoionization and neutral-decay cross sections were derived from these data. In addition, in the same energy region, the dissociation pattern was obtained with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using the photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique, and the absolute photoionization cross sections were derived for each ionic fragment observed. Moreover, theoretical photoionization cross sections were calculated for the ionization of the four outermost molecular valence orbitals (2b2, 1b1, 5a1, and 1b2) from the threshold to 35 eV. The calculations were performed using the iterative Schwinger variational method to solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the exact static-exchange level of approximation. In general, there is a good agreement between our experimental and previous data reported in the literature. Our theoretical results show a fair qualitative agreement with the experimental data and with previous theoretical results. Above 20 eV, a better quantitative agreement with the experimental data is also observed.

  5. VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET PHOTON-STIMULATED OXIDATION OF BURIED ICE: GRAPHITE GRAIN INTERFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Grieves, G. A.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synthesis of CO and CO{sub 2} on ice-coated graphite and isotopic labeled {sup 13}C graphite has been examined for temperatures between 40 and 120 K. The results show that CO and CO{sub 2} can be formed at the buried ice:graphite interface with Lyα photon irradiation via the reaction of radicals (O and OH) produced by direct photodissociation and the dissociative electron attachment of the interfacial water molecules. The synthesized CO and CO{sub 2} molecules can desorb in hot photon-dominated regions and are lost to space when ice coated carbonaceous dust grains cycle within the protoplanetary disks. Thus, the nonthermal formation of CO and CO{sub 2} at the buried ice:grain interface by VUV photons may help regulate the carbon inventory during the early stage of planet formation. This may contribute to the carbon deficits in our solar system and suggests that a universal carbon deficit gradient may be expected within astrophysical bodies surrounding center stars.

  6. Secondary-structure analysis of denatured proteins by vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichi; Sakurada, Yoshie; Yonehara, Ryuta; Kataoka, Mikio; Gekko, Kunihiko

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the structure of denatured proteins, we measured the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectra from 260 to 172 nm of three proteins (metmyoglobin, staphylococcal nuclease, and thioredoxin) in the native and the acid-, cold-, and heat-denatured states, using a synchrotron-radiation VUVCD spectrophotometer. The circular dichroism spectra of proteins fully unfolded by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) were also measured down to 197 nm for comparison. These denatured proteins exhibited characteristic VUVCD spectra that reflected a considerable amount of residual secondary structures. The contents of alpha-helices, beta-strands, turns, poly-L-proline type II (PPII), and unordered structures were estimated for each denatured state of the three proteins using the SELCON3 program with Protein Data Bank data and the VUVCD spectra of 31 reference proteins reported in our previous study. Based on these contents, the characteristics of the four types of denaturation were discussed for each protein. In all types of denaturation, a decrease in alpha-helices was accompanied by increases in beta-strands, PPII, and unordered structures. About 20% beta-strands were present even in the proteins fully unfolded by GdnHCl in which beta-sheets should be broken. From these results, we propose that denatured proteins constitute an ensemble of residual alpha-helices and beta-sheets, partly unfolded (or distorted) alpha-helices and beta-strands, PPII, and unordered structures.

  7. Airborne vacuum ultraviolet resonance fluorescence instrument for in situ measurement of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Matsumi, Y.; Parrish, D. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Koike, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Toriyama, N.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2001-10-01

    An airborne instrument for fast-response, high-precision measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) was developed using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) resonance fluorescence technique. The excitation radiation is obtained by a DC discharge CO resonance lamp combined with an optical filter for the CO fourth positive band emission around 150 nm. The optical filter consists of a VUV monochromator and a crystalline quartz window (<147-nm cutoff). The crystalline quartz window ensures a sharp discrimination against wavelengths below 135.7 nm that yield a positive interference from water vapor. Laboratory tests showed that the optical system achieved a precision of 1.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at a CO concentration of 100 ppbv for a 1-s integration period, and the flow system provided a response time (1/e time constant) of ˜2 s. The aircraft measurement campaign Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment-phase B (BIBLE-B) was conducted between August and September 1999 over the western Pacific and Australia. The flight data obtained during this campaign were used to demonstrate the high precision and fast response of the instrument. An intercomparison of the VUV CO measurement and a gas chromatographic CO measurement was conducted during BIBLE-B. Overall, these two independent measurements showed good agreement, within the experimental uncertainties.

  8. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne.

    PubMed

    Jacovella, U; Holland, D M P; Boyé-Péronne, S; Gans, B; de Oliveira, N; Joyeux, D; Archer, L E; Lucchese, R R; Xu, H; Pratt, S T

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  9. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovella, U.; Holland, D. M. P.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, B.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E.; Lucchese, R. R.; Xu, H.; Pratt, S. T.

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  10. Intermolecular proton-transfer in acetic acid clusters induced by vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Mikami, Naohiko; Fujii, Asuka

    2009-11-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy based on vacuum-ultraviolet one-photon ionization detection was carried out to investigate geometric structures of neutral and cationic clusters of acetic acid: (CH3COOH)2, CH3COOH-CH3OH, and CH3COOH-H2O. All the neutral clusters have cyclic-type intermolecular structures, in which acetic acid and solvent molecules act as both hydrogen donors and acceptors, and two hydrogen-bonds are formed. On the other hand, (CH3COOH)2+ and (CH3COOH-CH3OH)+ form proton-transferred structures, where the acetic acid moiety donates the proton to the counter molecule. (CH3COOH-H2O)+ has a non-proton-transferred structure, where CH3COOH+ and H2O are hydrogen-bonded. The origin of these structural differences among the cluster cations is discussed with the relative sizes of the proton affinities of the cluster components and the potential energy curves along the proton-transfer coordinate.

  11. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  12. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; ...

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independentmore » instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.« less

  13. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  14. Interfacial chemistry of poly(methyl methacrylate) arising from exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hanqiu; Killelea, Daniel R; Tepavcevic, Sanja; Kelber, Scott I; Sibener, S J

    2011-04-28

    We herein report on the chemical and physical changes that occur in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, induced by exposure to high-energy vacuum ultraviolet radiation and a supersonic beam of neutral, ground electronic state O((3)P) atomic oxygen. A combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance and in situ Fourier-transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the photochemical reaction kinetics and mechanisms during irradiation. The surface morphological changes were measured with atomic force microscopy. The results showed there was no enhancement in the mass loss rate during simultaneous exposure of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation and atomic oxygen. Rather, the rate of mass loss was impeded when the polymer film was exposed to both reagents. This study elucidates the kinetics of photochemical and oxidative reaction for PMMA, and shows that the synergistic effect involving VUV irradiation and exposure to ground state atomic oxygen depends substantially on the relative fluxes of these reagents.

  15. Recent progress in vacuum-ultraviolet polarization modulation spectroscopy using polarizing undulator at the TERAS BL5 beamline.

    PubMed

    Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Masahito; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2007-12-01

    Polarization modulation spectroscopy using an Onuki-type undulator is a useful technique for circular dichroism study in the vacuum-ultraviolet region. We have been developing the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (vuv-CD) spectroscopy in TERAS BL5 beamline at AIST. This paper describes recent improvements in our instrumentation and methods of analysis to achieve precise and absolute measurements. The CD signal is usually accompanied by experimental artifacts, and elimination of all possible artifacts is the key issue for making reliable measurements. After improving beamline optical system, light flux monitor, and undulator operation method, the base line shift of the CD spectrum is suppressed less than 3x10(-4). Sample manipulation and data processing procedures are also described and absolute CD spectrum can be obtained even for linear anisotropic sample. These progresses lead to more quantitative comparison of experimental with calculation on vuv-CD spectrum.

  16. Steady-State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Lamp Calibration and Sample Positioning Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be placed in an orbit that will subject it to constant solar radiation during its planned 10-year mission. A sunshield will be necessary to passively cool the telescope, protecting it from the Sun s energy and assuring proper operating temperatures for the telescope s instruments. This sunshield will be composed of metalized polymer multilayer insulation with an outer polymer membrane (12 to 25 mm in thickness) that will be metalized on the back to assure maximum reflectance of sunlight. The sunshield must maintain mechanical integrity and optical properties for the full 10 years. This durability requirement is most challenging for the outermost, constantly solar-facing polymer membrane of the sunshield. One of the potential threats to the membrane material s durability is from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in wavelengths below 200 nm. Such radiation can be absorbed in the bulk of these thin polymer membrane materials and degrade the polymer s optical and mechanical properties. So that a suitable membrane material can be selected that demonstrates durability to solar VUV radiation, ground-based testing of candidate materials must be conducted to simulate the total 10- year VUV exposure expected during the Next Generation Space Telescope mission. The Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet exposure facility was designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide unattended 24-hr exposure of candidate materials to VUV radiation of 3 to 5 times the Sun s intensity in the wavelength range of 115 to 200 nm. The facility s chamber, which maintains a pressure of approximately 5 10(exp -6) torr, is divided into three individual exposure cells, each with a separate VUV source and sample-positioning mechanism. The three test cells are separated by a water-cooled copper shield plate assembly to minimize thermal effects from adjacent test cells. Part of the interior sample positioning mechanism of one

  17. Microscopic and macroscopic material property effects on ultraviolet-laser-induced flashover of angled insulators in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Enloe, C.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1988-06-01

    Flashover of electrically stressed polymeric insulators in vacuum has been induced by ultraviolet radiation from an excimer laser (KrF). Flashover behavior is a relatively strong function of integrated fluence up to the time of flashover initiation, and virtually independent of applied power or pulse time. Flashover is induced by moderate fluence (10 - 150 mJ/cm/sup 2/) of intense (0.4 - 6 MW/cm/sup 2/) ultraviolet at 248 nm at electric field stress considerably below the static breakdown stress. The critical fluence required to initiate flashover is a function of the electric field stress, the insulating material, and the geometry of the dielectric/vacuum interface. The unconventional insulator geometry (in which electrons are accelerated toward the insulator surface) is more tolerant than the conventional geometry by nearly a factor of 2 in fluence. Insulator materials tested were polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylic, nylon-6, acetal, PVC, and teflon. The critical fluence is correlated to the microscopic and macroscopic material properties; results show that insulating materials with high dielectric constants and low secondary electron emission coefficients exhibit superior tolerance to ultraviolet radiation. Of the materials tested, nylon exhibited the highest critical fluence in both the conventional and the unconventional geometries. A theory of ultraviolet-induced insulator flashover is developed.

  18. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-15

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  19. Low-Dimensional Structure Vacuum-Ultraviolet-Sensitive (λ < 200 nm) Photodetector with Fast-Response Speed Based on High-Quality AlN Micro/Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Huang, Feng; Zheng, Ruisheng; Wu, Honglei

    2015-07-08

    A low-dimensional-structure vacuum-ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on high-quality aluminum nitride (AlN) micro-/nanowires is reported. This work, for the first time, demonstrates that a semiconductor nanostructure can be applied in vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photon detection and opens a way for developing diminutive, power-saving, and low-cost VUV materials and sensors that can be potentially applied in geospace sciences and solar-terrestrial physics.

  20. Interpretation of the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of iodobenzene by ab initio computations

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Michael H. Ridley, Trevor E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it Jones, Nykola C. E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Coreno, Marcello E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Grazioli, Cesare; and others

    2015-04-07

    Identification of many Rydberg states in iodobenzene, especially from the first and fourth ionization energies (IE{sub 1} and IE{sub 4}, X{sup 2}B{sub 1} and C{sup 2}B{sub 1}), has become possible using a new ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectrum, in the region 29 000-87 000 cm{sup −1} (3.60-10.79 eV), measured at room temperature with synchrotron radiation. A few Rydberg states based on IE{sub 2} (A{sup 2}A{sub 2}) were found, but those based on IE{sub 3} (B{sup 2}B{sub 2}) are undetectable. The almost complete absence of observable Rydberg states relating to IE{sub 2} and IE{sub 3} (A{sup 2}A{sub 2} and B{sup 2}B{sub 2}, respectively) is attributed to them being coupled to the near-continuum, high-energy region of Rydberg series converging on IE{sub 1}. Theoretical studies of the UV and VUV spectra used both time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) and multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles-configuration interaction methods. The theoretical adiabatic excitation energies, and their corresponding vibrational profiles, gave a satisfactory interpretation of the experimental results. The calculations indicate that the UV onset contains both 1{sup 1}B{sub 1} and 1{sup 1}B{sub 2} states with very low oscillator strength, while the 2{sup 1}B{sub 1} state was found to lie under the lowest ππ{sup ∗} 1{sup 1}A{sub 1} state. All three of these {sup 1}B{sub 1} and {sup 1}B{sub 2} states are excitations into low-lying σ{sup ∗} orbitals. The strongest VUV band near 7 eV contains two very strong ππ{sup ∗} valence states, together with other weak contributors. The lowest Rydberg 4b{sub 1}6s state (3{sup 1}B{sub 1}) is very evident as a sharp multiplet near 6 eV; its position and vibrational structure are well reproduced by the TDDFT results.

  1. Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yezhou; Liu, Xiong; Wei, Xingmin; Chen, Yueling; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel blue-emitting phosphor Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was reported. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} exhibited excellent thermal and irradiation stability. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was found to possess high color purity. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized Tm{sup 3+} doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors and investigated their photoluminescence properties under the excitation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights. The crystal structure analysis and variation of cell parameters confirm that Tm{sup 3+} ions have been successfully doped in the structure of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} host by occupying the sites of Ca{sup 2+} with the coordination number of 6. The luminescence results suggest that Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} is a good blue-emitting phosphor when excited by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet irradiations. In addition, it is observed that there is nearly no degradation for Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} after undergoing thermal and irradiation treatments. Possible mechanisms for the luminescence processes are proposed on the basis of the discussion of excitation and emission spectra. In particular, the emission color of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} by excitation of 147 and 172 nm irradiations is very close to the standard blue color, suggesting that it could be potentially applied in plasma display panels and mercury-free fluorescence lamps.

  2. Vacuum-Ultraviolet photoionization studies of the microhydrationof DNA bases (Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine and Thymine)

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, L.; Wilson, K.R.; Leone, S.R.; Musahid, Ahmed

    2007-01-22

    In this work, we report on a photoionization study of the microhydration of the four DNA bases. Gas-phase clusters of water with DNA bases [guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thymine (T)] are generated via thermal vaporization of the bases and expansion of the resultant vapor in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single-photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for the DNA bases and the following water (W) clusters: G, GW{sub n} (n = 1-3); C, CW{sub n} (n = 1-3); A, AW{sub n} (n = 1,2); and T, TW{sub n} (n = 1-3). Appearance energies (AE) are derived from the onset of these PIE curves (all energies in eV): G (8.1 {+-} 0.1), GW (8.0 {+-} 0.1), GW{sub 2} (8.0 {+-} 0.1), and GW{sub 3} (8.0); C (8.65 {+-} 0.05), CW (8.45 {+-} 0.05), CW{sub 2} (8.4 {+-} 0.1), and CW{sub 3} (8.3 {+-} 0.1); A (8.30 {+-} 0.05), AW (8.20 {+-} 0.05), and AW{sub 2} (8.1 {+-} 0.1); T (8.90 {+-} 0.05); and TW (8.75 {+-} 0.05), TW{sub 2} (8.6 {+-} 0.1), and TW{sub 3} (8.6 {+-} 0.1). The AEs of the DNA bases decrease slightly with the addition of water molecules (up to three) but do not converge to values found for photoinduced electron removal from DNA bases in solution.

  3. Photoionization of epichlorohydrin enantiomers and clusters studied with circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Nahon, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The photoionization of enantiomerically pure epichlorohydrin (C3H5OCl) has been studied using linearly and circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The threshold photoelectron spectrum was recorded and the first three bands assigned using molecular orbital calculations for the expected conformers, although uncertain experimental conformer populations and an anticipated breakdown in Koopmans' theorem leave some ambiguity. Measurements of the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) were obtained across a range of photon energies for each of these bands, using electron velocity map imaging to record the angular distributions, during which a record PECD chiral asymmetry factor of 32% was observed. A comparison with calculated PECD curves clarifies the assignment achieved using ionization energies alone and further suggests a likely relative population of the conformers. Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence methods were used to study the ionic fragmentation of epichlorohydrin. Fragment ion appearance energies show nonstatistical behavior with clear indications that the cationic epoxide ring is unstable and lower energy decay channels proceeding via ring breaking are generally open. Extensive neutral homochiral clusters of epichlorohydrin may be formed in supersonic molecular beam expansions seeded in Ar. Electron angular distribution measurements made in coincidence with dimer and trimer ions are used to effect an examination of the PECD associated with ionization of size-selected neutral cluster species, and these results differ clearly from PECD of the neutral monomer. The shifted ionization thresholds of the n-mers (n = 2, …, 7) are shown to follow a simple linear relationship, but under intense beam expansion conditions the monomer deviates from this relationship, and the monomer electron spectra tail to below the expected monomer adiabatic ionization potential (IP). PECD measurements made in coincidence with monomer ions obtained

  4. Photoionization of epichlorohydrin enantiomers and clusters studied with circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan; Garcia, Gustavo A; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Nahon, Laurent

    2011-02-14

    The photoionization of enantiomerically pure epichlorohydrin (C(3)H(5)OCl) has been studied using linearly and circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The threshold photoelectron spectrum was recorded and the first three bands assigned using molecular orbital calculations for the expected conformers, although uncertain experimental conformer populations and an anticipated breakdown in Koopmans' theorem leave some ambiguity. Measurements of the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) were obtained across a range of photon energies for each of these bands, using electron velocity map imaging to record the angular distributions, during which a record PECD chiral asymmetry factor of 32% was observed. A comparison with calculated PECD curves clarifies the assignment achieved using ionization energies alone and further suggests a likely relative population of the conformers. Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence methods were used to study the ionic fragmentation of epichlorohydrin. Fragment ion appearance energies show nonstatistical behavior with clear indications that the cationic epoxide ring is unstable and lower energy decay channels proceeding via ring breaking are generally open. Extensive neutral homochiral clusters of epichlorohydrin may be formed in supersonic molecular beam expansions seeded in Ar. Electron angular distribution measurements made in coincidence with dimer and trimer ions are used to effect an examination of the PECD associated with ionization of size-selected neutral cluster species, and these results differ clearly from PECD of the neutral monomer. The shifted ionization thresholds of the n-mers (n = 2, ..., 7) are shown to follow a simple linear relationship, but under intense beam expansion conditions the monomer deviates from this relationship, and the monomer electron spectra tail to below the expected monomer adiabatic ionization potential (IP). PECD measurements made in coincidence with monomer ions obtained

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons . I. Interstellar H2 and CH4 formation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, I.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The interstellar hydrogenated amorphous carbons (HAC or a-C:H) observed in the diffuse medium are expected to disappear in a few million years, according to the destruction time scale from laboratory measurements. The existence of a-C:H results from the equilibrium between photodesorption, radiolysis, hydrogenation and resilience of the carbonaceous network. During this processing, many species are therefore injected into the gas phase, in particular H2, but also small organic molecules, radicals or fragments. Aims: We perform experiments on interstellar a-C:H analogs to quantify the release of these species in the interstellar medium. Methods: The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of interstellar hydrogenated amorphous carbon analogs was performed at low (10 K) to ambient temperature, coupled to mass-spectrometry detection and temperature-programed desorption. Using deuterium isotopic substitution, the species produced were unambiguously separated from background contributions. Results: The VUV photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons leads to the efficient production of H2 molecules, but also to small hydrocarbons. Conclusions: These species are formed predominantly in the bulk of the a-C:H analog carbonaceous network, in addition to the surface formation. Compared with species made by the recombination of H atoms and physisorbed on surfaces, they diffuse out at higher temperatures. In addition to the efficient production rate, it provides a significant formation route in environments where the short residence time scale for H atoms inhibits H2 formation on the surface, such as PDRs. The photolytic bulk production of H2 with carbonaceous hydrogenated amorphous carbon dust grains can provide a very large portion of the contribution to the H2 molecule formation. These dust grains also release small hydrocarbons (such as CH4) into the diffuse interstellar medium, which contribute to the formation of small carbonaceous radicals after being dissociated

  6. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-02-09

    The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photon-mediated production of [(18) F]F2.

    PubMed

    Krzyczmonik, Anna; Keller, Thomas; Kirjavainen, Anna K; Forsback, Sarita; Solin, Olof

    2017-04-01

    The chemistry of F2 and its derivatives are amenable to facile aliphatic or aromatic substitution, as well as electrophilic addition. The main limitation in the use of [(18) F]F2 for radiopharmaceutical synthesis is the low specific activity achieved by the traditional methods of production. The highest specific activities, 55 GBq/μmol, for [(18) F]F2 have been achieved so far by using electrical discharge in the post-target production of [(18) F]F2 gas from [(18) F]CH3 F. We demonstrate that [(18) F]F2 is produced by illuminating a gas mixture of neon/F2 /[(18) F]CH3 F with vacuum ultraviolet photons generated by an excimer laser. We tested several illumination chambers and production conditions. The effects of the initial amount of [(18) F]F(-) , amount of carrier F2 , and number of 193-nm laser pulses at constant power were evaluated regarding radiochemical yield and specific activity. The specific activity attained for [(18) F]F2 -derived [(18) F]NFSi was 10.3 ± 0.9 GBq/μmol, and the average radiochemical yield over a wide range of conditions was 6.7% from [(18) F]F(-) . The production can be improved by optimization of the synthesis device and procedures. The use of a commercially available excimer laser and the simplicity of the process can make this method relatively easy for adaptation in radiochemistry laboratories.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet of hydrogenated amorphous carbons. II. Small hydrocarbons production in Photon Dominated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, I.; Jallat, A.; Gavilan, L.; Chabot, M.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Béroff, K.; Dartois, E.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbons (a-C:H) are a major component of the carbonaceous solids present in the interstellar medium. The production and existence of these grains is connected in particular with the balance between their photolysis, radiolysis, and hydrogenation. During grain processing, H2 and other small organic molecules, radicals, and fragments are released into the gas phase. Aims: We perform photolytic experiments on laboratory produced interstellar a-C:H analogues to monitor and quantify the release of species and compare to relevant observations in the interstellar medium. Methods: Hydrogenated amorphous carbon analogues at low temperature are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) photons, under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The species produced are monitored using mass spectrometry and post irradiation temperature-programmed desorption. Additional experiments are performed using deuterated analogues and the species produced are unambiguously separated from background contributions. We implement the laboratory measured yields for the released species in a time dependent model to investigate the effect of the UV photon irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbons in a photon dominated region, and estimate the associated time scale. Results: The UV photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons leads to the production of H2 molecules and small hydrocarbons. The model shows that the photolytic evolution of a-C:Hs in photon dominated regions, such as the Horsehead Nebula, can raise the abundance of carbonaceous molecules by several orders of magnitude at intermediate visual extinctions, i.e., after the C+ maximum and before the dense cloud conditions prevail where models generally show a minimum abundance for such carbonaceous species. The injection time peak ranges from a thousand to ten thousand years in the models, considering only the destruction of such grains and no re-hydrogenation. This time scale is consistent with the estimated advection front of

  9. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500–2200 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T. Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.

    2014-11-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of emissions released from tungsten ions at lower ionization stages were measured in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in the wavelength range of 500–2200 Å using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths from intrinsic impurity ions were observed just after the tungsten pellet injection. Doppler broadening of a tungsten candidate line was successfully measured and the ion temperature was obtained.

  10. Combined vacuum ultraviolet laser and synchrotron pulsed field ionization study of CH2BrCl.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Jie; Mo, Yuxiang; Lau, K C; Qian, X M; Song, Y; Liu, Jianbo; Ng, C Y

    2007-05-14

    The pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectrum of bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) in the region of 85,320-88,200 cm-1 has been measured using vacuum ultraviolet laser. The vibrational structure resolved in the PFI-PE spectrum was assigned based on ab initio quantum chemical calculations and Franck-Condon factor predictions. At energies 0-1400 cm-1 above the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of CH2BrCl, the Br-C-Cl bending vibration progression (nu1+=0-8) of CH2BrCl+ is well resolved and constitutes the major structure in the PFI-PE spectrum, whereas the spectrum at energies 1400-2600 cm-1 above the IE(CH2BrCl) is found to exhibit complex vibrational features, suggesting perturbation by the low lying excited CH2BrCl+(A 2A") state. The assignment of the PFI-PE vibrational bands gives the IE(CH2BrCl)=85,612.4+/-2.0 cm-1 (10.6146+/-0.0003 eV) and the bending frequencies nu1+(a1')=209.7+/-2.0 cm-1 for CH2BrCl+(X2A'). We have also examined the dissociative photoionization process, CH2BrCl+hnu-->CH2Cl++Br+e-, in the energy range of 11.36-11.57 eV using the synchrotron based PFI-PE-photoion coincidence method, yielding the 0 K threshold or appearance energy AE(CH2Cl+)=11.509+/-0.002 eV. Combining the 0 K AE(CH2Cl+) and IE(CH2BrCl) values obtained in this study, together with the known IE(CH2Cl), we have determined the 0 K bond dissociation energies (D0) for CH2Cl+-Br (0.894+/-0.002 eV) and CH2Cl-Br (2.76+/-0.01 eV). We have also performed CCSD(T, full)/complete basis set (CBS) calculations with high-level corrections for the predictions of the IE(CH2BrCl), AE(CH2Cl+), IE(CH2Cl), D0(CH2Cl+-Br), and D0(CH2Cl-Br). The comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental determinations indicates that the CCSD(T, full)/CBS calculations with high-level corrections are highly reliable with estimated error limits of <17 meV.

  11. A High-resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Photoionization and Photoelectron Study of the Co Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huang; Wang, Hailing; Luo, Zhihong; Shi, Xiaoyu; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We have measured the vacuum ultraviolet-photoionization efficiency (VUV-PIE) spectrum of Co in the energy range of 63,500-67,000 cm-1, which covers the photoionization transitions of Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F4), Co(3d74s2 4F7/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F3), Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F3), Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F2), and Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d74s1 5F5). We have also recorded the pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectrum of Co in the same energy range, allowing accurate determinations of ionization energies (IEs) for the photoionization transitions from the Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) ground neutral state to the Co+(3F J ) (J = 4 and 3) and Co+(5F5) ionic states, as well as from the Co(3d74s2 4F7/2) excited neural state to the Co+(3d8 3F3) ionic state. The high-resolution nature of the VUV laser used has allowed the observation of many well-resolved autoionizing resonances in the VUV-PIE spectrum, among which an autoionizing Rydberg series, 3d74s1(5F5)np (n = 19-38), converging to the Co+(3d74s1 5F5) ionic state from the Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) ground neutral state is identified. The fact that no discernible step-like structures are present at these ionization thresholds in the VUV-PIE spectrum indicates that direct photoionization of Co is minor compared to autoionization in this energy range. The IE values, the autoionizing Rydberg series, and the photoionization cross sections obtained in this experiment are valuable for understanding the VUV opacity and abundance measurement of the Co atom in stars and solar atmospheres, as well as for benchmarking the theoretical results calculated in the Opacity Project and the IRON Project, and thus are of relevance to astrophysics.

  12. Sub-mm Scale Fiber Guided Deep/Vacuum Ultra-Violet Optical Source for Trapped Mercury Ion Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin; Burt, Eric A.; Huang, Shouhua; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the functionality of a mercury capillary lamp with a diameter in the sub-mm range and deep ultraviolet (DUV)/ vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation delivery via an optical fiber integrated with the capillary. DUV spectrum control is observed by varying the fabrication parameters such as buffer gas type and pressure, capillary diameter, electrical resonator design, and temperature. We also show spectroscopic data of the 199Hg+ hyper-fine transition at 40.5GHz when applying the above fiber optical design. We present efforts toward micro-plasma generation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with related optical design and theoretical estimations. This new approach towards a more practical DUV optical interface could benefit trapped ion clock developments for future ultra-stable frequency reference and time-keeping applications.

  13. Ultraviolet-Induced Flashover of Highly-Angled Polymeric Insulators in Vacuum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    holdoff performance of alumina insulators in vacuum ," J. Appi. Phys. 49 (11), 5416 (1978). Mil80 H. C. Miller, " Improving the Voltage Holdoff Performance ...on the Voltage Holdoff T erformance of Alumina Insulators in Vacuum ," IEEE Trans. Electi. Ir:’.L. EI-20 (3), 505 (1985). Nas79 V. Nassisi and A...of Alumina Insulators in Vacuum Through Quasimetallizing ," IEEE Trans.

  14. Characterization of a vacuum-arc discharge in tin vapor using time-resolved plasma imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kieft, E R; van der Mullen, J J A M; Kroesen, G M W; Banine, V; Koshelev, K N

    2005-02-01

    Discharge sources in tin vapor have recently been receiving increased attention as candidate extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources for application in semiconductor lithography, because of their favorable spectrum near 13.5 nm. In the ASML EUV laboratory, time-resolved pinhole imaging in the EUV and two-dimensional imaging in visible light have been applied for qualitative characterization of the evolution of a vacuum-arc tin vapor discharge. An EUV spectrometer has been used to find the dominant ionization stages of tin as a function of time during the plasma evolution of the discharge.

  15. Creation of storage centers in CsBr:Eu{sup 2+} needle image plates by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, M.; Batentschuk, M.; Osvet, A.; Winnacker, A.; Tahon, J. P.; Leblans, P.

    2009-09-15

    In this study, the photostimulated luminescence of the CsBr:Eu{sup 2+} needle image plates (NIPS) after vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and their photoluminescence under VUV and UV excitation were investigated. It was shown that the photostimulable storage centers arise almost exclusively due to irradiation of the CsBr:Eu NIPs in the spectral lines of creation of the 4p{sup 5}5s anion excitons, and not in the region of interband transitions of CsBr. The explanation of the results is based mainly on the radiative and nonradiative decay of the self-localized e+Br{sub 2}{sup -} excitons.

  16. Fluorescence yields from photodissociative excitation of HCOOH, HCOOCH3, and CH3COOH in the vacuum-ultraviolet region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, Masako; Wang, Xiuyan; Lee, L. C.

    1988-01-01

    The photoexcitation processes of HCOOH, HCOOCH3, and CH3COOH were studied in the vacuum-ultraviolet region by using synchroton radiation and a pulsed discharge lamp as light sources. The absorption and fluorescence cross sections of these molecules were measured in the 106-250-nm region. Fluorescences were detected from photoexcitation of HCOOH and HCOOCH3, but not from CH3COOH. Fluorescence produced at 123.9 nm was dispersed and identified as the excited OH and HCOO radicals. Fluorescence quantum yields of HCOOH and HCOOCH3 increase with decreasing excitation wavelengths with maxima of 5 and 0.3 percent at 106 nm, respectively.

  17. Exciton-exciton interactions in CdWO{sub 4} irradiated by intense femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kirm, M.; Nagirnyi, V.; Feldbach, E.; De Grazia, M.; Carre, B.; Merdji, H.; Guizard, S.; Geoffroy, G.; Gaudin, J.; Fedorov, N.; Martin, P.; Vasil'ev, A.; Belsky, A.

    2009-06-15

    Exciton-exciton interaction is experimentally revealed and quantitatively analyzed in a wide band-gap scintillator material CdWO{sub 4}. Under high-intensity femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet excitation, the CdWO{sub 4} luminescence is quenched, while its decay becomes essentially nonexponential. We propose an analytical model, which successfully reproduces the decay kinetics recorded in a wide range of excitation densities. The dipole-dipole interaction between excitons leading to their nonradiative decay is shown to be the main cause of a nonproportional response common for many scintillators.

  18. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm.

  19. Vacuum and ultraviolet radiation effects on binders and pigments for spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Wade, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    An evaluation of several silicone resin binders and powdered inorganic pigments for potential use in spacecraft thermal-control paint formulations is presented. The pigments were selected on the basis of a hypothesis relating the heat of formation of a compound to the compound's resistance to ultra-radiation-induced degradation. Reflectance measurements were made in situ to determine degradation rates due to ultraviolet radiation. The tested polydimethylsiloxane resins were not significantly affected by long exposures to ultraviolet radiation. All the pigments, which were dispersed in a polydimethylsiloxane resin, were degraded by ultraviolet radiation as determined by an increase of solar absorptance. For the materials evaluated in this study, no evidence was found to indicate that pigments with high heats of formation were resistant to ultraviolet degradation.

  20. A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas; Frank, Klaus

    2014-03-28

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0 mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} are observed within the first ∼1.0 mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0 nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

  1. Evaluation of miniature vacuum ultraviolet lamps for stability and operating characteristics, Lyman-Alpha task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications required to change the near ultraviolet source in the Optical Contamination Monitor to a source with output at or near the Lyman-Alpha hydrogen line are discussed. The effort consisted of selecting, acquiring and testing candidate miniature ultraviolet lamps with significant output in or near 121.6 nm. The effort also included selection of a miniature dc high-voltage power supply capable of operating the lamp. The power supply was required to operate from available primary power supplied by the Optical Effect Module (DEM) and it should be flight qualified or have the ability to be qualified by the user.

  2. Testing to determine the vacuum-ultraviolet degradation rate of thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of S-13G that had been exposed to the salt air environment of Cape Kennedy, Florida were irradiated with simulated solar ultraviolet radiation after various cleaning treatments. In both of the the tests conducted two of the salt air exposed samples were not cleaned, two were lightly cleaned with water and detergent (i.e. rinsed), and two were vigorously scrubbed. Several other white thermal control coatings were also irradiated. The solar absorptance values of these coatings before and as a result of the ultraviolet irradiation are reported for exposure levels up to approximately 2000 ESH.

  3. Size control and vacuum-ultraviolet fluorescence of nanosized KMgF3 single crystals prepared using femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Sotaro; Yanagihara, Masahiro; Asaka, Toru; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We fabricated nanosized KMgF3 single crystals via a dry pulsed laser ablation process using femtosecond laser pulses. The sizes, shapes, and crystallographic properties of the crystals were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Almost all of the particles were spherical with diameters of less than 100 nm, and they were not highly agglomerated. Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM analyses showed that the particles were single crystals. Particle diameter was controlled within a wide range by adjusting the Ar ambient gas pressure. Under low gas pressures (1 and 10 Pa), relatively small particles (primarily 10 nm or less) were observed with a high number density. With increasing pressure, the mean diameter increased and the number density drastically decreased. Vacuum-ultraviolet cathodoluminescence was observed at 140–230 nm with blue shift and broadening of spectrum. PMID:27877915

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene: The Jahn-Teller effect and vibrational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chan Ho; Kim, Myung Soo

    2004-06-01

    One-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectrum of hexafluorobenzene was obtained by using vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. The ionization energy of hexafluorobenzene determined from the position of the 0-0 band was 9.9108±0.0006 eV. To aid the spectral analysis, the Jahn-Teller coupling parameters for four e2g modes of C6F6+ in the ground electronic state were calculated from the topographical data of the potential energy surface obtained at the density functional theory (DFT) level. These were used in the initial calculation of the energies of the Jahn-Teller states and upgraded through the multimode fit to the experimental data. Excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated frequencies was achieved. The vibrations which are not linear Jahn-Teller active were observed and could be assigned by referring to the frequencies obtained at the DFT level.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of vinyl bromide: Franck-Condon analysis and vibrational assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mina; Kim, Myung Soo

    2003-09-01

    Vibrational spectrum of vinyl bromide cation in the ground electronic state was obtained by one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. From MATI spectrum, ionization energy to the ground state of the cation was determined to be 9.8171±0.0006 eV (79 180±5 cm-1). Almost complete vibrational assignments for the peaks in the MATI spectrum were possible by utilizing vibrational frequencies and Franck-Condon factors calculated at the Becke three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)/6-311++G(df,pd) level. Franck-Condon analysis for one-photon MATI spectra is especially useful because calculations of only the ground electronic states are involved while that for two-photon MATI spectra requires excited state calculations.

  6. Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation-induced degradation of Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) Teflon aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Stiegman, A. E.; Staszak, Paul R.; Laue, Eric G.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1992-01-01

    Examination of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) copolymer specimens recovered from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provides evidence for degradation attributed to extended solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of sheared FEP film edges reveal the presence of a highly embrittled layer on the exposed surface of specimens obtained from the trailing edge of the LDEF. Similar images obtained for leading edge and control FEP films do not exhibit evidence for such an embrittled layer. Laboratory VUV irradiation of FEP films is found to produce a damage layer similar to that witnessed in the LDEF trailing edge films. Spectroscopic analyses of irradiated films provide data to advance a photochemical mechanism for degradation.

  7. Influence of porosity on electrical properties of low-k dielectrics irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, F. A.; Nguyen, H. M.; Baklanov, M. R.; de Marneffe, J. F.; Li, W.; Pei, D.; Benjamin, D. I.; Zheng, H.; King, S. W.; Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are exposed to high levels of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation emitted from the plasma. The porous structure of these materials makes them more sensitive to modification because of their low density and consequently deep penetration of active species into the film. Here, we investigate the changes to electrical properties of porous low-k dielectrics as a function of porosity after VUV irradiation. Organosilicate low-k films of porosities between 30% and 50% were exposed to synchrotron VUV radiation at 8 eV with a fluence of approximately 5 × 1014 photons/cm2. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed an increase in the dielectric constant along with a flat-band voltage shift. FTIR results show methyl depletion as well as water uptake after VUV treatment. These show that deterioration of the electrical properties after VUV exposure and the degree of damage are found to be higher for the more porous films.

  8. Ultraviolet irradiation at elevated temperatures and thermal cycling in vacuum of FEP-A covered silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broder, J. D.; Marsik, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were designed and performed on silicon solar cells covered with heat-bonded FEP-A in an effort to explain the rapid degeneration of open-circuit voltage and maximum power observered on cells of this type included in an experiment on the ATS-6 spacecraft. Solar cells were exposed to ultraviolet light in vacuum at temperatures ranging from 30 to 105 C. The samples were then subjected to thermal cycling from 130 to -130 C. Inspection following irradiation indicated that all the covers remained physically intact. However, during the temperature cycling heat-bonded covers showed cracking. The test showed that heat-bonded FEP-A covers embrittle during UV exposure and the embrittlement is dependent upon sample temperature during irradiation. The results of the experiment suggest a probable mechanism for the degradation of the FEP-A cells on ATS-6.

  9. Reflection polarizers for the vacuum ultraviolet using Al + MgF2 mirrors and an MgF2 plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, G.; Hunter, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design and operation of a three-mirror reflecting polarizer where one of the reflecting surfaces is an MgF2 plate, the other surfaces are Al + MgF2 coatings, and one reflection occurs at or near the true Brewster angle. It is found that the polarizer is most efficient in the 1200-2000 A wavelength region, and that by optimum selection of the angle of incidence on the MgF2 plate, polarization values of 100 and over are yielded from 900 to 3000 A. The polarizer may be used at wavelengths as short as 500 A, although it is observed that at such wavelengths the polarization value decreases to about 10. It is noted that all reflecting polarizers operating in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength may manifest changing characteristics as their mirrors become contaminated, and that polarization must therefore be occasionally remeasured.

  10. Studies of bimolecular reaction dynamics using pulsed high-intensity vacuum-ultraviolet lasers for photoionization detection.

    PubMed

    Albert, Daniel R; Davis, H Floyd

    2013-09-21

    This article describes recent progress on the development and application of pulsed high-intensity (~0.1 mJ per pulse) vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation produced by commercial tabletop lasers for studies of gas phase chemical reaction dynamics involving polyatomic free radicals. Our approach employs near-triply resonant four-wave mixing of unfocussed nanosecond dye lasers in an atomic gas as an alternative to the use of synchrotron light sources for sensitive universal soft photoionization detection of reaction products using a rotatable source crossed molecular beams apparatus with fixed detector. We illustrate this approach in studies of the reactions of phenyl radicals with molecular oxygen and with propene. Future prospects for the use of tabletop laser-based VUV sources for studies of chemical reaction dynamics are discussed.

  11. Upgrade of the tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) telescope system for 2D fluctuation measurement in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Ming, T. F.; Gao, X.; Du, X. D.; Ohdachi, S.

    2016-11-01

    A high-speed tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) telescope system, using an inverse Schwarzschild-type optic system was developed to study fluctuations in the Large Helical Device (LHD). However, for the original system, the sampling rate was restricted to below 2000 Hz due to the low signal to noise (S/N) ratio in the experiment. In order to improve the S/N ratio, upgrade of the system was made. With this upgraded optical system, the maximum framing rate is improved to 6000 fps with a similar spatial resolution. Rotation of the m = 2 structure caused by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability is measured by the upgraded system. The spatial structure of the image is consistent with the synthetic image assuming the interchange mode type displacement of the flux surfaces.

  12. Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Jason; Moll, Kevin D.; Thorpe, Michael J.; Ye, Jun

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate the generation of phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum utraviolet spectral region. The output from a mode-locked laser is stabilized to a femtosecond enhancement cavity with a gas jet at the intracavity focus. The resulting high-peak power of the intracavity pulse enables efficient high-harmonic generation by utilizing the full repetition rate of the laser. Optical-heterodyne-based measurements reveal that the coherent frequency comb structure of the original laser is fully preserved in the high-harmonic generation process. These results open the door for precision frequency metrology at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths and permit the efficient generation of phase-coherent high-order harmonics using only a standard laser oscillator without active amplification of single pulses.

  13. Size control and vacuum-ultraviolet fluorescence of nanosized KMgF3 single crystals prepared using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Sotaro; Yanagihara, Masahiro; Asaka, Toru; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated nanosized KMgF3 single crystals via a dry pulsed laser ablation process using femtosecond laser pulses. The sizes, shapes, and crystallographic properties of the crystals were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Almost all of the particles were spherical with diameters of less than 100 nm, and they were not highly agglomerated. Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM analyses showed that the particles were single crystals. Particle diameter was controlled within a wide range by adjusting the Ar ambient gas pressure. Under low gas pressures (1 and 10 Pa), relatively small particles (primarily 10 nm or less) were observed with a high number density. With increasing pressure, the mean diameter increased and the number density drastically decreased. Vacuum-ultraviolet cathodoluminescence was observed at 140-230 nm with blue shift and broadening of spectrum.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectra and cross-sections for volatile organic compounds at 10.5 eV.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2007-08-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) has been applied to the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including aromatic, chlorinated, and oxygenated compounds. Photoionization mass spectra of 23 VOCs were measured using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV (118 nm). The limits of detection of VOCs using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV were estimated to be a few ppbv. The mass spectra of 20 VOCs exhibit only the parent ion and its isotopes' signals. The ionization processes of the VOCs were discussed on the basis of the reaction enthalpies predicted by the quantum chemical calculations. Absolute photoionization cross-sections for 23 VOCs, including 12 newly measured VOCs, at 10.5 eV were determined in comparison to the reported absolute photoionization cross-section of NO.

  15. Generation of ultrashort coherent vacuum ultraviolet pulses using electron storage rings: a new bright light source for experiments.

    PubMed

    De Ninno, G; Allaria, E; Coreno, M; Curbis, F; Danailov, M B; Karantzoulis, E; Locatelli, A; Menteş, T O; Nino, M A; Spezzani, C; Trovò, M

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that seeded harmonic generation on electron storage rings can produce coherent optical pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range. The experiment is performed at Elettra, where coherent pulses are generated at 132 nm, with a duration of about 100 fs. The light source has a repetition rate of 1 kHz and adjustable polarization; it is very bright, with a peak power several orders of magnitude above that of spontaneous synchrotron radiation. Owing to high stability, the source is used in a test photoemission electron microscopy experiment. We anticipate that seeded harmonic generation on storage rings can lead to unprecedented developments in time-resolved femtosecond spectroscopy and microscopy.

  16. Ultraviolet irradiation at elevated temperatures and thermal cycling in vacuum of FEP-A covered silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broder, J. D.; Marsik, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon solar cells covered with FEP-A were irradiated in vacuum with ultraviolet light and then subjected to thermal cycling. These accelerated laboratory conditions are believed to be equivalent to those experienced by FEP-A covered cells on the ATS-6 spacecraft and the results indicate a probable mechanism for the faster degradation of the FEP-A covered cells. Heat-bonded FEP-A covers apparently embrittle when exposed to four months of space UV radiation at elevated temperatures, and crack when subjected to thermal cycling during the eclipse period. Low energy proton radiation can then penetrate to the junction of the cell causing degradation of the open circuit voltage and maximum power to occur. An alternate method of application of FEP-A, such as with adhesives, may prevent such cracking.

  17. Luminescent properties of Pr{sup 3+}-sensitized LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+} ultraviolet-B phosphor under vacuum-ultraviolet light excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Shinji; Uchino, Rika; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    Luminescent properties of Pr{sup 3+}-sensitized LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+} under vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) light excitation have been investigated. The energy transfer probably occurs from the 5d levels in Pr{sup 3+} ions to Gd{sup 3+} ions under 172 nm light excitation. LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+},Pr{sup 3+} shows efficient ultraviolet-B (uv-B) emission at 312 nm, whose peak intensity reaches its maximum at Gd=35 mol % and Pr=5 mol %. (La{sub 0.65}Gd{sub 0.35}){sub 0.95}Pr{sub 0.05}PO{sub 4} is about 1.6 times higher than a typical uv-B phosphor for vuv lamp, Y{sub 0.75}Gd{sub 0.25}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}, in Gd{sup 3+}-emission intensity under 172 nm light excitation. This result implies that the Pr{sup 3+}-sensitized LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+} is a candidate of uv-B phosphors for xenon-excimer discharge vuv lamps. In order to evaluate the effect of the narrow-band uv-B emission by LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+},Pr{sup 3+} phosphor, irradiation test on DNA was performed. The irradiation damage of pUC 18 DNA by the narrow-band uv-B light from the LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+},Pr{sup 3+} phosphor is in the same magnitude as that by uv-A light from a filtered Hg lamp, even though the uv-B lamp is higher than the uv-A lamp in power density and photon energy.

  18. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S.; Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  19. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, H.; Bussiahn, R.; Hammer, M. U.; Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100-400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10-200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH2O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  20. A simple electron time-of-flight spectrometer for ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Arrell, C. A. Ojeda, J.; Mourik, F. van; Chergui, M.; Sabbar, M.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.; Okell, W. A.; Witting, T.; Siegel, T.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S.; Tisch, J. W.G.; Marangos, J. P.; Chapman, R. T.; Cacho, C.; Rodrigues, N.; Turcu, I. C.E.; Springate, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple electron time of flight spectrometer for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid samples using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source produced by high-harmonic generation. The field free spectrometer coupled with the time-preserving monochromator for the VUV at the Artemis facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory achieves an energy resolution of 0.65 eV at 40 eV with a sub 100 fs temporal resolution. A key feature of the design is a differentially pumped drift tube allowing a microliquid jet to be aligned and started at ambient atmosphere while preserving a pressure of 10⁻¹ mbar at the micro channel plate detector. The pumping requirements for photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy in vacuum are presented, while the instrument performance is demonstrated with PE spectra of salt solutions in water. The capability of the instrument for time resolved measurements is demonstrated by observing the ultrafast (50 fs) vibrational excitation of water leading to temporary proton transfer.

  1. Preservation of homochirality of aspartic acid films irradiated with 8.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Yudai; Matsui, Takahiro; Koketsu, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2008-10-01

    Enantiomeric excess was reported for amino acids detected from some meteorites. These results imply that these amino acids might escape from racemization processes in space. Here, in an attempt to examine whether non-polarized vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light was one of racemization factors, we irradiated solid films of homochiral L- or D-aspartic acid ( L- or D-Asp) with a 146 nm excimer lamp in vacuum at 290 K. After irradiation for L-Asp films, L-alanine ( L-Ala) and β-Ala were observed, but D-Asp or D-Ala was not observed. On the contrast, for irradiation to D-Asp films, D-Ala and β-Ala were observed, but L-Asp or L-Ala was not observed. Therefore, we concluded that the chirality was preserved through the photolysis of Asp to Ala. It is of interest to carry out the similar experiments using high-energy particles and/or γ-ray irradiation.

  2. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i2PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ˜ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i2PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2+ (B 2 ∑ g - , v+ = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented.

  3. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ∼ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i(2)PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2(+)(B(2)∑(g)(-), v(+) = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented.

  4. Breaking DNA strands by extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, Eva; Vyšín, Luděk; Burian, Tomáš; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie; Múčka, Viliam; Čuba, Václav; Grisham, Michael E.; Heinbuch, Scott; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2015-04-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of DNA damages including single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites, modified sugars, and bases. Most theoretical and experimental studies have been focused on DNA strand scissions, in particular production of DNA double-strand breaks. DSBs have been proven to be a key damage at a molecular level responsible for the formation of chromosomal aberrations, leading often to cell death. We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced directly by the pulsed 46.9-nm (26.5 eV) radiation provided by an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (CDL). Doses up to 45 kGy were delivered with a repetition rate of 3 Hz. We studied the dependence of the yield of SSBs and DSBs of a simple model of DNA molecule (pBR322) on the CDL pulse fluence. Agarose gel electrophoresis method was used for determination of both SSB and DSB yields. The action cross sections of the single- and double-strand breaks of pBR322 plasmid DNA in solid state were determined. We observed an increase in the efficiency of strand-break induction in the supercoiled DNA as a function of laser pulse fluence. Results are compared to those acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities and other sources of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling effects on atomic oxygen protective photovoltaic array blanket materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J.; Banks, B.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of synergistic environmental exposure is demonstrated through the evaluation of DuPont 93-1 in simulated LEO environment. Changes in optical properties, surface condition, and mass loss data are described. The qualitative results indicate the necessity for exposure of materials to a series of simulated LEO environments in order to properly determine synergistic effects and demonstrate the overall LEO durability of candidate materials. It is shown that synergistic effects may occur with vacuum thermal cycling combined with VUV radiation followed by atomic oxygen exposure. Testing the durability of candidate solar array blanket materials in a test sequence with necessary synergistic effects makes it possible to determine the appropriate material for providing structural support and maintaining the proper operating temperature for solar cells in the SSF Photovaltaic Power System.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Brinza, David E.; Laue, Eric G.; Anderson, Mark S.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1992-01-01

    A micrographic investigation is reported of samples of the fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon thermal-blanketing materials recovered from the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. The samples are taken from the trailing edge and row 8 which correspond to exposures to vacuum UV (VUV) and VUV + atomic O, respectively. Data are taken from SEM and IR-spectra observations, and the LDEF leading-edge FEP shows a high degree of erosion, roughening, and sharp peaks angled in the direction of the flow of atomic O. The trailing edge sample influenced primarily by VUV shows a hard brittle layer and some cracked mosaic patterns. Comparisons to a reference sample suggest that the brittle layer is related to exposure to VUV and is removed by atomic-O impingement. Polymers that are stable to VUV radiation appear to be more stable in terms of atomic oxygen.

  7. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z{sub eff} measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hangyu; Cui Zhengying; Fu Bingzhong; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Lu Ping; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 A-500 A. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z{sub eff}. The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 A-500 A by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions.

  8. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  9. High-resolution, vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of boron trifluoride.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Patrick P; Beasten, Amy; McComb, Jacob C; Coplan, Michael A; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Thompson, Alan K; Vest, Robert E; Sprague, Matthew K; Irikura, Karl K; Clark, Charles W

    2014-11-21

    In the course of investigations of thermal neutron detection based on mixtures of (10)BF3 with other gases, knowledge was required of the photoabsorption cross sections of (10)BF3 for wavelengths between 135 and 205 nm. Large discrepancies in the values reported in existing literature led to the absolute measurements reported in this communication. The measurements were made at the SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The measured absorption cross sections vary from 10(-20) cm(2) at 135 nm to less than 10(-21) cm(2) in the region from 165 to 205 nm. Three previously unreported absorption features with resolvable structure were found in the regions 135-145 nm, 150-165 nm, and 190-205 nm. Quantum mechanical calculations, using the TD-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ variant of time-dependent density functional theory implemented in Gaussian 09, suggest that the observed absorption features arise from symmetry-changing adiabatic transitions.

  10. The efficacy of post porosity plasma protection against vacuum-ultraviolet damage in porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lionti, K.; Volksen, W.; Darnon, M.; Magbitang, T.; Dubois, G.

    2015-03-21

    As of today, plasma damage remains as one of the main challenges to the reliable integration of porous low-k materials into microelectronic devices at the most aggressive node. One promising strategy to limit damage of porous low-k materials during plasma processing is an approach we refer to as post porosity plasma protection (P4). In this approach, the pores of the low-k material are filled with a sacrificial agent prior to any plasma treatment, greatly minimizing the total damage by limiting the physical interactions between plasma species and the low-k material. Interestingly, the contribution of the individual plasma species to the total plasma damage is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the specific damaging effect of vacuum-ultraviolet (v-UV) photons on a highly porous, k = 2.0 low-k material and we assessed the P4 protective effect against them. It was found that the impact of the v-UV radiation varied depending upon the v-UV emission lines of the plasma. More importantly, we successfully demonstrated that the P4 process provides excellent protection against v-UV damage.

  11. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation on trapped charges and leakage currents of low-k organosilicate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Shohet, J. L.; Ryan, E. T.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-05-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the distribution of trapped charges within the bandgap of low dielectric constant (low-k) organosilicate (SiCOH) materials. It was found that trapped charges are continuously distributed within the bandgap of porous SiCOH and the center of the trapped states is 1.3 eV above the valence band of the tested sample. By comparing photoemission spectroscopic results before and after VUV exposure, VUV irradiation with photon energies between 7.6 and 8.9 eV was found to deplete trapped charge while UV exposure with photon energies less than 6.0 eV induces more trapped charges in tested samples. Current-Voltage (IV) characteristics results show that the reliability of dielectrics is improved after VUV irradiation with photon energies between 7.6 and 8.9 eV, while UV exposure results in an increased level of leakage current and a decreased breakdown voltage, both of which are harmful to the reliability of the dielectric. This work shows that VUV irradiation holds the potential to substitute for UV curing in microelectronic processing to improve the reliability of low-k dielectrics by mitigating the leakage currents and trapped charges induced by UV irradiation.

  12. Vacuum ultra-violet damage and damage mitigation for plasma processing of highly porous organosilicate glass dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Marneffe, J.-F. de Lukaszewicz, M.; Porter, S. B.; Vajda, F.; Rutigliani, V.; Verdonck, P.; Baklanov, M. R.; Zhang, L.; Heyne, M.; El Otell, Z.; Krishtab, M.; Goodyear, A.; Cooke, M.

    2015-10-07

    Porous organosilicate glass thin films, with k-value 2.0, were exposed to 147 nm vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photons emitted in a Xenon capacitive coupled plasma discharge. Strong methyl bond depletion was observed, concomitant with a significant increase of the bulk dielectric constant. This indicates that, besides reactive radical diffusion, photons emitted during plasma processing do impede dielectric properties and therefore need to be tackled appropriately during patterning and integration. The detrimental effect of VUV irradiation can be partly suppressed by stuffing the low-k porous matrix with proper sacrificial polymers showing high VUV absorption together with good thermal and VUV stability. In addition, the choice of an appropriate hard-mask, showing high VUV absorption, can minimize VUV damage. Particular processing conditions allow to minimize the fluence of photons to the substrate and lead to negligible VUV damage. For patterned structures, in order to reduce VUV damage in the bulk and on feature sidewalls, the combination of both pore stuffing/material densification and absorbing hard-mask is recommended, and/or the use of low VUV-emitting plasma discharge.

  13. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Study of Self-Absorbed Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation during Pulsed Atmospheric Breakdown in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Hatfield, Lynn; Neuber, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes recent experiments to investigate the role of self-produced vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in the physics of pulsed atmospheric breakdown. A unique apparatus was constructed which enables the detailed exploration of VUV light in the range 115-135 nm, which is emitted from breakdown between two point-point electrodes in an air environment at atmospheric pressure. Time-resolved diagnostics include VUV sensitive photomultipliers, intensified CCD imaging, optically isolated high voltage probes, and fast rise-time Rogowski current monitors. Temporally resolved spectroscopy from air breakdowns revealed VUV emission is released during the initial streamer phase before voltage collapse, with the majority of the emission lines identified from various atmospheric gases or surface impurities. Imaging of VUV radiation was performed which conserved the spatial emission profile, and distinct differences between nitrogen and oxygen VUV emission during onset of breakdown have been observed. Specifically, the self-absorption of HI, OI, and NI lines is addressed which elucidates the role of radiation transport during the photon-dominated streamer breakdown process. Supported by AFOSR, NASA / TSGC, DEPS, and IEEE DEIS.

  14. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  15. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  16. Measurements of Schottky barrier at the low-k SiOC:H/Cu interface using vacuum ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-12-07

    The band alignment between copper interconnects and their low-k interlayer dielectrics is critical to understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in electrical leakage in low-k/Cu interconnects. In this work, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to determine the potential of the Schottky barrier present at low-k a-SiOC:H/Cu interfaces. By examining the photoemission spectra before and after VUV exposure of a low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3) thin film fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on a polished Cu substrate, it was found that photons with energies of 4.9 eV or greater can deplete accumulated charge in a-SiOC:H films, while VUV photons with energies of 4.7 eV or less, did not have this effect. These critical values were identified to relate the electric potential of the interface barrier between the a-SiOC:H and the Cu layers. Using this method, the Schottky barrier at the low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3)/Cu interface was determined to be 4.8 ± 0.1 eV.

  17. High-resolution three-dimensional spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer using vacuum ultraviolet laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaji, Koichiro; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kuroda, Kenta; Toyohisa, Sogen; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro; Ishida, Yukiaki; Fukushima, Akiko; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Chen, Chuangtian; Komori, Fumio; Shin, Shik

    2016-05-01

    We describe a spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) apparatus with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser (hν = 6.994 eV) developed at the Laser and Synchrotron Research Center at the Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo. The spectrometer consists of a hemispherical photoelectron analyzer equipped with an electron deflector function and twin very-low-energy-electron-diffraction-type spin detectors, which allows us to analyze the spin vector of a photoelectron three-dimensionally with both high energy and angular resolutions. The combination of the high-performance spectrometer and the high-photon-flux VUV laser can achieve an energy resolution of 1.7 meV for SARPES. We demonstrate that the present laser-SARPES machine realizes a quick SARPES on the spin-split band structure of a Bi(111) film even with 7 meV energy and 0.7∘ angular resolutions along the entrance-slit direction. This laser-SARPES machine is applicable to the investigation of spin-dependent electronic states on an energy scale of a few meV.

  18. Temperature-dependent evaluation of Nd:LiCAF optical properties as potential vacuum ultraviolet laser material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yuki; Arita, Ren; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Pham, Minh Hong; Empizo, Melvin John Fernandez; Luong, Mui Viet; Hori, Tatsuhiro; Takabatake, Masahiro; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Mori, Kazuyuki; Yamanoi, Kohei; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature-dependent optical properties of Nd3+-doped LiCaAlF6 (Nd:LiCAF) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region. The 172-nm absorption edge does not seem to experience any significant blue shift as temperature is decreased from room temperature down to 30 K. This is confirmed by excitation spectra for the same temperature range. Several energy levels in the excited state configuration are observed. Based on these energy levels, the dominant emission peak at 177 nm is assigned to the allowed dipole transition from the 4f25d configuration of Nd3+ and the 4I11/2 level of the 4f3 ground state configuration. The position of the dominant 177-nm emission peak appears to be fixed across the temperature range considered. Our results suggest that the spectral overlap between the excitation and emission spectra should not increase as temperature is raised, possibly making Nd:LiCAF a potential VUV laser gain medium operating at room temperature.

  19. Desorption dynamics, internal energies, and imaging of organic molecules from surfaces with laser desorption and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization.

    PubMed

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-11-04

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer by using laser-desorption VUV postionization shows 5 μm feature details while using a 30 μm laser spot size and 7 ns pulse duration. Applications of laser-desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin, and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  20. Rotationally Resolved Vacuum Ultraviolet Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (VUV REMPI) of Acetylene via the G̃ Rydberg State.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-May, Alice F; Grütter, Monika; Neugebohren, Jannis; Kitsopoulos, T N; Wodtke, Alec M; Harding, Dan J

    2016-07-14

    We present a 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme for acetylene via the linear G̃ 4sσ (1)Πu Rydberg state, offering partial rotational resolution and the possibility to detect excitation in both the cis- and trans-bending modes. The resonant transition to the G̃ state is driven by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon, generated by resonant four-wave mixing (FWM) in krypton. Ionization from the short-lived G̃ state then occurs quickly, driven by the high intensity of the residual light from the FWM process. We have observed nine bands in the region between 79 200 cm(-1) and 80 500 cm(-1) in C2H2 and C2D2. We compare our results with published spectra in this region and suggest alternative assignments for some of the Renner-Teller split bands. Similar REMPI schemes should be applicable to other small molecules with picosecond lifetime Rydberg states.

  1. High-resolution three-dimensional spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer using vacuum ultraviolet laser light.

    PubMed

    Yaji, Koichiro; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kuroda, Kenta; Toyohisa, Sogen; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro; Ishida, Yukiaki; Fukushima, Akiko; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Chen, Chuangtian; Komori, Fumio; Shin, Shik

    2016-05-01

    We describe a spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) apparatus with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser (hν = 6.994 eV) developed at the Laser and Synchrotron Research Center at the Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo. The spectrometer consists of a hemispherical photoelectron analyzer equipped with an electron deflector function and twin very-low-energy-electron-diffraction-type spin detectors, which allows us to analyze the spin vector of a photoelectron three-dimensionally with both high energy and angular resolutions. The combination of the high-performance spectrometer and the high-photon-flux VUV laser can achieve an energy resolution of 1.7 meV for SARPES. We demonstrate that the present laser-SARPES machine realizes a quick SARPES on the spin-split band structure of a Bi(111) film even with 7 meV energy and 0.7(∘) angular resolutions along the entrance-slit direction. This laser-SARPES machine is applicable to the investigation of spin-dependent electronic states on an energy scale of a few meV.

  2. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  3. Lithium-fluoride flashover ion source cleaned with a glow discharge and irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.J.T.; Woodworth, J.R.; Bieg, K.W.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Stygar, W.A.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied methods of varying the ion species generated by a lithium-fluoride overcoated anode in a 0.5-MV magnetically insulated ion diode. We found that cleaning the anode surface with a 13.6-MHz rf glow discharge or illuminating the anode with a pulsed soft x-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation source just before the accelerator pulse significantly altered the ion species of the ion beam produced by the diode. The glow-discharge plasma removed adsorbates (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) from the surface of the LiF flashover source. The ions seen were lithium and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the diode impedance with a lithium-fluoride anode was high and the ion efficiency was low; however, XUV irradiation of the surface dramatically lowered the impedance by desorbing neutrals from the ion source via photon-stimulated desorption. Current densities of ten times the Child--Langmuir space-charge limit were achieved under XUV irradiation. In particular, ion currents increased by over a factor of 3 when 12 mJ/cm/sup 2/ of XUV radiation was used. However, with XUV irradiation the largest fraction of ions were fluorine, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen, not lithium.

  4. Highly coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic with echo-enabled harmonic generation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, E.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.

    2014-07-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers are enabling access to new science by producing ultrafast and intense x rays that give researchers unparalleled power and precision in examining the fundamental nature of matter. In the quest for fully coherent x rays, the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique is one of the most promising methods. In this technique, coherent radiation at the high harmonic frequencies of two seed lasers is generated from the recoherence of electron beam phase space memory. Here we report on the generation of highly coherent and stable vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic of an infrared seed laser with this technique. The experiment demonstrates two distinct advantages that are intrinsic to the highly nonlinear phase space gymnastics of echo-enabled harmonic generation in a new regime, i.e., high frequency up-conversion efficiency and insensitivity to electron beam phase space imperfections. Our results allow comparison and confirmation of predictive models and scaling laws, and mark a significant step towards fully coherent x-ray free-electron lasers that will open new scientific research.

  5. Real-time radiative divertor feedback control development for the NSTX-U tokamak using a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Kaita, R.; Stratton, B.

    2016-11-01

    A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW. In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase plasma volumetric power and momentum losses. A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration. The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer McPherson Model 251 with a fast charged-coupled device detector is developed for temperature monitoring between 5 and 30 eV, based on the Δn = 0, 1 line intensity ratios of carbon, nitrogen, or neon ion lines in the spectral range 300-1600 Å. A collisional-radiative model-based line intensity ratio will be used for relative calibration. A real-time Te-dependent signal within a characteristic divertor detachment equilibration time of ˜10-15 ms is expected.

  6. Flow-Tube Investigations of Hypergolic Reactions of a Dicyanamide Ionic Liquid Via Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Aerosol Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chambreau, Steven D; Koh, Christine J; Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M; Gallegos, Christopher J; Hooper, Justin B; Bedrov, Dmitry; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L; Leone, Stephen R

    2016-10-07

    The unusually high heats of vaporization of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) complicate the utilization of thermal evaporation to study ionic liquid reactivity. Although effusion of RTILs into a reaction flow-tube or mass spectrometer is possible, competition between vaporization and thermal decomposition of the RTIL can greatly increase the complexity of the observed reaction products. In order to investigate the reaction kinetics of a hypergolic RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIM(+)DCA(-)) was aerosolized and reacted with gaseous nitric acid, and the products were monitored via tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 at the Advanced Light Source. Reaction product formation at m/z 42, 43, 44, 67, 85, 126, and higher masses was observed as a function of HNO3 exposure. The identities of the product species were assigned to the masses on the basis of their ionization energies. The observed exposure profile of the m/z 67 signal suggests that the excess gaseous HNO3 initiates rapid reactions near the surface of the RTIL aerosol. Nonreactive molecular dynamics simulations support this observation, suggesting that diffusion within the particle may be a limiting step. The mechanism is consistent with previous reports that nitric acid forms protonated dicyanamide species in the first step of the reaction.

  7. Electronic State Spectroscopy of Halothane As Studied by ab Initio Calculations, Vacuum Ultraviolet Synchrotron Radiation, and Electron Scattering Methods.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F Ferreira; Duflot, D; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; Rodrigues, F N; Ferreira-Rodrigues, A M; de Souza, G G B; Mason, N J; Eden, S; Limão-Vieira, P

    2015-08-06

    We present the first set of ab initio calculations (vertical energies and oscillator strengths) of the valence and Rydberg transitions of the anaesthetic compound halothane (CF3CHBrCl). These results are complemented by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption measurements over the wavelength range 115-310 nm (10.8-4.0 eV). The spectrum reveals several new features that were not previously reported in the literature. Spin-orbit effects have been considered in the calculations for the lowest-lying states, allowing us to explain the broad nature of the 6.1 and 7.5 eV absorption bands assigned to σ*(C-Br) ← nBr and σ*(C-Cl) ← n(Cl) transitions. Novel absolute photoabsorption cross sections from electron scattering data were derived in the 4.0-40.0 eV range. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of halothane in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).

  8. Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-05

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  9. Dynamic photolytical actinometry of the vacuum-ultraviolet radiation produced by multichannel surface discharges of submicrosecond duration

    SciTech Connect

    Tcheremiskine, V. I.; Uteza, O. P.; Sentis, M. L.; Mikheev, L. D.

    2007-06-15

    Absolute measurements of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation power produced by a planar broadband optical source of submicrosecond light pulse duration are carried out in the transient regime of formation of a photodissociation (bleaching) wave in a photodecomposing absorptive medium. The source is based on a multichannel surface discharge initiated in Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixtures on the area of {approx}0.1 m{sup 2}. The energetic characteristics of the produced VUV radiation are determined on the basis of spatially and temporally resolved observations of the pulsed photolysis of XeF{sub 2} vapors. It is shown that the photon flux intensity produced by the source within the spectral range of 120-200 nm reaches 1.1x10{sup 23} photons/cm{sup 2} s corresponding to the effective brightness temperature of discharge plasma of 20 kK and to the intrinsic efficiency of the discharge VUV emission of 3.2%. Numerical simulations of the photolysis process show a rather weak sensitivity of the results to the fraction of discharge radiation emitted into the line spectrum, as well as to the angular distribution of emitted radiation. The spectral band of measurements can be selected according to the choice of parent photodecomposing particles.

  10. REAL-TIME OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATED PYRENE:H{sub 2}O INTERSTELLAR ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwman, J.; Paardekooper, D. M.; Cuppen, H. M.; Linnartz, H.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2009-07-20

    This paper describes a near-UV/VIS study of a pyrene:H{sub 2}O interstellar ice analogue at 10 K using optical absorption spectroscopy. A new experimental approach makes it possible to irradiate the sample with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light (7-10.5 eV) while simultaneously recording spectra in the 240-1000 nm range with subsecond time resolution. Both spectroscopic and dynamic information on VUV processed ices are obtained in this way. This provides a powerful tool to follow, in situ and in real time, the photophysical and photochemical processes induced by VUV irradiation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing inter- and circumstellar ice analogue. Results on the VUV photolysis of a prototype sample-strongly diluted pyrene in H{sub 2}O ice-are presented. In addition to the pyrene cation (Py{sup +}), other products-hydroxypyrene (PyOH), possibly hydroxypyrene cation (PyOH{sup +}), and pyrene/pyrenolate anion (Py{sup -}/PyO{sup -})-are observed. It is found that the charge remains localized in the ice, also after the VUV irradiation is stopped. The astrochemical implications and observational constraints are discussed.

  11. Vacuum-ultraviolet photoreduction of graphene oxide: Electrical conductivity of entirely reduced single sheets and reduced micro line patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Yudi; Ichii, Takashi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-30

    We here report a scanning probe method to locally and directly research the electrical properties of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) reduced graphene oxide. The measured electrical conductivity of individual VUV-reduced GO (VUV-rGO) sheets by using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) reached 0.20 S·m{sup −1} after 64 min irradiation, which was clearly enhanced compared with the pristine GO. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the recovered conductivity of VUV-rGO could be ascribed to the partial elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups and the rapid reconstruction of the C=C bonds. Heterogeneously distributed low- and high-conductivity domains (with a diameter of tens of nanometer to ca. 500 nm) were found from current mapping of the VUV-rGO sheet. By applying photomask lithography, rGO regions were drawn into single GO sheet and were researched by CAFM. The in-plane lateral conductivity of rGO regions increased obviously compared with pristine GO regions.

  12. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Danny S.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Johnson, Randall P.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbitts, A.; Tunnell, T.; Marks, D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Marshall, B.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; LaLone, B.

    2014-06-25

    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  13. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D. S.; Pazuchanics, P.; Johnson, R.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbitts, A.; Tunnell, T.; Marks, D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Marshall, B.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; LaLone, B.

    2014-06-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

  14. Real-time radiative divertor feedback control development for the NSTX-U tokamak using a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Kaita, R; Stratton, B

    2016-11-01

    A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW. In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase plasma volumetric power and momentum losses. A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration. The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer McPherson Model 251 with a fast charged-coupled device detector is developed for temperature monitoring between 5 and 30 eV, based on the Δn = 0, 1 line intensity ratios of carbon, nitrogen, or neon ion lines in the spectral range 300-1600 Å. A collisional-radiative model-based line intensity ratio will be used for relative calibration. A real-time Te-dependent signal within a characteristic divertor detachment equilibration time of ∼10-15 ms is expected.

  15. Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Lowest-Lying Electronic State in Sub-Critical and Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; Chipman, Dan

    2016-06-01

    We report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of high-temperature and supercritical water, where spectra were measured from room temperature up to the critical temperature, and as a function of density above the critical temperature. Spectra are seen to redshift with increasing temperature, demonstrating gradual breakdown of the hydrogen bond network. Above the critical temperature, tuning the density gives direct insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in the supercritical regime. The known gas-phase monomer spectrum can be duplicated in the low-density limit, with negligible contribution from hydrogen bonding. With increasing density, the spectrum blue shifts as small water clusters form, increasing the number of hydrogen bonds lowering the ground-state energy. The presence of vibrational structure inherent to the lowest-density gas-phase limit spectrum gradually diminishes with increasing density, giving a reasonable measure of the extent of water monomers having unperturbed electronic structure as a function of density.

  16. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  17. Carrier Conduction and Light Emission by Modification of Poly(alkylfluorene) Interface under Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Yutaka; Kajii, Hirotake; Terashima, Daiki; Kusumoto, Yusuke

    2013-03-01

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have been extensively studied for flexible electronics. The characteristics of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-dyl) (F8) modified by thermal or light are strongly dependent on the carrier transport and optical characteristics. We investigate all solution-processed OFETs with Ag nano-ink as gate electrodes patterned by Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (172 nm). Bi-layer gate insulators of amorphous fluoro-polymer CYTOP (Asahi Glass Corp.) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) were used. Top-gate-type OFETs with ITO source/drain electrode utilizing F8 or poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) as an active layer were fabricated, and investigated the carrier conduction and emission characteristic. Without VUV irradiation, both OFETs showed the ambipolar and light-emitting characteristics. On the other hand, F8 devices with VUV exhibited only p-type conduction. The quenching centers were generated in F8 layer by VUV irradiation, which are related to the electron trap sites at the interface. OFETs with F8BT showed both p- and n-type conduction even after VUV. F8BT suffers less damage by VUV and maintain light emission. Light emitting transistors were realized utilizing F8BT patterned by VUV irradiation. This research was partially supported financially by MEXT. The authors thank Harima Chemicals Inc. for providing Ag nano-ink.

  18. Absolute intensities of the vacuum ultraviolet spectra in oxide etch plasma processing discharges

    SciTech Connect

    WOODWORTH,JOSEPH R.; RILEY,MERLE E.; AMATUCCI,VINCENT A.; HAMILTON,THOMAS W.; ARAGON,BEN P.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, the authors report the absolute intensities of ultraviolet light between 4.9 eV and 24 eV ( 250 nm to 50 mn ) striking a silicon wafer in a number of oxide-etch processing discharges. The emphasis is on photons with energies greater than 8.8 eV, which have enough energy to damage SiO{sub 2}. These discharges were in an inductively-driven Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell which had been modified to more closely resemble commercial etching tools. Comparisons of measurements made through a side port in the cell and through a hole in the wafer indicate that the VUV light in these discharges is strongly trapped. For the pure halocarbon gases examined in these experiments (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CHF{sub 3}, C{sub 4}F{sub 8}), the fluxes of VUV photons to the wafer varied from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 3 x 10{sup 15} photons/cm{sup 2} sec or equivalently from 1.5 to 5 mW/cm{sup 2}. These measurements imply that 0.1% to 0.3% of the rf source power to these discharges ends up hitting the wafer as VUV photons for the typical 20 mT, 200 W rf discharges. For typical ashing discharges containing pure oxygen, the VUV intensities are slightly higher--about 8 mW/cm{sup 2} . As argon or hydrogen diluents are added to the fluorocarbon gases, the VUV intensities increase dramatically, with a 10/10/10 mixture of Ar/C{sub 2}F{sub 6}/H{sub 2} yielding VUV fluxes on the wafer 26 mW/cm{sup 2} and pure argon discharges yielding 52 mW/cm{sup 2} . Adding an rf bias to the wafer had only a small effect on the VUV observed through a side-port of the GEC cell.

  19. A technique for synergistic atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation durability evaluation of materials for use in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    Material erosion data collected during flight experiments such as the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)-3 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) have raised questions as to the sensitivity of material erosion to levels of atomic oxygen exposure and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The erosion sensitivity of some materials such as FEP Teflon used as a thermal control material on satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO), is particularly important but difficult to determine. This is in large part due to the inability to hold all but one exposure parameter constant during a flight experiment. This is also difficult to perform in a ground based facility, because often the variation of the level of atomic oxygen or VUV radiation also results in a change in the level of the other parameter. A facility has been developed which allows each parameter to be changed almost independently and offer broad area exposure. The resulting samples can be made large enough for mechanical testing. The facility uses an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source to provide the atomic oxygen. A series of glass plates is used to focus the atomic oxygen while filtering the VUV radiation from the plasma source. After filtering, atomic oxygen effective flux levels can still be measured which are as high as 7 x 10(exp 15) atoms/cm(exp 2)-sec which is adequate for accelerated testing. VUV radiation levels after filtering can be as low as 0.3 suns. Additional VUV suns can be added with the use of deuterium lamps which allow the VUV level to be changed while keeping the flux of atomic oxygen constant. This paper discusses the facility, and results from exposure of Kapton and FEP at pre-determined atomic oxygen flux and VUV sun levels.

  20. Effects of plasma and vacuum-ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Shohet, J. L.; Jakes, J. E.; Banna, S.; Nishi, Y.

    2014-07-28

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric films were investigated. Nanoindentation measurements were made on SiCOH films before and after exposure to an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma or a monochromatic synchrotron VUV beam, to determine the changes of film hardness, elastic modulus, and crack threshold due to these exposures. This permits the effects of ion bombardment and photon bombardment to be analyzed separately. The role of energetic ions was examined with a variety of inert plasma-exposure conditions. The role of VUV photons was analyzed as a function of synchrotron photon energy. It was found that both energetic ions and VUV photons with energies larger than the bond energy of the Si-O bond cause a significant increase in film hardness along with a smaller increase in elastic modulus and crack threshold. Differential Fourier transform infrared spectra and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results show that the energetic ions affect the SiCOH properties mainly through physical bombardment, during which the ions transfer their momentum to the Si-O-Si backbone and transform them into more energetically stable Si-O-Si network structures. This results in the Si-O-Si network structures becoming densified. VUV photons assist reaction that increase the number of bridging O{sub 3}≡Si-O-Si≡O{sub 3} bonds and deplete nonbridging O{sub 3}≡Si-O and C-Si≡O{sub 3} bonds. This increased degree of cross linking in porous organosilicate dielectrics can substantially enhance their hardness and elastic modulus while showing no significant film shrinkage or densification.

  1. Communication: A vibrational study of propargyl cation using the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Lu, Zhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C Y

    2012-10-28

    By employing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron (VUV-VMI-PE) method, we have obtained a vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of gaseous propargyl radical [C(3)H(3)(X(2)B(1))] in the energy range of 0-4600 cm(-1) above its ionization energy. The cold C(3)H(3) radicals were produced from a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on 193 nm ArF photodissociation of C(3)H(3)Cl. The VUV-VMI-PE spectrum of C(3)H(3) thus obtained reveals a Franck-Condon factor (FCF) pattern with a highly dominant origin band along with weak vibrational progressions associated with excitations of the C-C ν(5)(+)(a(1)) and C≡C ν(3)(+)(a(1)) symmetric stretching modes and the CCH ν(7)(+)(b(1)) out-of-plane bending mode of C(3)H(3)(+)(X(1)A(1)). The ν(5)(+)(a(1)) vibrational frequency of 1120 cm(-1) determined in the present study is lower than the value deduced from the recent Ar-tagged infrared photodissociation study by 102 cm(-1), confirming the highly accurate vibrational frequency predictions obtained by the most recent state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations. The observation of the FCF disallowed ν(7)(+)(b(1)) mode is indicative of vibronic interactions. The discrepancy observed between the FCF pattern determined in the present study and that predicted by a recent high-level quantum theoretical investigation can be taken as evidence that the potential energy surfaces used in the latter theoretical study are in need of improvement in order to provide a reliable FCF prediction for the C(3)H(3)/C(3)H(3)(+) photoionization system.

  2. A vacuum-ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron study of sulfur monoxide (SO) and its cation (SO+).

    PubMed

    Lam, Chow-Shing; Wang, Hailing; Xu, Yuntao; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, C Y

    2011-04-14

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectroscopy has been applied to the study of the sulfur monoxide radical (SO) prepared by using a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on the 193 nm excimer laser photodissociation of SO(2). The vibronic VUV-PFI-PE bands for the photoionization transitions SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2); v(+) = 0) ← SO(X(3)Σ(-); v = 0); and SO(+)((2)Π(3∕2); v(+) = 0) ← SO(X(3)Σ(-); v = 0) have been recorded. On the basis of the semiempirical simulation of rotational branch contours observed in these PFI-PE bands, we have obtained highly precise ionization energies (IEs) of 83,034.2 ± 1.7 cm(-1) (10.2949 ± 0.0002 eV) and 83,400.4 ± 1.7 cm(-1) (10.3403 ± 0.0002 eV) for the formation of SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2); v(+) = 0) and SO(+)((2)Π(3∕2); v(+) = 0), respectively. The present VUV-PFI-PE measurement has enabled the direct determination of the spin-orbit coupling constant (A(0)) for SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2,3∕2)) to be 365.36 ± 0.12 cm(-1). We have also performed high-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level up to full quadruple excitations and complete basis set (CBS) extrapolation. The zero-point vibrational energy correction, the core-valence electronic correction, the spin-orbit coupling, and the high-level correction are included in the calculation. The IE[SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2,3∕2))] and A(0) predictions thus obtained are found to be in remarkable agreement with the experimental determinations.

  3. Communication: A vibrational study of titanium dioxide cation using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron method.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih-Chung; Huang, Huang; Luo, Zhihong; Ng, C Y

    2013-01-28

    We have successfully measured the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser photoionization efficiency and pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra of cold titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) prepared by a supersonically cooled laser ablation source. The VUV-PFI-PE spectrum thus obtained exhibits long progressions of the v(2)(+)(a(1)) bending and the combination of v(1)(+)(a(1)) stretching and v(2)(+)(a(1)) bending vibrational modes of the TiO(2)(+)(X(2)B(2)) ion. The pattern of Franck-Condon factors observed indicates that the O-Ti-O bond angle of the TiO(2)(+)(X(2)B(2)) ion is significantly different from that of the TiO(2)(X(1)A(1)) neutral, whereas the change of the Ti-O bond distance is very minor upon the photoionization transition. The analysis of the PFI-PE bands has made possible the determination of the adiabatic ionization energy for TiO(2), IE(TiO(2)) = 77215.9 ± 1.2 cm(-1) (9.57355 ± 0.00015 eV), the harmonic vibrational frequencies, ω(1)(+) = 829.1 ± 2.0 cm(-1) and ω(2)(+) = 248.7 ± 0.6 cm(-1), and the anharmonic coefficients, χ(11)(+) = 5.57 ± 0.65 cm(-1), χ(22)(+) = 0.08 ± 0.06 cm(-1), and χ(12)(+) = -4.51 ± 0.30 cm(-1) for the TiO(2)(+)(X(2)B(2)) ground state.

  4. High-resolution threshold photoelectron study of the propargyl radical by the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Xu, Yuntao; Yang, Lei; Lam, Chow-Shing; Wang, Hailing; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C Y

    2011-12-14

    By employing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser velocity-map imaging (VMI) photoelectron scheme to discriminate energetic photoelectrons, we have measured the VUV-VMI-threshold photoelectrons (VUV-VMI-TPE) spectra of propargyl radical [C(3)H(3)(X̃(2)B(1))] near its ionization threshold at photoelectron energy bandwidths of 3 and 7 cm(-1) (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM). The simulation of the VUV-VMI-TPE spectra thus obtained, along with the Stark shift correction, has allowed the determination of a precise value 70 156 ± 4 cm(-1) (8.6982 ± 0.0005 eV) for the ionization energy (IE) of C(3)H(3). In the present VMI-TPE experiment, the Stark shift correction is determined by comparing the VUV-VMI-TPE and VUV laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (VUV-PFI-PE) spectra for the origin band of the photoelectron spectrum of the X̃(+)-X̃ transition of chlorobenzene. The fact that the FWHMs for this origin band observed using the VUV-VMI-TPE and VUV-PFI-PE methods are nearly the same indicates that the energy resolutions achieved in the VUV-VMI-TPE and VUV-PFI-PE measurements are comparable. The IE(C(3)H(3)) value obtained based on the VUV-VMI-TPE measurement is consistent with the value determined by the VUV laser PIE spectrum of supersonically cooled C(3)H(3)(X̃(2)B(1)) radicals, which is also reported in this article.

  5. Roles of plasma-generated vacuum-ultraviolet photons and oxygen radicals in damaging nanoporous low-k films

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joe; Graves, David B.

    2013-07-15

    One important class of low-k materials used as interconnect dielectrics employs methyl groups added to nanoporous SiO{sub 2} matrices. These carbon-doped oxide materials are known to be susceptible to damage from plasma species during various stages of plasma processing. Two key active species generated in O{sub 2} plasma are oxygen (O) radicals and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photons. These species are known to cause carbon loss, resulting in damaging increases in dielectric constant throughout the film. However, the mechanisms through which this damage is incurred are poorly understood. By capping the substrate in different ways during plasma exposure, it is possible to expose films to either photons alone or O atoms alone. The authors report measurements of damage induced by VUV photons only, O radicals only, and the combination of O radicals and photons. Through HF stripping, they note that carbon extraction from photons and from radicals yields different outcomes; the profile of carbon concentration within the modified region is different for each case. Damage from photons alone can be modeled and model predictions are in good agreement with measurements. Damage from O atoms alone can only be modeled if it is assumed that the near-surface region has a significantly reduced diffusivity compared to the bulk of the film. Experiment and model agree that both photons alone and O radicals alone damage the material by removing carbon. When radicals and photons are present simultaneously during plasma exposure, however, more C removal appears to be occurring in the model than experimentally observed. Remarkably, if only radicals are exposed to the film after short (10-30 s) plasma exposures, very little additional damage is incurred during this radical-only exposure. The most straightforward interpretation of these results appears to be that photons combine synergistically with radicals in the pores to narrow the pores, thereby reducing film diffusivity in the C

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet laser

    DOEpatents

    Berkowitz, Joseph; Ruscic, Branko M.; Greene, John P.

    1986-01-01

    Transitions from the 2p.sup.4 (.sup.1 S.sub.0)3s .sup.2 S.sub.1/2 state of atomic fluorine to all allowed lower states produces laser emission at six new wavelengths: 680.7 .ANG., 682.6 .ANG., 3592.7 .ANG., 3574.1 .ANG., 6089.2 .ANG., and 6046.8 .ANG.. Coherent radiation at these new wavelengths can be generated in an atomic fluorine laser operated as an amplifier or as an oscillator.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet laser

    DOEpatents

    Berkowitz, J.; Ruscic, B.M.; Greene, J.P.

    1984-07-06

    Transitions from the 2p/sup 4/(/sup 1/S/sub 0/)3s /sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ state of atomic fluorine to all allowed loser states produces laser emission at six new wavelengths: 680.7A, 682.6A, 3592.7A, 3574.1A, 6089.2A, and 6046.8A. Coherent radiation at these new wavelengths can be generated in an atomic fluorine laser operated as an amplifier or as an oscillator.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet pulsed field ionization-photoelectron and infrared-photoinduced Rydberg ionization study of trans-1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; Woo, H-K; Wang, P; Xing, X; Ng, C Y; Lau, K-C

    2008-09-21

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectrum of trans-1,3-butadiene (trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2)) has been measured in the region of 0-1700 cm(-1) above its ionization energy (IE) to probe the vibrational modes nu(i) (+) (i=1-18) of trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2) (+). The high-frequency vibrational modes nu(i) (+) (i=19, 22, and 23) of trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2) (+) have also been probed by the VUV-infrared-photoinduced Rydberg ionization (VUV-IR-PIRI) measurement. On the basis of the semiempirical simulation of the origin VUV-PFI-PE band, the IE(trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2)) is determined to be 73 150.1+/-1.5 cm(-1) (9.06946+/-0.00019 eV). This value has been used to benchmark the state-of-the-art theoretical IE prediction based on the CCSD(T,Full)/CBS procedures, the calculation of which is reported in the present study. The vibrational bands observed in the VUV-PFI-PE and VUV-IR-PIRI spectra were assigned based on ab initio anharmonic vibrational frequencies and Franck-Condon factor calculations for the photoionization transitions. Combining the VUV-PFI-PE and VUV-IR-PIRI measurements, 17 fundamental vibrational frequencies of trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2) (+) have been determined, including nu(1) (+)=182+/-3, nu(2) (+)=300+/-3, nu(3) (+)=428+/-3, nu(4) (+)=514+/-3, nu(5) (+)=554+/-5, nu(6) (+)=901+/-3, nu(7) (+)=928+/-5, nu(8) (+)=994+/-3, nu(9) (+)=1008+/-5, nu(10) (+)=1094+/-5, nu(13) (+)=1258+/-3, nu(14) (+)=1293+/-3, nu(16) (+)=1479+/-3, nu(18) (+)=1620+/-3, nu(19) (+)=2985+/-10, nu(22) (+)=3030+/-10, and nu(23) (+)=3105+/-10 cm(-1).

  9. Impact of Xe partial pressure on the production of excimer vacuum ultraviolet emission for plasma display panels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Di; Zhang Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the effect of the Xe partial pressure on the excimer vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission intensity of the plasma display panels is investigated, both by measuring the spectral emission directly and by two-dimensional simulations. Experimentally, we find that at the high Xe partial pressure levels, there is an supra-linear increase of excimer VUV radiation and that determines the strong increase of luminance at the high pressures and high voltage. Due to the increase of the luminance and the almost unchanged discharge current, the luminous efficacy strongly increases with the Xe partial pressure. In addition, we also investigated the dynamics of the VUV generation, by measuring the decay time of the excimer VUV light as a function of the gas pressure. It is found that the decay time decreases with the increase of gas pressure. The spatial characteristics of the excimer VUV emission are also discussed. Different from the Ne and near-infrared emission, the excimer VUV emission is generated near the surface of the electrodes and increases uniformly on both sides of the anode and cathode (i.e., the bulk plasma region). Most importantly, it is found that the VUV production occurs during the afterglow period, while it is almost zero at the moment of the discharge itself. From the simulations, it can be seen that the Xe{sub 2}*({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) excimer species, which are generated from Xe*(1s{sub 5}), play a dominant role in the excimer VUV emission output at the high Xe partial pressure. The two-dimensional simulations also show that the strong increase of Xe excimer excitation states in the case of high pressure is mainly the result of the high conversion efficiency of the Xe excimer states, especially in the afterglow period. Due to the high conversion efficiency of Xe excitation species to Xe excimer species by the high collision rate in the case of high pressure, there is a strong increase of excimer VUV production, especially from the cathode.

  10. Communication: A vibrational study of propargyl cation using the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron method

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Hong; Lu Zhou; Yang Lei; Zhou Jingang; Ng, C. Y.

    2012-10-28

    By employing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron (VUV-VMI-PE) method, we have obtained a vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of gaseous propargyl radical [C{sub 3}H{sub 3}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1})] in the energy range of 0-4600 cm{sup -1} above its ionization energy. The cold C{sub 3}H{sub 3} radicals were produced from a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on 193 nm ArF photodissociation of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}Cl. The VUV-VMI-PE spectrum of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} thus obtained reveals a Franck-Condon factor (FCF) pattern with a highly dominant origin band along with weak vibrational progressions associated with excitations of the C-C {nu}{sub 5}{sup +}(a{sub 1}) and C{identical_to}C {nu}{sub 3}{sup +}(a{sub 1}) symmetric stretching modes and the CCH {nu}{sub 7}{sup +}(b{sub 1}) out-of-plane bending mode of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}(X{sup 1}A{sub 1}). The {nu}{sub 5}{sup +}(a{sub 1}) vibrational frequency of 1120 cm{sup -1} determined in the present study is lower than the value deduced from the recent Ar-tagged infrared photodissociation study by 102 cm{sup -1}, confirming the highly accurate vibrational frequency predictions obtained by the most recent state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations. The observation of the FCF disallowed {nu}{sub 7}{sup +}(b{sub 1}) mode is indicative of vibronic interactions. The discrepancy observed between the FCF pattern determined in the present study and that predicted by a recent high-level quantum theoretical investigation can be taken as evidence that the potential energy surfaces used in the latter theoretical study are in need of improvement in order to provide a reliable FCF prediction for the C{sub 3}H{sub 3}/C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} photoionization system.

  11. VUV dissociative excitation cross sections of H2O, NH3, and CH4 by electron impact. [Vacuum Ultra-Violet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute excitation functions for excited fragments resulting from electron bombardment of H2O, NH3, and CH4 by low-energy electrons (0 to 300 eV) have been measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (1100 to 1950 A). The predominant emission for each molecule was the H Lyman-alpha line, while the O I, N I, C I, and C II emissions were at least an order of magnitude weaker. Absolute cross sections at 100 eV are given along with the appearance potential of the various processes and the possible dissociative-excitation channels through which such processes proceed.

  12. Upper limits for stereoselective photodissociation of free amino acids in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C 1s edge

    SciTech Connect

    Pruemper, Georg; Viefhaus, Jens; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Rolles, Daniel; Gessner, Oliver; Lischke, Toralf; Hentges, Rainer; Wienberg, Christian; Mahler, Willy; Becker, Uwe; Langer, Burkhard; Prosperi, Tommaso; Zema, Nicola; Turchini, Stefano; Zada, Birgitt; Senf, Fred

    2004-06-01

    We measured the total and partial ion yields of the two chiral amino acids alanine and serine in the gas phase both in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C(1s) edge using circularly polarized light. We did not detect any circular dichroism asymmetry larger than 1x10{sup -3}. A similar measurement of fixed-in-space amino acids yielded an upper limit of 1x10{sup -2} for the stereoselective effect of circularly polarized light. The results obtained are relevant for quantitative models of stereoselective photodecomposition of amino acids that try to explain the homochirality of life.

  13. Infrared laser desorption/vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry of petroleum saturates: a new experimental approach for the analysis of heavy oils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenyue; Bi, Yucheng; Guo, Huijun; Pan, Yang; Qi, Fei; Deng, Wenan; Shan, Honghong

    2008-12-01

    A novel method combining infrared (IR) laser desorption with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (LD/VUV PIMS) is applied to characterize a number of petroleum saturates samples from Lungu atmospheric residue (LGAR) under different treatment procedures. The mass spectra of these saturates are well resolved with even masses as the dominant ions and are clearly sample-dependent. In order to assess the ability of IR LD/VUV PIMS to determine the average molecular weight of heavy oils, the dependence of the measured molecular weight distributions on the VUV ionization photon energies is also discussed.

  14. Inelastic processes in Ne+ and Ar+ collisions with Mg and Y surfaces leading to scattered-ion fractions and vacuum-ultraviolet photon emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, J. Wayne; Chen, Jie-Nan; Kumar, Ranjit

    1985-09-01

    Collisions of kiloelectronvolt Ne+ on Mg and Ar+ on Y yield scattered-ion fractions as high as 70% and 38%, respectively, and 1,3P--> 1S resonance radiation from the excited neutral projectile atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet range 30-200 nm. These data, along with that from the oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces, show that electron promotions within the molecular orbitals of the quasidiatomic molecule formed during the close encounter are a significant, if not dominating, process in kiloelectronvolt ion-surface collisions.

  15. Microbial survival of space vacuum and extreme ultraviolet irradiation: strain isolation and analysis during a rocket flight.

    PubMed

    Saffary, Roya; Nandakumar, Renu; Spencer, Dennis; Robb, Frank T; Davila, Joseph M; Swartz, Marvin; Ofman, Leon; Thomas, Roger J; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2002-09-24

    We have recovered new isolates from hot springs, in Yellowstone National Park and the Kamchatka Peninsula, after gamma-irradiation and exposure to high vacuum (10(-6) Pa) of the water and sediment samples. The resistance to desiccation and ionizing radiation of one of the isolates, Bacillus sp. strain PS3D, was compared to that of the mesophilic bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, a species well known for its extraordinary resistance to desiccation and high doses of ionizing radiation. Survival of these two microorganisms was determined in real and simulated space conditions, including exposure to extreme UV radiation (10-100 nm) during a rocket flight. We found that up to 15 days of desiccation alone had little effect on the viability of either bacterium. In contrast, exposure to space vacuum ( approximately 10(-6) Pa) decreased cell survival by two and four orders of magnitude for Bacillus sp. strain PS3D and D. radiodurans, respectively. Simultaneous exposure to space vacuum and extreme UV radiation further decreased the survival of both organisms, compared to unirradiated controls. This is the first report on the isolated effect of extreme UV at 30 nm on cell survival. Extreme UV can only be transmitted through high vacuum, therefore its penetration into the cells may only be superficial, suggesting that in contrast to near UV, membrane proteins rather than DNA were damaged by the radiation.

  16. Morphological study into the temperature dependence of solid ammonia under astrochemical conditions using vacuum ultraviolet and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Anita; Mukerji, Robin J; Davis, Michael P; Holtom, Philip D; Webb, Sarah M; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Hoffmann, Søren V; Shaw, David A; Mason, Nigel J

    2007-06-28

    The authors present the results of a morphological study of solid ammonia using both Fourier-transform infrared and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy. Dramatic changes in the VUV and infrared spectra at temperatures between 65 and 85 K provide a deeper insight into the structure of ammonia ice particularly with the observation of an exciton transition at 194 nm (6.39 eV) in the VUV spectrum, revealing a structure that is composed of crystallites. A complementary structure is observed in the IR spectrum at 1100 cm(-1) which is assigned to the symmetric deformation of ammonia molecules at the surfaces of the crystallites. Such spectral signatures may be used to identify the environment within which the ammonia ice is formed and provide a new route for obtaining information on the physical and chemical conditions occurring within the interstellar medium, on the surfaces of planetary bodies, and in Kuiper belt objects.

  17. Double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with ambient gas in the vacuum ultraviolet: Optimization of parameters for detection of carbon and sulfur in steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Hayden, P.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2014-11-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) has been applied to calibrated steel samples for the low concentration level detection of the light elements, carbon and sulfur in steel. Experimental optimization parameters, aimed at enhancing the sensitivity of the technique, included short wavelength spectral detection, double-pulse (DP) operation, variable focusing conditions and different ambient environments in terms of gas type and pressure. Two lasers were employed respectively as an ablation laser (Spectron: 1.06 μm/200 mJ/15 ns) and a reheating laser (Surelite: 1.06 μm/665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear geometry. The results include insight into the most salient experimental variables and limits of detection in the parts per million range.

  18. 167.75-nm vacuum-ultraviolet ps laser by eighth-harmonic generation of a 1342-nm Nd:YVO4 amplifier in KBBF.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shi-Bo; Zong, Nan; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Shen-Jin; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Feng-Feng; Tu, Wei; Shang, Lin-Qiao; Liu, Li-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Cui, Da-Fu; Peng, Qin-Jun; Li, Ru-Kang; Chen, Chuang-Tian; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate a ps 167.75-nm vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser by cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG). The VUV laser is produced by eighth-harmonic generation (EHG) of a mode-locked ps 1342-nm Nd:YVO4 amplifier through three stages cascaded SHG with two LiB3O5 crystals and one KBe2BO3F2 crystal, successively. The 167.75-nm laser provides up to 65-μW output power, and the corresponding photon flux and photon flux density are 5.5×10(13)  s(-1) and 1.6×10(18)  s(-1)·cm(-2), respectively.

  19. Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Guiling; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Guochun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wentao; Liu, Haiyun; Zhao, Lin; Meng, Jianqiao; Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Zhou, X J

    2008-02-01

    The design and performance of the first vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser-based angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) system are described. The VUV laser with a photon energy of 6.994 eV and bandwidth of 0.26 meV is achieved from the second harmonic generation using a novel nonlinear optical crystal KBe2BO3F2. The new VUV laser-based ARPES system exhibits superior performance, including superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV, high momentum resolution, superhigh photon flux, and much enhanced bulk sensitivity, which are demonstrated from measurements on a typical Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 high temperature superconductor. Issues and further development related to the VUV laser-based photoemission technique are discussed.

  20. Development of two-channel prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer with back-illuminated charge-coupled device and microchannel plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, C. R.; Choi, S. H.; Cheon, M. S.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Biel, W.; Barnsley, R.

    2010-10-15

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer of a five-channel spectral system is designed for ITER main plasma impurity measurement. To develop and verify the system design, a two-channel prototype system is fabricated with No. 3 (14.4-31.8 nm) and No. 4 (29.0-60.0 nm) among the five channels. The optical system consists of a collimating mirror to collect the light from source to slit, two holographic diffraction gratings with toroidal geometry, and two different electronic detectors. For the test of the prototype system, a hollow cathode lamp is used as a light source. To find the appropriate detector for ITER VUV system, two kinds of detectors of the back-illuminated charge-coupled device and the microchannel plate electron multiplier are tested, and their performance has been investigated.

  1. Practical Aspects of Molecular Spectroscopy in Plasmas 4. The Role of Molecular Spectroscopy in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Region for the Development of a Negative Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Masaki

    Fundamental plasma processes of negative ions in a low pressure region (a gas pressure Pg < 1.5 Pa) have been studied using the photodetachment technique and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopic measurements in the spectral range from 100 to 180 nm. Understanding the behavior of a plasma with negative ions, in particular, the correlation between H- density and vibrationally excited H2 density, is of great interest in the field of atomic-molecular physics and ion source developments. The volume and the surface effects of negative ions are discussed taking into account the e-V, the E-V, and the RD processes, and the measured VUV spectrum is compared with the synthetic one. The cascade transition to the B1Σ+u state by the electron excitation contributes to the production of the highly vibrationally excited levels of the X1Σ+g ground electronic state.

  2. Valence and Rydberg Excitations of 2,4- and 2,6-Difluorotoluene as Studied by Vacuum Ultraviolet Synchrotron Radiation and ab Initio Calculations.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A Souza; da Silva, F Ferreira; Rebelo, A; Hoffmann, S V; Bettega, M H F; Limão-Vieira, P

    2016-11-17

    Here we report novel comprehensive investigations on the electronic state spectroscopies of isolated 2,4- and 2,6-difluorotoluene in the gas phase by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoabsorption measurements in the 4.4-10.8 eV energy range, with absolute cross-section values derived. We also present the first set of ab initio calculations (vertical energies and oscillator strengths), which we have used in the assignment of valence transitions of the difluorotoluene molecules, together with calculated ionization energies to obtain the Rydberg transitions for both molecules. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to estimate the photolysis lifetimes of 2,4- and 2,6-difluorotoluene in the Earth's atmosphere.

  3. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  4. Electronic structure, photoemission spectra, and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, K.; Schäfer, W.; Schreiber, M.; Söchtig, J.; Trendel, G.; Treusch, J.; Grandke, T.; Stolz, H. J.

    1981-11-01

    Optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been measured in the range from 2 to 10 eV and have been combined with ultraviolet-photoemission-spectroscopy (UPS)-measurements at 21.1 and 40.8 eV. A quantitative band calculation is presented, which takes into account anion-anion interaction as well as electronic states of the Cs+ ion. The prominent features of earlier band models and measurements are reestablished through our measurements and calculations, namely that the valence band consists of anionic p functions and Pb 6s functions, the lowest conduction band being Pb 6p type, and the lowest gap occuring at the R point of the Brillouin zone. Inclusion of a further (Cs 6s-type) conduction band, however, is necessary to bring the calculated joint density of states into agreement with vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra. The calculated densities of states of the valence bands are in quantitative agreement with those deduced from our UPS measurements.

  5. Comparative survival analysis of Deinococcus radiodurans and the haloarchaea Natrialba magadii and Haloferax volcanii exposed to vacuum ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Mauas, Pablo J D; Cortón, Eduardo; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2011-12-01

    The haloarchaea Natrialba magadii and Haloferax volcanii, as well as the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, were exposed to vacuum UV (VUV) radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. Cell monolayers (containing 10(5) to 10(6) cells per sample) were prepared over polycarbonate filters and irradiated under high vacuum (10(-5) Pa) with polychromatic synchrotron radiation. N. magadii was remarkably resistant to high vacuum with a survival fraction of (3.77±0.76)×10(-2), which was larger than that of D. radiodurans (1.13±0.23)×10(-2). The survival fraction of the haloarchaea H. volcanii, of (3.60±1.80)×10(-4), was much smaller. Radiation resistance profiles were similar between the haloarchaea and D. radiodurans for fluences up to 150 J m(-2). For fluences larger than 150 J m(-2), there was a significant decrease in the survival of haloarchaea, and in particular H. volcanii did not survive. Survival for D. radiodurans was 1% after exposure to the higher VUV fluence (1350 J m(-2)), while N. magadii had a survival lower than 0.1%. Such survival fractions are discussed regarding the possibility of interplanetary transfer of viable microorganisms and the possible existence of microbial life in extraterrestrial salty environments such as the planet Mars and Jupiter's moon Europa. This is the first work to report survival of haloarchaea under simulated interplanetary conditions.

  6. Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

  7. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    SciTech Connect

    Sobrado, J. M. Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2015-10-15

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  8. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Sobrado, J M; Martín-Soler, J; Martín-Gago, J A

    2015-10-01

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  9. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  10. Electrical conductivity of cluster-assembled carbon/titania nanocomposite films irradiated by highly focused vacuum ultraviolet photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Amati, M.; Lenardi, C.; Agostino, R. G.; Caruso, T.; Ducati, C.; La Rosa, S.; Bongiorno, G.; Cassina, V.; Podesta, P.; Ravagnan, L.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2007-03-15

    We investigated the electrical transport properties of nanostructured carbon and carbon/titanium oxide nanocomposite films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition and irradiated by highly focused vacuum UV photon beam. We have observed a relevant increase of the density of states at Fermi level, suggesting that the films acquire a 'metallic' character. This is confirmed by the increment of the conductivity of four orders of magnitude for pure nanostructured carbon films and at least eight orders of magnitude for films containing 9 at. % of titanium. A partial reversibility of the process is observed by exposing the modified films to molecular oxygen or directly to air. We demonstrate the capability of writing micrometric conductive strips (2-3 {mu}m width and 60 {mu}m length) and controlling the variation of the conductivity as a function of the titanium concentration.

  11. Determination of Spectroscopic Properties of Atmospheric Molecules from High Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Cross Section and Wavelength Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Yoshino, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the spectroscopy and the cross sections of the simple molecules of atmospheric interest such as oxygen, nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and water. We have made cross section measurements on an absolute base without the effects from the limited instrumental resolution. We have used the following different instruments- the grating spectrometer (6.65-m at CfA, 3-m at Photon Factory), VUV Fourier transform spectrometer at Imperial College, and then moved the same one to the Photon Factory. Selection of the instruments depend on the appearance of molecular bands, and their wavelength region. For example, the cross section measurements of Doppler limited bands can been done with the Fourier transform spectrometer at the very high resolution (0.025/ cm resolution). All of these spectroscopic measurements are needed for accurate calculations of the production of atomic oxygen penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere, and photochemistry of minor molecules.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons. III. Diffusion of photo-produced H2 as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Dartois, E.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) has been proposed as one of the carbonaceous solids detected in the interstellar medium. Energetic processing of the a-C:H particles leads to the dissociation of the C-H bonds and the formation of hydrogen molecules and small hydrocarbons. Photo-produced H2 molecules in the bulk of the dust particles can diffuse out to the gas phase and contribute to the total H2 abundance. Aims: We have simulated this process in the laboratory with plasma-produced a-C:H and a-C:D analogs under astrophysically relevant conditions to investigate the dependence of the diffusion as a function of temperature. Methods: Experimental simulations were performed in a high-vacuum chamber, with complementary experiments carried out in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber. Plasma-produced a-C:H and a-C:D analogs were UV-irradiated using a microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. Molecules diffusing to the gas-phase were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer, providing a measurement of the outgoing H2 or D2 flux. By comparing the experimental measurements with the expected flux from a one-dimensional diffusion model, a diffusion coefficient D could be derived for experiments carried out at different temperatures. Results: Dependence on the diffusion coefficient D with the temperature followed an Arrhenius-type equation. The activation energy for the diffusion process was estimated (ED(H2) = 1660 ± 110 K, ED(D2) = 2090 ± 90 K), as well as the pre-exponential factor (D0(H2) = 0.0007 cm2 s-1, D0(D2) = 0.0045 cm2 s-1). Conclusions: The strong decrease of the diffusion coefficient at low dust particle temperatures exponentially increases the diffusion times in astrophysical environments. Therefore, transient dust heating by cosmic rays needs to be invoked for the release of the photo-produced H2 molecules in cold photon-dominated regions, where destruction of the aliphatic component in hydrogenated amorphous carbons most probably takes place.

  13. Ultraviolet-enhanced photodetection in a graphene/SiO{sub 2}/Si capacitor structure with a vacuum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myungji; Kim, Hong Koo

    2015-09-14

    We report photodetection properties of a graphene/oxide/silicon capacitor structure with a nanoscale vacuum channel. The photogenerated two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) inversion charges at SiO{sub 2}/Si interface are extracted out to air and transported along the void channel at low bias voltage (<5 V). A monolayer graphene, placed on top of SiO{sub 2} and suspended on the void channel, is utilized as a photon-transparent counter-electrode to the 2DEG layer and a collector electrode for the out-of-plane transported electrons, respectively. The photocurrent extracted through a void channel reveals high responsivity (1.0 A/W at 633 nm) as measured in a broad spectral range (325–1064 nm), especially demonstrating a UV-enhanced performance (0.43 A/W responsivity and 384% internal quantum efficiency at 325 nm). The mechanisms underlying photocarrier generation, emission, and transport in a suspended-graphene/SiO{sub 2}/Si structure are proposed.

  14. Absorption spectroscopy of xenon and ethylene-noble gas mixtures at high pressure: towards Bose-Einstein condensation of vacuum ultraviolet photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Christian; Brausemann, Rudolf; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Christopoulos, Stavros; Weitz, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation is a phenomenon well known for material particles as cold atomic gases, and this concept has in recent years been extended to photons confined in microscopic optical cavities. Essential for the operation of such a photon condensate is a thermalization mechanism that conserves the average particle number, as in the visible spectral regime can be realized by subsequent absorption re-emission processes in dye molecules. Here we report on the status of an experimental effort aiming at the extension of the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons towards the vacuum ultraviolet spectral regime, with gases at high-pressure conditions serving as a thermalization medium for the photon gas. We have recorded absorption spectra of xenon gas at up to 30 bar gas pressure of the 5p^6-5p^56s transition with a wavelength close to 147 nm. Moreover, spectra of ethylene noble gas mixtures between 158 and 180 nm wavelength are reported.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of nitrogen and hydrogen dissociation from vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy in a developing low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas; Frank, Klaus

    2013-05-06

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation density of N and H atoms present in a developing low temperature plasma, based on the emission and self-absorption of vacuum ultraviolet radiation produced from the plasma. Spark plasmas are produced via pulsed discharge in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures at atmospheric pressure, where information on the dissociated densities of the constituent gas molecules is desired without employing invasive diagnostic techniques. By analyzing the self-absorption line profile of 121.5 nm Lyman-{alpha} H radiation emitted within the first {approx}1.0 mm of plasma near the anode tip, a peak dissociated H atom concentration of 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed {approx}100 ns into spark formation, with an estimated electron density of 2.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} determined from Stark broadening. Similarly, simultaneous line fitting of the N 120.0/124.3 nm emission profiles revealed a peak dissociated N atom concentration of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} during the same discharge period.

  16. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulvio, D.; Brieva, A. C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H.; Jäger, C.; Henning, T.

    2014-07-01

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O2 actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY122 = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY160 = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O2 actinometry.

  17. Vacuum Ultraviolet Emission Spectrum Measurement of a Microwave-discharge Hydrogen-flow Lamp in Several Configurations: Application to Photodesorption of CO Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Chuang, K.-J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Ip, W.-H.; Wu, C.-Y. R.

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H2 molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H2 inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H2 versus H2 seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF2 versus CaF2). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H2 molecular emission ranges.

  18. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2014-01-20

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H{sub 2} molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H{sub 2} inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H{sub 2} versus H{sub 2} seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF{sub 2} versus CaF{sub 2}). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H{sub 2} molecular emission ranges.

  19. Full observation of ultrafast cascaded radiationless transitions from S2(ππ(∗)) state of pyrazine using vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging.

    PubMed

    Horio, Takuya; Spesyvtsev, Roman; Nagashima, Kazuki; Ingle, Rebecca A; Suzuki, Yoshi-Ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2016-07-28

    A photoexcited molecule undergoes multiple deactivation and reaction processes simultaneously or sequentially, which have been observed by combinations of various experimental methods. However, a single experimental method that enables complete observation of the photo-induced dynamics would be of great assistance for such studies. Here we report a full observation of cascaded electronic dephasing from S2(ππ(*)) in pyrazine (C4N2H4) by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TRPEI) using 9.3-eV vacuum ultraviolet pulses with a sub-20 fs time duration. While we previously demonstrated a real-time observation of the ultrafast S2(ππ(*)) → S1(nπ(*)) internal conversion in pyrazine using TRPEI with UV pulses, this study presents a complete observation of the dynamics including radiationless transitions from S1 to S0 (internal conversion) and T1(nπ(*)) (intersystem crossing). Also discussed are the role of (1)Au(nπ(*)) in the internal conversion and the configuration interaction of the S2(ππ(*)) electronic wave function.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the monitoring of volatile organic compounds in breath gas: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Beate; Groeger, Thomas; Harrison, Dale; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-09-16

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy was recently introduced as a new detection system for one, as well as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and successfully applied to the analysis of various analytes in several matrices. In this study, its suitability for the analysis of breath metabolites was investigated and the impact of a finite volume of the absorption cell and makeup gas pressure was evaluated for volatile analytes in terms of sensitivity and chromatographic resolution. A commercial available VUV absorption spectrometer was coupled to GC×GC and applied to the analysis of highly polar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Breath gas samples were acquired by needle trap micro extraction (NTME) during a glucose challenge and analysed by the applied technique. Regarding qualitative and quantitative information, the VGA-100 is compatible with common GC×GC detection systems like FID and even TOFMS. Average peak widths of 300ms and LODs in the lower ng range were achieved using GC×GC-VUV. Especially small oxygenated breath metabolites show intense and characteristic absorption patterns in the VUV region. Challenge responsive VOCs could be identified and monitored during a glucose challenge. The new VUV detection technology might especially be of benefit for applications in clinical research.

  1. Measurement of H and H/sub 2/ populations in-situ in a low-temperature plasma by vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Stearns, J.W.; Doebele, H.G.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A new technique, vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy, has been developed to quantitatively determine the absolute density of H and H/sub 2/ within a plasma. The technique is particularly well suited to measurement in a plasma, where high charged particle and photon background complicate other methods of detection. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique allows for the measurement of the rotational-vibrational state distribution of H/sub 2/ as well as the translational temperature of the atoms and molecules. The technique has been used to study both pulsed and continuous H/sup /minus// ion-source plasma discharges. H/sub 2/ state distributions in a multicusp ''volume'' H/sup /minus// ion- source plasma show a high degree of internal excitation, with levels up to v = 5 and J = 8 being observed. The method is applicable for a very wide range of plasma conditions. Emission measurements from excited states of H are also reported. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Infrared-vacuum ultraviolet pulsed field ionization-photoelectron study of C2H4(+) using a high-resolution infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xi; Reed, Beth; Bahng, Mi-Kyung; Ng, C Y

    2008-03-27

    The infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (IR-VUV-PFI-PE) spectrum for C2H4(X1A(g), v11 = 1, N'(Ka'Kc') = 3(03)) in the VUV range of 83,000-84,800 cm(-1) obtained using a single mode infrared laser revealed 24 rotationally resolved vibrational bands for the ion C2H4(+)(X2B(3u)) ground state. The frequencies and symmetry of the vibrational bands thus determined, together with the anharmonic frequency predictions calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level, have allowed the unambiguous assignment of these vibrational bands. These bands are mostly combination bands. The measured frequencies of these bands yield the fundamental frequencies for v8+ = 1103 +/- 10 cm(-1) and v10+ = 813 +/- 10 cm(-1) of C2H4(+)(X2B(3u)), which have not been determined previously. The present IR-VUV-PFI-PE study also provides truly rovibrationally selected and resolved state-to-state cross sections for the photoionization transitions C2H4(X1A(g); v11, N'(Ka'Kc')) --> C2H4(+)(X2B(3u); vi+, N+(Ka+Kc+)), where N'(Ka'Kc') denotes the rotational level of C2H4(X1A(g); v11), and vi+ and N+(Ka+Kc+) represent the vibrational and rotational states of the cation.

  3. Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with a vacuum-ultraviolet photon source based on laser high-order harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Wernet, Philippe; Gaudin, Jérôme; Godehusen, Kai; Schwarzkopf, Olaf; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    A laser-based tabletop approach to femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with photons in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) energy range is described. The femtosecond VUV pulses are produced by high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of an amplified femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system. Two generations of the same setup and results from photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase are discussed. In both generations, a toroidal grating monochromator was used to select one harmonic in the photon energy range of 20-30 eV. The first generation of the setup was used to perform photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase to determine the bandwidth of the source. We find that our HHG source has a bandwidth of 140 ± 40 meV. The second and current generation is optimized for femtosecond pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy with high flux and a small spot size at the sample of the femtosecond probe pulses. The VUV radiation is focused into the interaction region with a toroidal mirror to a spot smaller than 100 × 100 μm(2) and the flux amounts to 10(10) photons/s at the sample at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The duration of the monochromatized VUV pulses is determined to be 120 fs resulting in an overall pump-probe time resolution of 135 ± 5 fs. We show how this setup can be used to map the transient valence electronic structure in molecular dissociation.

  4. Infrared vacuum-ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron study of CH3Br+ (X(2)E(3/2)).

    PubMed

    Xing, X; Wang, P; Reed, B; Baek, S-J; Ng, C Y

    2008-10-02

    By preparing methyl bromide (CH3Br) in selected rotational levels of the CH3Br(X(1)A1; v1 = 1) state with infrared (IR) laser excitation prior to vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) measurements, we have observed rotationally resolved photoionization transitions to the CH3Br(+)(X(2)E(3/2); v1(+) = 1) state, where v1 and v1(+) are the symmetric C-H stretching vibrational mode for the neutral and cation, respectively. The VUV-PFI-PE origin band for CH3Br(+)(X(2)E(3/2)) has also been measured. The simulation of these IR-VUV-PFI-PE and VUV-PFI-PE spectra have allowed the determination of the v1(+) vibrational frequency (2901.8 +/- 0.5 cm(-1)) and the ionization energies of the origin band (85 028.3 +/- 0.5 cm(-1)) and the v1(+) = 1 <-- v1 = 1 band (84 957.9 +/- 0.5 cm(-1)).

  5. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  6. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: Application to low--temperature kinetics and product detection

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-10-12

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radicalneutralchemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has beendeveloped that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion withexcellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by theairfoil is negligible. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification basedon the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic ratesclose to the collision-determined limit.

  7. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-06-10

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman- region) in the interstellar medium.

  8. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-02

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman-a region) in the interstellar medium.

  9. Valence and Ionic Lowest-Lying Electronic States of Isobutyl Formate Studied by High-Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoabsorption, Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Ab Initio Calculations.

    PubMed

    Śmiałek, M A; Łabuda, M; Guthmuller, J; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; MacDonald, M A; Zuin, L; Mason, N J; Limão-Vieira, P

    2015-08-13

    The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of isobutyl formate, C5H10O2, yet reported is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-118.0 nm) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of isobutyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.0 to 27.0 eV). The value of the first ionization energy was determined to be 10.508 eV (adiabatic) and 10.837 eV (vertical). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band, predominantly resulting from C-O and C═O stretches of the molecule. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of isobutyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km), indicating that the hydroxyl radical processes will be the main loss process for isobutyl formate.

  10. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region.

    PubMed

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H D; Baker, Neville; Johansson, Erik M J; Rensmo, Håkan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of ~8 to ~120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  11. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. II. Rare-gas plasmas and Ar-molecular gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Culver, Cody; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2015-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions from excited plasma species can play a variety of roles in processing plasmas, including damaging the surface properties of materials used in semiconductor processing. Depending on their wavelength, VUV photons can easily transmit thin upper dielectric layers and affect the electrical characteristics of the devices. Despite their importance, measuring VUV fluxes is complicated by the fact that few materials transmit at VUV wavelengths, and both detectors and windows are easily damaged by plasma exposure. The authors have previously reported on measuring VUV fluxes in pure argon plasmas by monitoring the concentrations of Ar(3p{sup 5}4s) resonance atoms that produce the VUV emissions using noninvasive optical emission spectroscopy in the visible/near-infrared wavelength range [Boffard et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 021304 (2014)]. Here, the authors extend this technique to other rare-gases (Ne, Kr, and Xe) and argon-molecular gas plasmas (Ar/H{sub 2}, Ar/O{sub 2}, and Ar/N{sub 2}). Results of a model for VUV emissions that couples radiation trapping and the measured rare-gas resonance level densities are compared to measurements made with both a calibrated VUV photodiode and a sodium salicylate fluorescence detection scheme. In these more complicated gas mixtures, VUV emissions from a variety of sources beyond the principal resonance levels of the rare gases are found to contribute to the total VUV flux.

  12. On BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor degradation mechanism by vacuum-ultraviolet excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, G.; Moine, B.

    2005-12-01

    Additional to a correct color and a high efficiency, phosphors for plasma display panels must maintain their light output for thousands of hours. Often the degradation is the restricting factor in using phosphors. In this article, the mechanism of luminance decrease in blue-emitting BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor during the operation of the PDPs has been studied. It is shown experimentally that the aging process is mainly due to the vacuum-ultraviolet excitation (VUV). It is demonstrated that the degradation mechanism can be accelerated by using a 193 nm laser excitation. Based on excitation, reflectance, thermoluminescence spectra, and aging or annealing processes by laser excitation, the main causes of the degradation are demonstrated. The aging process can be separated in two different processes according to the temperature: a first one, at low temperature, corresponding to the autoionization of luminescent centers (Eu{sup 2+}{yields}Eu{sup 3+}); and a second one, at high temperature, linked to the formation of traps in the phosphor. These traps induce a perturbation of the energy migration in the phosphor. In addition, the relevant parameters of trap formation are highlighted: density of the VUV excitation, temperature, and atmosphere/pressure surrounding the phosphor. A model of BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor degradation mechanism is proposed.

  13. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fulvio, D. E-mail: dfu@oact.inaf.it; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-07-07

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O{sub 2} actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY{sub 122} = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY{sub 160} = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O{sub 2} actinometry.

  14. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  15. High-resolution Rydberg tagging time-of-flight measurements of atomic photofragments by single-photon vacuum ultraviolet laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brant; Zhou Jingang; Yang Lei; Ng, C. Y.

    2008-12-15

    By coupling a comprehensive tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser system to a velocity-mapped ion imaging apparatus, we show that high-resolution high-n Rydberg tagging time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of nascent atomic photofragments formed by laser photodissociation can be made using single-photon VUV laser photoexcitation. To illustrate this single-photon Rydberg tagging TOF method, we present here the results of the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and S({sup 3}P{sub 2}) formed in the photodissociation of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} at 193.3 and 202.3 nm, respectively. These results are compared to those obtained by employing the VUV laser photoionization time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging technique. The fact that the kinetic energy resolutions achieved in the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O and S atoms are found to be higher than those observed in the VUV laser photoionization, time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging studies show that the single-photon VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method is useful and complementary to state-of-the-art time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging measurements of heavier atomic photofragments, such as O and S atoms. Furthermore, the general agreement observed between the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF and velocity-mapped ion imaging experiments supports the conclusion that the lifetimes of the tagged Rydberg states of O and S atoms are sufficiently long to allow the reliable determination of state-resolved UV photodissociation cross sections of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} by using the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method.

  16. High-resolution Rydberg tagging time-of-flight measurements of atomic photofragments by single-photon vacuum ultraviolet laser excitation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brant; Zhou, Jingang; Yang, Lei; Ng, C Y

    2008-12-01

    By coupling a comprehensive tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser system to a velocity-mapped ion imaging apparatus, we show that high-resolution high-n Rydberg tagging time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of nascent atomic photofragments formed by laser photodissociation can be made using single-photon VUV laser photoexcitation. To illustrate this single-photon Rydberg tagging TOF method, we present here the results of the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O((3)P(2)) and S((3)P(2)) formed in the photodissociation of SO(2) and CS(2) at 193.3 and 202.3 nm, respectively. These results are compared to those obtained by employing the VUV laser photoionization time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging technique. The fact that the kinetic energy resolutions achieved in the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O and S atoms are found to be higher than those observed in the VUV laser photoionization, time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging studies show that the single-photon VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method is useful and complementary to state-of-the-art time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging measurements of heavier atomic photofragments, such as O and S atoms. Furthermore, the general agreement observed between the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF and velocity-mapped ion imaging experiments supports the conclusion that the lifetimes of the tagged Rydberg states of O and S atoms are sufficiently long to allow the reliable determination of state-resolved UV photodissociation cross sections of SO(2) and CS(2) by using the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method.

  17. Infrared-vacuum ultraviolet-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron study of CH(3)I(+) using a high-resolution infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xi; Reed, Beth; Bahng, Mi-Kyung; Baek, S-J; Wang, Peng; Ng, C Y

    2008-03-14

    By using a high-resolution single mode infrared-optical parametric oscillator laser to prepare CH(3)I in single (J,K) rotational levels of the nu(1) (symmetric C-H stretching) =1 vibrational state, we have obtained rovibrationally resolved infrared-vacuum ultraviolet-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (IR-VUV-PFI-PE) spectra of the CH(3)I(+)(X(2)E(32);nu(1)(+)=1;J(+),P(+)) band, where (J,K) and (J(+),P(+)) represent the respective rotational quantum numbers of CH(3)I and CH(3)I(+). The IR-VUV-PFI-PE spectra observed for K=0 and 1 are found to have nearly identical structures. The IR-VUV-PFI-PE spectra for (J,K)=(5,0) and (7, 0) are also consistent with the previous J-selected IR-VUV-PFI-PE measurements. The analysis of these spectra indicates that the photoionization cross section of CH(3)I depends strongly on DeltaJ(+)=J(+)-J: but not on J and K. This observation lends strong support for the major assumption adopted for the semiempirical simulation scheme, which has been used for the simulation of the origin bands observed in VUV-PFI-PE study of polyatomic molecules. Using the state-to-state photoionization cross sections determined in this IR-VUV study, we have obtained excellent simulation of the VUV-PFI-PE origin band of CH(3)I(+)(X (2)E(32)), yielding more precise IE(CH(3)I)=76 930.7+/-0.5 cm(-1) and nu(1) (+)=2937.8+/-0.2 cm(-1).

  18. Flash pyrolysis of ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl iodides as monitored by supersonic expansion vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kevin H; Lemieux, Jessy M; Zhang, Jingsong

    2009-01-22

    The thermal decomposition of ethyl and propyl iodides, along with select isotopomers, up to 1300 K was performed by flash pyrolysis with a 20-100 mus time scale. The pyrolysis was followed by supersonic expansion to isolate the reactive intermediates and initial products, and detection was accomplished by vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The products monitored, such as CH(3), CH(3)I, C(2)H(5), C(2)H(4), HI, I, C(3)H(7), C(3)H(6), and I(2), provide for the simultaneous and direct observation of molecular elimination and bond fission pathways in ethyl and propyl iodides. In the pyrolysis of ethyl iodide, both C-I bond fission and HI molecular elimination pathways are competitive at the elevated temperatures, with C-I bond fission being preferred; at temperatures >or=1000 K, the ethyl radical products further dissociate to ethene + H atoms. In the pyrolysis of isopropyl iodide, both HI molecular elimination and C-I bond fission are observed and the molecular elimination channel is more important at all the elevated temperatures; the isopropyl radicals produced in the C-I fission channel undergo further decomposition to propene + H at temperatures >or=850 K. In contrast, bond fission is found to dominate the n-propyl iodide pyrolysis; at temperatures >or=950 K the n-propyl radicals produced decompose into methyl radical + ethene and propene + H atom. Isotopomer experiments characterize the extent of surface reactions and verify that the HI molecular eliminations in ethyl and propyl iodides proceed by a C1, C2 elimination mechanism (the 1,2 intramolecular elimination).

  19. 25 W of average power at 172 nm in the vacuum ultraviolet from flat, efficient lamps driven by interlaced arrays of microcavity plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-J.; Herring, C. M.; Mironov, A. E.; Cho, J. H.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    More than 25 W of average power and >800 W of peak power have been generated at λ =172 nm (h ν =7.2 eV) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from the Xe2 molecule in flat, 10 × 10 cm2 lamps having an active area and volume of 80 cm2 and <60 cm3, respectively. Powered by at least two interlaced arrays of microplasmas generated within cavities fabricated into an interior surface of the <6 mm thick lamp, these lamps have an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency >20 % . For a bipolar voltage waveform driving frequency of 137 kHz and a 54% Xe/Ne gas fill mixture at a 300 K pressure of 550 Torr, the lamp generates as much as 31.5 W of average power and intensities >350 mW cm-2 in 40-60 μJ, 70±10 ns FWHM pulses produced in a burst mode-four pulses of 600-850 W peak power in every cycle of the driving waveform. The lamp intensity is uniform to within ±2.5% at ≥10 mm from its surface and average power varies linearly with pulse repetition frequency throughout the 18-135 kHz interval. The spectral breadth of the Xe dimer emission is ˜9 nm FWHM and time-resolved, spatial intensity maps show improved utilization of the power pulse (VṡI) with two or more microcavity arrays that are interleaved. This photonic source technology is capable of generating unprecedented power levels in the VUV spectral region (e.g., ˜2.5 kW m-2) with tiled lamps.

  20. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source

    SciTech Connect

    Leplat, N.; Rossi, M. J.

    2013-11-15

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300–630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10{sup 11} and 5.0 × 10{sup 11} molecule s{sup −1} cm{sup −3} of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup •} (ethyl) and t-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}{sup •} (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K.

  1. A polarizer for vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, D. L.; Phillips, W. G.; Wirick, M.; Forbes, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    An MgF2 double Rochon prism, useful as a polarizer or analyzer in wavelengths longer than 1300A is described. Measurements of MgF2 transmission and of polarizer angular beam deviation from 1150 to 2900A are presented. The prism is comprised of 2.25 mm, MgF2 depolarizers, optically contacted. At normal incidence, a 4% transmission gain was measured from 6000 to 2200A, compared with air spaced elements. One depolarizer was vibrated to 40 g from 20 to 3500 Hz without deterioration in optical contact. Transmissions below 1400A are not good. In thin samples, surface loss is twice absorption loss in the range 1150 to 1500A. Refraction indices and a computer ray trace were used in processing photographic beam divergence data. If care is taken to remedy scattering effects, the prism is an efficient on-axis polarizer in the 1300 to 3000A range.

  2. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, N; Joyeux, D; Phalippou, D; Rodier, J C; Polack, F; Vervloet, M; Nahon, L

    2009-04-01

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of delta(sigma)=0.33 cm-1 (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to lambda=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500,000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  3. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, N. de; Polack, F.; Vervloet, M.; Nahon, L.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C.

    2009-04-15

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of {delta}{sigma}=0.33 cm{sup -1} (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to {lambda}=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500 000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Vacuum Ultraviolet-Excited Luminescence Properties of Novel Dy3+-doped GdPO4 White Light Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guo-Cai; Wang, Yu-Hua; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Jia-Chi; Lu, Yang-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Novel Dy3+-doped GdPO4 white light phosphors with a monoclinic system are successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method at 240°C. The strong absorption at around 147 nm in the excitation spectrum is assigned to the host absorption. It is suggested that the vacuum ultraviolet excited energy is transferred from the host to the Dy3+ ions. The f - d transition of the Dy3+ ion is observed to be located at 182 nm, which is consistent with the calculated value using Dorenbos's expression. Under 147nm excitation, Gd0.92PO4:0.08Dy3+ phosphor exhibits two emission bands located at 572 nm (yellow) and 478 nm (blue), which correspond to the hypersensitive transitions 4F9/2-6H13/2 and 4F9/2-6H15/2. The two emission bands lead to the white light. Because of the strong absorption at about 147nm, Gd0.92PO4:0.08Dy3+ under vacuum ultraviolet excitation is an effective white light phosphor, and has promising applications to mercury-free lamps.

  5. Ejecta particle size measurements from the break-up of micro-jets in vacuum and helium gas using ultraviolet in-line Fraunhofer holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, D. S.; Pazuchanics, P. D.; Johnson, R. P.; Tunnell, T. W.; Smalley, D. D.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Marks, D. G.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Stevens, G. D.; LaLone, B. M.; Marshall, B. F.; Turley, W. D.

    2017-01-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μs. The diagnostic will be described and results from high-explosive shock-driven tin ejecta experiments will be presented.

  6. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  7. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: A novel Dy3+-doped GdPO4 white-light phosphors under vacuum ultraviolet excitation for Hg-free lamps application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guo-Cai; Wang, Yu-Hua; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Jia-Chi

    2009-10-01

    Novel Dy3+-doped GdPO4 white light phosphors with monoclinic system were successfully synthesised by hydrothermal method at 240 °C. This paper investigates the luminescence properties of white-light Gd1-xPO4:xDy3+ under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation. The strong absorption at around 147 nm in excitation spectrum energy can be transferred to the energy levels of Dy3+ ion from the host absorption. Additionally, this white light phosphors are activated by a single Dy3+ ion and with a lower preparation temperature, which tend to decrease the consumption of rare earth resource and energy. Therefore, the luminescence of Gd1-xPO4:xDy3+ under VUV excitation is effective, and proves to be promising in application to mercury-free lamp.

  8. Mass-analyzed threshold ionization study of vinyl bromide cation in the first excited electronic state using vacuum-ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave mixing in Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mina; Kim, Myung Soo

    2005-11-01

    The vibrational spectrum of the vinyl bromide cation in the first excited electronic state ÃA'2 was obtained by one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. The use of an improved vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source based on four-wave sum frequency mixing in Hg resulted in excellent sensitivity for MATI signals. From the MATI spectrum, the ionization energy to the ÃA'2 state of the cation was determined to be 10.9150±0.0006eV. Nearly complete vibrational assignments for the MATI peaks were possible by utilizing the vibrational frequencies and Franck-Condon factors calculated at the density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT/B3LYP levels with the 6-311+G(df,p) basis set.

  9. Valence and ionic lowest-lying electronic states of ethyl formate as studied by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Śmiałek, M. A.; Duflot, D.; Mason, N. J.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Jones, N. C.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2014-09-14

    The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl formate, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCHO, yet reported is presented over the wavelength range 115.0–275.5 nm (10.75–4.5 eV) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series, observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded He(I) photoelectron spectrum (from 10.1 to 16.1 eV). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of ethyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  10. Valence and ionic lowest-lying electronic states of ethyl formate as studied by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Śmiałek, M A; Łabuda, M; Guthmuller, J; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Duflot, D; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; Limão-Vieira, P

    2014-09-14

    The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl formate, C2H5OCHO, yet reported is presented over the wavelength range 115.0-275.5 nm (10.75-4.5 eV) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series, observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded He(I) photoelectron spectrum (from 10.1 to 16.1 eV). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of ethyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).

  11. Effects of a high energy particle environment on the quantum efficiency of spectrally selective photocathodes for the middle and vacuum ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Heath, D F; McElaney, J H

    1968-10-01

    The quantum efficiences of spectrally selective photocathodes for the middle and vacuum uv (semitransparent depositions of CsI, CuI, and CsTe on Al(2)O(3) windows, a solid tungsten photocathode behind a MgF(2) window) were measured before their use as detectors in a rocket experiment, one year later, and after irradiation by high energy electrons. Only the CsI photodiode showed any change in quantum efficiency, a notable increase after irradiation. Two additional CsI diodes were then irradiated, one with high energy electrons, the other with gamma rays. However, these diodes showed no change in quantum efficiency. The quantum efficiencies of all the photodiodes appear stable with time. The CuI and CsTe diodes also remain stable under irradiation, while the CsI diode may exhibit an increase in quantum efficiency after irradiation.

  12. Observations of the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray brightness profiles of Fe, Ni, and Ge in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    May, M J; Finkenthal, M; Moos, H W; Fournier, K B; Goldstein, W H; Mattioli, M; Pacella, D; Mazzitelli, G; Leigheb, M; Gabellieri, L

    2001-09-01

    The spatial brightness profiles of emission lines for the K-like through He-like ionization states of Fe, Ge, and Ni have been measured during a set of experiments in which Fe and Ge were introduced into FTU tokamak plasmas by using the laser blowoff technique. Nickel was an intrinsic impurity observed during these experiments that was sputtered from the inconel limiter. The brightness profiles were measured by spatially scanable, photometrically calibrated vaccum ultraviolet and x-ray spectrometers that covered the 1 to 1700 A region. Simulations of these profiles and the time evolution of the laser blowoffs were performed with the MIST transport code using several sets of atomic physics compilations [ADPAK (originally in MIST), Arnaud and Raymond (AR92), Arnaud and Rothenflug (AR85), Mazzotta et al., and Mattioli (an extension to Mazzotta)]. The goal was to determine which set of available rates could best simulate the measured spatial brightness profiles and the charge state balance in the plasma. The Mazzotta et al. (for Fe and Ni), the Mattioli (for Ge), and the AR92 (for Fe only) rates adequately simulated the He-, Li-, Be-, Na-, Mg-like ionization states. The F- to B-like charge states could not be simulated by these compilations unless the relevant dielectronic rates were multiplied by a factor of 2. The ADPAK rates could not adequately predict any of the charge states of Fe, Ge, or Ni.

  13. Novel Process of Simultaneous Removal of Nitric Oxide and Sulfur Dioxide Using a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV)-Activated O2/H2O/H2O2 System in A Wet VUV-Spraying Reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng

    2016-12-06

    A novel process for NO and SO2 simultaneous removal using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, with 185 nm wavelength)-activated O2/H2O/H2O2 system in a wet VUV-spraying reactor was developed. The influence of different process variables on NO and SO2 removal was evaluated. Active species (O3 and ·OH) and liquid products (SO3(2-), NO2(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) were analyzed. The chemistry and routes of NO and SO2 removal were investigated. The oxidation removal system exhibits excellent simultaneous removal capacity for NO and SO2, and a maximum removal of 96.8% for NO and complete SO2 removal were obtained under optimized conditions. SO2 reaches 100% removal efficiency under most of test conditions. NO removal is obviously affected by several process variables. Increasing VUV power, H2O2 concentration, solution pH, liquid-to-gas ratio, and O2 concentration greatly enhances NO removal. Increasing NO and SO2 concentration obviously reduces NO removal. Temperature has a dual impact on NO removal, which has an optimal temperature of 318 K. Sulfuric acid and nitric acid are the main removal products of NO and SO2. NO removals by oxidation of O3, O·, and ·OH are the primary routes. NO removals by H2O2 oxidation and VUV photolysis are the complementary routes. A potential scaled-up removal process was also proposed initially.

  14. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Mogi, D.; Tanioka, T.; Mason, N. J.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  15. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV.

    PubMed

    Limão-Vieira, P; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Hoshino, M; Tanaka, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0-10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ((1)Δ←(1)Σ(+)) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ((1)Σ(-)←(1)Σ(+)) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to (1)Σ(+) and (1)Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ((1)Σ(+) and (1)Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f0 value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).

  16. Communication: Rovibrationally selected study of the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}= 0-8) + Ar charge transfer reaction using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu Hong; Xu Yuntao; Lu Zhou; Ng, C. Y.; Chiu, Yu-Hui; Levandier, Dale J.

    2011-05-28

    By employing an electric field pulsing scheme for vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) measurements, we have been able to prepare a rovibrationally selected PFI-PI beam of N{sub 2}{sup +}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}) with not only high intensity and high quantum state purity, but also high kinetic energy resolution, allowing absolute total cross sections [{sigma}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +})] for the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}) + Ar, N{sup +}= 0-8 charge transfer reaction to be measured at center-of-mass collision energies (E{sub cm}) down to thermal energies. The {sigma}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}= 0-8) values determined at E{sub cm}= 0.04-10.00 eV are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg formulism. Taking into account the experimental uncertainties, the {sigma}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}), N{sup +}= 0-8, measured at E{sub cm}= 1.56 eV are found to be independent of N{sup +}.

  17. Ultraviolet atomic emission detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet. These emissions are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish absolute concentration for the elements.

  18. Comparison of vacuum ultra-violet emission of Ar/CF4 and Ar/CF3I capacitively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotovich, A.; Proshina, O.; el Otell, Z.; Lopaev, D.; Rakhimova, T.; Rakhimov, A.; de Marneffe, J.-F.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Spectra in the vacuum-ultra violet range (VUV, 30 nm-200 nm) as well as in the ultra-violet(UV) and visible ranges (UV+vis, 200 nm-800 nm) were measured from Ar/CF3I and Ar/CF4 discharges. The discharges were generated in an industrial 300 mm capacitively coupled plasma source with 27 MHz radio-frequency power. It was seen that the measured spectra were strongly modified. This is mainly due to absorption, especially by CF3I, and Ar self-trapping along the line of sight, towards the detector and in the plasma itself. The estimated unabsorbed VUV spectra were revealed from the spectra of mixtures with low fluorocarbon gas content by means of normalization with unabsorbed I* emission, at 206 nm, and CF2\\ast band (1B1(0,v‧,0){{\\to}1} A1(0,{{\\text{v}}\\prime \\prime} ,0)) emission between 230 nm and 430 nm. Absolute fluences of UV CF2\\ast emission were derived using hybrid 1-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) Monte-Carlo (MC) model calculations. Absolute calibration of the VUV emission was performed using these calculated values from the model, which has never been done previously for real etch conditions in an industrial chamber. It was seen that the argon resonant lines play a significant role in the VUV spectra. These lines are dominant in the case of etching recipes close to the standard ones. The restored unabsorbed spectra confirm that replacement of conventional CF4 etchant gas with CF3I in low-k etching recipes leads to an increase in the overall VUV emission intensity. However, emission from Ar exhibited the most intense peaks. Damage to low-k SiCOH glasses by the estimated VUV was calculated for blanket samples with pristine k-value of 2.2. The calculations were then compared with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data for samples exposed to the similar experimental conditions in the same reactor. It was shown that Ar emission plays the most significant role in VUV-induced damage.

  19. Ultraviolet Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molde, Trevor

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the discovery and nature of ultraviolet light, discusses some applications for these wavelengths, and describes a number of experiments with ultraviolet radiation suitable for secondary school science classes. (JR)

  20. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet emission (λ  =  60-120 nm) from a high pressure DBD-excited helium plasma: formation mechanisms of the fast component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, R. J.; Ganesan, R.; Kane, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report time and wavelength resolved studies of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) emission from a windowless dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in helium. Short-pulse voltage excitation is utilised to clearly resolve the fast and slow temporal components of the Hopfield continuum between λ  =  60-120 nm. Experimental results and theoretical modelling of the spectral distributions indicate that the two components of the VUV emission must originate from the same radiating molecular state—\\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{A}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) , and that two distinct pumping mechanisms populate this state. The time evolution of the fast component is found to correlate with that from the (0,0) molecular transition \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{E}}1}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}-~{{\\text{A}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) (λ  =  513.4 nm). Thus the \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{A}}1}{}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) state is initially rapidly pumped via radiative cascade from higher \\text{He}2\\ast(n=3) molecular states. In addition, the observed band emissions from the molecular \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{E}}1}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}\\right) v=0 and \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{F}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) v=0 states and the line emissions from the atomic He*(n  =  3) states all exhibit similar temporal behaviour during the discharge excitation period. Our results are consistent with the recent report of Frost et al (J. Phys. B 34 1569 2001) concerning the existence of a so-called ‘neglected channel’ to fast \\text{He}2\\ast production from He*(n  =  3) atomic state precursors.

  1. Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Photoion and Pulsed Field Ionization-Photoion Study of Rydberg Series of Chlorine Atoms Prepared in the 2PJ (J = 3/2 and 1/2) Fine-structure States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Gao, Hong; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C. Y.

    2015-09-01

    We have measured the high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoion (VUV-PI) and VUV pulsed-field ionization-photoion (VUV-PFI-PI) spectra of chlorine atoms (Cl) in the VUV energy range 103,580-105,600 cm-1 (12.842-13.093 eV) using a tunable VUV laser as the photoexcitation and photoionization source. Here, Cl atoms are prepared in the Cl(2P3/2) and Cl(2P1/2) fine-structure states by 193.3 nm laser photodissociation of chlorobenzene. The employment of VUV-PFI-PI detection has allowed the identification of Rydberg transitions that are not observed in VUV-PI measurements. More than 180 new Rydberg transition lines with principal quantum number up to n = 61 have been identified and assigned to members of nine Rydberg series originating from the neutral Cl(2P3/2) and Cl(2P1/2) fine-structure states. Two of these Rydberg series are found to converge to the Cl+(3P2), four to the Cl+(3P1), and three to the Cl+(3P0) ionization limits. Based on the convergence limits determined by least-squares fits of the observed Rydberg transitions to the modified Ritz formula, we have obtained a more precise ionization energy (IE) for the formation of the ionic Cl+(3P2) from the ground Cl(2P3/2) state to be 104,591.01 ± 0.13 cm-1. This is consistent with previous IE measurements, but has a smaller uncertainty. The analysis of the quantum defects obtained for the Rydberg transitions reveals that many high-n Rydberg transitions are perturbed.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kuklik M, Zemkova D, Kozlowski K. 3-M syndrome in two sisters. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Aug;38(4):419-22. Citation on PubMed Temtamy SA, Aglan MS, Ashour AM, Ramzy MI, Hosny LA, Mostafa MI. 3-M syndrome: a report of three Egyptian cases with review ...

  3. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  4. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  5. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  6. Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Tom; Wright, Travis; Stooke, Adam; Khurmi, Champak; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Liu, Yanwei; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-06-17

    We combine different wavelengths from an intense high-order harmonics source with variable delay at the focus of a split-mirror interferometer to conduct pump-probe experiments on gas-phase molecules. We report measurements of the time resolution (< 44fs) and spatial profiles (4 {micro}m x 12 {micro}m) at the focus of the apparatus. We demonstrate the utility of this two-color, high-order-harmonic technique by time resolving molecular hydrogen elimination from C{sub 2} H{sub 4} excited into its absorption band at 161nm.

  7. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  8. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  9. A 3M high temperature dielectric film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampl, Edward, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a dielectric film are summarized. Additionally, the film's environmental and chemical properties are listed: low shrinkage to 300 C; moisture insensitive; low outgassing under vacuum; excellent surface qualities--easy metallization of film; flame retardant; and low smoke generation. A series of graphs that display the performance characteristics of the film are also presented.

  10. Infrared absorption of methanol clusters (CH3OH)n with n = 2-6 recorded with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using infrared depletion and vacuum-ultraviolet ionization.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ling; Camacho, Cristopher; Witek, Henryk A; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2011-04-14

    We investigated IR spectra in the CH- and OH-stretching regions of size-selected methanol clusters, (CH(3)OH)(n) with n = 2-6, in a pulsed supersonic jet by using the IR-VUV (vacuum-ultraviolet) ionization technique. VUV emission at 118 nm served as the source of ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The tunable IR laser emission served as a source of predissociation or excitation before ionization. The variations of intensity of protonated methanol cluster ions (CH(3)OH)(n)H(+) and CH(3)OH(+) and (CH(3)OH)(2)(+) were monitored as the IR laser light was tuned across the range 2650-3750 cm(-1). Careful processing of these action spectra based on photoionization efficiencies and the production and loss of each cluster due to photodissociation yielded IR spectra of the size-selected clusters. Spectra of methanol clusters in the OH region have been extensively investigated; our results are consistent with previous reports, except that the band near 3675 cm(-1) is identified as being associated with the proton acceptor of (CH(3)OH)(2). Spectra in the CH region are new. In the region 2800-3050 cm(-1), bands near 2845, 2956, and 3007 cm(-1) for CH(3)OH split into 2823, 2849, 2934, 2955, 2984, and 3006 cm(-1) for (CH(3)OH)(2) that correspond to proton donor and proton acceptor, indicating that the methanol dimer has a preferred open-chain structure. In contrast, for (CH(3)OH)(3), the splitting diminishes and the bands near 2837, 2954, and 2987 cm(-1) become narrower, indicating a preferred cyclic structure. Anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers predicted for the methanol open-chain dimer and the cyclic trimer with the B3LYP∕VPT2∕ANO1 level of theory are consistent with experimental results. For the tetramer and pentamer, the spectral pattern similar to that of the trimer but with greater widths was observed, indicating that the most stable structures are also cyclic.

  11. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ► The O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ► The 4f–5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ► There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130–157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and O–Zr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2−}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2−}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2−}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  12. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  13. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  14. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  15. Gravitational vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, L. S.; Saakyan, G. S.

    1984-09-01

    The existence of a special gravitational vacuum is considered in this paper. A phenomenological method differing from the traditional Einsteinian formalization is utilized. Vacuum, metric and matter form a complex determined by field equations and at great distances from gravitational masses vacuum effects are small but could be large in powerful fields. Singularities and black holes justify the approach as well as the Ambartsmyan theory concerning the existence of supermassive and superdense prestallar bodies that then disintegrate. A theory for these superdense bodies is developed involving gravitational field equations that describe the vacuum by an energy momentum tensor and define the field and mass distribution. Computations based on the theory for gravitational radii with incompressible liquid models adequately reflecting real conditions indicate that a gravitational vacuum could have considerable effects on superdense stars and could have radical effects for very large masses.

  16. Ultraviolet filters.

    PubMed

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  17. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form.

    The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue.

    What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms.

    The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials.

    The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of

  18. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: charge transfer reaction of N2(+)(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C Y

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N(2)(+)(v(+), N(+)) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+), v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N(2)(+) PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔE(lab) = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E(cm)'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) for the N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+); v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E(cm) range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E(cm)-dependencies of σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E(cm) = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar(+) from N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 0, N(+)) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v(+) = 0), confirming the narrow ΔE(cm) spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions

  19. Dinosaur extinction: closing the '3 m gap'.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G B; Sargis, Eric J; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G

    2011-12-23

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the '3 m gap', has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K-T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a 'fern spike', and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-T boundary impact event.

  20. Ultraviolet observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Houck, T. E.; Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The first observations of a comet in the vacuum ultraviolet were obtained on January 14, 1970, when OAO-2 recorded the spectrum of the bright comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g). The observations revealed, among other things, the predicted extensive hydrogen Lyman alpha halo. OAO-2 continued to collect spectrophotometric measurements of this comet throughout January of that year; a photograph of the nucleus in Lyman alpha revealed finer scale structures. In February of 1970, the bright comet Bennet (1969i) became favorable for space observations. On the basis of the OAO discovery, OGO-V made several measurements of comet Bennet with low spatial resolution photometers. Comet Enke was detected by OGO in January of 1971 at a large heliocentric distance from its Lyman alpha emission.

  1. Ultraviolet photofragmentation of biomolecular ions

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric identification of all types of molecules relies on the observation and interpretation of ion fragmentation patterns. Peptides, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids that are often found as components of complex biological samples represent particularly important challenges. The most common strategies for fragmenting biomolecular ions include low- and high-energy collisional activation, post-source decay, and electron capture or transfer dissociation. Each of these methods has its own idiosyncrasies and advantages but encounters problems with some types of samples. Novel fragmentation methods that can offer improvements are always desirable. One approach that has been under study for years but is not yet incorporated into a commercial instrument is ultraviolet photofragmentation. This review discusses experimental results on various biological molecules that have been generated by several research groups using different light wavelengths and mass analyzers. Work involving short-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet light is particularly emphasized. The characteristics of photofragmentation are examined and its advantages summarized. PMID:19241462

  2. Internal motion in high vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J. M.

    Three transfer and positioning mechanisms have been developed for the non-air exposed, multistep processing of components in vacuum chambers. The functions to be performed in all of the systems include ultraviolet/ozone cleaning, vacuum baking, deposition of thin films, and thermocompression sealing of the enclosures. Precise positioning of the components is required during the evaporation and sealing processes. The three methods of transporting and positioning the components were developed to accommodate the design criteria and goals of each individual system. The design philosophy, goals, and operation of the three mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Detailed gas and diesel vehicle emissions: PTR-MS measurements of real-time VOC profiles and comprehensive characterization of primary emissions for IVOC, SVOC, and LVOC by gas chromatography with vacuum ultra-violet ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, G.; Frodin, B.; Zhao, Y.; Franklin, J. P.; Cross, E. S.; Saleh, R.; Saliba, G.; Lambe, A. T.; Sardar, S.; Maldonado, H.; Russell, L. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Robinson, A. L.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past fifteen years US vehicle emissions standards have dramatically improved, with the goal of reducing urban air pollution. Recent studies demonstrate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to be the dominant contributor to urban organic aerosol, but controversy remains regarding the contributions of different vehicle types to SOA. Increased potency for SOA formation from non methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from newer vehicles that meet tighter emission standards has also been observed. Both speciation and temporal resolution of vehicular emissions are critical for predicting SOA formation. The relative importance of diesel and gasoline emissions to SOA formation depends critically on speciation. Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to better understand SOA formation for low, ultra-low, super ultra-low and partial zero emission vehicles (LEV, ULEV, SULEV, PZEV). Exhaust was sampled on filters and adsorbent tubes to measure intermediate-, semi-, and low-volatility NMHC (IVOC, SVOC, LVOC). A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) measured volatile organics (VOC) emissions with high time-resolution. Analysis of filters and adsorbent tubes using gas chromatography with vacuum-ultra-violet ionization mass spectrometry provided unprecedented characterization of emissions according to degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight. ULEV vehicles show the composition distributions of primary particulate emissions peak for compounds in the SVOC range. PZEV vehicle emissions peak in the IVOC range. Diesel vehicles have up to ten times higher emissions than gasoline vehicles; their distributions have significant IVOC levels and peak in the SVOC/LVOC range. Our measurements are used to predict potential SOA formation by vehicle standard class and the relative SOA formation for diesel and gasoline vehicles. PTR-MS measurement show VOC emissions after cold start occur almost entirely

  4. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and FUV calibration facility for special sensor ultraviolet limb imager (SSULI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Craig N.; Osterman, Steven N.; Thonnard, Stefan E.; McCoy, Robert P.; Williams, J. Z.; Parker, S. E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility for calibrating far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet instruments has recently been completed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Our vacuum calibration vessel is 2-m in length, 1.67-m in diameter, and can accommodate optical test benches up to 1.2-m wide by 1.5-m in length. A kinematically positioned frame with four axis precision pointing capability of 10 microns for linear translation and .01 degrees for rotation is presently used during vacuum optical calibration of SSULI. The chamber was fabricated from 304 stainless steel and polished internally to reduce surface outgassing. A dust-free environment is maintained at the rear of the vacuum chamber by enclosing the 2-m hinged vacuum access door in an 8 ft. by 8 ft. class 100 clean room. Every effort was made to obtain an oil-free environment within the vacuum vessel. Outgassing products are continually monitored with a 1 - 200 amu residual gas analyzer. An oil-free claw and vane pump evacuates the chamber to 10-2 torr through 4 in. diameter stainless steel roughing lines. High vacuum is achieved and maintained with a magnetically levitated 480 l/s turbo pump and a 3000 l/s He4 cryopump. Either of two vacuum monochrometers, a 1-m f/10.4 or a 0.2-m f/4.5 are coaxially aligned with the optical axis of the chamber and are used to select single UV atomic resonance lines from a windowless capillary or penning discharge UV light source. A calibrated channeltron detector is coaxially mounted with the SSULI detector during calibration. All vacuum valves, the cooling system for the cryopump compressor, and the roughing pump are controlled through optical fibers which are interfaced to a computer through a VME board. Optical fibers were chosen to ensure that complete electrical isolation is maintained between the computer and the vacuum system valves-solenoids and relays.

  5. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  6. Engineering support for an ultraviolet imager for the ISTP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Design and development activities were carried out for the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) to be flown on the Polar Spacecraft of the INternational Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Mission. The following tasks were performed: (1) design and fabrication of prototype/engineering model of the UVI imager; (2) preliminary design review; (3) vacuum ultraviolet filter design; (4) auroral energy deposition code; (5) model of LBH vehicle glow; (6) laboratory measurement program of collision cross-sections; and (7) support of ISTP meetings.

  7. Efficient 3M PBS enhancing miniature projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Zhisheng; Nevitt, Timothy; Willett, Stephen; Mortenson, Dave; Le, John; McDowell, Erin; Kent, Susan; Wong, Timothy; Beniot, Gilles J.; Ouderkirk, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, 3M has developed a number of mobile projectors, with a goal towards providing the world's smallest, most efficient projection systems. Compact size and efficiency are required characteristics for projection systems used in mobile devices and more lately, in augmented reality systems. In this paper we summarize the main generations of 3M light engine optical designs. We present the optical architectures of four light engines, including the rationale behind the illumination designs and the projection systems. In particular, we describe various configurations relating to the 3M polarizing beam splitter (PBS) which is key to enhanced efficiency of the miniature projection systems.

  8. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on ... the baby through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is ...

  9. Quantum yields of decomposition and homo-dimerization of solid L-alanine induced by 7.2 eV Vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation: an estimate of the half-life of L-alanine on the surface of space objects.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2011-08-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the origin of prebiotic molecules on primitive Earth is that they formed from inorganic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and were delivered by meteorites, space dust and comets. To evaluate the availability of extraterrestrial amino acids, it is necessary to examine their decomposition and oligomerization rates as induced by extraterrestrial energy sources, such as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray photons and high energy particles. This paper reports the quantum yields of decomposition ((8.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) photon(-1)) and homo-dimerization ((1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-3) photon(-1)) and decomposition of the dimer (0.24 ± 0.06 photon(-1)) of solid L-alanine (Ala) induced by VUV light with an energy of 7.2 eV. Using these quantum yields, the half-life of L-Ala on the surface of a space object in the present earth orbit was estimated to be about 52 days, even when only photons with an energy of 7.2 eV emitted from the present Sun were considered. The actual half-life of solid L-Ala on the surface of a space object orbit around the present day Earth would certainly be much shorter than our estimate, because of the added effect of photons and particles of other energies. Thus, we propose that L-Ala needs to be shielded from solar VUV in protected environments, such as the interior of a meteorite, within a time scale of days after synthesis to ensure its arrival on the primitive Earth.

  10. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  11. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  12. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  13. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  14. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    During the past decade, vacuum ultraviolet spectra of over 30 comets have been obtained with the IUE satellite observatory. With few exceptions, the spectra of these comets appear to be similar, with OH and H produced by the photodissociation of water being the dominant species and emissions of C, O, S, CS and CO2(+) usually present. Although signs of variabiity of many kinds in comet spectra appear, the evidence from the UV observations suggests that all comets have the same basic chemical composition and that observed differences are due to evolution and ageing processes. During the 1985-86 apparition of Comet Halley, spectra were also obtained by other spacecraft and by sounding rocket instruments, including a long-slit imaging spectrograph.

  15. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photodissociation of polyatomic molecules and radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.Y.

    1993-12-01

    In the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the photodissociation (PD) dynamics of triatomic molecules. However, the PD study of radicals, especially polyatomic radicals, has remained essentially an unexplored research area. Detailed state-to-state PD cross sections for radicals in the UV and VUV provide challenges not only for dynamical calculations, but also for ab initio quantum chemical studies. The authors have developed a laser based pump-probe apparatus for the measurement of absolute PD cross sections for CH{sub 3}S and HS is summarized.

  18. Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics Studied with Vacuum Ultraviolet Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Travis William

    Studying the ultrafast dynamics of small molecules can serve as the first step in understanding the dynamics in larger chemically and biologically relevant molecules. To make direct comparisons with existing computational techniques, the photons used in pump-probe spectroscopy must make perturbative transitions between the electronic states of isolated small molecules. In this dissertation experimental investigations of ultrafast dynamics in electronic excitations of neutral ethylene and carbon dioxide are discussed. These experiments are performed using VUV/XUV femtosecond pulses as pump and probe. To make photons with sufficient energy for single photon transitions, VUV and XUV light is generated by high harmonic generation (HHG) using a high pulse energy (≈30--40 mJ) Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. Sufficient flux must be generated to enable splitting of the HHG light into pump and probe arms. The system produces >1010 photons per shot, corresponding to nearly 10 MW of peak power in the XUV. Using a high flux of high energy photons creates a unique set of challenges when designing a detector capable of performing pump-probe experiments. A velocity map imaging (VMI) detector has been designed to address these challenges, and has become a successful tool facilitating studies into molecular dynamics that were not possible before its implementation. The emphasis on using high energy, single photon transitions allowed theoretical calculations to be directly compared to experimental yields for the first time. This comparison resolved a long standing issue in the excited state lifetime of ethylene, and provided a confirmation of the branching ratio between the two nonadiabatic relaxation pathways that return ethylene back to its ground state from the pi*. The participation of the 3s Rydberg state has also been measured by collecting the time resolved photoelectron spectrum during the dynamics on ethylene's pi* excited state, confirming calculations predicting the effect of the 3s. In carbon dioxide the first time resolved measurement in the lowest electronic excitation of carbon dioxide has been performed. A high kinetic energy release channel shows the signature of wavepacket dynamics within the excited state manifold. Deviation from the direct dissociation predicted for the pumped state provides experimental evidence confirming theoretical predictions of nonadiabatic transitions within the lowest lying electronically excited states.

  19. Satellite Atmospheric Radiance Measurements in the Vacuum Ultraviolet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-05

    night , as expected. In addition , the f igures demonstrate different relationships to the solar zenith angle among the filters. The tropical, or...spectrum is dominated by the com- bined effects of Rayleigh scattering of sunlight and absorption of the backscattered solar radiation by atmospheric ozone...1493 A NI line and solar scatter. The 1550 A filtcr global response curve shown in Figure 8 has the smallest day maximum and night minimum radiance

  20. Effects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation on Thin Polyimide Films Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Messer, Russell K.; Powers, Charles; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Wooldridge, Eve

    2001-01-01

    NASA anticipates launching the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mission-- whose purpose is to examine the origins of our universe by making measurements in the infrared portion of the spectrum--in 2009. So that the telescope can operate at very low temperatures (less than 100 K), a halo orbit about the second Lagrangian point (L2) is being considered because it is far from Earth and its reflected sunlight. The Sun-Earth L2 point is located 1.53 10(exp 6) km from the Earth in the direction away from the Sun. This mission presents new challenges in many areas of technology, including the development of a multilayer insulation sunshield for the telescope. This sunshield is required to be large (proposed dimensions of approximately 33 by 14 m), storable, deployable, and lightweight. In addition, its polymer film layers must be seamable, foldable, and resistant to tearing and creep, with low outgassing. The sunshield must maintain its structural integrity and its Sun-facing side must maintain a low solar absorptance to thermal emittance ratio (alpha/epsilon) over the planned 10-yr mission duration including over 80,000 hr facing constant sunlight.

  1. Investigations of Vacuum Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    state vector g>, which is a solution of the Schr & dinger equation a I - > -> (2.4) , depends on the gauge. The wave function in a gauge g is...instantaneous cross section of decay rate which depends on the value of the laser field at a given time . Since this instantaneous rate is, in principle, a...34 . . . . . , . . .... r. - " . .** .* *. ** - - S." 3 . 4 integral with respect to time over an instantaneous-decay rate which depends on - the instantaneous

  2. Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Probe of Chemical Dynamics of Aerospace Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-12

    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...AEROSPACE RELEVANCE FA9550-09- 1 -0054 Dr. Cheuk-Yiu Ng University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue Davis, CA 95616 AFOSR 4015 Wilson Blvd., Rm

  3. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  4. 76 FR 70443 - Decision on Waiver Application From 3M

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA conditionally granted the request from 3M for a waiver from testing tetrabromobisphenol A (CASRN 79-94-7). Regulations issued by EPA under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act... application is submitted to EPA and is approved. EPA received such a request for a waiver from these...

  5. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  6. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  7. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  8. Maintaining vacuum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewski, J.

    2000-04-01

    A preventive maintenance program is essential for safe and consistent vacuum furnace operation. The program should be developed in cooperation with safety, maintenance, and furnace operators, implemented as soon as the furnace is commissioned, and adhered to throughout the life of the furnace. This article serves as an introduction to the topic of vacuum furnace preventive maintenance. Basic information about installing a new vacuum furnace also is provided.

  9. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  10. [Study on the absolute spectral irradiation calibration method for far ultraviolet spectrometer in remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-Yu; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper studied spectral irradiation responsivities calibration method which can be applied to the far ultraviolet spectrometer for upper atmosphere remote sensing. It is difficult to realize the calibration for far ultraviolet spectrometer for many reasons. Standard instruments for far ultraviolet waveband calibration are few, the degree of the vacuum experiment system is required to be high, the stabilities of the experiment are hardly maintained, and the limitation of the far ultraviolet waveband makes traditional diffuser and the integrating sphere radiance calibration method difficult to be used. To solve these problems, a new absolute spectral irradiance calibration method was studied, which can be applied to the far ultraviolet calibration. We build a corresponding special vacuum experiment system to verify the calibration method. The light source system consists of a calibrated deuterium lamp, a vacuum ultraviolet monochromater and a collimating system. We used the calibrated detector to obtain the irradiance responsivities of it. The three instruments compose the calibration irradiance source. We used the "calibration irradiance source" to illuminate the spectrometer prototype and obtained the spectral irradiance responsivities. It realized the absolute spectral irradiance calibration for the far ultraviolet spectrometer utilizing the calibrated detector. The absolute uncertainty of the calibration is 7.7%. The method is significant for the ground irradiation calibration of the far ultraviolet spectrometer in upper atmosphere remote sensing.

  11. Photodiode-Based, Passive Ultraviolet Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Gray, Perry

    2004-01-01

    Simple, passive instruments have been developed for measuring the exposure of material specimens to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Sun. Each instrument contains a silicon photodiode and a coulometer. The photocharge generated in the photodiode is stored in the coulometer. The accumulated electric charge measured by use of the coulometer is assumed to be proportional to the cumulative dose of VUV radiation expressed in such convenient units as equivalent Sun hours (ESH) [defined as the number of hours of exposure to sunlight at normal incidence]. Intended originally for use aboard spacecraft, these instruments could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as monitoring the curing of ultraviolet-curable epoxies. Each instrument includes a photodiode and a coulometer assembly mounted on an interface plate (see figure). The photodiode assembly includes an aluminum housing that holds the photodiode, a poly(tetrafluoroehylene) cosine receptor, and a narrow-band optical filter. The cosine receptor ensures that the angular response of the instrument approximates the ideal angular response (proportional to the cosine of the angle of incidence). The filter is chosen to pass the ultraviolet wavelength of interest in a specific experiment. The photodiode is electrically connected to the coulometer. The factor of proportionality between the charge stored in the coulometer and ultraviolet dosage (in units of ESH) is established, prior to use, in calibration experiments that involve the use of lamps and current sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  12. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  13. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  14. Cost and Performance Report 3M Selective Separation Cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    2000-12-19

    In the summer of 1998, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) initiated a water treatment project through its Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program at the Savannah River Site (DOE-SR, 1999). The purpose of the ASTD project was to deploy new and innovative water treatment technologies - that offer significant improvements over existing baseline technologies - in the removal of cesium and strontium from contaminated water. One of the technologies selected by EM-50 was the Selective Separation Cartridge, based on an innovative membrane technology developed the 3M Co., St. Paul, MN (OST-2000).The Savannah River Site is committed to deploy this Selective Separation Cartridge technology at other appropriate locations. It may be appropriate for other Reactor Disassembly Basins, or in-situ groundwater remediation. The deployment of this technology will be considered strongly as opportunities present themselves. The primary lesson learned is to anticipate and plan to reduce the radiation dose from a Cs-137 removal system to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. 3M did not include any mitigating actions in their original design and fabrication, primarily because the system was completely constructed before WSRC became deeply involved with the 3M/EM-50 project.

  15. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  16. ELETTRA vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, M.

    1991-08-01

    A status report of the vacuum system of ELETTRA, the 2 GeV, 400 mA light source under construction in Trieste, will be described. The Vacuum project, presented at ``Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop'' at Riken (Japan 22-24 March 1990) and more recently at EVC-2, the European Vacuum Conference at Trieste (Italy 21-26 May 1990), is now in the phase of testing a prototype sector, which is 1/24 of the ring circumference. Details and some technological aspects of the fabrication will be reviewed together with the vacuum performances. Results of laboratory experiments on components, standard or not, allowed us to finalize the main choices in light of the general philosophy of the project and will be properly summarized.

  17. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  18. Cervical spine annulus vacuum.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, S P; Chen, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-eight annulus vacuums in 27 patients were analyzed with regard to location, configuration, and associated vertebral abnormalities such as degenerative changes, absent and compressed anterosuperior vertebral body corners, and annulus calcification. It is concluded that most annulus vacuums are a degenerative phenomenon at the attachment of the annulus to bone. These vacuums may be associated with other degenerative changes such as osteophytes and annulus calcification. Vacuums have a strong association with compressed anterosuperior corners. These deformed corners are thought to be early osteophytes and may be related to previous trauma, a vertebra with an absent corner, and/or normal motion. Small annulus vacuums adjacent to vertebral corners with a normal appearance are more likely to result from acute trauma.

  19. Housing protects laser in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canali, V. G.

    1978-01-01

    Airtight housing encloses laser for easy alinement and operation in high-vacuum chamber. Beam is transmitted through window into vacuum chamber. Flexible line runs through vacuum chamber to outside, maintaining laser enclosure at atmospheric pressure.

  20. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  1. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  3. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  4. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  5. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  6. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  7. Radiative lifetimes in B I using ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brian, T. R.; Lawler, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes of the eight lowest even parity levels in the doublet system of B I are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in the UV and VUV on an atomic beam of boron. The accurate lifetimes provide a base for improved determination of absolute transition probabilities in B I. The techniques described are broadly applicable to measurement of lifetimes of levels with transitions in the visible, UV, and VUV in almost any element.

  8. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  9. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  10. The classical vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T. H.

    1985-08-01

    The history of vacuum concepts is reviewed, noting that no way is known to physically produce a true void. Even at absolute zero, a pattern of electromagnetic wave fluctuations are still present. The fluctuations are called zero-point radiation (ZPR). To be invariant to Lorentz transformation, ZPR has a spectral intensity proportional to the cube of each frequency. ZPR does not change in response to compression and produces a force between objects that is inversely proportional to the 4th power of the separation distance. The ZPR scale value has been measured to be one-half of the Planck constant, and is the measure of the energy of a harmonic oscillator, such as the electron, in a vacuum. Finally, since gravitational accelerations always occur in the physical space, a minimum thermal radiation can also be found for the vacuum, implying that a fixed relationship exists between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum.

  11. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  12. State-to-state vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation study of CO2 on the formation of state-correlated CO(X(1)Σ(+); v) with O((1)D) and O((1)S) photoproducts at 11.95-12.22 eV.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Benitez, Yanice; Luo, Zhihong; Houria, Adel Ben; Ayari, Tarek; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Hochlaf, M; Jackson, W M; Ng, C Y

    2015-05-07

    The state-to-state photodissociation of CO2 is investigated in the VUV range of 11.94-12.20 eV by using two independently tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lasers and the time-sliced velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) method. The spin-allowed CO(X(1)Σ(+); v = 0-18) + O((1)D) and CO(X(1)Σ(+); v = 0-9) + O((1)S) photoproduct channels are directly observed from the measurement of time-sliced VMI-PI images of O((1)D) and O((1)S). The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained based on these VMI-PI images shows that the observed energetic thresholds for both the O((1)D) and O((1)S) channels are consistent with the thermochemical thresholds. Furthermore, the nascent vibrational distributions of CO(X(1)Σ(+); v) photoproducts formed in correlation with O((1)D) differ significantly from that produced in correlation with O((1)S), indicating that the dissociation pathways for the O((1)D) and O((1)S) channels are distinctly different. For the O((1)S) channel, CO(X(1)Σ(+); v) photoproducts are formed mostly in low vibrational states (v = 0-2), whereas for the O((1)D) channel, CO(X(1)Σ(+); v) photoproducts are found to have significant populations in high vibrationally excited states (v = 10-16). The anisotropy β parameters for the O((1)D) + CO(X(1)Σ(+); v = 0-18) and O((1)S) + CO(X(1)Σ(+); v = 0-9) channels have also been determined from the VMI-PI measurements, indicating that CO2 dissociation to form the O((1)D) and O((1)S) channels is faster than the rotational periods of the VUV excited CO2 molecules. We have also calculated the excited singlet potential energy surfaces (PESs) of CO2, which are directly accessible by VUV excitation, at the ab initio quantum multi-reference configuration interaction level of theory. These calculated PESs suggest that the formation of CO(X(1)Σ(+)) + O((1)S) photoproducts occurs nearly exclusively on the 4(1)A' PES, which is generally repulsive with minor potential energy ripples along the OC-O stretching coordinate. The

  13. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: Charge transfer reaction of N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2; N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu Yuntao; Lu Zhou; Xu Hong; Ng, C. Y.

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N{sub 2}{sup +}(v{sup +}, N{sup +}) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N{sub 2}{sup +} PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of {Delta}E{sub lab}={+-} 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E{sub cm}'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) for the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E{sub cm} range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E{sub cm}-dependencies of {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E{sub cm}= 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar{sup +} from N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 0, N{sup +}) + Ar was observed by the measured {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0), confirming the narrow {Delta}E{sub cm} spread achieved in

  14. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  15. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  16. Observations of 3-m auroral irregularities during the ERRRIS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, J. D.; Farley, D. T.; Swartz, W. E.; Providakes, J. F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1992-06-01

    In the late winter of 1988 and 1989, three NASA sounding rockets were flown through the auroral electrojet from ESRANGE (Sweden) as part of the E-region Rocket-Radar Instability Study (ERRRIS). Many ground-based instruments supported these flights, including the EISCAT, STARE, and CUPRI radars, as well as all-sky cameras, riometers, and magnetometers. In this paper the observations of the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), which detected coherent backscatter from 3-m irregularities in the auroral E-region are summarized. Twenty hours of power spectra and interferometry data are available, and, during the 1989 campaign, three weeks of nearly continuous Range-Time-Intensity (RTI) and first moment data were recorded.

  17. Vacuum deposited polymer/silver reflector material

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.; Martin, P.; Gross, M.; Bennett, W.

    1994-07-01

    Weatherable, low cost, front surface, solar reflectors on flexible substrates would be highly desirable for lamination to solar concentrator panels. The method to be described in this paper may permit such reflector material to be fabricated for less than 50 cents per square foot. Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuum web coating operation on polyester substrates. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from .4 {mu}m to .8 {mu}m. It is hoped that a low cost substrate can be used with the substrate laminated to the concentrator and the weatherable acrylic polymer coating facing the sun. This technique should be capable of deposition line speeds approaching 1500 linear feet/minute. Central to this technique is a new vacuum deposition process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process - for Polymer Multi-Layer.

  18. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  19. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  20. ISABELLE vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H J

    1980-01-01

    The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

  1. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  2. Superoleophobicity under vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yongmin; Bell, Steven E. J.; Liu, Weimin; Zhou, Feng

    2011-05-01

    By using superoleophobic alumina and low vapor pressure oils we have been able to study wetting behavior at high vacuum. Here, we show that a superoleophobic state can exist for some probe liquids, even under high vacuum. However, with other liquids the surfaces are only superoloephobic because air is trapped beneath the droplet and the contact angle decreases dramatically (150°-120°) if this air is removed. These observations open up the possibility of designing materials which fully exploit the potential of physically trapped air to achieve extreme oleophobicity and/or hydrophobicity.

  3. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  4. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  5. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  6. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  7. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  8. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  9. Ultraviolet Mars Reveals Cloud Formation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph were used to make this movie of rapid cloud formation on Mars on July 9-10, 2016. The ultraviolet colors of the planet have been rendered in fal...

  10. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  11. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  12. Ultraviolet reflective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Composition consists of dispersion of barium sulphate in aqueous solution of water-soluble inorganic binder. Binder is selected from group consisting of alkali metal sulphates. Coating exhibits high reflectance of ultraviolet light to wavelengths of approximately 200.0 nm, which compares favorably with high reflectance of virgin barium sulphate power.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Richard L.; Frederick, John E.; Ilyas, Mohammad; Filyushkin, V.; Wahner, Andreas; Stamnes, K.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Roy, Colin E.; Madronich, Sasha

    1991-01-01

    A major consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the Earth's surface. This chapter discusses advances that were made since the previous assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) to our understanding of UV radiation. The impacts of these changes in UV on the biosphere are not included, because they are discussed in the effects assessment.

  14. Development of ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    The pulsed electron accelerator selected for use in the development of ultraviolet laser capability suitable for use in photoexcitation and photoionization studies of the upper atmosphere is reported. Performance figures, installation specifications, and total cost of the equipment are briefly shown, and plans for further studies are outlined.

  15. Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

  16. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  17. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  18. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  19. Gas bearing operates in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  20. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  1. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  2. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  3. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  4. Research on fluorescence from photoionization, photodissociation, and vacuum, along with bending quantrum study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Reports of research concerning the fluorescence of CS2 are presented. Fluorescence from fragments of CS2 vapor produced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation, and fluorescence from photoionization of CS2 vapor are discussed along with fluorescence produced by photodissociation of CS2, and fluorescence from photoionization of OCS.

  5. Vacuum tool manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  6. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  7. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  8. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  9. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  11. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  12. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  13. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  14. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. ); Vaughn, G.D. ); Bridgman, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  15. Vacuum: From Art to Exact Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, James M.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of vacuum technology. Includes vacuum pump developments (mechanical, ion, and cyrogenic pumps), measurement techniques, the development of the American Vacuum Society, and electronics in vacuum technology. (JN)

  16. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  17. Far ultraviolet instrument technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Larry J.; Schaefer, Robert K.; Zhang, Yongliang; Kil, Hyosub

    2017-02-01

    The far ultraviolet (FUV) spectral range (from about 115 nm to 180 nm) is one of the most useful spectral regions for characterizing the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and ionosphere). The principal advantages are that there are FUV signatures of the major constituents of the upper atmosphere as well as the signatures of the high-latitude energy inputs. Because of the absorption by thermospheric O2, the FUV signatures are seen against a "black" background, i.e., one that is not affected by ground albedo or clouds and, as a consequence, can make useful observations of the aurora during the day or when the Moon is above the horizon. In this paper we discuss the uses of FUV remote sensing, summarize the various techniques, and discuss the technological challenges. Our focus is on a particular type of FUV instrument, the scanning imaging spectrograph or SIS: an instrument exemplified by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Ultraviolet Imager and Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Global Ultraviolet Imager. The SIS combines spatial imaging of the disk with limb profiles as well as spectral information at each point in the scan.

  18. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Instruments designed to explore different aspects of far and extreme ultraviolet cosmic radiation were studied. The far ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries sounding rocket. Its unique large format 75mm detector mapped out the far ultraviolet background radiation with a resolution of only a few arc minutes. Analysis of this data indicates to what extent the FUVI background is extra galactic in origin. A power spectrum of the spatial fluctuations will have direct consequences for galactic evolution.

  19. Vacuum bell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sesia, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background For specific therapy to correct pectus excavatum (PE), conservative treatment with the vacuum bell (VB) was introduced more than 10 years ago in addition to surgical repair. Preliminary results using the VB were encouraging. We report on our 13-year experience with the VB treatment including the intraoperative use during the Nuss procedure and present some technical innovations. Methods A VB with a patient-activated hand pump is used to create a vacuum at the anterior chest wall. Three different sizes of vacuum bells, as well as a model fitted for young women, exist. The appropriate size is selected according to the individual patient’s age and ventral surface. The device should be used at home for a minimum of 30 minutes (twice a day), and may be used up to a maximum of several hours daily. The intensity of the applied negative pressure can be evaluated with an integrated pressure gauge during follow-up visits. A prototype of an electronic model enables us to measure the correlation between the applied negative pressure and the elevation of the anterior chest wall. Results Since 2003, approx. 450 patients between 2 to 61 years of age started the VB therapy. Age and gender specific differences, depth of PE, symmetry or asymmetry, and concomitant malformations such as scoliosis and/or kyphosis influence the clinical course and success of VB therapy. According to our experience, we see three different groups of patients. Immediate elevation of the sternum was confirmed thoracoscopically during the Nuss procedure in every patient. Conclusions The VB therapy has been established as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients suffering from PE. The initial results up to now are encouraging, but long-term results comprising more than 15 years are so far lacking, and further evaluation and follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:27747177

  20. Rolling through a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaar, Jan Pieter; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We clarify under what conditions slow-roll inflation can continue almost undisturbed, while briefly evolving through a (semi-classically) metastable false vacuum. Furthermore, we look at potential signatures in the primordial power spectrum that could point towards the existence of traversed metastable false vacua. Interestingly, the theoretical constraints for the existence of traversable metastable vacua imply that Planck should be able to detect the resulting features in the primordial power spectrum. In other words, if Planck does not see features this immediately implies the non-existence of metastable false vacua rolled through during the inflationary epoch.

  1. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

    2013-07-01

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  2. Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. I.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.; Burris, H. R.; Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Ganguly, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) is a particle acceleration scheme which uses the non-linear ponderomotive beating of two different frequency laser beams to accelerate electrons. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the VBWA is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This experiment will use the beating of a 1054 nm and 527 nm laser pulse from the NRL T-cubed laser to generate the beat wave and a 4.5 MeV RF electron gun as the electron source. Simulation results and the experimental design will be presented. The suitability of using axicon or higher order Gaussian laser beams will also be discussed.

  3. Thermal Vacuum Test Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-31

    tne power has a rear terminal sensor input for this Probe, use it. Otherwiseq connect the probe to the front panel. The end of the sensor should be...outlet on the front panel of the vacuum chamber. BUS CONNECTtONS: Plug the 1/0 expander card into one of the three calculator slots. Cover the other two...mating cable. Soth connectors on the slave disk are identical, so either one can be used. This cable also locks into place at each end . Connect the other

  4. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The

  5. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  6. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  7. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  8. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  9. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    5.4 Apollo-Soyuz 3 5 5.5 Evidence for Scattering From Dust ? 3 8 5.6 More Evidence For Scattering From Dust ? 4 0 5.7 More Observations 4 2...Emission from cold interstellar dust . This has been observed by IRAS as the 100 u.m cosmic cirrus (64). The existence of such dust at moderate and... DUST 4 6 CONCLUSIONS 4 7 6.1 Spectral Structure in the Diffuse 4 7 Ultraviolet Background 6.2 Is There Light Scattered From Dust ? 4 7 6.3

  10. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  11. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

  12. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  13. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  14. Thermal Stabilization in a High Vacuum Cryogenic Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Rosa; Cripe, Jonathan; Corbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The existing technology for gravitational wave detection is limited in part by quantum noise. In our tabletop experiments, we are attempting to lower the noise floor to the quantum limit through the use of a seismically isolated cryogenic high vacuum environment, with the intention of exploring different methods to reduce quantum noise. In the development phase of this environment, we have implemented a customized strategy of ultraviolet irradiation combined with cryogenically cooled radiation shielding to reduce the impact of water vapor and blackbody radiation on the thermal stability of the cryogenic micro-components. Supported by National Science Foundation REU Site #1262890 and CAREER Award #1150531.

  15. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  16. Sealing Materials for Use in Vacuum at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Lee Vaughn, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Sealing materials that can be applied and left in place in vacuum over a wide range of temperatures (especially temperatures of a few thousand degrees Celsius) have been conceived and investigated for potential utility in repairing thermal-protection tiles on the space shuttles in orbit before returning to Earth. These materials are also adaptable to numerous terrestrial applications that involve vacuum processing and/or repair of structures that must withstand high temperatures. These materials can be formulated to have mechanical handling characteristics ranging from almost freely flowing liquid-like consistency through paste-like consistency to stiff puttylike consistency, and to retain these characteristics in vacuum until heated to high curing temperatures. A sealing material of this type can be formulated to be used in any of several different ways for example, to be impregnated into a high-temperature-fabric patch, impregnated into a high-temperature-fabric gasket for sealing a patch, applied under a patch, or applied alone in the manner of putty or wallboard compound. The sealing material must be formulated to be compatible with, and adhere to, the structural material(s) to be repaired. In general, the material consists of a vacuum-compatible liquid containing one or more dissolved compound(s) and/or mixed with suspended solid particles. Depending on the intended application, the liquid can be chosen to be of a compound that can remain in place in vacuum for a time long enough to be useful, and/or to evaporate or decompose in a controlled way to leave a useful solid residue behind. The evaporation rate is determined by proper choice of vapor pressure, application of heat, and/or application of ultraviolet light or other optical radiation. The liquid chosen for the original space shuttle application is a commercial silicone vacuum-pump oil.

  17. Irradiation stability of silicon photodiodes for extreme-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, Frank; Klein, Roman; Bock, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    Photodiodes are used as easy-to-operate detectors in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt photodiodes are calibrated with an uncertainty of spectral responsivity of 0.3% or less. Stable photodiodes are a prerequisite for the dissemination of these high-accuracy calibrations to customers. Silicon photodiodes with different top layers were exposed to intense extreme-ultraviolet irradiation. Diodes coated with diamondlike carbon or TiSiN proved to be stable within a few percent up to a radiant exposure of 100 kJ/cm2. The changes in responsivity could be explained as being due to carbon contamination and to changes in the internal charge collection efficiency. In ultrahigh vacuum, no indication of oxidation was found.

  18. Ultraviolet damage in solar cell assemblies with various UV filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultraviolet damage to the new violet and non-reflective type solar cell assemblies, was studied, and potential advantages of using coverslides with no filters or filters with cut-off wavelengths below 0.35 micron were determined. The experiments consisted of three types of tests on fused silica coverslides with 0.35- and 0.30-micron cut-off filters and no cut-off filters, as well as on ceria-doped microsheet coverslides. Ultraviolet irradiation for over 1500 hours at one sun conditions (AMO) was carried out under vacuum of about 1 million torr. Nearly identical results for non-reflective type cells with 0.35-micro cut-off filters or ceria-doped coverslides were obtained. The 0.30-um filtered cell shows greater than average degradation. The unfiltered cell shows an abrupt drop in the first 20 UVSH and very little subsequent degradation.

  19. Vacuum deposited polymer/metal films for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affinito, J. D.; Martin, P. M.; Gross, M. E.; Coronado, C.; Greenwell, E.

    1995-04-01

    Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Tantalum/Polymer/Aluminum Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuun web coating operation on polyester substrates with a new, high speed deposition process. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 0.8(mu)m. This new vacuum processing technique has been shown to be capable of deposition line speeds in excess of 500 linear meters/minute. Central to this technique is a new position process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process -- for Polymer Multi-Layer. Also, vacuum deposited, index matched, polymer/CaF(sub 2) composites were fabricated from monomer slurries that were subsequently cured with LTV light. This second technique is called the Liquid Multi-Layer (or LML) process. Each of these polymer processes is compatible with each other and with conventional vacuum deposition processes such as sputtering or evaporation.

  20. LIGO vacuum system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

    1988-01-01

    A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

  1. ULTRA HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Fry, W.A.

    1962-05-29

    A valve for high vacuum applications such as the CStellarator where chamber pressures as low as 2 x 10/sup -10/ mm Hg are necessary is designed with a line-of-sight path through the valve for visual inspection of the contents of reactants in such chambers. The valve comprises a turnable resilient metal ball having an aperture therethrough, means for selectively turning the ball to rotate the axis of its line-of-sight path, and soft, deformable opposing orifices that are movable relatively toward said ball to seal with opposite ball surfaces upon said movement of said axis of said line-of-sight path. The valve also includes a bellows seal connected between said orifices and internal actuating means that eliminates the requirement for gasketed turnable valve closing stems. (AEC)

  2. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  3. Vacuum Energy Sequestering and Graviton Loops.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  4. Vacuum Energy Sequestering and Graviton Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  5. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  6. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  7. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  8. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  9. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  10. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  11. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  12. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  13. Investigation of ultraviolet interstellar extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, C.; Haramundanis, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results concerning interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet are reported. These results were initially obtained by using data from main-sequence stars and were extended to include supergiants and emission stars. The principal finding of the analysis of ultraviolet extinction is not only that it is wavelength dependent, but that if changes with galactic longitude in the U3 passband (lambda sub eff = 1621 A); it does not change significantly in the U2 passband (lambda sub eff = 2308 A). Where data are available in the U4 passband (lambda sub eff = 1537 A), they confirm the rapid rise of extinction in the ultraviolet found by other investigators. However, in all cases, emission stars must be used with great caution. It is important to realize that while extinction continues to rise toward shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet, including the shortest ultraviolet wavelengths measured (1100 A), it no longer plays an important role in the X-ray region (50 A).

  14. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  15. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  16. Mars ultraviolet simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Zill, L P; Mack, R; DeVincenzi, D L

    1979-12-01

    A facility was established for long-duration ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure of natural and synthetic materials in order to test hypotheses concerning Martian soil chemistry observed by the Viking Mars landers. The system utilized a 2500 watt xenon lamp as the radiation source, with the beam passing through a heat-dissipating water filter before impinging upon an exposure chamber containing the samples to be irradiated. The chamber was designed to allow for continuous tumbling of the samples, maintenance of temperatures below 0 degrees C during exposure, and monitoring of beam intensity. The facility also provided for sample preparation under a variety of atmospheric conditions, in addition to the Mars nominal. As many as 33 sealed sample ampules have been irradiated in a single exposure. Over 100 samples have been irradiated for approximately 100 to 700 h. The facility has performed well in providing continuous UV irradiation of multiple samples for long periods of time under simulated Mars atmospheric and thermal conditions.

  17. Ultraviolet laser excitation source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Hohl, F.

    1980-01-01

    A new intense ultraviolet light source has been developed from an array of hypocycloidal pinch (HCP) devices. The basic unit of the array is constructed with three disk electrodes and is capable of producing dense plasmas at temperatures up to 10,000,000 K. Very high input power levels to the array are possible without significantly shortening its useful life, in strong contrast with conventional xenon flashlamps. The new light source, when operated with Ar and Xe gas mixtures at high pressures (approximately 5 x 10 to the 4th Pa), produced a light output of over 100 MW in the near-UV spectral range and successfully pumped an iodine photodissociation laser at 1.315 microns. A xenon recombination laser at 2.027 microns was also pumped in the HCP array.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, Wayne S.

    1989-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet testing was not developed which will provide highly accelerated (20 to 50X) exposures that correlate to flight test data. Additional studies are required to develop an exposure methodology which will assure that accelerated testing can be used for qualification of materials and coatings for long duration space flight. Some conclusions are listed: Solar UV radiation is present in all orbital environments; Solar UV does not change in flux with orbital altitude; UV radiation can degrade most coatings and polymeric films; Laboratory UV simulation methodology is needed for accelerated testing to 20 UV solar constants; Simulation of extreme UV (below 200 nm) is needed to evaluate requirements for EUV in solar simulation.

  19. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  20. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  1. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  2. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  3. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  4. Improved calibration technique of the infrared imaging bolometer using ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Drapiko, E; Peterson, B; Alekseev, A; Seo, D C

    2010-10-01

    The technique used until recently utilizing the Ne-He laser for imaging bolometer foils calibration [B. J. Peterson et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 2, S1018 (2007)] has showed several issues. The method was based on irradiation of 1 cm spaced set of points on a foil by the laser beam moved by set of mirrors. Issues were the nonuniformity of laser power due to the vacuum window transmission nonuniformity and high reflection coefficient for the laser. Also, due to the limited infrared (IR) window size, it was very time consuming. The new methodology uses a compact ultraviolet (uv) light-emitting diodes installed inside the vacuum chamber in a fixed position and the foil itself will be moved in the XY directions by two vacuum feedthroughs. These will help to avoid the above mentioned issues due to lack of a vacuum window, fixed emitters, higher uv power absorption, and a fixed IR camera position.

  5. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  6. Vacuum phenomenon: Clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Ishan; Vilensky, Joel A; Weber, Edward C

    2014-04-01

    Vacuum phenomenon (VP) is an anatomical entity of potential confusion in the diagnosis and evaluation of joint pathology. Observation of this phenomenon has been demonstrated on basic radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although VP is most often associated with degenerative joint disease, it is observed with other pathologies. Two problematic scenarios can occur: a false-positive diagnosis of serious pathology instead of benign VP and a false-negative diagnosis of benign VP with a more serious underlying process Despite this potential for confusion, criteria for distinguishing VP from other causes of joint pain and for evaluating a suspected case of VP have not been fully established. We reviewed the literature to determine underlying mechanism, symptomology, associated pathologies, and clinical importance of VP. The formation of VP can be explained by gas solubility, pressure-volume relationships, and human physiology. CT, GRE-MRI, and multipositional views are the best imaging studies to view VP. Although most cases of VP are benign, it can be associated with clinical signs and symptoms. VP outside the spine is an underreported finding on imaging studies. VP should be on the differential diagnosis for joint pain, especially in the elderly. We have proposed criteria for diagnosing VP and generated a basic algorithm for its workup. Underreporting of this phenomenon shows a lack of awareness of VP on the part of physicians. By identifying true anatomic VP, we can prevent harm from suboptimal treatment of patients.

  7. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  8. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  9. Quantum Vacuum Pathway Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habegger, Eric John

    2005-02-01

    It is theorized that the quantum vacuum is a random electromagnetic field that permeates the universe. It will be shown that acceleration between a quark and a random electromagnetic energy field is an analog of the reaction between a charge moving at constant velocity with respect to an organized electromagnetic field. The difference is that with a quark any natural perpendicular deflection during that motion, as predicted by Lorentz, is contained by the strong force, which results in a change in the angular momentum of the spin of a quark. The first derivative of the equations of motion of charges in an organized electromagnetic field may be used when applied to a random electromagnetic field to invoke the same fields modeled by Maxwell's equations. Mass is intimately bound up with a quark's spin angular momentum and the energy for that increase comes directly from the local field. The underlying randomness of the local field normally remains intact through these energy exchanges but it is speculated that in a quantum entanglement, an absolute level of order is imposed on the field along a path between two particles. This causes the non local effects seen in quantum entanglement. The mechanism that may cause this effect is discussed and a simple experiment is proposed that can test the hypothesis. Also discussed are new theoretical constructs for electromagnetic radiation, mass, the skin effect, self-inductance, superposition, and gravity. The emphasis will be on an intuitive and logical approach more than a mathematical approach.

  10. Precooler Ring Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Moenich, J.

    1980-10-02

    The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

  11. KEKB vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, K.; Kato, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Hisamatsu, H.; Shimamoto, M.; Sato, M.; Shirai, M.

    2001-01-01

    For KEK B-factory (KEKB), two rings with a circumference of 3016 m, mainly made of copper have been constructed. One ring stores a maximum of 2.6 A positron beam with the energy at 3.5 GeV, the other stores 1.1 A, 8 GeV electron beam. These stored currents far exceed those of existing electron storage rings. The inside of a beam duct is designed to minimize an effect of beam induced fields. A gap between flanges is filled using Helicoflex as a vacuum seal. Contact force of a RF finger in a bellows is assured by the use of a spring finger. Pumping slots are backed by crossing bars to prevent the penetration of beam induced fields. To obtain a pressure of 10 -7 Pa with beam, a pumping speed is designed to realize 0.1 m 3 s -1 m -1 assuming that the photodesorption coefficient reaches 10 -6 molecules/photon. The NEG strip is used as a main pump element. Chemical polishing is applied to clean the extruded surface of copper chambers. Almost all chambers are baked before installation. Only ion pumps are baked in situ. From beginning to end, a completely oil free pumping system is used. The photodesorption coefficient at the start of the commissioning was slightly higher than expected, but the decrease of the coefficient is as expected on the whole. There is no trouble on the RF contact for bellows.

  12. Vacuum still bottoms viscometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, T.V.; Wilson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A viscometer system that is capable of measuring VSB viscosity on-line has been designed, constructed, and tested. The viscometer will not only provide continuous on-line measurements for process control purposes, but will also determine viscosity as functions of temperature and shear rate. The latter results may be used to verify design-base information for direct coal liquefaction demonstration plants. The viscosities of Wilsonville samples of VSB and LSRC were determined as functions of shear rate and, in the case of LSRC, temperature. The VSB viscosity was found to be shear-rate sensitive, while the LSRC viscosity was temperature sensitive. A 24-h test run was unsuccessful, apparently because the check valves in the pump plugged; however, all other mechanical, electrical, and electronic equipment operated satisfactorily. The source of the plugging was thought to be degradation products, which should not cause difficulties in the pilot plant where fresh vacuum bottoms feed is always available. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that the viscometer system is ready to be transported to a plant such as Wilsonville and operated on-line. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Far Ultraviolet Imaging from the Image Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U.; Lampton, M.; Geller, S. P.; Stock, J. M.; Abiad, R.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Habraken, S.

    2000-01-01

    Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora. The IMAGE satellite instrument complement includes three Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) will provide broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora for maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the LBH N2 bands of the aurora. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a novel form of monochromatic imager, will image the aurora, filtered by wavelength. The proton-induced component of the aurora will be imaged separately by measuring the Doppler-shifted Lyman-a. Finally, the GEO instrument will observe the distribution of the geocoronal emission to obtain the neutral background density source for charge exchange in the magnetosphere. The FUV instrument complement looks radially outward from the rotating IMAGE satellite and, therefore, it spends only a short time observing the aurora and the Earth during each spin. To maximize photon collection efficiency and use efficiently the short time available for exposures the FUV auroral imagers WIC and SI both have wide fields of view and take data continuously as the auroral region proceeds through the field of view. To minimize data volume, the set of multiple images are electronically co-added by suitably shifting each image to compensate for the spacecraft rotation. In order to minimize resolution loss, the images have to be distort ion-corrected in real time. The distortion correction is accomplished using high speed look up tables that are pre-generated by least square fitting to polynomial functions by the on-orbit processor. The instruments were calibrated individually while on stationary platforms, mostly in vacuum chambers. Extensive ground-based testing was performed with visible and near UV simulators mounted on a rotating platform to emulate their performance on a rotating spacecraft.

  14. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  15. Rhodium nanoparticles for ultraviolet plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Watson, Anne M; Zhang, Xiao; Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo; Marcos Sanz, Juan; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando; Finkelstein, Gleb; Liu, Jie; Everitt, Henry O

    2015-02-11

    The nonoxidizing catalytic noble metal rhodium is introduced for ultraviolet plasmonics. Planar tripods of 8 nm Rh nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified polyol reduction method, have a calculated local surface plasmon resonance near 330 nm. By attaching p-aminothiophenol, local field-enhanced Raman spectra and accelerated photodamage were observed under near-resonant ultraviolet illumination, while charge transfer simultaneously increased fluorescence for up to 13 min. The combined local field enhancement and charge transfer demonstrate essential steps toward plasmonically enhanced ultraviolet photocatalysis.

  16. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  17. Photoelectron backscattering in vacuum phototubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Vasiliev, R. V.; Vyatchin, Y. E.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.

    2006-11-01

    In this article we describe results of studies of a photoelectron backscattering effect in vacuum phototubes: classical photomultipliers (PMT) and hybrid phototubes (PH). Late pulses occurring in PMTs are attributed to the photoelectron backscattering and distinguished from pulses due to an anode glow effect. The late pulses are measured in a number of PMTs and HPs with various photocathode sizes covering 1 50 cm range and different types of the first dynode materials and construction designs. It is shown that the late pulses are a generic feature of all vacuum photodetectors—PMTs and PHs—and they do not deteriorate dramatically amplitude and timing responses of vacuum phototubes.

  18. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries class sounding rocket 24.015, producing outstanding results. The diffuse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) background spectrometer which is under construction is described. It will be launched on the Black Brant sounding rocket flight number 27.086. Ongoing design studies of a high resolution spectrometer are discussed. This instrument incorporates a one meter normal incidence mirror and will be suitable for an advanced Spartan mission.

  19. Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

  20. Ultra-Violet Induced Insulator Flashover

    SciTech Connect

    Javedani, J B; Houck, T L; Kelly, B T; Lahowe, D A; Shirk, M D; Goerz, D A

    2008-05-21

    Insulators are critical components in high-energy, pulsed power systems. It is known that the vacuum surface of the insulator will flashover when illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation depending on the insulator material, insulator cone angle, applied voltage and insulator shot-history. A testbed comprised of an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm, {approx} 2 MW/cm{sup 2}, 30 ns FWHM,), a vacuum chamber (low 1.0E-6 torr), and dc high voltage power supply (<60 kV) was assembled for insulator testing to measure the UV dose during a flashover event. Five in-house developed and calibrated fast D-Dot probes (>12 GHz, bandwidth) were embedded in the anode electrode underneath the insulator to determine the time of flashover with respect to UV arrival. A commercial energy meter were used to measure the UV fluence for each pulse. Four insulator materials High Density Polyethylene, Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex with side-angles of 0, {+-}30, and {+-}45 degrees, 1.0 cm thick samples, were tested with a maximum UV fluence of 75 mJ/cm{sup 2} and at varying electrode charge (10 kV to 60 kV). This information clarified/corrected earlier published studies. A new phenomenon was observed related to the UV power level on flashover that as the UV pulse intensity was increased, the UV fluence on the insulator prior to flashover was also increased. This effect would bias the data towards higher minimum flashover fluence.

  1. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  2. Optimizing Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility (3M)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    3M conducted an in-house motor system study in 29 buildings at the 3M Center. The company evaluated approximately 1,000 electric motors and upgraded systems, resulting in reduced electricity use and cost savings of $77,554 per year.

  3. Diphotons, new vacuum angles, and strong CP

    DOE PAGES

    Draper, Patrick; McKeen, David

    2016-04-20

    The Standard Model contains a well-understood, natural, spin-0 diphoton resonance: the π0. Numerous studies have pointed out that the hint of a new diphoton resonance at 750 GeV could be a pion analog, identified with the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of a chiral symmetry spontaneously broken by new strong dynamics at the TeV scale. These “hypercolor” models are generically expected to violate parity through a topological angle θ~. We discuss the physics of θ~ and its impact on the phenomenology of the new sector. We also describe some of the theoretical implications of a nonzero θ~. In particular, θ~ can generate anmore » O(1) threshold correction to the QCD vacuum angle θ near the TeV scale, sharply constraining ultraviolet solutions to the strong CP problem. Furthermore, finding that θ~ is small may be interpreted as evidence in favor of UV solutions to strong CP, particularly those based on spontaneously broken P or CP symmetries.« less

  4. Diphotons, new vacuum angles, and strong CP

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, Patrick; McKeen, David

    2016-04-20

    The Standard Model contains a well-understood, natural, spin-0 diphoton resonance: the π0. Numerous studies have pointed out that the hint of a new diphoton resonance at 750 GeV could be a pion analog, identified with the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of a chiral symmetry spontaneously broken by new strong dynamics at the TeV scale. These “hypercolor” models are generically expected to violate parity through a topological angle θ~. We discuss the physics of θ~ and its impact on the phenomenology of the new sector. We also describe some of the theoretical implications of a nonzero θ~. In particular, θ~ can generate an O(1) threshold correction to the QCD vacuum angle θ near the TeV scale, sharply constraining ultraviolet solutions to the strong CP problem. Furthermore, finding that θ~ is small may be interpreted as evidence in favor of UV solutions to strong CP, particularly those based on spontaneously broken P or CP symmetries.

  5. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyunjin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2009-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M3 is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3. This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K+ channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K+ currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca2+ currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca2+ currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:19931239

  6. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyun Jin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2010-02-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M(3) is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K(+) channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca(2+) currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level.

  7. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is...

  12. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  13. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  15. IRIS Leaves Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the transportation of the IRIS observatory from the thermal vacuum chamber back to the clean tent for final testing and preparations for delivery to the launch site at Vandenberg A...

  16. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  17. Design, fabrication and performance of two grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Cash, W.; Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy are described. The telescopes basically consist of a star tracker, collimator, grazing incidence mirror, vacuum box lid, vacuum housing, filters, a ranicon detector, an electronics box, and an aspect camera. For the survey mirror a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II configuration was selected. Diamond-turning was used for mirror fabrication, a technique which machines surfaces to the order of 10 microns over the required dimensions. The design of the EUV spectrometer is discussed with particular reference to the optics for a primarily spectroscopic application and the fabrication of the f/10 optics.

  18. Fundamental investigation of ultraviolet radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Llewellen, P.; Gilligan, J.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search from 1958 to present was conducted on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on polymeric materials, with particular emphasis on vacuum photolysis, mechanisms of degradation, and energy transfer phenomena. The literature from 1958 to 1968 was searched manually, while the literature from 1968 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The primary objective was to provide the necessary background information for the design of new or modified materials with improved stability to the vacuum-radiation environment of space.

  19. COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED ENERGY LEVELS FOR SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II)

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Kerber, Florian

    2012-10-15

    We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 A. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.

  20. Comprehensive Observations of the Ultraviolet Spectrum and Improved Energy Levels for Singly Ionized Chromium (Cr II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Kerber, Florian

    2012-10-01

    We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 Å. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.