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Sample records for 3mwth combustion test

  1. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  2. Thermal Model of the Promoted Combustion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Flammability of metals in high pressure, pure oxygen environments, such as rocket engine turbopumps, is commonly evaluated using the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT). The PCT emphasizes the ability of an ignited material to sustain combustion, as opposed to evaluating the sample's propensity to ignite in the first place. A common arrangement is a rod of the sample material hanging in a chamber in which a high pressure, pure oxygen environment is maintained. An igniter of some energetically combusting material is fixed to the bottom of the rod and fired. This initiates combustion, and the sample burns and melts at its bottom tip. A ball of molten material forms, and this ball detaches when it grows too large to be supported by surface tension with the rod. In materials which do not sustain combustion, the combustion then extinguishes. In materials which do sustain combustion, combustion re-initiates from molten residue left on the bottom of the rod, and the melt ball burns and grows until it detaches again. The purpose of this work is development of a PCT thermal simulation model, detailing phase change, melt detachment, and the several heat transfer modes. Combustion is modeled by a summary rate equation, whose parameters are identified by comparison to PCT results. The sensitivity of PCT results to various physical and geometrical parameters is evaluated. The identified combustion parameters may be used in design of new PCT arrangements, as might be used for flammability assessment in flow-dominated environments. The Haynes 214 nickel-based superalloy, whose PCT results are applied here, burns heterogeneously (fuel and oxidizer are of different phases; combustion takes place on the fuel surface). Heterogeneous combustion is not well understood. (In homogeneous combustion, the metal vaporizes, and combustion takes place in an analytically treatable cloud above the surface). Thermal modeling in heterogeneous combustion settings provides a means for linking test

  3. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-09-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technology has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the burn criterion from 15 cm(6 in.) to 3 cm(1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) G124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-burn thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  4. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  5. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  6. Post Combustion Test Bed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cabe, James E.; King, Dale A.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-12-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assessment methodology and slip-stream testing platform enables the comprehensive early-stage evaluation of carbon capture solvents and sorbents utilizing a breadth of laboratory experimental capability as well as a testing platform at a nearby 600 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  7. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  8. NASA Teams With Army in Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, 'self-cooled', vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  9. Testing a dual-mode ramjet engine with kerosene combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. M.; Karasev, V. N.; Kartovitskii, L. L.; Krymov, E. A.; Skachkov, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    Results of life firing tests of a dual-mode ramjet engine intended for operation in the speed range M = 3-6 are discussed. The tests were carried out on a test bench under freestream conditions typical of Mach 6 flight at 27.6-km altitude. In the tests, the adopted design and technological solutions were verified, and efficient operation of the ramjet engine with kerosene combustion during 110 s was demonstrated.

  10. Subscale Test Methods for Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Sisco, J. C.; Long, M. R.; Sung, I.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Stated goals for long-life LRE s have been between 100 and 500 cycles: 1) Inherent technical difficulty of accurately defining the transient and steady state thermochemical environments and structural response (strain); 2) Limited statistical basis on failure mechanisms and effects of design and operational variability; and 3) Very high test costs and budget-driven need to protect test hardware (aversion to test-to-failure). Ambitious goals will require development of new databases: a) Advanced materials, e.g., tailored composites with virtually unlimited property variations; b) Innovative functional designs to exploit full capabilities of advanced materials; and c) Different cycles/operations. Subscale testing is one way to address technical and budget challenges: 1) Prototype subscale combustors exposed to controlled simulated conditions; 2) Complementary to conventional laboratory specimen database development; 3) Instrumented with sensors to measure thermostructural response; and 4) Coupled with analysis

  11. Oxygen Compatibility Screening Tests in Oxygen-Rich Combustion Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Anerew J.

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characterization of oxygen-rich compatible materials enables full-flow, staged combustion designs. Although these oxygen-rich designs offer significant cost, performance, and reliability benefits over existing systems, they have never been used operationally by the United States. If these systems are to be realized, it is critical to understand the long-term oxidative stability in high-temperature, high-pressure, oxygen-rich combustion environments. A unique facility has been constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to conduct tests of small-scale rocket engine materials and subcomponents in an oxygen-rich combustion environment that closely approximates a full-scale rocket engine. Thus, a broad range of advanced materials and concepts can be screened in a timely manner and at a relatively low cost.

  12. Development of coal combustion sensitivity test for smoke detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.; Morrow, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the US Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The tests are conducted using a standard smoke box designed and constructed according to Underwriters Laboratories. The tests provide a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for smoldering and flaming coal combustion, based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density and the response of a standard ionization chamber to the smoke. With these standard tests, the range of threshold limits for the response of a smoke detector and the detector`s reliability can be evaluated for nearly identical smoke visibility and smoke physical characteristics. The detector`s threshold response limits and reliability need to be well defined prior to the instrument`s use as part of a mine fire warning system for improved mine safety.

  13. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  14. Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, B.D.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  16. Hot fire test results of subscale tubular combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced, subscale, tubular combustion chambers were built and test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants to assess the increase in fatigue life that can be obtained with this type of construction. Two chambers were tested: one ran for 637 cycles without failing, compared to a predicted life of 200 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. The other chamber failed at 256 cycles, compared to a predicted life of 118 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. Posttest metallographic analysis determined that the strain-relieving design (structural compliance) of the tubular configuration was the cause of this increase in life.

  17. Hot fire fatigue testing results for the compliant combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen subscale rocket combustion chamber was designed incorporating an advanced design concept to reduce strain and increase life. The design permits unrestrained thermal expansion of a circumferential direction and, thereby, provides structural compliance during the thermal cycling of hot-fire testing. The chamber was built and test fired at a chamber pressure of 4137 kN/sq m (600 psia) and a hydrogen-oxygen mixture ratio of 6.0. Compared with a conventional milled-channel configuration, the new structurally compliant chamber had a 134 or 287 percent increase in fatigue life, depending on the life predicted for the conventional configuration.

  18. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of a test combustor suitable for studying combustion oscillations caused by a commercial-scale gas turbine fuel nozzle. Aside from the need to be conducted at elevated pressures and temperatures, it is desirable for the experimental device to be flexible in its geometry so as to provide an acoustic environment representative of the commercial device. The combustor design, capabilities, and relevant instrumentation for such a device are presented, along with initial operating experience and preliminary data that suggests the importance of nozzle reference velocity and air temperature.

  19. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  20. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were that the flame geometry be maintained and acoustic losses be minimized; this was achieved by using a Helmholtz resonator as the combustor geometry. Surprisingly, the combustor oscillated strongly at several frequencies, without modification of the resonator. Brief survey of operating conditions suggests that it may be helpful to characterize oscillating behavior in terms of reference velocity and inlet air temperature with the rig backpressure playing a smaller role. The preliminary results do not guarantee that the single-nozzle test device will reproduce arbitrary oscillations that occur on a complete engine test. Nozzle/nozzle interactions may complicate the response, and oscillations controlled by acoustic velocities transverse to the nozzle axis may not be reproduced in a test device that relies on a bulk Helmholtz mode. Nevertheless, some oscillations can be reproduced, and the single-nozzle test device allows both active and passive control strategies to be tested relatively inexpensively.

  1. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  2. Testing of a small combustion turbine burning reformed methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Karpuk, M E; Schell, D J

    1984-02-01

    As part of ongoing research into high-efficiency alcohol fuels utilization at the Solar Energy Research Institute, as gas combustion turbine was modified for use with reformed methanol and tested. The reforming process for this application uses waste engine heat to convert methanol and steam in the presence of a catalyst into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. We modified the standard combustor of a Garrett Model GTCP85-397 combustion turbine to burn the hydrogen and carbon dioxide mixture. Heat exchangers to boil and reform a methanol and water mixture were sized, purchased, and connected to the turbine exhaust. Instrumentation was added to monitor turbine temperatures, pressures, and exhaust emissions. Turbine performance and emissions were measured at various loads with a distillate fuel and compared with performance on reformed methanol. Reformed alcohol yields a significant improvement in efficiency because waste heat is reclaimed as chemical energy in the fuel. The larger mass flowrate of fuel to the combustor increases power output, and emissions are substantially reduced. 5 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Materials Combustion Testing and Combustion Product Sensor Evaluations in FY12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit E.; Hunter, Gary; Ruff, Gary; Mudgett, Paul D.; Hornung, Steven D.; McClure, Mark B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bryg, Victoria; Makel, Darby

    2013-01-01

    NASA Centers continue to collaborate to characterize the chemical species and smoke particles generated by the combustion of current space-rated non-metallic materials including fluoropolymers. This paper describes the results of tests conducted February through September 2012 to identify optimal chemical markers both for augmenting particle-based fire detection methods and for monitoring the post-fire cleanup phase in human spacecraft. These studies follow up on testing conducted in August 2010 and reported at ICES 2011. The tests were conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility in a custom glove box designed for burning fractional gram quantities of materials under varying heating profiles. The 623 L chamber was heavily instrumented to quantify organics (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), inorganics by water extraction followed by ion chromatography, and select species by various individual commercially-available sensors. Evaluating new technologies for measuring carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and other species of interest was a key objective of the test. Some of these sensors were located inside the glovebox near the fire source to avoid losses through the sampling lines; the rest were located just outside the glovebox. Instruments for smoke particle characterization included a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Personal Dust Monitor (TEOM PDM) and a TSI Dust Trak DRX to measure particle mass concentration, a TSI PTrak for number concentration and a thermal precipitator for collection of particles for microscopic analysis. Materials studied included Nomex(R), M22759 wire insulation, granulated circuit board, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton(R), and mixtures of PTFE and Kapton(R). Furnace temperatures ranged from 340 to 640 C, focusing on the smoldering regime. Of particular interest in these tests was confirming burn repeatability and production of acid gases with different

  4. Materials Combustion Testing and Combustion Product Sensor Evaluations in FY12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit Elisabeth; Mudgett, Paul D.; Hornung, Steven D.; McClure, Mark B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bryg, Victoria; Makel, Darby; Ruff, Gary A.; Hunter, Gary

    2013-01-01

    NASA Centers continue to collaborate to characterize the chemical species and smoke particles generated by the combustion of current space-rated non-metallic materials including fluoropolymers. This paper describes the results of tests conducted February through September 2012 to identify optimal chemical markers both for augmenting particle-based fire detection methods and for monitoring the post-fire cleanup phase in human spacecraft. These studies follow up on testing conducted in August 2010 and reported at ICES 2011. The tests were conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility in a custom glove box designed for burning fractional gram quantities of materials under varying heating profiles. The 623 L chamber was heavily instrumented to quantify organics (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), inorganics by water extraction followed by ion chromatography, and select species by various individual commercially-available sensors. Evaluating new technologies for measuring carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and other species of interest was a key objective of the test. Some of these sensors were located inside the glovebox near the fire source to avoid losses through the sampling lines; the rest were located just outside the glovebox. Instruments for smoke particle characterization included a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Personal Dust Monitor (TEOM PDM) and a TSI Dust Trak DRX to measure particle mass concentration, a TSI PTrak for number concentration and a thermal precipitator for collection of particles for microscopic analysis. Materials studied included Nomex®, M22759 wire insulation, granulated circuit board, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton®, and mixtures of PTFE and Kapton®. Furnace temperatures ranged from 340o to 640o C, focusing on the smoldering regime. Of particular interest in these tests was confirming burn repeatability and production of acid gases with different

  5. Structural Benchmark Tests of Composite Combustion Chamber Support Completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Thesken, John C.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2005-01-01

    A series of mechanical load tests was completed on several novel design concepts for extremely lightweight combustion chamber support structures at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/). The tests included compliance evaluation, preliminary proof loadings, high-strain cyclic testing, and finally residual strength testing of each design (see the photograph on the left). Loads were applied with single rollers (see the photograph on the right) or pressure plates (not shown) located midspan on each side to minimize the influence of contact stresses on corner deformation measurements. Where rollers alone were used, a more severe structural loading was produced than the corresponding equal-force pressure loading: the maximum transverse shear force existed over the entire length of each side, and the corner bending moments were greater than for a distributed (pressure) loading. Failure modes initiating at the corner only provided a qualitative indication of the performance limitations since the stress state was not identical to internal pressure. Configurations were tested at both room and elevated temperatures. Experimental results were used to evaluate analytical prediction tools and finite-element methodologies for future work, and they were essential to provide insight into the deformation at the corners. The tests also were used to assess fabrication and bonding details for the complicated structures. They will be used to further optimize the design of the support structures for weight performance and the efficacy of corner reinforcement.

  6. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  7. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  8. Test Would Quantify Combustion Oxygen From Different Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed isotope-enrichment scheme enables determination of contributions of dual sources of oxygen for combustion. Liquid oxygen or other artificial stream enriched with O(18) to about 1 percent by weight. Combustion products analyzed by mass spectrometer to measure relative abundances of H2O(18) and H2O(16). From relative abundances of water products measured, one computes relative contribution of oxygen extracted from stream compared to other source of oxygen in combustion process. Used to determine contributions of natural oxygen in air and liquid oxygen supplied in separate stream mixed with air or sent directly into combustion chamber.

  9. Cooled Ceramic Composite Panel Tested Successfully in Rocket Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2003-01-01

    Regeneratively cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) structures are being considered for use along the walls of the hot-flow paths of rocket-based or turbine-based combined-cycle propulsion systems. They offer the combined benefits of substantial weight savings, higher operating temperatures, and reduced coolant requirements in comparison to components designed with traditional metals. These cooled structures, which use the fuel as the coolant, require materials that can survive aggressive thermal, mechanical, acoustic, and aerodynamic loads while acting as heat exchangers, which can improve the efficiency of the engine. A team effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and various industrial partners has led to the design, development, and fabrication of several types of regeneratively cooled panels. The concepts for these panels range from ultra-lightweight designs that rely only on CMC tubes for coolant containment to more maintainable designs that incorporate metal coolant containment tubes to allow for the rapid assembly or disassembly of the heat exchanger. One of the cooled panels based on an all-CMC design was successfully tested in the rocket combustion facility at Glenn. Testing of the remaining four panels is underway.

  10. Development and test of combustion chamber for Stirling engine heated by natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tie; Song, Xiange; Gui, Xiaohong; Tang, Dawei; Li, Zhigang; Cao, Wenyu

    2014-04-01

    The combustion chamber is an important component for the Stirling engine heated by natural gas. In the paper, we develop a combustion chamber for the Stirling engine which aims to generate 3˜5 kWe electric power. The combustion chamber includes three main components: combustion module, heat exchange cavity and thermal head. Its feature is that the structure can divide "combustion" process and "heat transfer" process into two apparent individual steps and make them happen one by one. Since natural gas can mix with air fully before burning, the combustion process can be easily completed without the second wind. The flame can avoid contacting the thermal head of Stirling engine, and the temperature fields can be easily controlled. The designed combustion chamber is manufactured and its performance is tested by an experiment which includes two steps. The experimental result of the first step proves that the mixture of air and natural gas can be easily ignited and the flame burns stably. In the second step of experiment, the combustion heat flux can reach 20 kW, and the energy utilization efficiency of thermal head has exceeded 0.5. These test results show that the thermal performance of combustion chamber has reached the design goal. The designed combustion chamber can be applied to a real Stirling engine heated by natural gas which is to generate 3˜5 kWe electric power.

  11. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Brewer, David; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to the metallic rig structure. The effect of combustion exposure on the fastener material was characterized via microstructural examination. Fasteners were also destructively tested, after combustion exposure, and the failure loads of fasteners exposed in the sector rig were compared to those of as-manufactured fasteners. Combustion exposure reduced the fastener failure load by 50% relative to the as-manufactured fasteners for exposure times ranging from 50 to 260 hours. The fasteners exposed in the combustion environment demonstrated failure loads that varied with failure mode. Fasteners that had the highest average failure load, failed in the same manner as the unexposed fasteners.

  12. Operating experience with ABB Power Plant Laboratories multi-use combustion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jukkola, G.; Levasseur, A.; Mylchreest, D.; Turek, D.

    1999-07-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc.'s ABB Power Plant Laboratories (PPL) has installed a new Multi-Use Combustion Test Facility to support the product development needs for ABB Group's Power Generation Businesses. This facility provides the flexibility to perform testing under fluidized bed combustion, conventional pulverized-coal firing, and gasification firing conditions, thus addressing the requirements for several test facilities. Initial operation of the facility began in late 1997. This paper will focus on the design and application of this Multi-Use Combustion Test Facility for fluidized bed product development. In addition, this paper will present experimental facility results from initial circulating fluidized bed operation, including combustion and environmental performance, heat transfer, and combustor profiles.

  13. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  14. Redesign and Test of an SSME Turbopump for the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, K. J.; Lee, G. A.; Eastland, A. H.; Rojas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The preburner oxidizer turbopump for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) was successfully redesigned for use with the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber (LTMCC) and tested in air utilizing rapid prototyping. The redesign increases the SSME's operating range with the current Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) while achieving full operational range with the LTMCC. The use of rapid prototyping and air testing to validate the redesign demonstrated the ability to design, fabricate and test designs rapidly and at a very low cost.

  15. Development on a dynamic pressure test system of internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dongmei; Zou, Xihong; Xu, Yun

    2006-11-01

    The performance of a piston internal-combustion engines is reflected by indicator diagram and indicator parameters. It is of great significance to evaluate performance, inspect quality, redesign and maintain internal-combustion engine by computing parameter and analyzing combustion according to tested indicator diagram. Aimed at two-stroke piston engines, a dynamic pressure test system of internal-combustion engines is developed with high speed acquisition devices, angle signal generators and pulse shapers. After a further research on the measurement of dynamic top dead center (TDC), the computer algorithm based on the p-ψ indicator diagram of TDC and the average indicator pressure is putted forward. With the application of the multithreading technique, dynamic link library technique and multi-document template technique, a testing software, which is credible and multi-purpose, is programmed. The experiment indicates that the indicator diagram and indicator parameters can be under accurate measurement with the testing system.

  16. Development of a vortex combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (combustion tests)

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, T.T. ); Nieh, S. . Combustion and Multiphase Flows Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This is the final report for Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-87PC79660 on Combustion Test'' for vortex combustor (VC) development for commercial applications. The work culminated in the successful demonstration of a 2 MB/H proof-of-concept (POC) model firing coal-water fuel (CWF). This development is concerned with a new concept in combustion, and was a general lack of relevant information. The work therefore began (in addition to the companion cold flow modeling study) with the design and test of two subscale models (0.15 and 0.3 MB/H) and one full scale model (3 MB/H) to obtain the needed information. With the experience gained, the 2 MB/H POC model was then designed and demonstrated. Although, these models were designed somewhat differently from one another, they all performed well and demonstrated the superiority of the concept. In summary, test results have shown that VC can be fired on several coal fuels (CWF, dry ultrafine coal, utility grind pulverized coal) at high combustion efficiency (>99%), high firing intensity (up to 0.44 MB/H-ft[sup 3]), and at temperatures sufficiently low or dry ash removal. The combustion process is completed totally inside the combustor. Conventional combustion enhancement techniques such as: preheating (air and/or fuel), pre-combustion, and post combustion are not needed.

  17. Development of a vortex combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (combustion tests). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, T.T.; Nieh, S.

    1990-11-01

    This is the final report for Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-87PC79660 on ``Combustion Test`` for vortex combustor (VC) development for commercial applications. The work culminated in the successful demonstration of a 2 MB/H proof-of-concept (POC) model firing coal-water fuel (CWF). This development is concerned with a new concept in combustion, and was a general lack of relevant information. The work therefore began (in addition to the companion cold flow modeling study) with the design and test of two subscale models (0.15 and 0.3 MB/H) and one full scale model (3 MB/H) to obtain the needed information. With the experience gained, the 2 MB/H POC model was then designed and demonstrated. Although, these models were designed somewhat differently from one another, they all performed well and demonstrated the superiority of the concept. In summary, test results have shown that VC can be fired on several coal fuels (CWF, dry ultrafine coal, utility grind pulverized coal) at high combustion efficiency (>99%), high firing intensity (up to 0.44 MB/H-ft{sup 3}), and at temperatures sufficiently low or dry ash removal. The combustion process is completed totally inside the combustor. Conventional combustion enhancement techniques such as: preheating (air and/or fuel), pre-combustion, and post combustion are not needed.

  18. Laboratory test methods for combustion stability properties of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Brown, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of experimental methods for determining the combustion-stability properties of solid propellants. The methods are generally based on either the temporal response to an initial disturbance or on external methods for generating the required oscillations. The size distribution of condensed-phase combustion products are characterized by means of the experimental approaches. The 'T-burner' approach is shown to assist in the derivation of pressure-coupled driving contributions and particle damping in solid-propellant rocket motors. Other techniques examined include the rotating-valve apparatus, the impedance tube, the modulated throat-acoustic damping burner, and the magnetic flowmeter. The paper shows that experimental methods do not exist for measuring the interactions between acoustic velocity oscillations and burning propellant.

  19. Combustion and emissions tests of the Vicon Incinerator at Pittsfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Neulicht, R.; Visalli, J.

    1987-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) can be generated as a result of combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, knowledge is limited about the incinerator design and operating conditions that cause these compounds to form and that can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate their discharge. This paper reports some of the major results of an extensive combustion/emissions testing program designed to gather data related to this topic. The testing was conducted at the VICON Resource Recovery Municipal Solid Waste Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The study focused on identifying the relationships between incinerator operating conditions, waste characteristics, combustion variables, and levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and selected other semivolatile organic compounds measures in the combustion gases.

  20. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Belisle, F.H.; Maxwell, G.P.

    1993-11-01

    This program has the objectives to: A. Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition. B. Determine emissions characteristics including NO, NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents, and C. Operate with at least two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions. As a result of this program: 1. GE Engineering is now confident that the syngas fuels produced by all currently--viable coal gasifiers can be accommodated by the GE advanced (``F`` Technology) combustion system, and 2. For proposed syngas fuels with varying amounts of steam, nitrogen or CO{sub 2} diluent, the combustion and emissions characteristics can be reasonably estimated without undertaking expensive new screening tests for each different fuel.

  1. Preliminary results from screening tests of commercial catalysts with potential use in gas turbine combustors. II - Combustion test rig evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several commercial monolithic catalysts were tested in a combustion test rig to determine their suitability for use in a gas-turbine combustor primary zone. The catalyst test bed consisted of two to four elements of 12-centimeter diameter by 2.5-centimeter long monolith. Results are presented of the measured combustion efficiency and catalyst bed temperature history for an inlet propane-air mixture temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 newtons per square meter, inlet velocities of 10 to 25 meters per second and equivalence ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. The best catalysts tested gave combustion efficiencies of virtually 100% for reaction temperatures ranging from 1325 K at 10 meters per second to 1400 K at 25 meters per second. This performance was only possible with fresh catalysts. The catalysts tested were not specifically developed for use at these conditions and showed some loss in activity after about 3 hours' testing.

  2. Instant-replay data system for combustion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A portable, inexpensive, easily programmed, and flexible pressure measuring and display system is described and evaluated in a multi-port combustion model. The data reduction system consists of a desk-top graphics display system and calculator with data tape storage and standard data communications interfacing capabilities, while a hard copy unit provides a permanent record of all plots and tables. The system offers the advantages of recording and comparing a large number of pressures at high data rates along with the display of the results in a meaningful graphical form for near real time analysis. Some discussion of combustor and engine experiments are included as examples of the data system application.

  3. A facility for testing the acoustic combustion instability characteristics of solid rocket propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathes, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    A facility is described that has been specifically designed for small-scale laboratory testing of solid rocket propellants. A description of the facility is provided which includes the general plan of the facility and features related to personnel safety. One of the major activities in the facility is testing solid rocket propellants for combustion response to acoustic perturbations. A detailed discussion of acoustic instability testing is given including specially designed combustion apparatus, data acquisition, and signal conditioning. Techniques of data reduction are reviewed and some of the instrumentation problems that arise in this type of testing are mentioned along with practical solutions.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  5. Determination of Pass/Fail Criteria for Promoted Combustion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle M.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Lynn, David

    2009-01-01

    Promoted ignition testing is used to determine the relative flammability of metal rods in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. In these tests, a promoter is used to ignite each metal rod to start the sample burning. Experiments were performed to better understand the promoted ignition test by obtaining insight into the effect a burning promoter has on the preheating of a test sample. Test samples of several metallic materials were prepared and coupled to fast-responding thermocouples along their length. Various ignition promoters were used to ignite the test samples. The thermocouple measurements and test video was synchronized to determine temperature increase with respect to time and length along each test sample. A recommended length of test sample that must be consumed to be considered a flammable material was determined based on the preheated zone measured from these tests. This length was determined to be 30 mm (1.18 in.). Validation of this length and its rationale are presented.

  6. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  7. Droplet combustion drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering model built for droplet combustion drop tower tests is described. The model was built using a design with mechanical and electrical assemblies of the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and integrated into a 5-sec drop tower. Test data obtained to date are presented together with model and test cell diagrams.

  8. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Modeling of Nonacoustic Combustion Instability in Simulations of Hybrid Motor Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, M.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model of a hybrid motor was formulated to study the cause and elimination of nonacoustic combustion instability. The transient model was used to simulate four key tests out of a series of seventeen hybrid motor tests conducted by Thiokol, Rocketdyne, and Martin Marietta at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These tests were performed under the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters (HPTLVB) program. The first test resulted in stable combustion. The second test resulted in large-amplitude, 6.5-Hz chamber pressure oscillations that gradually damped away by the end of the test. The third test resulted in large-amplitude, 7.5-Hz chamber pressure oscillations that were sustained throughout the test. The seventh test resulted in elimination of combustion instability with the installation of an orifice immediately upstream of the injector. Formulation and implementation of the model are the scope of this presentation. The current model is an independent continuation of modeling presented previously by joint Thiokol-Rocketdyne collaborators Boardman, Hawkins, Wassom. and Claflin. The previous model simulated an unstable independent research and development (IR&D) hybrid motor test performed by Thiokol. There was very good agreement between the model and test data. Like the previous model, the current model was developed using Matrix-x simulation software. However, tests performed at MSFC under the HPTLVB program were actually simulated. ln the current model, the hybrid motor, consisting of the liquid oxygen (lox) injector, the multiport solid fuel grain, and nozzle, was simulated. The lox feedsystem, consisting of the tank, venturi. valve, and feed lines, was also simulated in the model. All components of the hybrid motor and lox feedsystem are treated by a lumped-parameter approach. Agreement between the results of the transient model and actual test data was very good. This agreement between simulated and actual test data indicated

  10. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  11. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  12. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  13. Quenching Combustible Dust Mixtures Using Electric Particulate Suspensions (EPS): A New Testing Method For Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Greene, Nathanael; Shoemaker, David; Xu, Hua

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Particulate Suspension (EPS) is a combustion ignition system being developed at Iowa State University for evaluating quenching effects of powders in microgravity (quenching distance, ignition energy, flammability limits). Because of the high cloud uniformity possible and its simplicity, the EPS method has potential for "benchmark" design of quenching flames that would provide NASA and the scientific community with a new fire standard. Microgravity is expected to increase suspension uniformity even further and extend combustion testing to higher concentrations (rich fuel limit) than is possible at normal gravity. Two new combustion parameters are being investigated with this new method: (1) the particle velocity distribution and (2) particle-oxidant slip velocity. Both walls and (inert) particles can be tested as quenching media. The EPS method supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as a parameter in laminar flame theory as it closely relates to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. Because of its design simplicity, EPS is suitable for testing on the International Space Station (ISS). Laser scans showing stratification effects at 1-g have been studied for different materials, aluminum, glass, and copper. PTV/PIV and a leak hole sampling rig give particle velocity distribution with particle slip velocity evaluated using LDA. Sample quenching and ignition energy curves are given for aluminum powder. Testing is planned for the KC-135 and NASA s two second drop tower. Only 1-g ground-based data have been reported to date.

  14. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  15. Successful First J-2X Combustion Stability Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than eve...

  16. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  17. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  18. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  19. Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

  20. Stack contamination effects during small-scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, L.J.; Gibbon, G.A.; White, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Branch at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has undertaken the assessment of the possible environmental impact of substituting synfuels for petroleum-based fuels in utility and industrial boilers. The assessment is based on a study of results obtained from the analysis of trace organic compounds present in the exaust gases of a fully instrumented 20-hp firetube boiler. The stack gases from petroleum-based fuels, synfuels, and methanol combustion tests have been sampled and analyzed by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The stack gas sampled during the combustion of methanol showed the presence of saturated and aromatiic hydrocarbons as well as detectable amounts of organic sulfur compounds, such as dibenzothiophene. The presence of these compounds could not be explained on the basis of methanol showed the presence of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons as well as detectable amounts of organic sulfur compounds, such as dibenzothiophene. The presence of these compounds could not be explained on the basis of methanol combustion but suggests contamination of the 20-hp combustor-exhaust system from earlier tests using petroleum or coal-derived fuels. The previously established exhaust stack protocol was reviewed by the Combustion Technology Branch and the Analytical Chemistry Branch. It was decided that a more exhaustive protocol was required. When this revised protocol was instituted, cross-contamination and memory effects disappeared, and sampling integrity was reestablished, thus allowing the analytical data to be properly interpreted. 5 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor Testing in a Thermal Barrier Coated Combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Chorpening, B.T.; Dukes, M.G.; Robey, E.H.; Thornton, J.D.

    2007-05-01

    The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) continues to be developed as an in-situ combustion sensor, with immediate application to natural gas fired turbines. In-situ combustion monitoring is also expected to benefit advanced power plants of the future, fueled by coal-derived syngas, liquified natural gas (LNG), hydrogen, or hydrogen blend fuels. The in-situ monitoring that CCADS provides can enable the optimal operation of advanced, fuel-flexible turbines for minimal pollutant emissions and maximum efficiency over the full operating range of an advanced turbine. Previous work has demonstrated CCADS as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff, in experimental combustors without thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Since typical TBC materials are electrical insulators at room temperature, and CCADS operation requires conduction of electrical current to the walls of the combustor, a TBC on the combustion liner was identified as a potential barrier to CCADS operation in commercial application. This paper reports on CCADS experiments in a turbulent lean premixed combustor with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on the combustor wall. The tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa (1 atm), with a 15V excitation voltage on the CCADS electrodes. The results confirm that for a typical thermal barrier coating, CCADS operates properly, and the total measured average resistance is close to that of an uncoated combustor. This result is consistent with previous materials studies that found the electrical resistance of typical TBC materials considerably decreases at combustor operating temperatures.

  2. Developmemt of coal combustion sensitivity tests for smoke detectors. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.; Morrow, G.S.

    1994-11-01

    Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The test provides a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for coal smoldering and flaming combustion based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density and the response of a standard ionization chamber to the smoke. With these standard tests, the range of threshold limits for the response of a smoke detector and the detector`s reliability can be evaluated for nearly identical smoke visibility and smoke physical characteristics. The detector`s threshold response limits and reliability need to be well defined prior to the instrument`s use as part of a mine fire warning system for improved mine safety.

  3. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  4. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  5. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-10-25

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates.

  6. [Testing of Concentration and Characteristics of Particulate Matters Emitted from Stationary Combustion Sources in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Wu, Xiao-dong; Wang, Chen; Liang, Yun-ping; Ma, Zhao-hui

    2016-05-15

    A self-built monitoring sampling system on particulate matters and water soluble ions emitted from stationary combustion sources and a size separated sampling system on particulate matters based on FPS4000 and ELPI + were applied to test particulate matters in fumes of typical stationary combustion sources in Beijing. The results showed that the maximum concentration of total particulate matters in fumes of stationary combustion sources in Beijing was 83.68 mg · m⁻³ in standard smoke oxygen content and the minimum was 0.12 mg · m⁻³. And particle number concentration was in the 10⁴-10⁶ cm⁻³ number of grade. Both mass and number concentration ranking order of particulate matters emitted from stationary combustion sources in Beijing was: heating gas fired boilers < power plant coal fired boilers < heating coal fired boilers. And two or three peaks existed under 1 µm of particulate size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution. The number concentration for PM₂.₅ accounted for over 99.8% of that for PM₁₀ and that for PM₀.₁ accounted for over 83% of that for PM₂.₅. But the proportions of PM₀.₁, and PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ were significantly lower in quality analysis,the proportion of PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ was about 82%, and that of PM₀.₁ in PM₂.₅ was about 27%-33%. PMID:27506016

  7. A Preliminary Study on the Toxic Combustion Products Testing of Polymers Used in High-Pressure Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, Fu-Yu; Beeson, Harold D.

    2004-01-01

    One likely cause of polymer ignition in a high-pressure oxygen system is adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. Oxidative _ pyrolysis or combustion of polymers in a high-pressure oxygen system could generate toxic gases. This paper reports the preliminary results of toxic combustion product testing of selected polymers in a pneumatic-impact test system. Five polymers commonly used in high-pressure oxygen systems, Nylon 6/6, polychlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), fluoroelastomer (Viton(TradeMark) A), and nitrile rubber (Buna N), were tested in a pneumatic-impact test system at 2500- or 3500-psia oxygen pressure. The polymers were ignited and burned, then combustion products were collected in a stainless-steel sample bottle and analyzed by GC/MS/IRD, GC/FID, and GC/Methanizer/FID. The results of adiabatic-compression tests show that combustion of hydrocarbon polymers, nitrogen-containing polymers, and halogenated polymers in high-pressure oxygen systems are relatively complete. Toxicity of the combustion product gas is presumably much lower than the combustion product gas generated from ambient-pressure oxygen (or air) environments. The NASA-Lewis equilibrium code was used to determine the composition of combustion product gas generated from a simulated, adiabatic-compression test of nine polymers. The results are presented and discussed.

  8. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further

  9. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines.

    PubMed

    He, D F; Zhang, Y Z; Shiwa, M; Moriya, S

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber.

  10. The NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program: An assessment of phase 1 test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the results of Phase 1 screening testing of current and advanced combustion system concepts using several broadened-properties fuels. The severity of each of several fuels-properties effects on combustor performance or liner life is discussed, as well as design techniques with the potential to offset these adverse effects. The selection of concepts to be pursued in Phase 2 refinement testing is described. This selection takes into account the relative costs and complexities of the concepts, the current outlook on pollutant emissions control, and practical operational problems.

  11. The E-3 Test Facility at Stennis Space Center: Research and Development Testing for Cryogenic and Storable Propellant Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazos, John T.; Chandler, Craig A.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader a broad overview of the current upgraded capabilities of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center E-3 Test Facility to perform testing for rocket engine combustion systems and components using liquid and gaseous oxygen, gaseous and liquid methane, gaseous hydrogen, hydrocarbon based fuels, hydrogen peroxide, high pressure water and various inert fluids. Details of propellant system capabilities will be highlighted as well as their application to recent test programs and accomplishments. Data acquisition and control, test monitoring, systems engineering and test processes will be discussed as part of the total capability of E-3 to provide affordable alternatives for subscale to full scale testing for many different requirements in the propulsion community.

  12. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

    1992-12-31

    There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if ``logical`` refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO{sub x}; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

  13. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO[sub x], CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if logical'' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO[sub x]; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

  14. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  15. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  16. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Package

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, R S; Mok, G C; Hagler, L G

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) contracted with the Packaging Review Group (PRG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a single, 30-ft shallow-angle drop test on the Combustion Engineering ABB-2901 drum-type shipping package. The purpose of the test was to determine if bolted-ring drum closures could fail during shallow-angle drops. The PRG at LLNL planned the test, and Defense Technologies Engineering Division (DTED) personnel from LLNL's Site-300 Test Group executed the plan. The test was conducted in November 2001 using the drop-tower facility at LLNL's Site 300. Two representatives from Westinghouse Electric Company in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-SC); two USNRC staff members; and three PRG members from LLNL witnessed the preliminary test runs and the final test. The single test clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of the bolted-ring drum closure to shallow-angle drops-the test package's drum closure was easily and totally separated from the drum package. The results of the preliminary test runs and the 30-ft shallow-angle drop test offer valuable qualitative understandings of the shallow-angle impact.

  17. Development and testing of the ACT-1 experimental facility for hypersonic combustion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccarella, D.; Liu, Q.; Passaro, A.; Lee, T.; Do, H.

    2016-04-01

    A new pulsed-arc-heated hypersonic wind tunnel facility, designated as ACT-1 (Arc-heated Combustion Test-rig 1), has been developed and built at the University of Notre Dame in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Alta S.p.A. The aim of the design is to provide a suitable test platform for experimental studies on supersonic and hypersonic turbulent combustion phenomena. ACT-1 is composed of a high temperature gas-generator system and a model scramjet combustor that is installed in an open-type vacuum test section of the wind tunnel facility. The gas-generator is designed to produce high-enthalpy (stagnation temperature  =  2000 K-3500 K) hypersonic flows for a run time up to 1 s. The supersonic combustor section is composed of a compression ramp (scramjet inlet), an internal flow channel of constant cross-section, a fuel jet nozzle, and a flame holder (wall cavity). The facility allows three-way optical accesses (top and sides) into the supersonic combustor to enable various advanced optical and laser diagnostics. In particular, planar laser Rayleigh scattering (PLRS), high-speed schlieren imaging and OH-planar laser induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) have successfully been implemented to visualize the turbulent flows and flame structures at high speed flight conditions.

  18. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, A.

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the results of combustion testing work, and analysis of heat recovery and use at the Monroe County Frank E. Van Lare wastwater treatment plant (WWTP). The three multiple-hearth furnaces at the plant process an average of 65 dry tons of dewatered sludge per day. The furnaces use about 12.5 million Btus of natural gas per dry ton of sludge incinerated, or about 300 billion Btus per year. Center shaft and rabble arm cooling air is recirculated to the furnaces as pre-heated combustion air. No other heat from the combustion process is recovered for use in the plant. The project had four objectives: to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; to ascertain instrumentation and control needs; to calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and to determine the feasibility of full waste-heat recovery and utilization, at the Frank E. Van Lare wastewater treatment plant.

  19. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  20. Combustion Stability of the Gas Generator Assembly from J-2X Engine E10001 and Powerpack Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Kenny, R. L.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Testing of a powerpack configuration (turbomachinery and gas generator assembly) and the first complete engine system of the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellant J-2X rocket engine have been completed at the NASA Stennis Space Center. The combustion stability characteristics of the gas generator assemblies on these two systems are of interest for reporting since considerable effort was expended to eliminate combustion instability during early development of the gas generator assembly with workhorse hardware. Comparing the final workhorse gas generator assembly development test data to the powerpack and engine system test data provides an opportunity to investigate how the nearly identical configurations of gas generator assemblies operate with two very different propellant supply systems one the autonomous pressure-fed test configuration on the workhorse development test stand, the other the pump-fed configurations on the powerpack and engine systems. The development of the gas generator assembly and the elimination of the combustion instability on the pressure-fed workhorse test stand have been reported extensively in the two previous Liquid Propulsion Subcommittee meetings 1-7. The powerpack and engine system testing have been conducted from mid-2011 through 2012. All tests of the powerpack and engine system gas generator systems to date have been stable. However, measureable dynamic behavior, similar to that observed on the pressure-fed test stand and reported in Ref. [6] and attributed to an injection-coupled response, has appeared in both powerpack and engine system tests. As discussed in Ref. [6], these injection-coupled responses are influenced by the interaction of the combustion chamber with a branch pipe in the hot gas duct that supplies gaseous helium to pre-spin the turbine during the start transient. This paper presents the powerpack and engine system gas generator test data, compares these data to the development test data, and provides additional

  1. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  2. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  3. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. In-stream measurements of combustion during Mach 5 to 7 tests of the Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, Erwin A.; Metzler, Allen J.; Pack, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Results of in-stream combustion measurements taken during Mach 5 to 7 true simulation testing of the Hypersonic Research Engine/Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE/AIM) are presented. These results, the instrumentation techniques, and configuration changes to the engine installation that were required to test this model are described. In test runs at facility Mach numbers of 5 to 7, an exhaust instrumentation ring which formed an extension of the engine exhaust nozzle shroud provided diagnostic measurements at 10 circumferential locations in the HRE combustor exit plane. The measurements included static and pitot pressures using conventional conical probes, combustion gas temperatures from cooled-gas pyrometer probes, and species concentration from analysis of combustion gas samples. Results showed considerable circumferential variation, indicating that efficiency losses were due to nonuniform fuel distribution or incomplete mixing. Results using the Mach 7 facility nozzle but with Mach 6 temperature simulation, 1590 to 1670 K, showed indications of incomplete combustion. Nitric oxide measurements at the combustor exit peaked at 2000 ppmv for stoichiometric combustion at Mach 6.

  5. Relative toxicity of products of pyrolysis and combustion of polymeric materials using various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Relative toxicity data for a large number of natural and synthetic polymeric materials are presented which were obtained by 11 pyrolysis and three flaming-combustion test methods. The materials tested include flexible and rigid polyurethane foams, different kinds of fabrics and woods, and a variety of commodity polymers such as polyethylene. Animal exposure chambers of different volumes containing mice, rats, or rabbits were used in the tests, which were performed over the temperature range from ambient to 800 C with and without air flow or recirculation. The test results are found to be sensitive to such variables as exposure mode, temperature, air flow and dilution, material concentration, and animal species, but relative toxicity rankings appear to be similar for many methods and materials. It is concluded that times to incapacitance and to death provide a more suitable basis for relative toxicity rankings than percent mortality alone, that temperature is the most important variable in the tests reported, and that variables such as chamber volume and animal species may not significantly affect the rankings.

  6. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 77, wood-fired boiler WFB-A

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.E.; Keating, M.H.; Jamgochian, C.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a wood-fired boiler equipped with a fabric-filter system for particulate emissions control. The boiler combusts a combination of bark, hogged wood, sawdust, and green and dry planar shavings. The test is the seventh in a series of emission tests conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of tier 4 is to determine if various combustion devices are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Wood-fired boilers are one of eight combustion-device categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested boiler, WFB-A, was selected for this test after an initial information screening and a 1-day pretest survey. The logs processed at the plant are stored in a salt-water body adjacent to the plant. Thus, the feed to Boiler WFB-A has a higher inorganic chloride content than the feed to most wood-fired boilers. Boiler WFB-A is considered representative of those wood-fired boilers in the United States firing salt-laden wood. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  7. Droplet combustion experiment drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) is an experiment that is being developed to ultimately operate in the shuttle environment (middeck or Spacelab). The current experiment implementation is for use in the 2.2 or 5 sec drop towers at NASA Lewis Research Center. Initial results were reported in the 1986 symposium of this meeting. Since then significant progress was made in drop tower instrumentation. The 2.2 sec drop tower apparatus, a conceptual level model, was improved to give more reproducible performance as well as operate over a wider range of test conditions. Some very low velocity deployments of ignited droplets were observed. An engineering model was built at TRW. This model will be used in the 5 sec drop tower operation to obtain science data. In addition, it was built using the flight design except for changes to accommodate the drop tower requirements. The mechanical and electrical assemblies have the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and then delivered to NASA Lewis. The model was then integrated into the 5 sec drop tower. The model is currently undergoing initial operational tests prior to starting the science tests.

  8. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  9. Preliminary results from screening tests of commercial catalysts with potential use in gas turbine combustors. Part 2: Combustion test rig evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several commercial monolithic catalysts were tested in a combustion test rig to determine their suitability for use in a gas turbine combuster primary zone. The catalyst test bed consisted of two to four elements of 12-centimeter diameter by 2.5-centimeter long monolith. Results are presented of the measured combustion efficiency and catalyst bed temperature history for an inlet propane-air mixture temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 newtons per square meter, inlet velocities of 10 to 25 meters per second and equivalence ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. The best catalysts tested gave combustion efficiencies of virtually 100 percent for reaction temperatures ranging from 1,325 K at 10 meters per second to 1,400 K at 25 meters per second. This performance was only possible with fresh catalysts. The catalysts tested were not specifically developed for use at these conditions and showed some loss in activity after about 3 hours' testing.

  10. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  11. Validation of a Pressure-Based Combustion Simulation Tool Using a Single Element Injector Test Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddarth; Wright, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The traditional design and analysis practice for advanced propulsion systems, particularly chemical rocket engines, relies heavily on expensive full-scale prototype development and testing. Over the past decade, use of high-fidelity analysis and design tools such as CFD early in the product development cycle has been identified as one way to alleviate testing costs and to develop these devices better, faster and cheaper. Increased emphasis is being placed on developing and applying CFD models to simulate the flow field environments and performance of advanced propulsion systems. This necessitates the development of next generation computational tools which can be used effectively and reliably in a design environment by non-CFD specialists. A computational tool, called Loci-STREAM is being developed for this purpose. It is a pressure-based, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver for generalized unstructured grids, which is designed to handle all-speed flows (incompressible to hypersonic) and is particularly suitable for solving multi-species flow in fixed-frame combustion devices. Loci-STREAM integrates proven numerical methods for generalized grids and state-of-the-art physical models in a novel rule-based programming framework called Loci which allows: (a) seamless integration of multidisciplinary physics in a unified manner, and (b) automatic handling of massively parallel computing. The objective of the ongoing work is to develop a robust simulation capability for combustion problems in rocket engines. As an initial step towards validating this capability, a model problem is investigated in the present study which involves a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) shear coaxial single element injector, for which experimental data are available. The sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid density, grid distribution, different turbulence models, and different near-wall treatments is investigated. A refined grid, which is clustered in the vicinity of

  12. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  13. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior operability was

  14. Beta Testing of CFD Code for the Analysis of Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Emma; Wey, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary version of OpenNCC was tested to assess its accuracy in generating steady-state temperature fields for combustion systems at atmospheric conditions using three-dimensional tetrahedral meshes. Meshes were generated from a CAD model of a single-element lean-direct injection combustor, and the latest version of OpenNCC was used to calculate combustor temperature fields. OpenNCC was shown to be capable of generating sustainable reacting flames using a tetrahedral mesh, and the subsequent results were compared to experimental results. While nonreacting flow results closely matched experimental results, a significant discrepancy was present between the code's reacting flow results and experimental results. When wide air circulation regions with high velocities were present in the model, this appeared to create inaccurately high temperature fields. Conversely, low recirculation velocities caused low temperature profiles. These observations will aid in future modification of OpenNCC reacting flow input parameters to improve the accuracy of calculated temperature fields.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. Ignition/combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objectives for this initial technology are to generate an advanced, comprehensive combustion analytical code, and to verify the combustion flow dynamic predictions from this model with hot test experimental data.

  17. Altitude-test-chamber Investigation of Performance of a 28-inch Ram-jet Engine I : Combustion and Operational Performance of Four Combustion-chamber Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, T B; Jones, W L; Henzel, J G , Jr

    1950-01-01

    An altitude-test-chamber investigation of a 28-inch-diameter ram-jet engine at a simulated flight Mach number of approximately 2.0 for altitudes of 40,000 to 50,000 feet was conducted at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Three different flame holders, varying in the number and size of the annular gutters, in conjunction with several fuel-injection systems were investigated. The combustion efficiency for the flame-holder fuel-injection system that provided the best over-all operational fuel-air-ratio range (0.03 to 0.075) was over 0.9 at a fuel-air ratio of about 0.065 for the altitude range investigated.

  18. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 13, residential wood stove WS-A

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.W.; Benson, D.J.; Keller, L.E.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emission test of a residential woodstove conducted by Radian Corporation. The stove is a freestanding noncatalytic model manufactured by Atlanta Stove Works and offered for sale in the Sear's Catalog. During testing, oak and pine were burned at low burn rates, which is representative of normal residential use. The test was the 13th in a series of dioxin/furan emissions tests conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective is to determine if various combustion sources are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Residential woodstoves are among 8 combustion-source categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested woodstove, hereafter referred to as Woodstove WS-A, is a test unit located at an EPA contractor facility. This stove was selected for inclusion in the Tier 4 program due to its location in the RTP area and because simultaneous testing of the stove was already being conducted for another EPA program (Integrated Air Cancer Project). The woodstove tested is considered representative of woodstoves built in the last 5 to 10 years. No dioxin/furan stack data were obtained from the source. Labelled internal standards used to determine analytical recovery efficiency were not detected because of the very high levels of hydrocarbons present in the stack gas. Dioxin/furan ash data are presented.

  19. Effect of Operating Conditions on SO2 and NOx Emissions in Oxy-Fuel Mini-CFB Combustion Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L.; Tan, Y.; Anthony, E. J.

    Anthropogenic CO2 production is caused primarily by fossil fuel combustion. In consequence, it is increasingly necessary to find ways to reduce these emissions when fossil fuel is used. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) appears to be among the most promising. All of the CCS technologies involve producing a pure stream of CO2 either by concentrating it from the flue gases, or by using pure oxygen as the combustion gas. The latter option, oxy-fuel combustion, has now been well studied for pulverized coal combustion, but hasreceived relatively little attention to date in the case of oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed combustion. Recently, oxy-fuel CFBC hasbeen examined ina 100 kW pilot plant operating with flue gas recycle at CanmetEnergy. The results strongly support the view that this technology offers all of the advantages of air-fired FBC, with one possible exception. Emissions such as CO or NOx are lower or comparable to air firing. It is possible to switch from air-firing to oxy-firing mode easily, with oxygen concentrations as high as 60-70%, and flue gas recycle levels of 50-60%. Only sulphur capture is poorer. However, this result is not in good agreement with other studies, and the reasons for this discrepancy need further exploration. Here, longer tests have confirmed previous findings from CanmetEnergy with two coals and a petroleum coke. It also appears that changing from direct to indirect sulphation with the petroleum coke improves sulphur capture efficiency, although a similar effect could not be confirmed with coal from these results.

  20. The development of an optically accessible, high-power combustion test rig.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Carson D; Pratt, Andrew C; Lucht, Robert P; Meyer, Scott E; Benjamin, Michael; Lyle, Kent; Kelsey, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This work summarizes the development of a gas turbine combustion experiment which will allow advanced optical measurements to be made at realistic engine conditions. Facility requirements are addressed, including instrumentation and control needs for remote operation when working with high energy flows. The methodology employed in the design of the optically accessible combustion chamber is elucidated, including window considerations and thermal management of the experimental hardware under extremely high heat loads. Experimental uncertainties are also quantified. The stable operation of the experiment is validated using multiple techniques and the boundary conditions are verified. The successful prediction of operating conditions by the design analysis is documented and preliminary data are shown to demonstrate the capability of the experiment to produce high-fidelity datasets for advanced combustion research. PMID:24689618

  1. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor. Task 2, Pilot scale combustion tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M.

    1989-12-01

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R&D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the ``primary act,`` and three further annuli for the supply of the ``secondary air.`` The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  2. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the

  3. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 9, carbon-regeneration furnace CRF-A

    SciTech Connect

    Jamgochian, C.L.; Keller, L.E.; Kelly, W.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is assessing the potential for the emissions of dioxin/furans from combustion sources under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxins, the secondary purpose of the Tier 4 study is to quantify these emissions and, if possible, related the emissions to combustion parameters. Carbon-regeneration furnaces are 1 of 8 source categories that have been included in the field test program. Carbon-regeneration furnaces reactivate spent carbon from industrial or municipal water-treatment facilities. The spent carbon may contain absorbed chlorinated compounds. The report presents the results of an emission-test program conducted by Radian during May 28-31, 1985, at an industrial carbon-regeneration furnace designated as Site CRF-A. The furnace was selected after an initial information screening and a pretest survey visit. The facility is considered representative of other carbon-regeneration furnaces in the United States. Furnace CRF-A regenerates spent carbon from more than 20 plants that use activated carbon for industrial wastewater treatment. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... consisting of a block of aluminum alloy or other corrosion-resistant metal of high thermal conductivity is... types of apparatus with suitable temperature-control facilities may be employed to heat the metal...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... consisting of a block of aluminum alloy or other corrosion-resistant metal of high thermal conductivity is... types of apparatus with suitable temperature-control facilities may be employed to heat the metal...

  6. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  7. [Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion]. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, October 1 through December 31, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; (2) hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; (3) combustion gas turbine; (4) fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  8. Combustibility Tests of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane in a Simulated Compressor Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Dale A.; Bruce, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The advantages of high-molecular-weight gas (heavy gas) as a wind-tunnel medium have been recognized for some time. The current heavy gas of choice chlorofluorocarbon-12(CFC-12) (refrigerant R12) for the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel(TDT) must be replaced because manufacture of this gas ceased in 1995. An attractive replacement is 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (refrigerant R134a). Acceptable properties of this gas include molecular weight and speed of sound. Its vapor pressure allows simplified reclamation from mixtures with air. However, it is recognized that R134a is combustible under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and concentration. A comprehensive study was conducted to identify those conditions and the influence of various parameters on the combustibility of the gas-air mixture.

  9. High-pressure calorimeter chamber tests for liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) rocket combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, P.A.; Armstrong, E.S.; Price, H.G.

    1988-12-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the rocket combustion and heat transfer characteristics of liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) mixtures at high chamber pressures. Two water-cooled calorimeter chambers of different combustion lengths were tested using 37- and 61-element oxidizer-fuel-oxidizer triplet injectors. The tests were conducted at nominal chamber pressures of 4.1, 8.3, and 13.8 MPa abs (600, 1200, and 2000 psia). Heat flux Q/A data were obtained for the entire calorimeter length for oxygen/fuel mixture ratios of 1.8 to 3.3. Test data at 4.1 MPa abs compared favorably with previous test data from another source. Using an injector with a fuel-rich outer zone reduced the throat heat flux by 47 percent with only a 4.5 percent reduction in the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency C* sub eff. The throat heat transfer coefficient was reduced approximately 40 percent because of carbon deposits on the chamber wall.

  10. High-pressure calorimeter chamber tests for liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) rocket combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Philip A.; Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Price, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the rocket combustion and heat transfer characteristics of liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) mixtures at high chamber pressures. Two water-cooled calorimeter chambers of different combustion lengths were tested using 37- and 61-element oxidizer-fuel-oxidizer triplet injectors. The tests were conducted at nominal chamber pressures of 4.1, 8.3, and 13.8 MPa abs (600, 1200, and 2000 psia). Heat flux Q/A data were obtained for the entire calorimeter length for oxygen/fuel mixture ratios of 1.8 to 3.3. Test data at 4.1 MPa abs compared favorably with previous test data from another source. Using an injector with a fuel-rich outer zone reduced the throat heat flux by 47 percent with only a 4.5 percent reduction in the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency C* sub eff. The throat heat transfer coefficient was reduced approximately 40 percent because of carbon deposits on the chamber wall.

  11. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  12. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Seventh Quarter of the First Budget Period, April 1 through June 30, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion will include the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. Combustion Gas Turbine; Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment; and Externally Fired Gas Turbine/Water Augmented Gas Turbine. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  13. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  14. A retrospective survey of the use of laboratory tests to simulate internal combustion engine materials tribology problems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    Progress in the Field of tribology strongly parallels, and has always been strongly driven by, developments and needs in transportation and related industries. Testing of candidate materials for internal combustion engine applications has historically taken several routes: (1) replacement of parts in actual engines subjected to daily use, (2) testing in special, instrumented test engines, (3) and simulative testing in laboratory tribometers using relatively simple specimens. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are reviewed using historical examples. A four-decade, retrospective survey of the tribomaterials literature focused on the effectiveness of laboratory simulations for engine materials screening. Guidelines for designing and ducting successful tribology laboratory simulations will be discussed. These concepts were used to design a valve wear simulator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Final test report on the combustion of solvent-refined coal in a 100 hp firetube boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.S.; Wieczenski, D.E.; Snedden, R.B.; Bellas, G.T.; Joubert, J.I.; Curio, A.R.; Wildman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Although solid Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) was burned successfully in a coal-designed utility boiler in 1977, the feasibility of using this fuel in more compact oil- or gas-designed units at signficantly higher heat liberation rates remained uncertain. Combustion tests were conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center using a 100 hp (3450 lb of steam per hour) firetube boiler, designed to burn No. 6 oil. The fuel was produced at an SRC pilot plant in Wilsonville, Alabama, from high-sulfur Kentucky coal, and 0.8% sulfur and 0.3% ash. In the combustion tests, SRC was fed to the boiler in three different physical forms: (1) a slurry composed of 70% by weight SRC-I process solvent and 30% by weight solid SRC pulverized to 92% minus 200 mesh; (2) a molten liquid at approx. 600/sup 0/F, using superheated steam at 800/sup 0/F for atomization, and preheated combustion air at 400/sup 0/F in a conventional oil burner; and (3) a solid, pulverized to 90% minus 325 mesh, using preheated secondary combustion air at 550/sup 0/F. The slurry and molten forms were burned at full boiler load at a heat liberation rate of 184,000 Btu/ft/sup 3/-hr. Carbon conversion efficiencies were generally 99.7% or greater, and boiler efficiencies were about 82%, the same as when burning No. 6 fuel oil. The pulverized SRC was burned at approx. 50% of full boiler load (1656 to 1803 lb of steam per hour) due to the limitations on the burner that was available. Carbon conversion efficiencies ranged from 98.6 to 99.6%, and boiler efficiency again was about 82%. The test results indicate that SRC-I, including the solid form, can probably be burned without derating in larger oil-designed industrial boilers of watertube design. Such units usually operate at heat liberation rates in the range of 25,000-50,000 Btu/ft/sup 3/-hr, significantly lower than rates employed in these tests.

  16. Coal combustion by wet oxidation. Wet oxidation of coal for energy production: test plan and partial results. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.

    1980-07-10

    A test plan has been developed which will provide the data necessary to carry out design and economic studies of a steam generating facility, employing the wet oxidation of coal as a heat source. It is obvious, from the literature search and preliminary testing, that the higher the reaction temperature, the more complete the combustion of coal. However, operation at elevated temperatures and pressures present difficult design problems, and the necessary equipment is costly. Operation under these conditions can only be justified by the higher economic value of high pressure and temperature steam. With a reduction in temperature from 550/sup 0/F (228/sup 0/C) to 450/sup 0/F (232/sup 0/C), the operating pressure is reduced by more than half, thus holding down the overall cost of the system. For this reason, our plan is to study both the enhancement of low temperature wet oxidation of coal, and the higher operating regions. The coal selected for the first portion of this test is an Eastern Appalachian high-volatile-A Bituminous type, from the Upper Clarion seam in Pennsylvania. This coal was selected as being a typical high sulfur, eastern coal. The wet oxidation of coal to produce low pressure steam is a process suited for a high sulfur, low grade, coal. It is not intended that wet oxidation be used in all applications with all types of coals, as it does not appear to be competitive, economically, with conventional combustion, therefore the testing will focus on using high sulfur, low grade coals. In the later portion of testing all the available coals will be tested. In addition, a sample of Minnesota peat will be tested to determine if it also can be used in the process.

  17. The N.A.C.A. Apparatus for Studying the Formation and Combustion of Fuel Sprays and the Results from Preliminary Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    Described here is an apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those in a high speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows. When the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, motion pictures at the rate of 2000 per second are taken of the spray formation by means of spark discharges. When combustion takes place, the light of combustion is recorded on the same photographic film as the spray photographs. Included here are the results of some tests to determine the effect of air temperature, air flow, and nozzle design on the spray formation. The results show that the compression temperature has little effect on the penetration of the fuel spray, but does not affect the dispersion, that air velocities of about 300 feet per second are necessary to destroy the core of the spray, and that the effect of air flow on the spray is controlled to a certain extent by the design of the injection nozzle. The results on the combustion of the spray show that when ignition does not take place until after spray cut-off, the ignition may start almost simultaneously throughout the combustion chamber or at different points throughout the chamber. When ignition takes place before spray cut-off, the combustion starts around the edge of the spray and then spreads throughout the chamber.

  18. 700, 100, and 20 hp combustion test facility yearly activity report for the period April 1, 1979 to April 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Management and Technical Services Co./ General Electric was awarded the contract to operate, modify and maintain the DOE/PETC 700 hp, 100 hp, and 20 hp Combustion Test Facility. These facilities were designed and built by the Department of Energy at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and its ultimate success is the responsibility of DOE/PETC. MATSCO/GE will provide support to assist in the goal of successful operation of this pilot plant facility. The primary objective of the DOE/PETC 700 hp and 100 hp CTF is to establish the practicality of coal oil slurry combustion as a technically, economically and environmentally feasible retrofit technology. The 20 hp CTF is to provide a test bed to evaluate synthetic fuels for its technical feasibility and its effect on the environment. Four series of combustion tests were completed. Coal-oil mixes for all tests were number 6 fuel oil and Pittsburgh Seam Coal. The tests were executed successfully. Operational problems were handled as required without excessive delay of the testing program. Additional studies performed concurrently with the combustion testing included flame studies, stack emissions studies during all tests, standard measurements of equipment wear after each test series and extensive erosion and corrosion analyses of boiler test coupons and the burner section of the fuel train after the 500 h endurance test. Testing activity and required facility modifications were coordinated through Department of Energy personnel.

  19. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  20. Combustion tests of a turbine simulator burning low Btu fuel from a fixed bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Abuaf, N.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Najewicz, D.J.; Samuels, M.S.

    1993-11-01

    One of the most efficient and environmentally compatible coal fueled power generation technologies is the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) concept. Commercialization of the IGCC/HGCU concept requires successful development of combustion systems for high temperature low Btu fuel in gas turbines. Toward this goal, a turbine combustion system simulator has been designed, constructed, and fired with high temperature low Btu fuel. Fuel is supplied by a pilot scale fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) demonstration of long term operability of the turbine simulator with high temperature low Btu fuel; (2) measurement of NO{sub x}, CO, and particulate emissions; and (3) characterization of particulates in the fuel as well as deposits in the fuel nozzle, combustor, and first stage nozzle. In a related project, a reduced scale rich-quench-lean (RQL) gas turbine combustor has been designed, constructed, and fired with simulated low Btu fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop an RQL combustor with lower conversion of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) to NO{sub x} than a conventional combustor.

  1. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen Guanyi

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  2. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (test portion well) is heated to a specified temperature. A specified volume of the material under test... procedure with new test portions, but at a test temperature of 75 °C (167 °F). In the case of a material... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (test portion well) is heated to a specified temperature. A specified volume of the material under test... procedure with new test portions, but at a test temperature of 75 °C (167 °F). In the case of a material... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  5. Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Pure Bulk Metals: Normal-Gravity Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental apparatus has been designed for the study of bulk metal ignition under elevated, normal and reduced gravity environments. The present work describes the technical characteristics of the system, the analytical techniques employed, the results obtained from the ignition of a variety of metals subjected to normal gravity conditions and the first results obtained from experiments under elevated gravity. A 1000 W xenon short-arc lamp is used to irradiate the top surface of a cylindrical metal specimen 4 mm in diameter and 4 mm high in a quiescent pure-oxygen environment at 0.1 MPa. Iron, titanium, zirconium, magnesium, zinc, tin, and copper specimens are investigated. All these metals exhibit ignition and combustion behavior varying in strength and speed. Values of ignition temperatures below, above or in the range of the metal melting point are obtained from the temperature records. The emission spectra from the magnesium-oxygen gas-phase reaction reveals the dynamic evolution of the ignition event. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray spectroscopic analysis provide the sequence of oxide formation on the burning of copper samples. Preliminary results on the effect of higher-than-normal gravity levels on the ignition of titanium specimens is presented.

  6. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  7. The N.A.C.A. Combustion Chamber Gas-sampling Valve and Some Preliminary Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Buckley, E C

    1933-01-01

    A gas sampling valve of the inertia-operated type was designed for procuring samples of the gases in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines at identical points in successive cycles so that the analysis of the gas samples thus procured may aid in the study of the process of combustion. The operation of the valve is described. The valve was used to investigate the CO2 content of gases taken from the quiescent combustion chamber of a high speed compression-ignition engine when operating with two different multiple-orifice fuel injection nozzles. An analysis of the gas samples thus obtained shows that the state of quiescence in the combustion chamber is maintained during the combustion of the fuel.

  8. ASRM combustion instability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this task were to measure and compare the combustion response characteristics of the selected propellant formulation for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) with those of the current Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) formulation. Tests were also carried out to characterize the combustion response of the selected propellant formulation for the ASRM igniter motor.

  9. Heat Effects of Promoters and Determination of Burn Criterion in Promoted Combustion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle M.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Lynn, David

    2010-01-01

    Promoted ignition testing (NASA Test 17) [1] is used to determine the relative flammability of metal rods in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. A promoter is used to ignite a metal sample rod, initiating sample burning. If a predetermined length of the sample burns, beyond the promoter, the material is considered flammable at the condition tested. Historically, this burn length has been somewhat arbitrary. Experiments were performed to better understand this test by obtaining insight into the effect a burning promoter has on the preheating of a test sample. Test samples of several metallic materials were prepared and coupled to fast-responding thermocouples along their length. Thermocouple measurements and test video were synchronized to determine temperature increase with respect to time and length along each test sample. A recommended flammability burn length, based on a sample preheat of 500 F, was determined based on the preheated zone measured from these tests. This length was determined to be 30 mm (1.18 in.). Validation of this length and its rationale are presented.

  10. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  11. A critical evaluation of combustible/explosible dust testing methods-part 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted by the Center for Agricultural Air Quality Engineering and Science (CAAQES) and by Safety Consulting Engineers Inc. (SCE) to determine if dust found in cotton gins (gin dust) would serve as fuel for dust explosions. In other words, is gin dust explosible? The laboratory tests us...

  12. High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

    1981-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup

  13. Combustion in the Wake as a Means of Body-Drag Reduction as Determined from Free-Flight Tests of 40-Millimeter Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Clement J.

    1952-01-01

    The results of free-flight drag tests of 40-millimeter shells conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the Ballistic Research Laboratories, Ordnance Department, U. S. Army, are presented. A drag reduction at supersonic speeds of approximately 20 percent of the projectile's drag was obtained by combustion in the wake of the projectile in flight.

  14. Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook establishes NASA program requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials to preclude unsafe conditions related to flammability, odor, offgassing, and fluid compatibility. Materials intended for use in space vehicles, specified test facilities, and specified ground support equipment (GSE) must meet the requirements of this document. Additional materials performance requirements may be specified in other program or NASA center specific documentation. Responsible NASA centers materials organizations must include applicable requirements of this document in their materials control programs. Materials used in habitable areas of spacecraft, including the materials of the spacecraft, stowed equipment, and experiments, must be evaluated for flammability, odor, and offgassing characteristics. All materials used in other areas must be evaluated for flammability characteristics. In addition, materials that are exposed to liquid oxygen (LOX), gaseous oxygen (GOX), and other reactive fluids' must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid in their use application. Materials exposed to pressurized breathing gases also must be evaluated for odor and offgassing characteristics. The worst-case anticipated use environment (most hazardous pressure, temperature, material thickness, and fluid exposure conditions) must be used in the evaluation process. Materials that have been shown to meet the criteria of the required tests are acceptable for further consideration in design. Whenever possible, materials should be selected that have already been shown to meet the test criteria in the use environment. Existing test data are compiled in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) and published periodically as the latest revision of a joint document with Johnson Space Center (JSC), MSFC-HDBK-527/JSC 09604. MAPTIS can be accessed by computer datalink. Systems containing materials that have not

  15. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G; Hagler, L

    2002-06-01

    Steel cylindrical drums have been used for many years to transport radioactive materials. The radioactive material inserted into the drum cavity for shipping is usually restrained within its own container or containment vessel. For additional protection, the container is surrounded or supported by components made of impact-absorbent and/or thermal-insulation materials. The components are expected to protect the container and its radioactive contents under severe transportation conditions like free drops and fires. Due to its simplicity and convenience, bolted-ring drum closures are commonly used to close many drum packages. Because the structural integrity of the drum and drum closure often play a significant role in determining the package's ability to maintain sub-criticality, shielding, and containment of the radioactive contents, regulations require that the complete drum package be tested for safety performance. The structural integrity of the drum body is relatively simple to understand and analyze, whereas analyzing the integrity of the drum closure is not so simple. In summary, the drop test accomplished its mission. Because the lid and closure device separated from the drum body in the 30-ft 17.5{sup o} shallow-angle drop, the drop test confirmed that the common drum closure with a bolted ring is vulnerable to damage by a shallow-angle drop, even though the closure has been shown to survive much steeper-angle drops. The test program also demonstrated one of the mechanisms by which the shallow-angle drop opens the common bolted-ring drum closure. The separation of the drum lid and closure device from the drum body was initiated by a large outward buckling deformation of the lid and completed with minimal assistance by the round plywood boards behind the lid. The energy spent to complete the separation appeared to be only a small fraction of the total impact energy. Limited to only one test, the present test program could not explore all possible mechanisms

  16. Altitude Test Chamber Investigation of Performance of a 28-inch Ram-jet Engine II : Effects of Gutter Width and Blocked Area on Operating Range and Combustion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, T B; Jones, W L; Kahn, R W

    1950-01-01

    Altitude-test-chamber investigation of effects of flame-holder blocked area and gutter width on performance of 28-inch diameter ram jet at simulated flight Mach number of 2.0 for altitudes from 40,000 to 55,000 feet was conducted at NACA Lewis laboratory. Ten flame holders investigated covered gutter widths from 1.00 to 2.50 inches and blocked areas from 40.5 to 62.0 percent of combustion-chamber area. Gutter width did not appreciably affect combustion efficiency. Increase in blocked area from 40 to 62 percent resulted in 5- to 10-percent increase in combustion efficiency. Increasing gutter width resulted in improvement in fuel-air-ratio operating range.

  17. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, April 1991--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  18. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  19. Standard test method for heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by bomb calorimeter (high-precision method)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. It is designed specifically for use with aviation turbine fuels when the permissible difference between duplicate determinations is of the order of 0.1%. It can be used for a wide range of volatile and nonvolatile materials where slightly greater differences in precision can be tolerated. The heat of combustion is determined by burning a weighed sample in an oxygen-bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions. The temperature is measured by means of a platinum resistance thermometer. The heat of combustion is calculated from temperature observations before, during, and after combustion, with proper allowance for thermochemical and heat-transfer corrections. Either isothermal or adiabatic calorimeters may be used. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equipment for producing either power or heat.

  20. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  1. Study of ignition, combustion, and production of harmful substances upon burning solid organic fuel at a test bench with a vortex chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Greben'kov, P. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of furnace processes upon burning of pulverized fuel at a test bench with a power of 5 MW are presented. The test bench consists of two stages with tangential air and pulverized coal feed, and it is equipped by a vibrocentrifugal mill and a disintegrator. Such milling devices have an intensive mechanical impact on solid organic fuel, which, in a number of cases, increases the reactivity of ground material. The processes of ignition and stable combustion of a mixture of gas coal and sludge (wastes of concentration plant), as well as Ekibastus coal, ground in the disintegrator, were studied at the test bench. The results of experimental burning demonstrated that preliminary fuel grinding in the disintegrator provides autothermal combustion mode even for hardly inflammable organic fuels. Experimental combustion of biomass, wheat straw with different lignin content (18, 30, 60%) after grinding in the disintegrator, was performed at the test bench in order to determine the possibility of supporting stable autothermal burning. Stable biofuel combustion mode without lighting by highly reactive fuel was achieved in the experiments. The influence of the additive GTS-Powder (L.O.M. Leaders Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) in the solid and liquid state on reducing sulfur oxide production upon burning Mugun coal was studied. The results of experimental combustion testify that, for an additive concentration from 1 to 15% of the total mass of the burned mixture, the maximum SO2 concentration reduction in ejected gases was not more than 18% with respect to the amount for the case of burning pure coal.

  2. Cyclic stability testing of aminated-silica solid sorbent for post-combustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James C; Gray, McMahan

    2015-02-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is examining the use of solid sorbents for CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas streams. An aminated sorbent (previously reported by the NETL) is tested for stability by cyclic exposure to simulated flue gas and subsequent regeneration for 100 cycles. Each cycle was quantified using a traced gas in the simulated flue gas monitored by a mass spectrometer, which allowed for rapid determination of the capacity.

  3. Cyclic stability testing of aminated-silica solid sorbent for post-combustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James C; Gray, McMahan

    2015-02-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is examining the use of solid sorbents for CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas streams. An aminated sorbent (previously reported by the NETL) is tested for stability by cyclic exposure to simulated flue gas and subsequent regeneration for 100 cycles. Each cycle was quantified using a traced gas in the simulated flue gas monitored by a mass spectrometer, which allowed for rapid determination of the capacity. PMID:25510438

  4. In situ combustion of Antrim oil shale: field test of Tejas petroleum engineers burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A major problem in having a successful in situ extraction experiment in Antrim oil shale has been the lack of a reliable ignition system. A reliable burner system has now been found. A methane burner was successfully tested for an intermittant 5-day period with a total of 82 hours of burner operation. The burner was ignited at 800 psig (well pressure) and reignited five times. The burner operated during the test at a theoretical gas temperature of 1200/sup 0/F. Increased temperatures are possible with greater fuel to air ratios. The burner was monitored three different ways. Three thermocouples monitored exhaust gas temperature. A sample was taken of exhaust gas and analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and unburned hydrocarbons. The burner pressure pulses were monitored by pressure gauges at the surface on the methane supply line. The three different systems gave an indication of whether the burner was operating. The only thing that the burner test idn't investigate was the upper safe operating temperature limit.

  5. Gas turbine combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-09-01

    Combustion oscillations are a common problem in development of LPM (lean premix) combustors. Unlike earlier, diffusion style combustors, LPM combustors are especially susceptible to oscillations because acoustic losses are smaller and operation near lean blowoff produces a greater combustion response to disturbances in reactant supply, mixing, etc. In ongoing tests at METC, five instability mechanisms have been identified in subscale and commercial scale nozzle tests. Changes to fuel nozzle geometry showed that it is possible to stabilize combustion by altering the timing of the feedback between acoustic waves and the variation in heat release.

  6. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  7. A 3D numerical study of LO2/GH2 supercritical combustion in the ONERA-Mascotte Test-rig configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmansour, Abdelkrim; Liazid, Abdelkrim; Logerais, Pierre-Olivier; Durastanti, Jean-Félix

    2016-02-01

    Cryogenic propellants LOx/H2 are used at very high pressure in rocket engine combustion. The description of the combustion process in such application is very complex due essentially to the supercritical regime. Ideal gas law becomes invalid. In order to try to capture the average characteristics of this combustion process, numerical computations are performed using a model based on a one-phase multi-component approach. Such work requires fluid properties and a correct definition of the mixture behavior generally described by cubic equations of state with appropriated thermodynamic relations validated against the NIST data. In this study we consider an alternative way to get the effect of real gas by testing the volume-weighted-mixing-law with association of the component transport properties using directly the NIST library data fitting including the supercritical regime range. The numerical simulations are carried out using 3D RANS approach associated with two tested turbulence models, the standard k-Epsilon model and the realizable k-Epsilon one. The combustion model is also associated with two chemical reaction mechanisms. The first one is a one-step generic chemical reaction and the second one is a two-step chemical reaction. The obtained results like temperature profiles, recirculation zones, visible flame lengths and distributions of OH species are discussed.

  8. Standard test method for trace quantities of total sulfur (Wickbold and Beckman combustion apparatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of total sulfur primarily in the range from 2 to 25 ppM in volatile, normally liquid organic materials. The method may be extended to liquid materials with higher sulfur concentration and to viscous liquids and solids by using appropriate solvents. Samples should not contain more than 100 ppM of halogens, 2 ppM of barium, or 0.1 ppM of lead or appreciable ashforming substances. For the determination of total sulfur in liquefied petroleum gases see ASTM Method D 2784, Test for Sulfur in Liquefied Petroleum Gases (Oxy-Hydrogen Burner or Lamp). The sample is burned in an oxy-hydrogen atomizer burner. The oxides of sulfur are absorbed and oxidized to sulfuric acid in a hydrogen peroxide solution. The sulfate ions are determined then by either of the following finishes: barium perchlorate titration - the sulfate is titrated with barium perchlorate using a thorin-methylene blue mixed indicator; turbidimetric - the sulfate is precipitated as barium sulfate and the turbidity of a suspension of the precipitate is measured with a photometer. It is important to have the sulfur content of light liquid petroleum products at low enough concentrations to meet any applicable government regulations. The presence of sulfur may result in corrosion of metal surfaces. Sulfur may be poisonous to catalysts in subsequent processing.

  9. Comparisons of a Three-Dimensional, Full Navier Stokes Computer Model with High Mach Number Combuster Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons between scramjet combustor data and a three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes calculation have been made to verify and substantiate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and application procedures. High Mach number scramjet combustor development will rely heavily on CFD applications to provide wind tunnel-equivalent data of quality sufficient to design, build and fly hypersonic aircraft. Therefore. detailed comparisons between CFD results and test data are imperative. An experimental case is presented, for which combustor wall static pressures were measured and flow-fieid interferograms were obtained. A computer model was done of the experiment, and counterpart parameters are compared with experiment. The experiment involved a subscale combustor designed and fabricated for the National Aero-Space Plane Program, and tested in the Calspan Corporation 96" hypersonic shock tunnel. The combustor inlet ramp was inclined at a 20 angle to the shock tunnel nozzle axis, and resulting combustor entrance flow conditions simulated freestream M=10. The combustor body and cowl walls were instrumented with static pressure transducers, and the combustor lateral walls contained windows through which flowfield holographic interferograms were obtained. The CFD calculation involved a three-dimensional time-averaged full Navier-Stokes code applied to the axial flow segment containing fuel injection and combustion. The full Navier-Stokes approach allowed for mixed supersonic and subsonic flow, downstream-upstream communication in subsonic flow regions, and effects of adverse pressure gradients. The code included hydrogen-air chemistry in the combustor segment which begins near fuel injection and continues through combustor exhaust. Combustor ramp and inlet segments on the combustor lateral centerline were modelled as two dimensional. Comparisons to be shown include calculated versus measured wall static pressures as functions of axial flow coordinate, and calculated path

  10. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  11. Proposed methodology for combustion toxicology testing of combined halon replacement agent/jet fuel interaction. Final report, June-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kibert, C.J.

    1993-04-01

    An international consensus to remove Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds from production and U.S. national policy to implement the resulting protocols has motivated the U.S. Air Force to embark on a program to find a suitable replacement for Halon 1211, currently used to extinguish flight line fires. This research addressed the feasibility of conducting a combustion toxicology (CT) program to assess the toxic products of the combustion interaction of JP-8 and the Group 1 or so-called Near Term candidate replacement agents for Halon 1211: HCFCs -123, -124, and -142b. A laboratory scale experiment benchmarked on large scale testing of a 150 sq ft pool fire was developed on the basis of Froude scaling of the full scale fire to a 15 x 15 cm pan fire. A prototype apparatus was developed and investigation into the use of animal behavior methods as an indicator of human incapacitation was conducted. The result is a new method which may potentially be utilized for future toxicity studies of the combustion interaction of current and future U.S. Air Force fuels with various fire extinguishants. Extinguishing agents, Halon 1211, Halon replacement, Combustion.

  12. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  13. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  14. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  15. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  16. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  17. Review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion{trademark} combustion tests. Report for November 1998--January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A.; Srivastava, R.K.; Hall, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    During the late 1980s and through the 1990s, a new fossil fuel with the trade name Orimulsion has been marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil. Orimulsion, a bitumen-in-water emulsion, is produced from bitumen extracted from the Cerro Negro field of the Orinoco Belt of eastern Venezuela. Economically recoverable Orinoco bitumen reserves are estimated at 267 billion barrels (oil equivalent) representing approximately 26% of the world`s recoverable crude oil reserves and 27% of the US recoverable coal reserves. Orimulsion is produced by Bitumenes Orinoco, S.A. (Bitor), a subsidiary of PdVSA, and derives its name from the combination of Orinoco and emulsion. In 1997, the US Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency to ``initiate a research activity to provide better scientific data on the qualities and characteristics of this product and the potential environmental impact of its introduction.`` As a first step in conducting this research activity, a review of the available literature on the topic of Orimulsion combustion and emissions was undertaken. The emphasis of this review is on the emissions of air pollutants rather than on the combustion behavior of the fuel, and particular emphasis will be placed on emissions from electric utility power boilers. While the combustion characteristics of Orimulsion will be addressed, it will be addressed primarily from the perspective of its ability to strongly influence the emissions of air pollutants.

  18. Emission assessment from full-scale co-combustion tests of binder- enhanced dRDF pellets and high sulfur coal at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.; Livengood, C.D. ); Daugherty, K.E. )

    1990-06-04

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and University of North Texas (UNT) research teams collected over 800 emissions and ash samples during the combustion of over 650 tons of binder enhanced densified refuse-drived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets with high sulfur coal in a spreader-stoker boiler at ANL. This full-scale test burn was conducted to validate predictions from laboratory and pilot scale test results that indicated substantial reductions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} in the flue gas, and the reduction of heavy metals and organics in the ash residue, when combusting the b-dRDF pellets with coal. Effects of varying fuel composition on performance of the boiler's spray-dryer/fabric filter emissions control system was also evaluated. This paper describes the b-dRDF pellet/coal cofiring tests, the emission and ash samples that were taken, the analyses that were conducted on these samples, and the final test results. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  20. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas

  1. METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

  2. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  3. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  4. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  5. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  6. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  7. Hybrid rocket combustion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Cohen, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study of 'pure' or 'classic' hybrids are to (1) extend our understanding of the boundary layer combustion process and the critical engineering parameters that define this process, (2) develop an up-to-date hybrid fuel combustion model, and (3) apply the model to correlate the regression rate and scaling properties of potential fuel candidates. Tests were carried out with a hybrid slab window motor, using several diagnostic techniques, over a range of motor pressure and oxidizer mass flux conditions. The results basically confirmed turbulent boundary layer heat and mass transfer as the rate limiting process for hybrid fuel decomposition and combustion. The measured fuel regression rates showed good agreement with the analytical model predictions. The results of model scaling calculations to Shuttle SRM size conditions are presented.

  8. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. N-Decane Droplet Combustion in the NASA-Lewis 5 Second Zero-Gravity Facility - Results in Test Gas Environments Other than Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B.; Borowski, Brian A.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Choi, Mun Y.; Williams, Forman A.

    1991-01-01

    The burning rate of single droplets of n-decane in a microgravity environment of the NASA-Lewis 5 Second Zero-Gravity Facility was investigated as a function of time, together with the flame diameter/droplet diameter ratio, for a wide range of test environments other than normal air conditions, using an engineering model of the flight experiment. Oxygen mole fractions were varied from 18 to 50 percent, the total test chamber pressure was varied from 0.5 to 2 atmospheres, and the initial droplet diameter was varied from 0.98 to 2.41 mm. Measurements showed that the average burning rates for n-decane droplets exhibited the same qualitative trends as are found in two current models. Temporal analysis of the local burning rates showed variable rates of change in local burning as the droplet combustion progressed. The causes and implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. 20-liter furnance test method to determine the combustion gas toxicity of conveyor belts. Report of investigations/1996

    SciTech Connect

    De Rosa, M.I.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center conducted experiments with mine conveyor belt samples in a 20-L furnace and in a laboratory fire tunnel to measure and compare the major toxic gas concentrations evolved during the combustion of the materials. The toxic gas concentrations, measured simultaneously through a multiport sampling device and treated as yield values, included hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NOx treated as NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Correlations were developed for the toxic gas yields as a function of the percentage of chlorine (for HCl gas), nitrogen (for HCN and NO2 gases), and carbon (for CO gas) contained in the original materials.

  11. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; ascertain instrumentation and control needs; calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and determine the feasibility of different waste-heat recovery technologies for the Frank E. Van Lare (FEV) Wastewater Treatment Plant. As an integral part of this study, current and pending federal and state regulations were evaluated to establish their impact on furnace operation and subsequent heat recovery. Of significance is the effect of the recently promulgated Federal 40 CFR Part 503 regulations on the FEV facility. Part 503 regulations were signed into law in November 1992, and, with some exceptions, affected facilities must be in compliance by February 19, 1994. Those facilities requiring modifications or upgrades to their incineration or air pollution control equipment to meet Part 503 regulations must be in compliance by February 19, 1995.

  12. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  13. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 3, Quarterly progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1993-05-01

    In the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, etc. These buildings generally require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. Objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system is a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS (Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation). The combustor concept employs centrifugal forces combined with a staged combustion process to achieve high carbon conversion efficiencies and low N oxides generation. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system includes pollution control devices to meet targeted values of SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions. In general, the system is designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. During the 8th quarter of this program, a demonstration plan was developed for installation and operation of the space heating system at an actual installation. Also, equipment upgrades were implemented and laboratory testing performed to evaluate the performance of the system with these changes.

  14. Safety Design and Mock-Up Tests on the Combustion of Hydrogen-Air Mixture in the Vertical CNS Channel of the CARR-CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Qingfeng Yu; Quanke Feng

    2006-07-01

    A two-phase thermo-siphon loop is applied to the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). The moderator is liquid hydrogen. The two-phase thermo-siphon consists of the crescent-shape moderator cell, the moderator transfer tube, and the condenser. The hydrogen is supplied from the buffer tank to the condenser. The most characteristic point is that the cold helium gas is introduced into the helium sub-cooling system covering the moderator cell and then flows up through the tube covering the moderator transfer tube into the condenser. The helium sub-cooling system also reduces the void fraction of the liquid hydrogen and takes a role of the helium barrier for preventing air from intruding into the hydrogen system. We call the two-phase thermo-siphon the hydrogen cold system. The main part of this system is installed in the CNS channel made of 6061 aluminum alloy (6061A) of 6 mm in thickness, 270 mm in outer diameter and about 6 m in height. For confirming the safety of the CNS, the combustion tests were carried out using the hydrogen-air mixture under the conditions in which air is introduced into the tube at 1 atmosphere, and then hydrogen gas is supplied from the gas cylinder up to the test pressures. And maximum test pressure is 0.140 MPa Gauge (G). This condition includes the design accident of the CNS. The peak pressure due to combustion is 1.09 MPa, and the design strength of the CNS channel is 3 MPa. The safety of the CNS was thus verified even if the design basis accident occurs. The pressure distribution, the stress, and the displacement of the tube were also measured. (authors)

  15. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, phase 3. Fourteenth quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1995-12-31

    The effort of the second quarter of calendar year 1995 continued the work on task 5, {open_quotes}Site Demonstration{close_quotes}, with emphasis on installation of the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor and auxiliary equipment at the Philadelphia test site. The task 5 effort involves testing the combustor over extended periods under conditions that fully simulate commercial operation and that meet the combustion and environmental specifications for this project. To meet this project objective within the current work scope requires 500 hours of testing. Operation beyond this period is dependent on recovering the added costs by placing the steam production from the boiler to beneficial use. During the present quarterly reporting period, most of the major components needed to implement the initial 100 hours of testing under task 5 were installed at the test site. The only major remaining work at the end of this reporting period was the installation of power to the components and the installation of the controls and diagnostics. This work will be performed in the next quarter.

  16. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit test report. Test report, August 6--October 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1993-06-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology M demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective NonCatalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the third phase of the test program, where the performance of the retrofit low-NO{sub x} combustion system is compared to that of the original combustion system. This third test phase was comprised of an optimization of the operating conditions and settings for the burners and overfire air ports, followed by an investigation of the performance of the low-NO{sub x} combustion system as a function of various operating parameters. These parameters included boiler load, excess air level, overfire air flow rate and number of mills in service. In addition, emissions under normal load following operation were compared to those collected during the optimization and parametric performance tests under baseloaded conditions. The low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit resulted in NO{sub x} reductions of 63 to 69 percent, depending on boiler load. The majority of the NO{sub x} reduction was obtained with the low-NO{sub x} burners, as it was shown that the overfire air system provided little additional NO{sub x} reduction for a fixed excess air level. CO emissions and flyash carbon levels did not increase as a result of the retrofit.

  17. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  18. Oxygen/hydrocarbon combustion devices technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to investigate ignition, combustion and heat transfer characteristics of liquid oxygen and RP-1 fuel applicable to large gas generator cycle booster engines. The program was part of a broad effort intended to generate a combustion devices technology base for both RP-1 and methane fuels and both gas generator and staged combustion engine cycles. Two gas generator injector designs were tested over a chamber pressure range of 1500 to 3100 psia and a gas temperature range of 1500 to 2300 R. Both configurations were evaluated for combustion efficiency, gas temperature profile and combustion stability. Thrust chamber firings were conducted using a platelet type main injector and a water cooled calorimeter combustion chamber. Test conditions ranged from 1700 to 2200 psia chamber pressure and from 2.0 to 2.8 mixture ratio. A program goal to reduce previously measured nozzle heating rates was achieved, but at the expense of combustion efficiency.

  19. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  20. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  1. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  2. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  3. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Quarterly technical progress report, August 15--November 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1990-04-06

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to show that SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) operations and disposition. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, slagging and fouling factors, erosion and corrosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofit. The status of all three phases and the individual tasks under each phase are described.

  4. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  5. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation and a detailed wet-CO mechanism to complete the combustion process. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustion efficiency of an unielement, tripropellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  6. Characterization and wall compatibility testing of a 40K pound thrust class swirl-coaxial injector and calorimeter combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, E. L.; Rozelle, R.; Borgel, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Subscale injector-combustor tests under the NASA Space Transportation Engine Thrust Chamber Technology program measured characteristic velocity (c-asterisk) efficiencies and wall heat fluxes for the pressure range 1710 psia to 2360 psia and for the overall O2/H2 mixture ratio range 5.5 to 6.4. Tests involving radially-uniform mixture ratio profiles produced c-asterisk efficiencies above 99 percent; nonuniform profiles associated with wall durability-enhancement schemes resulted in lower efficiencies. Though all three wall protection methods proved successful at reducing wall heat flux, scarfing of the outer-row, swirl-coaxial injection elements was the technique which resulted in the least debit in c-asterisk per unit reduction in heat flux.

  7. NASA Glenn's Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Supported the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project's Emissions Reduction Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustor Rig (ASCR) is NASA Glenn Research Center's unique high-pressure, high-temperature combustor facility supporting the emissions reduction element of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The facility can simulate combustor inlet test conditions up to a pressure of 900 psig and a temperature of 1200 F (non-vitiated). ASCR completed three sector tests in fiscal year 2003 for General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce North America. This will provide NASA and U.S. engine manufacturers the information necessary to develop future low-emission combustors and will help them to better understand durability and operability at these high pressures and temperatures.

  8. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  9. Emissions from combustion engines and their control

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.J.; Henein, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    This standard text for the automotive industry explains in detail the fundamentals of emission formation and control for gasoline and diesel engines. These concepts can be applied to other combustion systems, such as gas turbines and stationary power plants. Topics of discussion include: combustion in homogeneous mixtures; effect of design and operating variables on gasoline engine exhaust emissions; hydrocarbon evaporation emissions; diesel engine combustion emissions and controls; emission instrumentation; and automotive exhaust emission testing. 200 references, 197 figures.

  10. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  11. Effects of alternate fuels refractory test facility (RTF) Test 2: evaluation of magnesia-based bricks and mortar and alumina-based bricks, castables, and fibrous insulations exposed to residual oil combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; Tennery, V.J.

    1980-03-01

    The effects on various refractories of the combustion products of No. 6 residual oil containing a high concentration of vanadium was determined. Other major oil impurities were Na, Ni, P, Si, and S. The specimens included magnesia-based bricks and mortar, alumina-based bricks and castables, and alumina-based fibrous insulations. The test was conducted in the Refractory Test Facility at 1375/sup 0/C for 510 h with 5.7 to 7.5% excess oxygen. After the test the specimens were analyzed to determine the extent of reaction with fuel impurities. None of the refractories were seriously degraded by reaction with fuel impurities. The least volatile fuel impurities (as oxides) were found most frequently in the specimens. Thus, nickel- and vanadium-bearing compounds were found in most specimens. Most of the dense refractories cracked during the test, but the magnesia-bricks and mortar cracked most extensively. The magnesia-based brecks and mortar darkened, but there was no evidence of degration, even on the hot face.

  12. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system low-NO{sub x} combustion system SNCR test report. Test period, January 11--April 9, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1994-06-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2}, Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be tested. This report documents the fourth phase of the test program, where the performance of the SNCR system, after the low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit, was assessed. Previous to this phase of testing, a subsystem was added to the existing SNCR system which allowed on-line conversion of a urea solution to aqueous ammonium compounds. Both convened and unconverted urea were investigated as SNCR chemicals.

  13. Open-chamber combustion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, D. P.; Meyer, R. C.

    1994-04-01

    The test program was undertaken to research trade-offs between engine design and operational parameters on open-chamber, premixed spark-ignited gas engines, with a primary focus on combustion effects. This included combustion chamber designs which are conceptually diametrically opposed -- a high squish design typical of diesel engines and a virtually quiescent design. The reader should note that these data are somewhat abstract compared to conventional engines, because the Labeco test engine has exceptionally high friction and the lean-burn data were run unboosted.

  14. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  16. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  17. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  18. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  19. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  20. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  1. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Combustion Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user, two-rack facility dedicated to combustion and fluids science in the US Laboratory Destiny on the International Space Station. FCF is a permanent facility that is capable of accommodating up to ten combustion and fluid science investigations per year. FCF research in combustion and fluid science supports NASA's Exploration of Space Initiative for on-orbit fire suppression, fire safety, and space system fluids management. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two racks in the FCF. The CIR major structural elements include the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR), Experiment Assembly (optics bench and combustion chamber), Air Thermal Control Unit (ATCU), Rack Door, and Lower Structure Assembly (Input/Output Processor and Electrical Power Control Unit). The load path through the rack structure is outlined. The CIR modal survey was conducted to validate the load path predicted by the CIR finite element model (FEM). The modal survey is done by experimentally measuring the CIR frequencies and mode shapes. The CIR model was test correlated by updating the model to represent the test mode shapes. The correlated CIR model delivery is required by NASA JSC at Launch-10.5 months. The test correlated CIR flight FEM is analytically integrated into the Shuttle for a coupled loads analysis of the launch configuration. The analysis frequency range of interest is 0-50 Hz. A coupled loads analysis is the analytical integration of the Shuttle with its cargo element, the Mini Payload Logistics Module (MPLM), in the Shuttle cargo bay. For each Shuttle launch configuration, a verification coupled loads analysis is performed to determine the loads in the cargo bay as part of the structural certification process.

  2. Testing the National Combustion Code

    NASA Video Gallery

    During their summer internships at NASA centers this year, Aeronautics Academy and Aeronautics Scholarship Program interns produced videos about their work for the NASA Aeronautics "Ideas in Flight...

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  4. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-12-15

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities.

  5. The effect of fuel and air agitation on the combustion process in a low-emission combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Gorban', V. D.

    2013-09-01

    Methods for numerically simulating the working process in low-emission combustion chamber and for testing it are described. A method of using numerical simulation for predicting NO x emission and combustion process stability in a low-emission combustion chamber is proposed.

  6. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  7. Programmed combustion steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.

    1984-08-14

    The present invention provides a steam generator which comprises rocket-type multielement injector head and a small diameter, highly elongated, cylindrical combustion chamber whose walls are formed from a plurality of longitudinally adjoined water tubes. The multielement injector head injects an array of associating streams of fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber under sufficient pressure to maintain a combustion pressure in the range of 25-150 psia whereupon the narrowness of the combustion chamber serves to constrict the resultant combustion gases to thereby promote radiant and convective heat transfer from the flame of combustion through the walls of the combustion chamber into the water passing through the water tubes. By such arrangement the production of nitrogen oxides in the combustion chamber is avoided.

  8. Internal combustion engine with multiple combustion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, D.J.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a two-cycle compression ignition engine. It comprises one cylinder, a reciprocable piston moveable in the cylinder, a piston connecting rod, a crankshaft for operation of the piston connecting rod, a cylinder head enclosing the cylinder, the upper surface of the piston and the enclosing surface of the cylinder head defining a cylinder clearance volume, a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber located in the cylinder head. This patent describes improvement in means for isolating the combustion process for one full 360{degrees} rotation of the crankshaft; wherein the combustion chambers alternatively provide for expansion of combustion products in the respective chambers into the cylinder volume near top dead center upon each revolution of the crankshaft.

  9. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodova, E.; Shchepakina, E.

    2006-12-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models.

  10. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  11. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  12. Combustion of Unconfined Droplet Clusters in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the confounding effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would fill a large gap in our current understanding of droplet and spray combustion and provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. This paper describes the design and performance of the 1-g experimental apparatus, some preliminary 1-g results, and plans for testing in microgravity.

  13. Emissions, combustion dynamics, and control of a multiple swirl combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang

    To achieve single digit NOx emission from gas turbine combustors and prevent the combustion dynamics encountered in Lean Premixed Combustion, it is essential to understand the correlations among emission characteristics, combustion dynamics, and dynamics and characteristics of swirling flow field. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the emission characteristics and combustion dynamics of multiple swirl dump combustors either in premixing or non-premixed combustion (e.g. Lean Direct Injection), and correlate these combustion characteristics (emissions, combustion instability and lean flammability) to the fluids dynamics (flow structures and its evolution). This study covers measurement of velocity flow field, temperature field, and combustion under effects of various parameters, including inlet flow Reynolds number, inlet air temperature, swirl configurations, downstream exhaust nozzle contraction ratios, length of mixing tube. These parameters are tested in both liquid and gaseous fuel combustions. Knowledge obtained through this comprehensive study is applied to passive and active controls for improving gas turbine combustion performance in the aid of novel sensor and actuator technologies. Emissions and combustion characteristics are shown closely related to the shape and size of central recirculation zone (CRZ), the mean and turbulence velocity and strain rate, and dynamics of large vortical structures. The passive controls, mostly geometry factors, affect the combustion characteristics and emissions through their influences on flow fields, and consequently temperature and radical fields. Air assist, which is used to adjust the momentum of fuel spray, is effective in reducing NOx and depress combustion oscillation without hurting LBO. Fuel distribution/split is also one important factor for achieving low NOx emission and control of combustion dynamics. The dynamics of combustion, including flame oscillations close to LBO and acoustic combustion

  14. Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.

  15. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  16. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  17. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  18. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  19. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  20. Catalytic combustion over hexaaluminates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, K.S.; Kingsley, J.J.; Hubler, T.L.; McCready, D.E.; Cox, J.L.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion is the oldest and most extensively used process for the production of light, heat, and energy utilization. Mankind has sought to control combustion since prehistoric times to more effectively utilize the combustible material, control the products of combustion, and harness the energy released during combustion. Catalysts provide the means to control the reactions of combustion beyond what can be achieved in the homogeneous gas phase (1). Catalysts also enable operation outside the range of flammability limits and control atmospheric pollutants of combustion, mainly NO{sub x}, carbon monoxide, and particles of incomplete combustion (soot). The major technical difficulty that has hindered widespread application of catalytic combustion devices is their poor performance, particularly durability of their ceramic substrates and catalytically active phases in the high temperature environment. Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons over metals and metal oxide catalysts has been explored extensively. Recent reviews of materials for high temperature catalytic combustion have been provided by Marcus et al. (2) and Trim (3). Hexaaluminates which show good thermal stability above 1200{degrees}C are one class of metal oxides receiving consideration for application in high temperature combustion devices. Matsuda et al. (4) have developed thermally stable La-hexaaluminates with the same layer structure as Ba-hexaaluminate and have investigated their catalytic application. Machida et al. (5-7) have investigated the catalytic properties of a number of hexaaluminates of BaMAl{sub 11}O{sub 19-{alpha}}(M=Cr, Mn,Fe,Co,Ni). Here we report the synthesis, properties and catalytic combustion of some new hexaaluminates.

  1. Fuel Flexibility in Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.C.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    2001-11-06

    , the coproduction/cogeneration concepts embodied in Vision 21 may also lend itself well to the type of utility/industry partnering involved in cofiring approaches. In light of the cost limitations in shipping distance (e.g., 50-100 miles or less) from collection to end-use based on the low energy density of biomass, resource availability is a site-specific consideration. Biomass fuels also exhibit significant differences in fuel characteristics, including volatility and ash chemistry that can also influence cofiring performance. Pilot-scale biomass cofiring tests have been conducted in the 150 kWt Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF). A key aspect of the present work is to examine biomass char conversion for a range of initial particle sizes at various residence times for combustion relative to fuel processing/handling issues. In addition, a number of biomass cofiring R&D as well as full-scale utility demonstrations are providing technical insights to assist in cofiring technology commercialization. The paper will also discuss research plans, including lignin cofiring for ethanol/power co-production, novel concepts involving animal waste utilization, advanced combustion studies, and tri-firing concepts with other fuels.

  2. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  3. Combustion of Micropowdered Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geil, Ethan; Thorne, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Combustion of finely powdered biomass has the potential to replace heating oil, which accounts for a significant fraction of US oil consumption, in heating, cooling and local power generation applications. When ground to 30-150 micron powders and dispersed in air, wood and other biomass can undergo deflagrating combustion, as occurs with gaseous and dispersed liquid fuels. Combustion is very nearly complete, and in contrast to sugar/starch or cellulose-derived ethanol, nearly all of the available plant mass is converted to usable energy so the economics are much more promising. We are exploring the fundamental combustion science of biomass powders in this size range. In particular, we are examining how powder size, powder composition (including the fraction of volatile organics) and other parameters affect the combustion regime and the combustion products.

  4. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  5. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  6. Numerical simulations in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews numerical simulations in reacting flows in general and combustion phenomena in particular. It is shown that use of implicit schemes and/or adaptive mesh strategies can improve convergence, stability, and accuracy of the solution. Difficulties increase as turbulence and multidimensions are considered, particularly when finite-rate chemistry governs the given combustion problem. Particular attention is given to the areas of solid-propellant combustion dynamics, turbulent diffusion flames, and spray droplet vaporization.

  7. Combustion pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bettman, M.

    1986-04-29

    A combustion pressure sensor is described for mounting on an internal combustion engine so as to have access to the interior of a combustion cylinder. The sensor consists of: a first diaphragm means adjacent a combustion region for deflecting as a function of the magnitude of adjacent pressure in the combustion region, and for acting as a gas tight seal between the combustion region and an interior volume of the combustion pressure sensor means; a second diaphragm means, spaced from the first diaphragm means, for deflecting as a function of the deflection of the first diaphragm and generating a signal indicative of the deflection of the second diaphragm means; a force transmitting means located between the first diaphragm means and the second diaphragm means for transmitting movement from the first diaphragm means to the second diaphragm means, and for reducing the speed and amplitude of heat tramsmission from the first diaphragm means to the second diaphragm means; and the second diaphragm including a steel member having a portion coated with an electrically insulating glass enamel, upon which is formed a thick film piezoresistor for use as a thick film resistive strain gauge and overlapping thick film conductor terminations for use as electrically conductive contacts, the thick film piezoresistor having a baseline resistance which can be temperature compensated by resistance measurement between successive combustion firings in the interior of the combustion cylinder.

  8. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  9. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  10. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  11. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  12. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  13. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-10-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

  14. Large-scale coherent structures as drivers of combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Gutmark, E.; Parr, T.P.; Parr, D.M.; Wilson, K.J.

    1987-06-01

    The role of flow coherent structures as drivers of combustion instabilities in a dump combustor was studied. Results of nonreacting tests in air and water flows as well as combustion experiments in a diffusion flame and dump combustor are discussed to provide insight into the generation process of large-scale structures in the combustor flow and their interaction with the combustion process. It is shown that the flow structures, or vortices, are formed by interaction between the flow instabilities and the chamber acoustic resonance. When these vortices dominate the reacting flow, the combustion is confined to their cores, leading to periodic heat release, which may result in the driving of high amplitude pressure oscillations. These oscillations are typical to the occurrence of combustion instabilities for certain operating conditions. The basic understanding of the interaction between flow dynamics and the combustion process opens up the possibility for rational control of combustion-induced pressure oscillations. 42 references.

  15. LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. J.; Dodson, H. C.; Claflin, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    The LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation Program was structured to determine if the use of light hydrocarbon combustion fuels with liquid oxygen (LOX) produces combustion performance and stability behavior similar to the LOX/hydrogen propellant combination. In particular methane was investigated to determine if that fuel can be rated for combustion instability using the same techniques as previously used for LOX/hydrogen. These techniques included fuel temperature ramping and stability bomb tests. The hot fire program probed the combustion behavior of methane from ambient to subambient temperatures. Very interesting results were obtained from this program that have potential importance to future LOX/methane development programs. A very thorough and carefully reasoned documentation of the experimental data obtained is contained. The hot fire test logic and the associated tests are discussed. Subscale performance and stability rating testing was accomplished using 40,000 lb. thrust class hardware. Stability rating tests used both bombs and fuel temperature ramping techniques. The test program was successful in generating data for the evaluation of the methane stability characteristics relative to hydrogen and to anchor stability models. Data correlations, performance analysis, stability analyses, and key stability margin enhancement parameters are discussed.

  16. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  17. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  18. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  19. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

  1. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2000-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation, and a detailed wet-CO mechanism. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustor efficiency of an uni-element, tri-propellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  2. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  3. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  4. Laser Schlieren and ultraviolet diagnostics of rocket combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure oxygen/hydrogen turbine drive combustor hot-fire test series was conducted on the Turbine Drive Combustor Technology Program. The first objective was to gather data on an axisymmetric combustion system to support anchoring of a new combustion/fluid dynamics computer code under development on the same contract. The second objective was to gain insight into low mixture ratio combustion characteristics of coaxial injector elements.

  5. Metals combustion in normal gravity and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Benz, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the combustion characteristics of metallic materials has been an ongoing area of research at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This research has been in support of both government and industrial operations and deals not only with the combustion of specific metallic materials but also with the relative flammabilities of these materials under similar conditions. Since many of the metallic materials that are characterized at WSTF for aerospace applications are to be used in microgravity environments, it was apparent that the testing of these materials needed to proceed in a microgravity environment. It was believed that burning metallic materials in a microgravity environment would allow the evaluation of the validity of applying normal gravity combustion tests to characterize metallic materials to be used in microgravity environments. It was also anticipated that microgravity testing would provide insight into the general combustion process of metallic materials. The availability of the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) 2.2-second drop tower provided the necessary facility to accomplish the microgravity portion of the testing while the normal gravity testing was conducted at NASA WSTF. The tests, both at LeRC and WSTF, were conducted in the same instrumented system and utilized the standard metal flammability test of upward propagation burning of cylindrical rod samples.

  6. Combustion in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    A workshop on combustion in supersonic flow was held in conjunction with the 21st JANNAF Combustion Meeting at Laurel, Maryland on October 3 to 4 1984. The objective of the workshop was to establish the level of current understanding of supersonic combustion. The workshop was attended by approximately fifty representatives from government laboratories, engine companies, and universities. Twenty different speakers made presentations in their area of expertise during the first day of the workshop. On the second day, the presentations were discussed, deficiencies in the current understanding defined, and a list of recommended programs generated to address these deficiencies. The agenda for the workshop is given.

  7. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  8. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  9. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  10. Overview of IEA biomass combustion activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustad, J. E.

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA) bioenergy program are: (1) to encourage cooperative research, development and use of energy and the increased utilization of alternatives to oil; and (2) to establish increased program and project cooperation between participants in the whole field of bioenergy. There are four Task Annexes to the Implementing Agreement during the period 1992-1994: Efficient and Environmentally Sound Biomass Production Systems; Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Biomass Utilization; and Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstock to Energy. The report describes the following biomass combustion activities during the period 1992-1994: Round robin test of a wood stove; Emissions from biomass combustion; A pilot project cofiring biomass with oil to reduce SO2 emissions; Small scale biomass chip handling; Energy from contaminated wood waste combustion; Modeling of biomass combustion; Wood chip cogeneration; Combustion of wet biomass feedstocks, ash reinjection and carbon burnout; Oxidation of wet biomass; Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances; Characterization of biomass fuels and ashes; Measurement techniques (FTIR).

  11. Elimination of High-Frequency Combustion Instability in the Fastrac Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, Marvin; Nesman, Tomas E.

    1999-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to stabilize the combustion of the Fastrac engine thrust chamber. The first few stability tests resulted in unstable combustion due ineffective acoustic cavity designs. The thrust chamber exhibited unstable combustion in the first-tangential mode and its harmonics. Combustion was stabilized by increasing the volume of the acoustic cavities and by plugging the dump-cooling orifices so that the cavities were uncooled. Although the first few stability tests resulted in unstable combustion, prior and subsequent long-duration performance tests of the Fastrac thrust chamber were spontaneously stable. Stability considerations during the injector faceplate design were based on the Hewitt correlation.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  13. Expert test results of the TPP-312A Boiler at the Zuev District Power Station during the combustion of the GSSh grade coal with adding the RA-GEN-F Anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    The expert test results of the TPP-312 boiler no. 4 at the Zuev District Power Station (DPS) without supply and with the supply of the RA-GEN-F anaklarid to the boiler by means of its introduction in the approved dosing with the secondary air are presented. It is shown that the introduction of anaklarid positively affects the furnace process parameters during the combustion of grade GSSh coal. The possibility of the boiler operation at its minimal (490 t/h) and extremely minimal (440 t/h) steam output without supporting the flame by natural gas and the provision of the mode of liquid slag removal in the night drop of electrical loads.

  14. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  15. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  16. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  17. Combustion of PMMA, PE, and PS in a ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    van der Geld, C.W.M. ); Korting, P.A.O.G. ); Wijchers, T. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the combustion behavior of polymethylmetharcrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) with air investigated in a connected pipe test facility; spectroscopy showed the presence of OH, C{sub 2}, and CH and temperatures between 1300 and 3000 K during combustion. Particular attention was focused on regression rate and combustion efficiency and the role of temperature and soot production. The present investigation gives an understanding of the most important phenomena that control (or emanate from) the combustion of a cylindrical solid fuel with a rearward facing step, and this has application for solid fuel ramjets, the safe burning of toxic waste, and hot gas generators. The results are summarized.

  18. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  19. Combustion furnace and burner

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J. G.

    1985-12-03

    The combustion system includes a hearth lined with refractory, a combustion chamber formed in the refractory, an air manifold mounted on the hearth, a plurality of gas manifold extending through the air manifold and into the combustion chamber, and a diffuser mounted on the manifolds to cause turbulence in the air/gas mixture. The gas manifolds include aspirating means for combining the air and gas. The combustion chamber is elongated and has an elongated neck with a flue gas exit slot over which the work piece passes. The flue gas from the combustion of the air/gas mixture in the combustion chamber increases in velocity as the flue gas passes through the elongated neck and exits the flue gas exit slot. The slot has a length sufficient to permit the work piece to rotate 360/sup 0/ as the work piece rotates and travels through the hearth. This causes the work piece to be uniformly heated over every square inch of its surface.

  20. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  1. Oxy-combustion of biomass in a circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Luckos, Adam; Wolski, Krzysztof; Musiał, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate combustion characteristics of biomass (willow, Salix viminalis) burnt in air and O2/CO2 mixtures in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Air and oxy-combustion characteristics of wooden biomass in CFB were supplemented by the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA). The results of conducted CFB and TGA tests show that the composition of the oxidizing atmosphere strongly influences the combustion process of biomass fuels. Replacing N2 in the combustion environment by CO2 caused slight delay (higher ignition temperature and lower maximum mass loss rate) in the combustion of wooden biomass. The combustion process in O2/CO2 mixtures at 30% and 40% O2 is faster and shorter than that at lower O2 concentrations.

  2. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  3. Experimental Replication of an Aeroengine Combustion Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the causal dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment was designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic and thermo-fluid features. The process increases the probability that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  4. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  5. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  6. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

  8. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  9. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  10. Dynamics of nanoparticle combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David James

    A heterogeneous shock tube was used to ignite and measure the combustion behavior of the nano-aluminum suspension behind reflected shock waves. The burning time and particle temperatures were measured using optical diagnostics. In order to use pyrometry measurements for nano-aluminum particles, the emissivity of nano-alumina particles was also measured using the shock tube to heat the particles to known temperatures. The burning time and peak particle temperature results suggested that heat transfer models currently used for burning nanoparticles may significantly overestimate heat losses during combustion. By applying conventional non-continuum heat transfer correlations to burning nano-aluminum particles, the observed peak temperatures, which greatly exceed the ambient temperature, should only be observable if the burning time were very short, of the order of 1 mus, whereas the observed burning time is two orders of magnitude larger. These observations can be reconciled if the energy accommodation coefficient for these conditions is of the order of 0.005, which is the value suggested by Altman, instead of approximately unity, which is the common assumption. A simple model was developed for nano-aluminum particle combustion focusing on a surface controlled reaction as evidenced by experimental data and heat transfer to the surroundings. The simple model supports a low energy accommodation coefficient as suggested by Altman. This result has significant implications on the heat transfer and performance of the nanoparticles in combustion environments. Direct measurement is needed in order to decouple the accommodation coefficient from the assumed combustion mechanism in the simple model. Time-resolved laser induced incandescence measurements were performed to measure the accommodation coefficient of nano-alumina particles in various gaseous environments. The accommodation coefficient was found to be 0.03, 0.07, and 0.15 in helium, nitrogen, and argon respectively at

  11. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  12. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  13. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  14. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  15. External combustion engine having a combustion expansion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-03-01

    This patent application discloses an external combustion engine having a combustion expansion chamber. The engine includes a combustion chamber for generating a high-pressure, energized gas from a monopropellant fuel, and a cylinder for receiving the energized gas through a rotary valve to perform work on a cylinder disposed therein. A baffle plate is positioned between the combustion area and expansion area for reducing the pressure of the gas. The combustion area and expansion area are separated by a baffle plate having a flow area which is sufficiently large to eliminate the transmission of pressure pulsations from the combustion area to the expansion area while being small enough to provide for substantially complete combustion in the combustion area. The engine is particularly well suited for use in a torpedo.

  16. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  17. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  18. Swirling base injection for supersonic combustion ramjets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the swirling base injection proposed by Swithenbank and Chigier (1969) for application in supersonic combustion ramjets or scramjets. This concept of accelerated mixing in supersonic streams through swirl was tested, but the results indicate that swirl does not produce any enhancement of mixing.

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech has targeted waste incineration as a potential application for this technology. Based on bench-scale rotary-kiln simulator tests, Sonotech proposed a demonstration under the SITE program to evaluate the Sonotech pulse combustion system on a larger scale at EPA's IRF in J...

  20. Material Testing of Coated Alloys in a Syngas Combustion Environment Year 6 - Activity 1.13 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Modifications were made to the inlet of the existing Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) thermal oxidizer to accommodate side-by-side coupon holders for exposure testing. Two 5-day tests with over 200 hours of total exposure time were completed. The first week of testing was conducted in enriched air-blown mode, with coupon temperatures ranging from 128° to 272°F. Carbonyl sampling was conducted, but it was discovered after the fact that the methodology used was producing very low recoveries of iron and nickel carbonyl. Therefore, the data generated during this week of testing were not considered accurate. The second week of testing was conducted in oxygen-blown mode, with coupon temperatures ranging from 220° to 265°F. Two improved methods were used to measure carbonyl concentration during this week of testing. These methods produced results closer to equilibrium calculations. Since both weeks of testing mostly produced a product gas with approximately 15%–18% carbon monoxide, it was felt that actual carbonyl concentrations for Week 1 should be very similar to those measured during Week 2. The revised carbonyl sampling methodology used during the second week of testing greatly improved the recovery of iron and nickel carbonyl in the sample. Even though the sampling results obtained from the first week were inaccurate, the results from the second week can be used as an estimate for the periods during which the gasifier was operating under similar conditions and producing similar product gas compositions. Specifically, Test Periods 2 and 3 from the first week were similar to the conditions run during the second week. For a product gas containing roughly 15%–18% CO and a coupon temperature of approximately 220°–270°F, the nickel carbonyl concentration should be about 0.05–0.1 ppm and the iron carbonyl concentration should be about 0.1–0.4 ppm. After each week of testing the coupons were recovered from the coupon holder, weighed, and shipped

  1. Combustion synthesis of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Mckinnon, J.T.; Bell, W.L. ); Barkley, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the isolation of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} from combustion soot that is produced in high-temperature, low-pressure premixed flat flames. A critical parameter for high fullerene yields in combustion appears to be a very high flame temperature. Equilibrium calculations indicate that low pressures are important, but the experimental evidence is not clear at this time. Combustion synthesis yields fullerenes with a C{sub 70}/C{sub 60} ratio of about 40%, as compared with the 12% reported for electric-arc-generated fullerenes. The overall yields from carbon are very low (ca. 0.03%) but the soot studied had been produced in flames that were in no way optimized for fullerene production.

  2. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  3. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  4. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  5. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  6. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Third quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1992-10-17

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1992, work continued on Task l. ``Design, Installation, and Shakedown of the Modifications to the 20 MMBtu/hr Air Cooled Combustor and Boiler Components``. Task 2. ``Preliminary Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan``. In task 1, the design of the planned modifications were mostly completed. The equipment to implement these modifications was procured, and most of the installation of this equipment was completed. Finally, a series of two shakedown tests was performed to test the operability of these modifications. As previously reported, no modifications to the combustor were made. All the changes were improvements in overall combustor-boiler operation, maintenance and repair of components, and addition of diagnostics. In addition, during shakedown tests of these modifications the need for additional improvements or modifications became apparent, and these were or a-re being implemented. The major improvements focused on coal and sorbent storage, transport, and combustor injection, real time control of ash deposition in the boiler, unproved combustor wall cooling, expanded computer control and diagnostics, and refurbishment of the scrubber and combustor temperature measurements. AD this work has been described in a detailed topical report on task 1, which was recently submitted to DOE, and it will not be repeated here. Instead the focus of this report will be on the analysis of the test results obtained in the two shakedown tests. This work was partly reported in the 7th 8th and 9th monthly reports. An important result of these tests has been the observation of high (over 85%) SO{sub 2} reduction obtained with sorbent injection in the combustor.

  7. A laboratory scale supersonic combustive flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, E.C.; Zerkle, D.K.; Fry, H.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1995-02-01

    A laboratory scale supersonic flow system [Combustive Flow System (CFS)] which utilizes the gaseous products of methane-air and/or liquid fuel-air combustion has been assembled to provide a propulsion type exhaust flow field for various applications. Such applications include providing a testbed for the study of planar two-dimensional nozzle flow fields with chemistry, three-dimensional flow field mixing near the exit of rectangular nozzles, benchmarking the predictive capability of various computational fluid dynamic codes, and the development and testing of advanced diagnostic techniques. This paper will provide a detailed description of the flow system and data related to its operation.

  8. A coupled multi-block solution procedure for spray combustion in complex geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kuo-Huey; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1993-01-01

    Turbulent spray-combusting flow in complex geometries is presently treated by a coupled implicit procedure that employs finite-rate chemistry and real gas properties for combustion, as well as the stochastic separated model for spray and a multiblock treatment for complex geometries. Illustrative numerical tests conducted encompass a steady-state nonreacting backward-facing step flow, a premixed single-phase combustion flow, and spray combustion flow in a gas turbine combustor.

  9. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  10. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-05-03

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system.

  11. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  12. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  13. Combustion pressure sensor arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Sawamoto, K.; Nagaishi, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    1986-07-29

    A combustion pressure sensor arrangement in an internal combustion engine having a cylinder head, comprising: a plug seating formed in the cylinder head; an annular pressure sensor; an ignition plug screwed into the cylinder head in such a manner that the pressure sensor is clamped between the ignition plug and the plug seating; an ignition plug accommodation hole formed in the cylinder head for accommodating therein the ignition plug; and a guide sleeve joined at one end thereof to the outer periphery of the pressure sensor and fitted in the ignition plug accommodation hole, wherein the one end of the guide sleeve is fitted on the outer periphery of the pressure sensor.

  14. Internal combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, D.L.

    1988-03-08

    In combination with a high-powered reciprocating piston internal combustion engine, an internal combustion cylinder assembly is described comprising: a cylinder head made of weldable material; a cylinder liner for containing and guiding a reciprocating piston of the engine, a coolant jacket adapted to receive a cooling fluid, mounted on and surrounding the cylinder liner, the jacket being attached to the cylinder head and detachably supported by the cylinder liner, and forming a cooling chamber around the cylinder liner; means to supply the cooling fluid to the cooling chamber and to discharge the cooling fluid therefrom.

  15. Transparency of a flame at combustion of forest combustible materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvyk, Ruvim S.

    2003-03-01

    In activity the outcomes of experimental researches of a spectral transparency of a flame are adduced at combustion of wood combustible materials in range 0.6×6 microns at the altitude 0.1m above a surface of combustion. The conditions of a surface forest fires were modeled at absence of a wind.

  16. Development and testing of industrial scale coal fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-09-22

    The most significant effort in the quarter was the completion of the conversion of the exit nozzle from adiabatic operation to air cooled operation. This conversion was implemented midway in the task 2 test effort, and the final two tests in task 2 were with the cooled nozzle. It performed as per design. The second significant result was the successful implementation of a computer controlled combustor wall cooling procedure. The hot side combustor liner temperature can now be maintained within a narrow range of less than 5OF at the nominal wall temperature of 2000F. This is an essential requirement for long term durability of the combustor wall. The first tests with the computer control system were implemented in June 1993. A third development in this period was the decision to replace the coal feeder that had been in use since coal fired operation began in late 1987. Since that time, this commercial device has been modified numerous times in order to achieve uniform coal feed. Uniform feed was achieved in 1991. However, the feeder operation was not sufficiently reliable for commercial use. The new feeder has the same design as the sorbent feeders that have been successfully used since 1987. This design has much better speed control and it can be rapidly restarted when the feed auger becomes jammed with tramp material. The last task 2 test was a long duration coal fired test with almost 12 hours of coal fired operation until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. It was the longest coal firing period of the task 2 tests. The exit nozzle cooling maintained the wall temperature in the desired operating range.

  17. Computing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Coming into the Combustion Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division, there was not any set project planned out for me to work on. This was understandable, considering I am only at my sophmore year in college. Also, my mentor was a division chief and it was expected that I would be passed down the line. It took about a week for me to be placed with somebody who could use me. My first project was to write a macro for TecPlot. Commonly, a person would have a 3D contour volume modeling something such as a combustion engine. This 3D volume needed to have slices extracted from it and made into 2D scientific plots with all of the appropriate axis and titles. This was very tedious to do by hand. My macro needed to automate the process. There was some education I needed before I could start, however. First, TecPlot ran on Unix and Linux, like a growing majority of scientific applications. I knew a little about Linux, but I would need to know more to use the software at hand. I took two classes at the Learning Center on Unix and am now comfortable with Linux and Unix. I already had taken Computer Science I and II, and had undergone the transformation from Computer Programmer to Procedural Epistemologist. I knew how to design efficient algorithms, I just needed to learn the macro language. After a little less than a week, I had learned the basics of the language. Like most languages, the best way to learn more of it was by using it. It was decided that it was best that I do the macro in layers, starting simple and adding features as I went. The macro started out slicing with respect to only one axis, and did not make 2D plots out of the slices. Instead, it lined them up inside the solid. Next, I allowed for more than one axis and placed each slice in a separate frame. After this, I added code that transformed each individual slice-frame into a scientific plot. I also made frames for composite volumes, which showed all of the slices in the same XYZ space. I

  18. Design factors for stable lean premix combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program includes the development of low-emission combustors. Low emissions have already been achieved by premixing fuel and air to avoid the hot gas pockets produced by nozzles without premixing. While the advantages of premixed combustion have been widely recognized, turbine developers using premixed nozzles have experienced repeated problems with combustion oscillations. Left uncontrolled, these oscillations can lead to pressure fluctuations capable of damaging engine hardware. Elimination of such oscillations is often difficult and time consuming - particularly when oscillations are discovered in the last stages of engine development. To address this issue, METC is studying oscillating combustion from lean premixing fuel nozzles. These tests are providing generic information on the mechanisms that contribute to oscillating behavior in gas turbines. METC is also investigating the use of so-called {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} control of combustion oscillations. This technique periodically injects fuel pulses into the combustor to disrupt the oscillating behavior. Recent results on active combustion control are presented in Gemmen et al. (1995) and Richards et al. (1995). This paper describes the status of METC efforts to avoid oscillations through simple design changes.

  19. Dioxins and polyvinylchloride in combustion and fires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Jiang, Xuguang; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    This review on polyvinylchloride (PVC) and dioxins collects, collates, and compares data from selected sources on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or in brief dioxins, in combustion and fires. In professional spheres, the incineration of PVC as part of municipal solid waste is seldom seen as a problem, since deep flue gas cleaning is required anyhow. Conversely, with its high content of chlorine, PVC is frequently branded as a major chlorine donor and spitefully leads to substantial formation of dioxins during poorly controlled or uncontrolled combustion and open fires. Numerous still ill-documented and diverse factors of influence may affect the formation of dioxins during combustion: on the one hand PVC-compounds represent an array of materials with widely different formulations; on the other hand these may all be exposed to fires of different nature and consequences. Hence, attention should be paid to PVC with respect to the ignition and development of fires, as well as attenuating the emission of objectionable compounds, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dioxins. This review summarises available dioxin emissions data, gathers experimental and simulation studies of fires and combustion tests involving PVC, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of dioxins during PVC combustion. PMID:26185164

  20. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  1. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  2. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  3. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  4. Internal combustion engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.E.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine control system apparatus. It comprises: carburetor venturi means flowing basic combustion air and having a induced fuel flow in the basic combustion air; carburetor by pass throttle valve means having a biased open position and causing and trimming the flow of supplementary combustion air parallel to and then into the basic combustion air for mixing; engine throttle valve means regulating the flow of a mixture of the supplementary combustion air and the basic combustion air with induced fuel flow for engine combustion; Separate electrical step motor means connected to the carburetor by-pass throttle valve means and to the engine throttle valve means; and pre-programmed microprocessor means connected to each of the electrical stepmotor means. The microprocessor means controlling one of the electrical stepmotor means and the trim positioning of the carburetor by-pass throttle valve means in response to sensed engine speed and sensed engine manifold pressure or throttle position conditions.

  5. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  6. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  7. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  8. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  9. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  10. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  11. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  12. Plasma-aided solid fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    E.I. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko

    2007-07-01

    Plasma supported solid fuel combustion is promising technology for use in thermal power plants (TPP). The realisation of this technology comprises two main steps. The first is the execution of a numerical simulation and the second involves full-scale trials of plasma supported coal combustion through plasma-fuel systems (PFS) mounted on a TPP boiler. For both the numerical simulation and the full-scale trials, the boiler of 200 MW power of Gusinoozersk TPP (Russia) was selected. The optimization of the combustion of low-rank coals using plasma technology is described, together with the potential of this technology for the general optimization of the coal burning process. Numerical simulation and full-scale trials have enabled technological recommendations for improvement of existing conventional TPP to be made. PFS have been tested for boilers plasma start-up and flame stabilization in different countries at 27 power boilers steam productivity of 75-670 tons per hour (TPH) equipped with different type of pulverised coal burners. At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were used. Volatile content of them varied from 4 to 50%, ash from 15 to 48% and calorific values from 6700 to 25,100 KJ/kg. In summary, it is concluded that the developed and industrially tested PFS improve coal combustion efficiency and decrease harmful emission from pulverised coal-fired TPP. 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  14. Fuels research: Combustion effects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

  15. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... background: “FOR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS ONLY” and “49 CFR 176.340”. This latter marking constitutes...) The vibration test need not be performed; (4) When the total surface area of the tank exceeds...

  16. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... background: “FOR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS ONLY” and “49 CFR 176.340”. This latter marking constitutes...) The vibration test need not be performed; (4) When the total surface area of the tank exceeds...

  17. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  18. Advanced Combustion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center (ACERC), which is a cooperative project of Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, and 25 governmental and industrial research laboratories. Discusses the research objectives, the academic program, the industrial relations and technology transfer program,…

  19. Combustion Synthesis of Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Chojecki, G.; Cudziłło, S.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Walton, D. R. M.; Kroto, H. W.; Presz, A.; Diduszko, R.

    2002-10-01

    Novel carbon and inorganic 1D nanostructures were prepared by combustion of metal-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) systems in a calorimetric bomb. The high carbon yield from silicon-containing PTFE starting materials is due to the production and volatility of SiF4.

  20. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudsin, N.

    1984-05-22

    An internal combustion engine wherein the rod connecting the piston to the crankshaft has an enlarged portion defining a track which a crankshaft element cooperatingly engages; the track is topologically shaped so that the effect exerted by the crankshaft element on the connecting rod is reduced and/or cancelled for a given travel distance of the crankshaft element in the track.

  1. Nonlinear Combustion Instability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The liquid rocket engine stability prediction software (LCI) predicts combustion stability of systems using LOX-LH2 propellants. Both longitudinal and transverse mode stability characteristics are calculated. This software has the unique feature of being able to predict system limit amplitude.

  2. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  3. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  4. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  5. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  6. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  7. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif

    1998-09-01

    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  8. Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

  9. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  10. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  11. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  12. Combustion of liquid fuels in a flowing combustion gas environment at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of fuel droplets in gases which simulate combustion chamber conditions was considered both experimentally and theoretically. The fuel droplets were simulated by porous spheres and allowed to gasify in combustion gases produced by a burner. Tests were conducted for pressures of 1-40 atm, temperatures of 600-1500 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-13% (molar) and approach Reynolds numbers of 40-680. The fuels considered in the tests included methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane and n-decane. Measurements were made of both the rate of gasification of the droplet and the liquid surface temperature. Measurements were compared with theory, involving various models of gas phase transport properties with a multiplicative correction for the effect of forced convection.

  13. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  14. Advanced Combustion Modeling for Complex Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Frank Stanford

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of aircraft engines will need to pass stricter efficiency and emission tests. NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has set an ambitious goal of 70% reduction of NO(x) emissions and a 15% increase in fuel efficiency of aircraft engines. We will demonstrate the state-of-the-art combustion tools developed a t Stanford's Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) as part of this program. In the last decade, CTR has spear-headed a multi-physics-based combustion modeling program. Key technologies have been transferred to the aerospace industry and are currently being used for engine simulations. In this demo, we will showcase the next-generation combustion modeling tools that integrate a very high level of detailed physics into advanced flow simulation codes. Combustor flows involve multi-phase physics with liquid fuel jet breakup, evaporation, and eventual combustion. Individual components of the simulation are verified against complex test cases and show excellent agreement with experimental data.

  15. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  16. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur. PMID:26239103

  17. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  18. Development of next generation 1500C class advanced combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Tskuda, Y.; Akita, E.; Tomita, Y.

    1998-07-01

    The full load test run of the 501G combustion turbine has just finished at Takasago combined cycle plant in MHI, Japan. The 501G has power output of 230MW at turbine inlet temperature of 1,500 C and can achieve combined net efficiency of 52%. The NO{sub x} level proved to be less than 25 ppm. The 501G and 701G1 combustion turbines are large heavy-duty single shaft combustion turbines which combine the proven reliability and efficiency of the F series with the latest low NO{sub x} combustion technology and the state-of-the-art cooling technique. As the full load test run has proved, it is a highly advanced designed turbine with documented high temperature, low NO{sub x} and high efficiency. This combined with time proven design concepts has created a new powerful combustion turbine, which will satisfy the large combustion turbine power generation needs for the next decades. The 501G turbine is the 60Hz, 3,600 rpm heavy duty combustion turbine rated at 230MW at a turbine inlet of 1,500 C fired on natural gas fuel. The combined cycle net efficiency is 58%. Verification tests for various components have been conducted through the last 3 years and since February '97 a full scale-full load test is being performed to verify the high performance, reliability and maintainability. The 701G1 is a 3,000 rpm combustion turbine designed for the 50 Hz power generation utilities and industrial service. The first 701G1 gas turbine is expected to begin commercial operation in 1999 in Tohoku Electric Power Co. Higashi Nilgata Power Plant No.4, in Japan. This paper describes the features of the next generation 1,500 C class advanced combustion turbines. Aerodynamic, cooling and mechanical design improvement is discussed along with the evolutionary changes based on time proven design concepts.

  19. Combustion of solid waste in a pulse incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Tie

    This study investigated the effects of pulsations on the combustion of simulated solid waste at high Reynolds numbers in an incinerator fed with cold or preheated combustion air. Corrugated cardboard and charcoal were chosen as waste surrogates. Combustion times and emissions of CO2, CO and NOx were measured while the samples were burned under different experimental conditions. Pulsations significantly reduced flaming combustion times in tests with and without preheated. Most of this enhancement resulted from increased heat transfer rate due to a closer attachment of the gas flame to the solid sample. Pulsations also reduced smoldering combustion time. This was caused by faster transport of oxygen to and combustion products from the sample surface. Furthermore, the smoldering combustion rate increased with increasing Sound Pressure Levels. While this effect was the strongest in laminar flows, pulsations doubled combustion rates even in a highly turbulent flow where Re = 47,000. Higher combustion rates at elevated Reynolds numbers in steady tests were caused by larger turbulent velocity fluctuations. Combustion rates were further enhanced by the addition of acoustic velocity fluctuations, which dominated the process if they were much larger than the turbulent velocity fluctuations. Below this limit, acoustic modes with velocities normal to the main flow enhanced the combustion process more significantly than those parallel to the flow. Most of this enhancement by pulsations resulted from increased species transport due to faster removal of ash layers on the burning surface by acoustic shear. Acoustic streaming was not responsible for the observed, enhanced combustion rates. Instantaneous pollutant emissions were much higher with pulsations than without. However, pulsations did not affect total amount of carbon converted into gaseous products from the sample but favored more complete combustion, i.e., less total CO emission. This was caused by a larger fraction of

  20. Ultralean combustion in general aviation piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The role of ultralean combustion in achieving fuel economy in general aviation piston engines was investigated. The aircraft internal combustion engine was reviewed with regard to general aviation requirements, engine thermodynamics and systems. Factors affecting fuel economy such as those connected with an ideal leanout to near the gasoline lean flammability limit (ultralean operation) were analyzed. A Lycoming T10-541E engine was tested in that program (both in the test cell and in flight). Test results indicate that hydrogen addition is not necessary to operate the engine ultralean. A 17 percent improvement in fuel economy was demonstrated in flight with the Beechcraft Duke B60 by simply leaning the engine at constant cruiser power and adjusting the ignition for best timing. No detonation was encountered, and a 25,000 ft ceiling was available. Engine roughness was shown to be the limiting factor in the leanout.

  1. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 --- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 2, Data reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume one. This Volume 2 provides details of the carbonizer data reconciliation.

  2. Experimental Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Guy, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Experimental supersonic combustion research related to hypersonic airbreathing propulsion has been actively underway at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the mid-1960's. This research involved experimental investigations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic flows and numerous tests of scramjet engine flowpaths in LaRC test facilities simulating flight from Mach 4 to 8. Out of this research effort has come scramjet combustor design methodologies, ground test techniques, and data analysis procedures. These technologies have progressed steadily in support of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program and the current Hyper-X flight demonstration program. During NASP nearly 2500 tests of 15 scramjet engine models were conducted in LaRC facilities. In addition, research supporting the engine flowpath design investigated ways to enhance mixing, improve and apply nonintrusive diagnostics, and address facility operation. Tests of scramjet combustor operation at conditions simulating hypersonic flight at Mach numbers up to 17 also have been performed in an expansion tube pulse facility. This paper presents a review of the LaRC experimental supersonic combustion research efforts since the late 1980's, during the NASP program, and into the Hyper-X Program.

  3. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  4. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  5. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  6. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  7. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  8. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  9. Spray combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concern over the future availability of high quality liquid fuels or use in furnaces and boilers prompted the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider alternate fuels as replacements for the high grade liquid fuels used in the 1970's and 1980's. Alternate fuels were defined to be combinations of a large percentage of viscous, low volatility fuels resulting from the low end of distillation mixed with a small percentage of relatively low viscosity, high volatility fuels yielded by the high end of distillation. The addition of high volatility fuels was meant to promote desirable characteristics to a fuel that would otherwise be difficult to atomize and burn and whose combustion would yield a high amount of pollutants. Several questions thus needed to be answered before alternate fuels became commercially viable. These questions were related to fuel atomization, evaporation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. This final report describes the results of the most significant studies on ignition and combustion of alternative fuels.

  10. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  11. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  12. Droplet combustion at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Williams, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The current work involves theoretical analyses of the effects identified, experiments in the NASA Lewis drop towers performed in the middeck areas of the Space Shuttle. In addition, there is laboratory work associated with the design of the flight apparatus. Calculations have shown that some of the test-matrix data can be obtained in drop towers, and some are achievable only in the space experiments. The apparatus consists of a droplet dispensing device (syringes), a droplet positioning device (opposing, retractable, hollow needles), a droplet ignition device (two matched pairs of retractable spark electrodes), gas and liquid handling systems, a data acquisition system (mainly giving motion-picture records of the combustion in two orthogonal views, one with backlighting for droplet resolution), and associated electronics.

  13. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  14. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  15. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  16. Combustion heated cold sealed TEC

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, V.I.; Klepikov, V.V.; Meleta, Y.A.; Mikheyev, A.S.; Yarygin, D.V.; Wolff, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a thermionic domestic boiler system using natural gas, which as performed under an ECS-project in 1992 to 1994 by a Russian-Dutch team of researchers, will be continued again. Thanks to financial support on the part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), the major effort in 1997 to 1999 will be focused on the development, manufacture and testing of an improved, easier to fabricate, more repairable and less expensive combustion heated TEC with a longer life-time. The achievement of the aim of this project will make it possible to expand the field of the terrestrial thermionics application and to embark on the commercialization stage. This report discusses the concept of the combustion heated Cold Seal TEC. A Cold Seal TEC will be developed and tested, in which the rubber O-ring seal will electrically insulate the hot shell from the collector heat pipe. The Cold Seal TEC will use a noble gas + cesium as the working medium (the idea of such a TEC was first proposed in 1973 by Professor Musa from Romania). In its cold state, the cesium will short circuit the emitter and the collector. During operation, the interelectrode space will be filled with cesium vapor. The upper part of a Cold Seal TEC will be filled with a noble gas. This noble gas will prevent the O-ring seal from being attacked by the cesium. The TEC output characteristics will be considerably improved by using electrode materials that were developed earlier in the course of an ECS-project for the development of low temperature TEC electrodes.

  17. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, A

    1923-01-01

    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  18. Mobile CARS instrument for combustion and plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.J.; Dobbs, G.M.; Eckbreth, A.C.

    1986-11-15

    A compact and easily transportable coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy system for combustion and plasma diagnostics is described. The instrument is readily adaptable to a wide variety, test environments and experiments. The system is capable of withstanding high noise and vibration levels and is remotely operable to protect the operator and delicate components from high noise levels or hazardous environments. It is intended for single-pulse temperature and concentration measurements in practical combustion systems, such as gas turbines, diesel engines, and plasma process applications. The system is operational, and initial measurement demonstrations in a supersonic combusting flow are described.

  19. Extractive FTIR technology - applications in combustion source measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaCosse, J.P.; Shareef, G.S.; McCarthy, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act requirements, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is investigating emissions from industry equipment including glycol dehydrators, internal combustion caginess boilers, beaten, and incinerators. To characterize emissions from internal combustion engines reliably and accurately, GRI developed and validated a method based on extractive Fourier Transform Infrared (FM) technology. This paper will describe the FTIR test protocol approved by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including a brief discussion on external combustion source FTIR measurement experience. In addition, the approach used in reference spectra development and die associated challenges will be described. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-02-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  1. CRADA opportunities in pressurized combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, D.J.; Norton, T.S.; Casleton, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center recently began operation of a Low Emissions Combustor Test and Research (LECTR) Facility. This facility was built to support the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems (ATS) by providing test facilities and engineering support to METC customers through the ATS University-Industry Consortiu and through CRADA participation with industrial partners. The LECTR is a versatile test facility with capabilities for evaluating a variety of low emissions combustion concepts at temperatures and pressures representative of gas turbine applications. The LECTR was constructed as a mid-scale test platform to support DOE`s ATS program and utilizes the full range of high pressure (up to 30 atm) high temperature (1000{degrees}F air preheat, 3300{degrees}F combustor wall), and mass flows (3.5 lb/s combustion air) available in METC`s Advanced Combustion Facility. The LECTR is now operational and has most recently been employed to characterize the operating and emissions characteristics of an industrical-scale, lean premixed gas burner at elevated pressures for potential gas turbine applications.

  2. The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: the Development and Integration Concept for Droplet Combustion Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    using liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. As a result of the concurrent design process of MDCA and CIR, the MDCA team continues to work closely with the CIR team, developing Integration Agreements and an Interface Control Document during preliminary integration activities. Integrated testing of hardware and software systems will occur at the Engineering Model and Flight Model phases. Because the engineering model is a high fidelity unit, it will be upgraded to a flight equivalent Ground Integration Unit (GIU) when the engineering model phase is completed. The GIU will be available on the ground for troubleshooting of any on-orbit problems. Integrated verification testing will be conducted with the MDCA flight unit and the CIR flight unit. Upon successful testing, the MDCA will be shipped to the Kennedy Space Center for a post-shipment checkout and final turn-over to CIR for final processing and launch to the International Space Station. Once on-orbit, the MDCA is managed from the GRC Telescience Support Center (TSC). The MDCA operations team resides at the TSC. Data is transmitted to the PI's at their home sites by means of TREK workstations, allowing direct interaction between the PI and operations staff to maximum science. Upon completion of a PI's experiment, the MDCA is reconfigured for the next of the three follow-on experiments or ultimately removed from the CIR, placed into stowage, and returned to Earth.

  3. Combustion-chamber Performance Characteristics of a Python Turbine-propeller Engine Investigated in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Carl E

    1951-01-01

    Combustion-chamber performance characteristics of a Python turbine-propeller engine were determined from investigation of a complete engine over a range of engine speeds and shaft horsepowers at simulated altitudes. Results indicated the effect of engine operating conditions and altitude on combustion efficiency and combustion-chamber total pressure losses. Performance of this vaporizing type combustion chamber was also compared with several atomizing type combustion chambers. Over the range of test conditions investigated, combustion efficiency varied from approximately 0.95 to 0.99.

  4. Palladium-catalyzed combustion of methane: Simulated gas turbine combustion at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.; Weisenstein, W.; Scherer, V.; Fowles, M.

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure tests were performed in which a palladium catalyst ignites and stabilizes the homogeneous combustion of methane. Palladium exhibited a reversible deactivation at temperatures above 750 C, which acted to ``self-regulate`` its operating temperature. A properly treated palladium catalyst could be employed to preheat a methane/air mixture to temperatures required for ignition of gaseous combustion (ca. 800 C) without itself being exposed to the mixture adiabatic flame temperature. The operating temperature of the palladium was found to be relatively insensitive to the methane fuel concentration or catalyst inlet temperature over a wide range of conditions. Thus, palladium is well suited for application in the ignition and stabilization of methane combustion.

  5. Incinerator operating conditions affect combustion gas levels of dioxins, furans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    New research shows levels of dioxins and furans can be minimized by good combustion practices at a garbage-burning incinerator, according to results of the Combustion and Emissions Research Project at the VICON Incinerator Facility. The project focused on how a wide range of combustion conditions and different types of refuse quality affected the amount of dioxins and furans formed and destroyed during the combustion process. The results of the research show concentrations of dioxins and furans among the lowest measured at any incinerator. Tests were conducted over a broad range of operating conditions, with furnace temperatures as low as 1300 degrees and as high as 1900 degrees Fahrenheit. The only increase in dioxins and furans during testing occurred when incinerator temperatures were reduced below 1500 degrees Fahrenheit.

  6. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  7. Measurement of spray combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. E.; Arman, E. F.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Farmer, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

  8. Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 84 papers presented at the Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from May 19 to 21, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  9. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  10. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  11. Composite propellant combustion modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of theoretical and experimental studies of composite propellant combustion. The theoretical investigations include a model of the combustion of a nonmetallized ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellant (noting time scales for vapor-phase combustion and the condensed phase) and response functions in pressure-coupled oscillations. The experimental studies are discussed with reference to scale-modeling apparatus, flame standoff distance versus velocity as a function of pressure, and results from T-burner firings of a nonmetallized AP/polysulfide propellant. Research applications including problems with nitramine propellants, the feasibility of stop-restart rockets with salt quench, and combustion problems in large boosters are outlined.

  12. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  13. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  16. Oil combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.; Briggs, E. C.; Briggs, K. E.

    1984-12-11

    The specification discloses an oil combustion system for burning waste oil in which oil is pumped by an oil transfer pump from an oil reservoir through a bouyant swirling filter. The oil is supplied to a high pressure input of a pressure reducing fitting, and is transmitted through the fitting to a low pressure output and a high pressure output. A siphon nozzle head is operable to siphon the oil from the low pressure output of the fitting, to preheat the oil, to atomize the oil and to output the atomized oil. Retention chambers and heat transfer plugs within the nozzle head facilitate preheating of the oil and perform a baffle function.

  17. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  18. Lagrangian Simulation of Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed F. Ghoniem

    2008-05-01

    A Lagrangian approach for the simulation of reactive flows has been developed during the course of this project, and has been applied to a number of significant and challenging problems including the transverse jet simulations. An efficient strategy for parallel domain decomposition has also been developed to enable the implementation of the approach on massively parallel architecture. Since 2005, we focused our efforts on the development of a semi-Lagrangian treatment of diffusion, and fast and accurate Lagrangian simulation tools for multiphysics problems including combustion.

  19. Characterization of oscillations during premix gas turbine combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The use of premix combustion in stationary gas turbines can produce very low levels of NO{sub x} emissions. This benefit is widely recognized, but turbine developers routinely encounter problems with combustion oscillations during the testing of new premix combustors. Because of the associated pressure fluctuations, combustion oscillations must be eliminated in a final combustor design. Eliminating these oscillations is often time-consuming and costly because there is no single approach to solve an oscillation problem. Previous investigations of combustion stability have focused on rocket applications, industrial furnaces, and some aeroengine gas turbines. Comparatively little published data is available for premixed combustion at conditions typical of an industrial gas turbine. In this paper, the authors report experimental observations of oscillations produced by a fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines. Tests are conducted in a specially designed combustor capable of providing the acoustic feedback needed to study oscillations. Tests results are presented for pressures up to 10 atmospheres, theoretical considerations, it is expected that oscillations can be characterized by a nozzle reference velocity, with operating pressure playing a smaller role. This expectation is compared to observed data that shows both the benefits and limitations of characterizing the combustor oscillating behavior in terms of a reference velocity rather than other engine operating parameters. This approach to characterizing oscillations is then used to evaluate how geometric changes to the fuel nozzle will affect the boundary between stable and oscillating combustion.

  20. Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison

  1. Students' understanding of combustion and its instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Chih-Che

    This study examined a cross-age population of 1,237 students from grades 6 through 12 and also 76 university students. Also, 75 8th grade students in two instructional groups were involved in a session of 16-hour science courses. A questionnaire with six knowledge and twelve cognitive ability questions was used to evaluate students' understanding of combustion. Furthermore, one pre-test and two post-tests were used to evaluate students' learning gains in instruction. Video recordings and curriculum materials were examined in terms of how both types of instruction were implemented. Five patterns were found to describe how students developed their understanding of combustion, including (I) gradual increase, (II) stepwise increase, (III) persistent misunderstanding, (IV) early understanding, and (V) varied understanding . The first two patterns are consistent with results from previous studies. However, the next three non-age-growing patterns suggest that the age maturation is not necessarily a determining factor and other variables such as curricula may be more important. Students at different ages applied their knowledge and problem solving strategies differently. The 6--8th grade students used more intuitive, real-life experiences to solve combustion questions in contrast to the 10th grade and older students, who applied more formal science knowledge to solve combustion questions. It was also found that the older students integrated their mobilized knowledge more accurately than the younger learners when they answered combustion questions in different versions of the questionnaire. Two types of instruction, established and experimental, were shown to be effective in promoting 8th grade students' understanding of combustion in the context of Taiwanese classrooms. In addition, although the two types of instruction had been implemented differently, the findings suggested that neither form of instruction was superior to the other as measured by the students

  2. Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, J Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W; Graves, Charles C

    1957-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.

  3. The evaluation and application of Orimulsion by International Combustion Ltd

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Since the introduction of Orimulsion, in the 1980`s as a potential fuel for power generation, International Combustion Ltd. (ICL) have been involved with the original fuel manufacturer PdeV (Petroleos de Venezuela) and their commercial marketing organization (BITOR) in a comprehensive evaluation of this fuel for application to power generation boilers. This work encompassed both chemical and physical analyses of the original fuel formulations and modifications to improve handling and combustion performance. The first commercial scale firing demonstration of Orimulsion was performed by ICL in their full scale combustion test facilities at Derby in the UK. On this occasion PdeV took the opportunity to bring upwards of 40 visitors from 14 different countries to witness this full scale combustion demonstration which took place over a two week period during November, 1987. Further full scale combustion demonstration and development was carried out on alternative fuel formulations and combustion equipment for application to a 400 MWe front wall fired boiler at Florida Power and Light Sanford Utility in 1990. Recently the Orimulsion combustion work at ICL has concentrated on the application of the fuel in low NOx burner systems with potential for utilization in large (500 MWe plus) oil fired boilers both in the UK and USA. Fuel and gas handling equipment and hardware have been supplied by ICL to the 120 MWe and 500 MWe utility boilers operating on Orimulsion, on a continuous basis in the UK.

  4. Co-combustion of tannery sludge in a commercial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Jiang, Xuguang; Lv, Guojun; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Co-combusting hazardous wastes in existing fluidized bed combustors is an alternative to hazardous waste treatment facilities, in shortage in China. Tannery sludge is a kind of hazardous waste, considered fit for co-combusting with coal in fluidized bedboilers. In this work, co-combustion tests of tannery sludge and bituminous coal were conducted in a power plant in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Before that, the combustion behavior of tannery sludge and bituminous were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Tannery sludge presented higher reactivity than bituminous coal. During the co-combustion tests, the emissions of harmful gases were monitored. The results showed that the pollutant emissions met the Chinese standard except for NOx. The Concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) in three exit ash flows (bottom ash in bed, fly ash in filter, and submicrometer aerosol in flue gas) were analyzed. The results of mono-combustion of bituminous coal were compared with those of co-combustion with tannery sludge. It was found that chromium enriched in fly ash. At last, the leachability of fly ash and bottom ash was analyzed. The results showed that most species were almost equal to or below the limits except for As in bottom ashes and Cr in the fly ash of co-combustion test. The concentrations of Cr in leachates of co-combustion ashes are markedly higher than that of coal mono-combustion ashes.

  5. Co-combustion of tannery sludge in a commercial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Jiang, Xuguang; Lv, Guojun; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Co-combusting hazardous wastes in existing fluidized bed combustors is an alternative to hazardous waste treatment facilities, in shortage in China. Tannery sludge is a kind of hazardous waste, considered fit for co-combusting with coal in fluidized bedboilers. In this work, co-combustion tests of tannery sludge and bituminous coal were conducted in a power plant in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Before that, the combustion behavior of tannery sludge and bituminous were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Tannery sludge presented higher reactivity than bituminous coal. During the co-combustion tests, the emissions of harmful gases were monitored. The results showed that the pollutant emissions met the Chinese standard except for NOx. The Concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) in three exit ash flows (bottom ash in bed, fly ash in filter, and submicrometer aerosol in flue gas) were analyzed. The results of mono-combustion of bituminous coal were compared with those of co-combustion with tannery sludge. It was found that chromium enriched in fly ash. At last, the leachability of fly ash and bottom ash was analyzed. The results showed that most species were almost equal to or below the limits except for As in bottom ashes and Cr in the fly ash of co-combustion test. The concentrations of Cr in leachates of co-combustion ashes are markedly higher than that of coal mono-combustion ashes. PMID:26278370

  6. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  7. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  8. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  9. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  10. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  11. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  12. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding

  13. Coal combustion ash haulback

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

  14. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  15. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  16. Method for in situ combustion

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  17. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  18. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  19. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  20. Pulverized coal combustion characterization at the KEPRI

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, D.J.; Kim, S.C.; Bae, B.H.; Kim, T.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Lee, H.D.; Park, O.Y.; Choi, B.S.

    1997-12-31

    A pilot-scale combustion test facility that can be utilized to burn pulverized coals such as anthracite coals, bituminous coals, and their blends at the rate of 200 kg/hr has been constructed to study coal-related impacts on utility boiler operations. The impacts include pulverizer performance, combustion stability, slagging, fouling, heat transfer, erosion, corrosion, pollutant emission, etc. The facility, a scale-down model of an existing boiler in Korea, consists of all the necessary components for the boiler with a distributed control system except steam generation components which have been replaced with slag panels, fouling probes, and heat exchangers. The facility, in addition, incorporates the advanced boiler technologies including tangentially-fired burners, flue gas recirculation, direct sorbent injection for desulfurization, electrostatic precipitator, wet scrubber, etc., and employs an opacity meter and gas analyzers. Low NOx burners and gas reburning system will be facilitated in the future to study low emission boiler systems being demonstrated in the developed countries. This paper represents preliminary test results including flame shapes, fouling based on the fouling factor, and pollutant emission with different coals and combustion aerodynamics. Flow fields in the furnace have been changed by varying the swirl number and the burner configurations in terms of single-wall, opposed-wall, and corner firing mode. An extensive investigation will continue to find optimum conditions for various coals of interest.

  1. Preburner of Staged Combustion Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    A regeneratively cooled LOX/hydrogen staged combustion assembly system with a 400:1 expansion area ratio nozzle utilizing an 89,000 Newton (20,000 pound) thrust regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and 175:1 tubular nozzle was analyzed, assembled, and tested. The components for this assembly include two spark/torch oxygen-hydrogen igniters, two servo-controlled LOX valves, a preburner injector, a preburner combustor, a main propellant injector, a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber, a regeneratively cooled tubular nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 175:1, an uncooled heavy-wall steel nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 400:1, and interconnecting ducting. The analytical effort was performed to optimize the thermal and structural characteristics of each of the new components and the ducting, and to reverify the capabilities of the previously fabricated components. The testing effort provided a demonstration of the preburner/combustor chamber operation, chamber combustion efficiency and stability, and chamber and nozzle heat transfer.

  2. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  3. Combustion enhancement by axial vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, E.; Schadow, K. C.; Parr, T. P.; Parr, D. M.; Wilson, K. J.

    1987-06-01

    A tapered slot jet was studied experimentally in nonreacting and reacting tests using hot-wire anemometry, water-tunnel flow visualization, and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). The tapered slot jet is a modified elliptic jet which has a conical contraction leading to its outlet. The added contraction changes the entire flow field. The jet spread in the major axis plane is larger than in the minor axis plane, which is the opposite behavior of an elliptic jet. Consequently, no axes switching, typical to an elliptic jet, is observed. The turbulence amplification in the jet core is higher than in circular and elliptic jets. The different behavior is attributed to the change in flow direction, inside the nozzle, from the conical section to the slot outlet. During this transition, the flow acquires angular momentum thereby generating axial vorticity. The influence of the contraction angle and the outlet aspect ratio were investigated. The effect of the augmented turbulence on reactive flow was tested in a premixed flame. The combustion rate was augmented in both the core and edges of the flame relative to a circular burner.

  4. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  5. Supersonic combustion engine testbed, heat lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoying, D.; Kelble, C.; Langenbahn, A.; Stahl, M.; Tincher, M.; Walsh, M.; Wisler, S.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic combustion engine testbed (SCET) aircraft is presented. The hypersonic waverider will utilize both supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMjet) and turbofan-ramjet engines. The waverider concept, system integration, electrical power, weight analysis, cockpit, landing skids, and configuration modeling are addressed in the configuration considerations. The subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics are presented along with the aerodynamic stability and landing analysis of the aircraft. The propulsion design considerations include: engine selection, turbofan ramjet inlets, SCRAMjet inlets and the SCRAMjet diffuser. The cooling requirements and system are covered along with the topics of materials and the hydrogen fuel tanks and insulation system. A cost analysis is presented and the appendices include: information about the subsonic wind tunnel test, shock expansion calculations, and an aerodynamic heat flux program.

  6. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  7. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  8. Safety aspects of large-scale combustion of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Haugh, J.J.; Thompson, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent hydrogen-safety investigations have studied the possible large-scale effects from phenomena such as the accumulation of combustible hydrogen-air mixtures in large, confined volumes. Of particular interest are safe methods for the disposal of the hydrogen and the pressures which can arise from its confined combustion. Consequently, tests of the confined combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures were conducted in a 2100 m/sup 3/ volume. These tests show that continuous combustion, as the hydrogen is generated, is a safe method for its disposal. It also has been seen that, for hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol %, it is possible to predict maximum pressures that can occur upon ignition of premixed hydrogen-air atmospheres. In addition information has been obtained concerning the survivability of the equipment that is needed to recover from an accident involving hydrogen combustion. An accident that involved the inadvertent mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases in a tube trailer gave evidence that under the proper conditions hydrogen combustion can transit to a detonation. If detonation occurs the pressures which can be experienced are much higher although short in duration.

  9. NASA broadened-specification fuels combustion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The broadened-Specification Fuels Combustion Technology program's purpose is to evolve and demonstrate the technology required to enable current and next generation high-thrust, high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to use fuels with broadened properties and to verify the evolved technology in full scale engine tests. The three phases of the program are combustor concept screening, combustor optimization testing, and engine verification testing. Constraints for designing combustion systems are outlined and problems to be expected in the use of broadened properties fuels are listed.

  10. Simultaneous combustion of waste plastics with coal for pulverized coal injection application

    SciTech Connect

    Sushil Gupta; Veena Sahajwalla; Jacob Wood

    2006-12-15

    A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate the effect of simultaneous cofiring of waste plastic with coal on the combustion behavior of coals for PCI (pulverized coal injection) application in a blast furnace. Two Australian coals, premixed with low- and high-density polyethylene, were combusted in a drop tube furnace at 1473 K under a range of combustion conditions. In all the tested conditions, most of the coal blends including up to 30% plastic indicated similar or marginally higher combustion efficiency compared to those of the constituent coals even though plastics were not completely combusted. In a size range up to 600 {mu}m, the combustion efficiency of coal and polyethylene blends was found be independent of the particle size of plastic used. Both linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are shown to display similar influence on the combustion efficiency of coal blends. The effect of plastic appeared to display greater improvement on the combustion efficiency of low volatile coal compared to that of a high volatile coal blend. The study further suggested that the effect of oxygen levels of the injected air in improving the combustion efficiency of a coal-plastic blend could be more effective under fuel rich conditions. The study demonstrates that waste plastic can be successfully coinjected with PCI without having any adverse effect on the combustion efficiency particularly under the tested conditions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus Developed to Conduct Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the combustion or burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. However, despite vigorous scientific examinations for over a century, researchers still lack a full understanding of many fundamental combustion processes of liquid fuels. Understanding how these fuel droplets ignite, spread, and extinguish themselves will help us develop more efficient ways of energy production and propulsion, as well as help us deal better with the problems of combustion-generated pollution and fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles. The ability to conduct more controlled experiments in space, without the complication of gravity, provides scientists with an opportunity to examine these complicated processes closely. The Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) supports this continued research under microgravity conditions. The objectives are to improve understanding of fundamental droplet phenomena affected by gravity, to use research results to advance droplet combustion science and technology on Earth, and to address issues of fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. MDCA is a multiuser facility designed to accommodate different combustion science experiments. The modular approach permits the on-orbit replacement of droplet combustion principal investigator experiments such as different fuels, droplet-dispensing needles, and droplet-tethering mechanisms. Large components such as the avionics, diagnostics, and base-plate remain on the International Space Station to reduce the launch mass of new experiments. MDCA is also designed to operate in concert with ground systems on Earth to minimize the involvement of the crew during orbit.

  12. Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

  13. Combustion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.

    1999-09-01

    A 2.8-liter tube-shaped combustion vessel was constructed to study flame propagation and quenching in porous media. For this experiment, hydrogen-air flames propagating horizontally into abed of 6 mm diameter glass beads were studied. Measurements of pressure and temperature along the length of the tube were used to observe flame propagation of quenching. The critical hydrogen concentration for Hz-air mixtures was found to be 11.5%, corresponding to a critical Peclet number of Pe* = 37. This value is substantially less than the value of Pe* = 65 quoted in the literature, for example Babkin et al. (1991). It is hypothesized that buoyancy and a dependence of Pe on the Lewis number account for the discrepancy between these two results.

  14. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  15. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

    2003-01-28

    SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

  16. Fluids and Combustion Facility-Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the concept of performing Combustion microgravity experiments in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The extended duration microgravity environment of the ISS will enable microgravity research to enter into a new era of increased scientific and technological data return. The FCF is designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific and technological data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. This paper also describes how the FCF will cost effectively accommodate these experiments.

  17. Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji

    2009-07-15

    To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  19. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  20. Combustion Enhancement in Scramjet-Operation of a RBCC Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatake Tomioka, By; Ryohei Kobayashi; Murakami, Atsuo; Shuichi Ueda; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Katsuhiro Itoh, And

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for Booster stage of space launch vehicles. At hypersonic regime, it will be operated at rather high rocket engine output for final acceleration with some Isp gains due to air-breathing effects. In this regime, attaining thrust at this high-speed regime becomes very difficult, so that parallel injection of the fuel for scramjet combustion is favorable as the momentum of the injection can contribute to the thrust production. Thus, embedded rocket chamber was supposed to the operated as fuel rich gas generator at very high output. This configuration was tested at simulated flight Mach number of 7-11 at High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) with detonation tube as the source of the simulated rocket exhaust. However, combustion of the residual fuel in the rocket exhaust with airflow could not be attained. Direct-connect combustor tests were performed to evaluate effectiveness of a combustion enhancement technique termed auxiliary injection, i.e., a portion of fuel to be directly injected into airflow to provide ignition source for the residual fuel. Results of both the engine model tests at HIEST and the direct-connect tests are summarized and presented, and modification to the engine model for combustion enhancement was proposed.

  1. The problem of carrying out a diagnosis of an internal combustion engine by vibroacoustical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukanin, V. N.; Sidorov, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    The physics of noise formation in an internal combustion engine is discussed. A dependence of the acoustical radiation on the engine operating process, its construction, and operational parameters, as well as on the degree of wear on its parts, has been established. An example of tests conducted on an internal combustion engine is provided. A system for cybernetic diagnostics for internal combustion engines by vibroacoustical parameters is diagrammed.

  2. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  3. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  4. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  5. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  6. International Space Station -- Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing and with the optical bench rotated 90 degrees for access to the rear elements. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  7. International Space Station - Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown opened for installation of burn specimens. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  8. International Space Station -- Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  9. International Space Station -- Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  10. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Jozef; Wachter, Igor; Balog, Karol

    2015-06-01

    With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m-2 and 50 kW.m-2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  11. The combustion properties analysis of various liquid fuels based on crude oil and renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grab-Rogalinski, K.; Szwaja, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of investigation on combustion properties analysis of hydrocarbon based liquid fuels commonly used in the CI engine. The analysis was performed with aid of the CRU (Combustion Research Unit). CRU is the machine consisted of a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with one or two fuel injectors and a pressure sensor. Fuel can be injected under various both injection pressure and injection duration, also with two injector versions two stage combustion with pilot injection can be simulated, that makes it possible to introduce and modify additional parameter which is injection delay (defined as the time between pilot and main injection). On a basis of this investigation such combustion parameters as pressure increase, rate of heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration can be determined. The research was performed for the four fuels as follows: LFO, HFO, Biofuel from rape seeds and Glycerol under various injection parameters as well as combustion chamber thermodynamic conditions. Under these tests the change in such injection parameters as injection pressure, use of pilot injection, injection delay and injection duration, for main injection, were made. Moreover, fuels were tested under different conditions of load, what was determined by initial conditions (pressure and temperature) in the combustion chamber. Stored data from research allows to compare combustion parameters for fuels applied to tests and show this comparison in diagrams.

  12. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  13. In situ combustion field experiences in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Villalba, M.; Estrada, M.; Bolivar, J.

    1995-02-01

    A literature review of four in situ combustion projects: in Miga, Tia Juana, Melones and Morichal fields in Venezuela was made, and a summary of these projects is presented. Reservoir description and project performance data were analyzed. The behavior of the four in situ combustion field tests can be summarized as follows: The problems most often encountered were corrosion and high temperature producing wells. The direction in which the burning front moved was guided essentially by reservoir characteristics. The produced oil was upgraded by about 4{degrees} API, and viscosity was substantially reduced. For Mirochal and Miga fields, the analyses of available information from the combustion projects indicated that the process has been successful in the affected region. Conclusions from this review indicate that the two most frequent problems encountered were operational problems in producing wells and the direction of the burning front. The heterogeneous nature of the sands probably resulted in the burning front moving in a preferential direction, hence reducing areal sweep efficiency.

  14. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, D. C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past six months, experimental investigations were continued and theoretical work on the secondary atomization process was begun. Final shakedown of the sizing/velocity measuring system was completed and the aluminum combustion detection system was modified and tested. Atomizer operation was improved to allow steady state operation over long periods of time for several slurries. To validate the theoretical modeling, work involving carbon slurry atomization and combustion was begun and qualitative observations were made. Simultaneous measurements of aluminum slurry droplet size distributions and detection of burning aluminum particles were performed at several axial locations above the burner. The principle theoretical effort was the application of a rigid shell formation model to aluminum slurries and an investigation of the effects of various parameters on the shell formation process. This shell formation model was extended to include the process leading up to droplet disruption, and previously developed analytical models were applied to yield theoretical aluminum agglomerate ignition and combustion times. The several theoretical times were compared with the experimental results.

  15. a Numerical Method for Turbulent Combustion Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu.

    This dissertation presents a random numerical method which combines a random vortex method and a random choice method. With the assumption of incompressibility, the equations governing the fluid motion can be uncoupled from the equations governing the chemical reaction. A hybrid random vortex method is used for solving Navier -Stokes equation which governs the fluid motion. Combustion process is governed by reaction-diffusion system for the conservation of energy and the various chemical species participating in reaction. A random choice method is used for the modeling reaction-diffusion equations. The random choice method is tested and the numerical solutions are compared with the results by either the other numerical methods or exact solutions, good improvement and agreement have been obtained. For physical problem in two or more space dimensions, extension of the random choice method requires splitting the source terms into an x-sweep followed by a y-sweep. The splitting of the source term is also examined for an equation with an exact solution. The combustion model is applied to the problem of combustion in a circular cylinder with cylinder heated or kept cold. The flame profiles are obtained and effect of the turbulent is observed. The method is also applied to the ignition of a Bunsen burner. The correct modeling of mixing layer at the edge of the burner is found important in this application. Flame propagation profiles are obtained and have good agreement with experiments.

  16. Summary of synfuel characterization and combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion component research studies aimed at evolving environmentally acceptable approaches for burning coal derived fuels for ground power applications were performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center under a program titled the ""Critical Research and Support Technology Program'' (CRT). The work was funded by the Department of Energy and was performed in four tasks. This report summarizes these tasks which have all been previously reported. In addition some previously unreported data from Task 4 is also presented. The first, Task 1 consisted of a literature survey aimed at determining the properties of synthetic fuels. This was followed by a computer modeling effort, Task 2, to predict the exhaust emissions resulting from burning coal liquids by various combustion techniques such as lean and rich-lean combustion. The computer predictions were then compared to the results of a flame tube rig, Task 3, in which the fuel properties were varied to simulate coal liquids. Two actual SRC 2 coal liquids were tested in this flame tube task.

  17. High-pressure droplet combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikami, Masato; Kono, M.; Sato, Junichi; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1993-01-01

    This is a joint research program, pursued by investigators at the University of Tokyo, UCSD, and NASA Lewis Research Center. The focus is on high-pressure combustion of miscible binary fuel droplets. It involves construction of an experimental apparatus in Tokyo, mating of the apparatus to a NASA-Lewis 2.2-second drop-tower frame in San Diego, and performing experiments in the 2.2-second tower in Cleveland, with experimental results analyzed jointly by the Tokyo, UCSD, and NASA investigators. The project was initiated in December, 1990 and has now involved three periods of drop-tower testing by Mikami at Lewis. The research accomplished thus far concerns the combustion of individual fiber-supported droplets of mixtures of n-heptane and n-hexadecane, initially about 1 mm diameter, under free-fall microgravity conditions. Ambient pressures ranged up to 3.0 MPa, extending above the critical pressures of both pure fuels, in room-temperature nitrogen-oxygen atmospheres having oxygen mole fractions X of 0.12 and 0.13. The general objective is to study near-critical and super-critical combustion of these droplets and to see whether three-stage burning, observed at normal gravity, persists at high pressures in microgravity. Results of these investigations will be summarized here; a more complete account soon will be published.

  18. Turbulent Methane-Air Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaboah, Yaw D.; Njokwe, Anny; James, LaShanda

    1996-01-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing the understanding of turbulent premixed methane-air combustion. Such understanding is essential since: (1) many industries are now pursuing lighter hydrocarbon alternative fuels and the use of premixed flames to reduce pollutant emissions, and (2) the characteristic dimensions and flow rates of most industrial combustors are often large for flows to be turbulent. The specific objectives of the study are: (1) to establish the effects of process variables (e.g., flow rate, fuel/air ratio, chlorinated hydro-carbons, and pressure) on the emissions and flow structure (velocity distribution, streamlines, vorticity and flame shape), and (2) to develop a mechanistic model to explain the observed trends. This includes the acquisition of Dantec FlowMap Particle Image Velocimeter. The design and fabrication of the premixed burner has also been completed. The study is now at the stage of testing of equipment and analytical instruments. The presentation will give details on the tasks completed and on the current and future plans. The project is progressing well and all activities are on schedule. The outlook for the success of the project is bright.

  19. 49 CFR 172.544 - COMBUSTIBLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false COMBUSTIBLE placard. 172.544 Section 172.544... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.544 COMBUSTIBLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the COMBUSTIBLE... on the COMBUSTIBLE placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be...

  20. 49 CFR 172.544 - COMBUSTIBLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false COMBUSTIBLE placard. 172.544 Section 172.544... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.544 COMBUSTIBLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the COMBUSTIBLE... on the COMBUSTIBLE placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be...

  1. Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Johnson, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion synthesis, otherwise known as self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), can be used to produce engineered advanced porous material implants which offer the possibility for bone ingrowth as well as a permanent structure framework for the long-term replacement of bone defects. The primary advantage of SHS is based on its rapid kinetics and favorable energetics. The structure and properties of materials produced by SHS are strongly dependent on the combustion reaction conditions. Combustion reaction conditions such as reaction stoichiometry, particle size, green density, the presence and use of diluents or inert reactants, and pre-heating of the reactants, will affect the exothermicity of the reaction. A number of conditions must be satisfied in order to obtain high porosity materials: an optimal amount of liquid, gas and solid phases must be present in the combustion front. Therefore, a balance among these phases at the combustion front must be created by the SHS reaction to successfully engineer a bone replacement material system. Microgravity testing has extended the ability to form porous products. The convective heat transfer mechanisms which operate in normal gravity, 1 g, constrain the combustion synthesis reactions. Gravity also acts to limit the porosity which may be formed as the force of gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during reaction. Infiltration of the porous product with other phases can modify both the extent of porosity and the mechanical properties.

  2. Investigation of combustion in a gasoline engine using spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunicz, Jacek; Piernikarski, Dariusz

    2001-08-01

    Spectrophotometric methods provide many new possibilities of investigation of combustion process in the automotive engine with spark ignition. Emission spectrum of the flames from the combustion chamber provides valuable information, which is difficult or even not accessible with the aid of other measurement methods. Spectral analysis allows to evaluate concentration of active compounds present in flames, which do not constitute final products of combustion. Concentration of radicals depends on some combustion parameters such as air-fuel ratio. The paper describes an engine test stand equipped with fiber-optic measurement system. The measurement system consists of an optical sensor mounted in the engine head, fiber-optic bundle for signal transmission, grating monochromator and photodetector. Voltage signal from the photodetector is recorded by the PC- based data acquisition system. The main aim of research was to verify usability of the designed fiber-optic measurement system in combustion diagnosis and to develop a method of evaluation of the air-fuel ratio on the base of simplified spectral analysis of the emission during combustion process in an automotive gasoline engine.

  3. Determination of combustion parameters using engine crankshaft speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taglialatela, F.; Lavorgna, M.; Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    Electronic engine controls based on real time diagnosis of combustion process can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The most important parameter for the evaluation of combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the in-cylinder pressure, but its direct measurement is very expensive and involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder. Previous researches demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine crankshaft speed and several authors tried to reconstruct the pressure cycle on the basis of the engine speed signal. In this paper we propose the use of a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and some parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have a non-intrusive estimation of cylinder pressure and a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. A possible combustion controller using the information extracted from the crankshaft speed information is also proposed. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder spark ignition engine tested in a wide range of speeds and loads. Results confirm that a good estimation of some combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.

  4. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  5. NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu

    2009-01-15

    Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  7. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  8. Flameless Combustion for Gas Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Li, Guoqiang; Overman, Nick; Cornwell, Michael; Stankovic, Dragan; Fuchs, Laszlo; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2006-11-01

    An experimental study of a novel flameless combustor for gas turbine engines is presented. Flameless combustion is characterized by distributed flame and even temperature distribution for high preheat air temperature and large amount of recirculating low oxygen exhaust gases. Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC are reported. Measurements of the flame chemiluminescence, CO and NOx emissions, acoustic pressure, temperature and velocity fields as a function of the preheat temperature, inlet air mass flow rate, exhaust nozzle contraction ratio, and combustor chamber diameter are described. The data indicate that larger pressure drop promotes flameless combustion and low NOx emissions at the same flame temperature. High preheated temperature and flow rates also help in forming stable combustion and therefore are favorable for flameless combustion.

  9. Internal combustion engine ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, J.A.; Lennington, J.W.

    1988-01-12

    In an engine having a predetermined operating cycle and including wall means defining at least one combustion chamber and igniting means associated with the combustion chamber for igniting a charge of fuel and air in the combustion chamber when energized, the fuel having a predeterminable octane rating, an ignition system for controlling the timing of the ignition of the charge for the combustion chambers, is described comprising; energizing means adapted to be connected to the igniting means for energizing the igniting means in response to a timing signal, means for generating a timing signal operatively connected to the energizing means, the timing signal being adjustable with respect to the mechanical cycle of the engine in response to an engine speed parameter and a charge density parameter, a manually adjustable octane selector and, function generator means responsive to manual actuation of the octane selector and operatively connected to the timing signal for selecting a predefined range of ignition timing relationships.

  10. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  11. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

  12. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  13. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.

  14. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  15. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  16. Microgravity Effects on Combustion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing various microgravity effects on the combustion of polymers is shown. The topics include: 1) Major combustion processes and controlling mechanisms in normal and microgravity environments; 2) Review of some buoyancy effects on combustion: melting of thermoplastics; flame strength, geometry and temperature; smoldering combustion; 3) Video comparing polymeric rods burning in normal and microgravity environments; and 4) Relation to spacecraft fire safety of current knowledge of polymers microgravity combustion.

  17. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  18. Combustion instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory and computer program for combustion instability analysis are presented. The basic theoretical foundation resides in the concept of entropy-controlled energy growth or decay. Third order perturbation expansion is performed on the entropy-controlled acoustic energy equation to obtain the first order integrodifferential equation for the energy growth factor in terms of the linear, second, and third order energy growth parameters. These parameters are calculated from Navier-Stokes solutions with time averages performed on as many Navier-Stokes time steps as required to cover at least one peak wave period. Applications are made for a 1-D Navier-Stokes solution for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) thrust chamber with cross section area variations taken into account. It is shown that instability occurs when the mean pressure is set at 2000 psi with 30 percent disturbances. Instability also arises when the mean pressure is set at 2935 psi with 20 percent disturbances. The system with mean pressures and disturbances more adverse that these cases were shown to be unstable.

  19. Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

    2009-03-31

    One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

  20. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Forquer, D.W.

    1990-02-19

    This patent describes a two-stroke internal combustion engine. It comprises: an engine block including an exterior planar surface portion having therein a pair of spaced bearing surfaces and a crankcase-defining cavity which includes a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, a crankshaft including a pair of spaced bearing portions and a central part which is located between the bearing portions and which includes a pair of spaced and enlarged cylindrical surfaces, a pair of bearing blocks respectively including bearing surfaces, means fixing the bearing blocks to the exterior planar surface portion with each of the crankshaft bearing portions retained between a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the engine block and a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the bearing blocks and with each of the crankshaft cylindrical surfaces in coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block, a crankcase cover including a mounting surface having therein a crankcase-defining cavity including a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, and means fixedly connecting the mounting surface of the crankcase cover to the exterior planar surface portion of block with each of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the crankcase cover in generally coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block.

  1. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  2. Aerovalve pulse combustion: Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Narayanaswami, L.

    1994-07-01

    The authors present a mathematical model and an experimental investigation of aerodynamically valved pulse combustion. The model uses a control-volume approach to solve conservation laws in several regions of a pulse combustor. Mixing between the fresh charge and combustion products is modeled as a two-step process, with the mixing occurring slowly for a specified eddy time during each cycle, and then changing to a higher rate. Results of model simulations demonstrate that eddy time plays a significant role in determining the frequency and amplitude of combustion oscillation. The authors show that short eddy times produce steady, rather than pulsating, combustion. And they show that changes to the mixing process alter the temperature-species history of combustion gases in a manner that could prevent or promote the formation of nitrogen oxides, depending on specific mixing rates. The relatively simple control-volume approach used in this model allows rapid investigation of a wide range of geometric and operating parameters, and also defines characteristic length and time scales relevant to aerovalve pulse combustion. Experimental measurements compare favorably to model predictions. The authors place particular emphasis on time-averaged pressure differences through the combustor, which act as an indicator of pressure gain performance. They investigate both operating conditions and combustor geometry, and they show that a complex interaction between the inlet and exit flows of a combustor makes it difficult to produce general correlations among the various parameters. They use a scaling rule to produce a combustor geometry capable of producing pressure gain.

  3. An Experimental Approach using Plasma Jets to Realize the Radicals' Effects for Improving Ignition and Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yohji; Iwamoto, Takashi; Shuzenji, Kiyotaka; Kakami, Akira; Tachibana, Takeshi

    To introduce an alternative fuel to a combustion system or develop a more sophisticated system used in aeronautical and other engineering fields, the combustion characteristics of the fuel must be fully understood. Therefore, some effects of radical species, which are involved and play a significant role in the combustion process, must be understood to arrive at a new technology, such as for super-lean combustion or low-quality fuel utilization, which in turn would lead to solutions for recent energy issues. We have developed an original experimental apparatus which can selectively supply radicals appearing in the combustion process by making use of a plasma torch and can be used to understand their effectiveness. A series of trial experiments conducted with di-methyl ether as the test fuel demonstrate that the experimental method proposed is valid and practical, and can be used to evaluate the role of radical species for the ignition/combustion of various gaseous fuels.

  4. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  5. Effects of fuel cracking on combustion characteristics of a supersonic model combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhan; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo

    2015-05-01

    The compositions of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels in cooling channels of regenerative cooled scramjet engines change along with fuel cracking. To investigate the effect of fuel compositions variation resulting from cracking on the combustion characteristics of supersonic combustors, a series of combustion tests with a wide range of equivalence ratios were conducted in a direct-connected test rig under the inflow conditions of Ma=3.46 and Tt=1430 K. The combustion characteristics of room temperature ethylene and vaporized China no. 3 aviation kerosene (RP-3) with negligible cracking were analyzed and compared based on the measured static pressure distributions along the combustor wall, fuel specific impulses, flame luminosity images and the one-dimensional average flow parameter distributions calculated by a quasi-one-dimensional data analysis method. The experimental results showed that the differences between the combustion characteristics of vaporized RP-3 and ethylene were sensitive to equivalence ratio. Under low equivalence ratios, vaporized RP-3 and ethylene had remarkably different combustion characteristics. Ethylene had an obvious higher static pressure level, specific impulse and combustion efficiency than vaporized RP-3 for its higher activity. The difference of combustion performance between vaporized RP-3 and ethylene was narrowed with the increase of equivalence ratio and the corresponding combustion condition improvement. When the equivalence ratio increased to 1.09, vaporized RP-3 and ethylene had tiny difference in combustion performance.

  6. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  7. Longitudinal Mode Aeroengine Combustion Instability: Model and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem more completely (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the casual dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment and be designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic, and thermo-fluid features, ensuring that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  8. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND PULMONARY TOXICITY OF PROTOTYPE PARTICLES FROM COAL COMBUSTION AND PYROLYSIS (MONTREAL, CANADA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that health effects associated with coal combustion fly-ash particles are exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of iron and soot was tested through two sets of experiments. The first set created prototype particles from complete and partial combustion, or oxygen...

  9. Relationships between composition and pulmonary toxicity of prototype particles from coal combustion and pyrolysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that health effects associated with coal combustion fly-ash particles are exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of iron and soot was tested through two sets of experiments. The first set created prototype particles from complete and partial combustion, or oxygen...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  11. Pulse-combustion deep fat fryer, Phase 2. Final report, December 1983-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A pulse-combustion burner system was developed that met both efficiency and cooking-performance goals. Work involved modifications to the pulse-combustion deep fat fryer to reduce the sound level, eliminate vibrations, and ensure reliable ignition. Field testing in a major fast-food restaurant chain was initiated, demonstrating that the pulse fryer is reliable and acceptable.

  12. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-04-01

    Combustion system users and manufacturers joined forces in 1999 to develop the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. The roadmap outlines R&D priorities for developing advanced, highly efficient combustion systems that U.S. industry will require in the future.

  13. Spherical combustion clouds in explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, A. L.; Bell, J. B.; Beckner, V. E.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aspden, A. J.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the properties of spherical combustion clouds in explosions. Two cases are investigated: (1) detonation of a TNT charge and combustion of its detonation products with air, and (2) shock dispersion of aluminum powder and its combustion with air. The evolution of the blast wave and ensuing combustion cloud dynamics are studied via numerical simulations with our adaptive mesh refinement combustion code. The code solves the multi-phase conservation laws for a dilute heterogeneous continuum as formulated by Nigmatulin. Single-phase combustion (e.g., TNT with air) is modeled in the fast-chemistry limit. Two-phase combustion (e.g., Al powder with air) uses an induction time model based on Arrhenius fits to Boiko's shock tube data, along with an ignition temperature criterion based on fits to Gurevich's data, and an ignition probability model that accounts for multi-particle effects on cloud ignition. Equations of state are based on polynomial fits to thermodynamic calculations with the Cheetah code, assuming frozen reactants and equilibrium products. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to resolve thin reaction zones and capture the energy-bearing scales of turbulence on the computational mesh (ILES approach). Taking advantage of the symmetry of the problem, azimuthal averaging was used to extract the mean and rms fluctuations from the numerical solution, including: thermodynamic profiles, kinematic profiles, and reaction-zone profiles across the combustion cloud. Fuel consumption was limited to ˜ 60-70 %, due to the limited amount of air a spherical combustion cloud can entrain before the turbulent velocity field decays away. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra of the solution were found to have both rotational and dilatational components, due to compressibility effects. The dilatational component was typically about 1 % of the rotational component; both seemed to preserve their spectra as they decayed. Kinetic energy of the blast wave decayed due to the

  14. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  15. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  16. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  18. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  19. Atomization and combustion performance of antimisting kerosene and jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion performance of antimisting kerosene (AMK) containing FM-9 polymer was investigated at various levels of degradation (restoration of AMK for normal use in a gas turbine engine). To establish the relationship of degradation and atomization to performance in an aircraft gas turbine combustor, sprays formed by the nozzle of a JT8-D combustor with Jet A and AMK at 1 atmosphere (atm) (14.1 lb/square in absolute) pressure and 22 C at several degradation levels were analyzed. A new spray characterization technique based on digital image analysis of high resolution, wide field spray images formed under pulsed ruby laser sheet illumination was developed. Combustion tests were performed for these fuels in a JT8-D single can combustor facility to measure combustion efficiency and the lean extinction limit. Correlation of combustion performance under simulated engine operating conditions with nozzle spray Sauter mean diameter (SMD) measured at 1 atm and 22 C were observed. Fuel spray SMD and hence the combustion efficiency are strongly influenced by fuel degradation level. Use of even the most highly degraded AMK tested (filter ratio = 1.2) resulted in an increase in fuel consumption of 0.08% to 0.20% at engine cruise conditions.

  20. Effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability

    SciTech Connect

    Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.H.

    1997-04-01

    Recent regulations on NO, emissions are promoting the use of lean premix (LPM) combustion for industrial gas turbines. LPM combustors avoid locally stoichiometric combustion by premixing fuel and the air upstream of the reaction region, thereby eliminating the high temperatures that produce thermal NO.. Unfortunately, this style of combustor is prone to combustion oscillation. Significant pressure fluctuations can occur when variations in heat release periodically couple pressure to acoustic modes in the combustion chamber. These oscillations must be controlled because resulting vibration can shorten the life of engine hardware. Laboratory and engine field testing have shown that instability regimes can vary with environmental conditions. These observations prompted this study of the effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability. Tests are conducted on a sub-scale combustor burning natural gas, propane, and some hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures. A premix, swirl-stabilized fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines is used. Experimental and numerical results describe how stability regions may shift as inlet air temperature, humidity, and fuel composition are altered. Results appear to indicate that shifting instability instability regimes are primarily caused by changes in reaction rate.

  1. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.G.; Speer, S.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes improvement in a 2-cycle, diesel cycle internal combustion engine comprising a single in-line engine block, internal wall surfaces defining at least one cylinder within the engine block, the central longitudinal axis of each cylinder being within a common plane extending longitudinally of the engine block, the axially extending internal wall surface of each cylinder being closed at one end and having at least one air intake port therethrough, a piston axially and reciprocally movable within each cylinder over a permitted stroke distance, so as to alternately cover and expose each air intake port for a finite time period; an exhaust port at the closed end of the cylinder above the piston, and a mechanically operated valve for opening and closing such exhaust port located immediately adjacent such port, a substantially rigid connecting rod pivotably connected at one end of each piston, and a crankshaft, rotatably connected to the second end of each connecting rod, such that the crankshaft is caused to rotate connecting means between the piston and the connecting rod. The improvement comprises the diameter of the cylinder is greater than the permitted stroke distance of the piston within the cylinder, and the axis of the crankshaft is parallel to and laterally offset from the common plane by a distance sufficient to form an angle alpha between the connecting rod and the axis of the cylinder, when the piston is at top-dead center, of at least about 12 degrees, such that the time during which each air intake port is exposed is increased when the direction of crankshaft rotation is opposite to the direction of the crankshaft offset from the common plane.

  2. Combustion Instabilities Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch is investigating active control strategies to mitigate or eliminate the combustion instabilities prevalent in lean-burning, low-emission combustors. These instabilities result from coupling between the heat-release mechanisms of the burning process and the acoustic flow field of the combustor. Control design and implementation require a simulation capability that is both fast and accurate. It must capture the essential physics of the system, yet be as simple as possible. A quasi-one-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation has been developed which may meet these requirements. The Euler equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been used, along with a single reactive species transport equation to simulate coupled thermoacoustic oscillations. A very simple numerical integration scheme was chosen to reduce computing time. Robust boundary condition procedures were incorporated to simulate various flow conditions (e.g., valves, open ends, and choked inflow) as well as to accommodate flow reversals that may arise during large flow-field oscillations. The accompanying figure shows a sample simulation result. A combustor with an open inlet, a choked outlet, and a large constriction approximately two thirds of the way down the length is shown. The middle plot shows normalized, time-averaged distributions of the relevant flow quantities, and the bottom plot illustrates the acoustic mode shape of the resulting thermoacoustic oscillation. For this simulation, the limit cycle peak-to-peak pressure fluctuations were 13 percent of the mean. The simulation used 100 numerical cells. The total normalized simulation time was 50 units (approximately 15 oscillations), which took 26 sec on a Sun Ultra2.

  3. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  4. Hydrocarbon-fuel/combustion-chamber-liner materials compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of material compatibility experiments using hydrocarbon fuels in contact with copper-based combustion chamber liner materials are presented. Mil-Spec RP-1, n- dodecane, propane, and methane fuels were tested in contact with OFHC, NASA-Z, and ZrCu coppers. Two distinct test methods were employed. Static tests, in which copper coupons were exposed to fuel for long durations at constant temperature and pressure, provided compatibility data in a precisely controlled environment. Dynamic tests, using the Aerojet Carbothermal Test Facility, provided fuel and copper compatibility data under realistic booster engine service conditions. Tests were conducted using very pure grades of each fuel and fuels to which a contaminant, e.g., ethylene or methyl mercaptan, was added to define the role played by fuel impurities. Conclusions are reached as to degradation mechanisms and effects, methods for the elimination of these mechanisms, selection of copper alloy combustion chamber liners, and hydrocarbon fuel purchase specifications.

  5. Trends in the spin combustion of thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoryankin, A.V.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Strunina, A.G.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results on the main laws of spin combustion for thermite compositions. Examines the combustion in various thermite systems with various degrees of component dilution with reaction products in order to choose the objects. Discusses effects of external factors, effects of system parameters, and temperature distribution in spin combustion. Finds that oscillatory combustion (synchronous pulsation in the combustion rate at all points on the front) and spin modes (spiral displacement of a luminous focus) are separated by a combustion mode in the form of a set of luminous points moving in a random fashion over the combustion front; the low-calorie spin mode is sensitive to shift in the general heat balance in either sense during the combustion; and in the spin mode, the combustion is substantially influenced by the topology of the surface.

  6. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  7. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  8. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  9. Subgrid Combustion Modeling for the Next Generation National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Stone, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, a subgrid turbulent mixing and combustion methodology developed earlier at Georgia Tech has been provided to researchers at NASA/GRC for incorporation into the next generation National Combustion Code (called NCCLES hereafter). A key feature of this approach is that scalar mixing and combustion processes are simulated within the LES grid using a stochastic 1D model. The subgrid simulation approach recovers locally molecular diffusion and reaction kinetics exactly without requiring closure and thus, provides an attractive feature to simulate complex, highly turbulent reacting flows of interest. Data acquisition algorithms and statistical analysis strategies and routines to analyze NCCLES results have also been provided to NASA/GRC. The overall goal of this research is to systematically develop and implement LES capability into the current NCC. For this purpose, issues regarding initialization and running LES are also addressed in the collaborative effort. In parallel to this technology transfer effort (that is continuously on going), research has also been underway at Georgia Tech to enhance the LES capability to tackle more complex flows. In particular, subgrid scalar mixing and combustion method has been evaluated in three distinctly different flow field in order to demonstrate its generality: (a) Flame-Turbulence Interactions using premixed combustion, (b) Spatially evolving supersonic mixing layers, and (c) Temporal single and two-phase mixing layers. The configurations chosen are such that they can be implemented in NCCLES and used to evaluate the ability of the new code. Future development and validation will be in spray combustion in gas turbine engine and supersonic scalar mixing.

  10. Energy Efficient Engine (E3) combustion system component technology performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) combustor effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent of this effort was to evolve a design that meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3, as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this effort was incorporated into the engine combustion hardware design. The advanced engine combustion system was then evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What evolved from this effort was an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3.

  11. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  12. HCCl Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Dibble, R; Au, M; Girard, J

    2001-05-04

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model has applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

  13. HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador M. Aceves; Daniel L. Flowers; Joel Martinez-Frias; J. Ray Smith; Robert Dibble; Michael Au; James Girard

    2001-05-14

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model h as applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

  14. Reciprocating piston internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1986-04-15

    A reciprocating piston internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a piston movably disposed within an engine cylinder, the piston having a top surface and a piston ring, the engine cylinder and the top surface of the piston defining a combustion chamber, the piston having first and second sections which are divided by a vertical plane containing an axis of a piston pin, the first section being formed with a major thrust surface and the second section being formed with a minor thrust surface; and means for thrusting the piston against a major thrust side wall of the cylinder before the piston reaches top dead center in the cylinder, the thrusting means comprising: means defining a space in the piston, the space communicating with the combustion chamber and being located in the piston second section; a movable member disposed within the space, the movable member being capable of being thrust in the direction of a minor thrust side wall of the cylinder by gas pressure within the combustion chamber and being arranged to thrust the piston ring against the minor thrust side wall when thrust by the gas pressure; and means for producing gas pressure within the combustion chamber such that the gas pressure enters the space at the compression stroke of the engine so that the movable member receives the gas pressure and is thrust toward the minor thrust side wall of the cylinder such that the piston is thrust against a major thrust side wall of the cylinder.

  15. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  16. Combustion Of Metals In Reduced Gravity And Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Modak, A.; Branch, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    The recent focus of this research project has been to model the combustion of isolated metal droplets and, in particular, to couple the existing theories and formulations of phenomena such as condensation, reaction kinetics, radiation, and surface reactions to formulate a more complete combustion model. A fully transient, one-dimensional (spherical symmetry) numerical model that uses detailed chemical kinetics, multi-component molecular transport mechanisms, condensation kinetics, and gas phase radiation heat transfer was developed. A coagulation model was used to simulate the particulate formation of MgO. The model was used to simulate the combustion of an Mg droplet in pure O2 and CO2. Methanol droplet combustion is considered as a test case for the solution method for both quasi-steady and fully transient simulations. Although some important processes unique to methanol combustion, such as water absorption at the surface, are not included in the model, the results are in sufficient agreement with the published data. Since the major part of the heat released in combustion of Mg, and in combustion of metals in general, is due to the condensation of the metal oxide, it is very important to capture the condensation processes correctly. Using the modified nucleation theory, an Arrhenius type rate expression is derived to calculate the condensation rate of MgO. This expression can be easily included in the CHEMKIN reaction mechanism format. Although very little property data is available for MgO, the condensation rate expression derived using the existing data is able to capture the condensation of MgO. An appropriate choice of the reference temperature to calculate the rate coefficients allows the model to correctly predict the subsequent heat release and hence the flame temperature.

  17. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    } separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  18. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to

  19. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  20. Investigation of combustion chamber acoustics and its interaction with LOX/H2 spray flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschwald, M.; Knapp, B.

    2009-09-01

    Acoustics of combustion chambers is investigated experimentally in cold flow and hot fire tests. The performance of absorber elements is analyzed in respect to their effect on combustion chamber eigenfrequencies as well as to their damping characteristics. It is shown that predictions of numerical modal analysis of chamber acoustics are in very good agreement with measurements. In hot fire tests, a burning LOX/H2 spray is acoustically excited with a siren wheel and combustion response is recorded with dynamic pressure sensors and by high-speed visualization of the spray and the flame. Although no combustion instability could be observed, analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of flame response allowed addressing the question, whether the coupling of acoustics to combustion is via pressure or velocity sensitive processes.