Science.gov

Sample records for 3mwth combustion test

  1. Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-18

    Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) during testing in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a set of two International Space Station (ISS) research facilities designed to support physical and biological experiments in support of technology development and validation in space. The FCF consists of two modular, reconfigurable racks called the Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR). The CIR and FIR were developed at NASAʼs Glenn Research Center.

  2. Combustible dust tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  3. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  4. Thermal Model of the Promoted Combustion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Flammability of metals in high pressure, pure oxygen environments, such as rocket engine turbopumps, is commonly evaluated using the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT). The PCT emphasizes the ability of an ignited material to sustain combustion, as opposed to evaluating the sample's propensity to ignite in the first place. A common arrangement is a rod of the sample material hanging in a chamber in which a high pressure, pure oxygen environment is maintained. An igniter of some energetically combusting material is fixed to the bottom of the rod and fired. This initiates combustion, and the sample burns and melts at its bottom tip. A ball of molten material forms, and this ball detaches when it grows too large to be supported by surface tension with the rod. In materials which do not sustain combustion, the combustion then extinguishes. In materials which do sustain combustion, combustion re-initiates from molten residue left on the bottom of the rod, and the melt ball burns and grows until it detaches again. The purpose of this work is development of a PCT thermal simulation model, detailing phase change, melt detachment, and the several heat transfer modes. Combustion is modeled by a summary rate equation, whose parameters are identified by comparison to PCT results. The sensitivity of PCT results to various physical and geometrical parameters is evaluated. The identified combustion parameters may be used in design of new PCT arrangements, as might be used for flammability assessment in flow-dominated environments. The Haynes 214 nickel-based superalloy, whose PCT results are applied here, burns heterogeneously (fuel and oxidizer are of different phases; combustion takes place on the fuel surface). Heterogeneous combustion is not well understood. (In homogeneous combustion, the metal vaporizes, and combustion takes place in an analytically treatable cloud above the surface). Thermal modeling in heterogeneous combustion settings provides a means for linking test

  5. Heated Promoted Combustion-Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the STD 6001 test 17 is to determine the flammability of materials in GOX at ambient temperature and at use pressure. The purpose of the new Heated Promoted combustion test is to determine the flammability of material in GOX at use temperature and pressure. The objective is to present the new heated promoted combustion method and show initial data and trends for three representative metals.

  6. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-09-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technology has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the burn criterion from 15 cm(6 in.) to 3 cm(1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) G124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-burn thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  7. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Martinec, Tomas; Novak, Ondrej; Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel

    This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free) and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time). Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results - i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  8. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Martinec, Tomas; Novak, Ondrej; Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free) and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time). Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results - i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  9. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  10. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  11. Post Combustion Test Bed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cabe, James E.; King, Dale A.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-12-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assessment methodology and slip-stream testing platform enables the comprehensive early-stage evaluation of carbon capture solvents and sorbents utilizing a breadth of laboratory experimental capability as well as a testing platform at a nearby 600 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  12. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  13. Combustion testing of San Miguel lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Goblirsch, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Results from pilot plant testing of the San Miguel lignite are: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite tests suggest a severe fouling problem is conventional boiler designs are employed. (2) No effect in either deposition rate or deposit strength was seen when MgO and CaCO/sub 3/ were used at additives. For these tests a single addition rate was utilizing two different injection points in the system. (3) No bed agglomeration was noted under the varied run conditions used in testing of this lignite fuel. (4) The atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) NO/sub x/ level emitted in the flue gas were always less than the NSPS limit of 0.6 lbs NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu. (5) Utilization of inherent alkali was less than that observed for North Dakota lignites. It was possible to meet NSPS standards of 90 percent sulfur capture using limestone addition. (6) Pulverized-coal combustion of San Miguel lignite resulted in a larger portion of <1 ..mu..m size particulates than has been noted in similar tests with the Arapahoe subbituminous coal and the Ledbetter Texas lignite. (7) The composition of particulates from P-C combustion of San Miguel lignite has a more varied composition than has been seen in testing with other types of coal. Use of lower grade fuels such as the lignite from the San Miguel mine is inevitable if we are to meet the expanding needs for energy in the United States today. To make use of these different fuels extensive testing on laboratory and pilot scales will be beneficial in avoiding major problems due to the different characteristics these materials possess. The present successful operation of a full scale boiler using the San Miguel lignite is a good example of the value pilot scale studies can have on the road to successful operation.

  14. 16 CFR 1209.7 - Test procedures for smoldering combustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for smoldering combustion. 1209.7 Section 1209.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... for smoldering combustion. This section provides the test method for determining smoldering...

  15. NASA Teams With Army in Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, 'self-cooled', vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  16. Combustion Products Monitor: Trade Study Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Trowbridge, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Current combustion products monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS) uses a handheld device (Compound Specific Analyzer-Combustion Products, CSA-CP) containing electrochemical sensors used to measure the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and oxygen (O2). The CO sensor in this device accounts for a well-known cross-sensitivity with hydrogen (H2), which is important, as ISS air can contain up to 100 ppm H2. Unfortunately, this current device is being discontinued, and due to space constraints, the new model cannot accommodate the size of the current CO sensor. Therefore, a trade study was conducted in order to determine which CO sensors on the market were available with compensation for H2, and which instruments used these sensors, while also measuring HCN, O2, and carbon dioxide (CO2). The addition of CO2 to the device is helpful, as current monitoring of this gas requires a second hand-held monitor. By providing a device that will monitor both combustion products and CO2, volume and up-mass can be reduced as these monitors are delivered to ISS.

  17. Testing a dual-mode ramjet engine with kerosene combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. M.; Karasev, V. N.; Kartovitskii, L. L.; Krymov, E. A.; Skachkov, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    Results of life firing tests of a dual-mode ramjet engine intended for operation in the speed range M = 3-6 are discussed. The tests were carried out on a test bench under freestream conditions typical of Mach 6 flight at 27.6-km altitude. In the tests, the adopted design and technological solutions were verified, and efficient operation of the ramjet engine with kerosene combustion during 110 s was demonstrated.

  18. Subscale Test Methods for Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Sisco, J. C.; Long, M. R.; Sung, I.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Stated goals for long-life LRE s have been between 100 and 500 cycles: 1) Inherent technical difficulty of accurately defining the transient and steady state thermochemical environments and structural response (strain); 2) Limited statistical basis on failure mechanisms and effects of design and operational variability; and 3) Very high test costs and budget-driven need to protect test hardware (aversion to test-to-failure). Ambitious goals will require development of new databases: a) Advanced materials, e.g., tailored composites with virtually unlimited property variations; b) Innovative functional designs to exploit full capabilities of advanced materials; and c) Different cycles/operations. Subscale testing is one way to address technical and budget challenges: 1) Prototype subscale combustors exposed to controlled simulated conditions; 2) Complementary to conventional laboratory specimen database development; 3) Instrumented with sensors to measure thermostructural response; and 4) Coupled with analysis

  19. Combustion Tests of RJ-5 Fuel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    and the fact th*t the m**^****** *T*rt£ **, is not to be Distribution limited to U.S. Govenunent agende . only; Test and ^luatlon; AuCutS73 Other...at -40’F. This limit was 2 due to the MRE fuel control system. This in-house test program was set up to look at what effects the diluents. exo

  20. Development of coal combustion sensitivity test for smoke detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.; Morrow, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the US Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The tests are conducted using a standard smoke box designed and constructed according to Underwriters Laboratories. The tests provide a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for smoldering and flaming coal combustion, based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density and the response of a standard ionization chamber to the smoke. With these standard tests, the range of threshold limits for the response of a smoke detector and the detector`s reliability can be evaluated for nearly identical smoke visibility and smoke physical characteristics. The detector`s threshold response limits and reliability need to be well defined prior to the instrument`s use as part of a mine fire warning system for improved mine safety.

  1. Recent coal-oil mixture combustion tests at PETC

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y. S.; Bellas, G. T.; Mathur, M. P.; Joubert, J. I.; Bienstock, D.

    1980-06-01

    Coal-oil mixture combustion tests with coal concentrations of up to 50 percent were successfully conducted in a 700 horsepower watertube boiler designed originally for oil firing. A 500-h duration test with coal-oil mixture containing 40 percent coal has also been completed. No derating of the boiler occurred, carbon-conversion efficiencies were above 98 percent, and boiler efficiencies were the same as when firing No. 6 fuel oil. All combustion tests were conducted with No. 6 fuel oil mixed with Pittsburgh Seam coal pulverized to a coal particle size of 90 percent minus 200 mesh. Test results relating to boiler performance, pollutant emissions, ash deposition, and corrosion, erosion, and fouling behavior are presented.

  2. Laboratory Test of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-04

    Control Module (ECM) torque horsepower engine speed boost turbocharger throttle injector power curve...factors can be related to physical space or required range of operation. Most research, development, and testing applications will require four...Friction brake Special purpose applications for very high torques at low speed. Limited speed range. Air brake Cheap, very little support service

  3. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  4. Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, B.D.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  6. Heat pipe gas combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion (HPGC) system suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator, and a film-cooled gas combustor. The principal component is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. Given here are the test results of the endurance tests run on a Gas Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE).

  7. Hot fire test results of subscale tubular combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced, subscale, tubular combustion chambers were built and test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants to assess the increase in fatigue life that can be obtained with this type of construction. Two chambers were tested: one ran for 637 cycles without failing, compared to a predicted life of 200 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. The other chamber failed at 256 cycles, compared to a predicted life of 118 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. Posttest metallographic analysis determined that the strain-relieving design (structural compliance) of the tubular configuration was the cause of this increase in life.

  8. Hot fire fatigue testing results for the compliant combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen subscale rocket combustion chamber was designed incorporating an advanced design concept to reduce strain and increase life. The design permits unrestrained thermal expansion of a circumferential direction and, thereby, provides structural compliance during the thermal cycling of hot-fire testing. The chamber was built and test fired at a chamber pressure of 4137 kN/sq m (600 psia) and a hydrogen-oxygen mixture ratio of 6.0. Compared with a conventional milled-channel configuration, the new structurally compliant chamber had a 134 or 287 percent increase in fatigue life, depending on the life predicted for the conventional configuration.

  9. Preliminary tests of an advanced high-temperature combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Trout, A. M.; Smith, J. M.; Jacobs, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A combustion system has been developed to operate efficiently and with good durability at inlet pressures to 4.05 MPa (40 atm), inlet air temperatures to 900 K, and exhaust gas temperatures to 2480 K. A preliminary investigation of this system was conducted at inlet pressures to 0.94 MPa (9 atm), a nominal inlet air temperature of 560 K, and exhaust gas temperatures to 2135 K. A maximum combustion efficiency of 98.5 percent was attained at a fuel-air ratio of 0.033; the combustion efficiency decreased to about 90 percent as the fuel-air ratio was increased to 0.058. An average liner metal temperature of 915 K, 355 kelvins greater than the nominal inlet air temperature, was reached with an average exhaust gas temperature of 2090 K. The maximum local metal temperature at this condition was about 565 kelvins above the nominal inlet air temperature and decreased to 505 kelvins above with increasing combustor pressure. Tests to determine the isothermal total pressure loss of the combustor showed a liner loss of 1.1 percent and a system loss of 6.5 percent.

  10. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  11. Selected Applications of Planar Imaging Velocimetry in Combustion Test Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willert, Christian; Stockhausen, Guido; Voges, Melanie; Klinner, Joachim; Schodl, Richard; Hassa, Christoph; Schürmans, Bruno; Güthe, Felix

    This chapter provides an overview on the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) in combustion test facilities that are operated at pressures of up to 10 bar. Emphasis is placed on the experimental aspects of each application rather than the interpretation of the acquired flow-field data because many of the encountered problems and chosen solution strategies are unique to this area of velocimetry application. In particular, imaging configurations, seeding techniques, data-acquisition strategies as well as pre- and postprocessing methodologies are outlined.

  12. Enhanced capability of the Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Kenneth E.; Andrews, Earl H.; Eggers, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) is described together with its modifications. The expanded simulation capabilities of the facility are documented. Nozzle exit surveys and tunnel calibration information are presented. It is noted that these modifications included a new heat-sink nickel liner heater, a new Mach 4.7 nozzle, and a new 70-ft vacuum sphere exhaust system. It is found that the facility in the air ejector mode of operation performed similarly to that prior to the addition of the vacuum sphere ducting.

  13. Evaluating ultrasonic test indications in a combustion turbine wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, C.; Hartsell, E.

    1985-07-01

    In March 1983, Savannah Electric and Power Company's three-year-old combustion turbine was dismantled for inspection and maintenance. At that time, the unit had 2034 fired starts and 9693 fired hours on it. The rotating assembly was shipped to the manufacturer's service shop for the inspection and maintenance work. During the course of the inspection, the first and second stage wheels were straight-beam ultrasonic tested with no indications found. Subsequently, the wheels were intensively angle-beam ultrasonic tested and two indications were detected in the first stage wheel. The manufacturer recommended retiring the wheel from service. The power company suggested that since the same testing had been done on the wheel before purchase, the same imperfections may have existed then. This article discusses this disagreement and how it eventually led to premature scrapping of the wheel.

  14. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The major emphasis during this reporting period was finishing the conceptual design for the test facility and discussions on the potential expansion of the test facility. Results are discussed for the following subtasks of conceptual design: design bases; quasifier/combustor and hot stream design; balance of plant designs; and particulate collection.

  15. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  16. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  17. Materials Combustion Testing and Combustion Product Sensor Evaluations in FY12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit Elisabeth; Mudgett, Paul D.; Hornung, Steven D.; McClure, Mark B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bryg, Victoria; Makel, Darby; Ruff, Gary A.; Hunter, Gary

    2013-01-01

    NASA Centers continue to collaborate to characterize the chemical species and smoke particles generated by the combustion of current space-rated non-metallic materials including fluoropolymers. This paper describes the results of tests conducted February through September 2012 to identify optimal chemical markers both for augmenting particle-based fire detection methods and for monitoring the post-fire cleanup phase in human spacecraft. These studies follow up on testing conducted in August 2010 and reported at ICES 2011. The tests were conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility in a custom glove box designed for burning fractional gram quantities of materials under varying heating profiles. The 623 L chamber was heavily instrumented to quantify organics (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), inorganics by water extraction followed by ion chromatography, and select species by various individual commercially-available sensors. Evaluating new technologies for measuring carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and other species of interest was a key objective of the test. Some of these sensors were located inside the glovebox near the fire source to avoid losses through the sampling lines; the rest were located just outside the glovebox. Instruments for smoke particle characterization included a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Personal Dust Monitor (TEOM PDM) and a TSI Dust Trak DRX to measure particle mass concentration, a TSI PTrak for number concentration and a thermal precipitator for collection of particles for microscopic analysis. Materials studied included Nomex®, M22759 wire insulation, granulated circuit board, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton®, and mixtures of PTFE and Kapton®. Furnace temperatures ranged from 340o to 640o C, focusing on the smoldering regime. Of particular interest in these tests was confirming burn repeatability and production of acid gases with different

  18. Materials Combustion Testing and Combustion Product Sensor Evaluations in FY12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit E.; Hunter, Gary; Ruff, Gary; Mudgett, Paul D.; Hornung, Steven D.; McClure, Mark B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bryg, Victoria; Makel, Darby

    2013-01-01

    NASA Centers continue to collaborate to characterize the chemical species and smoke particles generated by the combustion of current space-rated non-metallic materials including fluoropolymers. This paper describes the results of tests conducted February through September 2012 to identify optimal chemical markers both for augmenting particle-based fire detection methods and for monitoring the post-fire cleanup phase in human spacecraft. These studies follow up on testing conducted in August 2010 and reported at ICES 2011. The tests were conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility in a custom glove box designed for burning fractional gram quantities of materials under varying heating profiles. The 623 L chamber was heavily instrumented to quantify organics (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), inorganics by water extraction followed by ion chromatography, and select species by various individual commercially-available sensors. Evaluating new technologies for measuring carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and other species of interest was a key objective of the test. Some of these sensors were located inside the glovebox near the fire source to avoid losses through the sampling lines; the rest were located just outside the glovebox. Instruments for smoke particle characterization included a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Personal Dust Monitor (TEOM PDM) and a TSI Dust Trak DRX to measure particle mass concentration, a TSI PTrak for number concentration and a thermal precipitator for collection of particles for microscopic analysis. Materials studied included Nomex(R), M22759 wire insulation, granulated circuit board, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton(R), and mixtures of PTFE and Kapton(R). Furnace temperatures ranged from 340 to 640 C, focusing on the smoldering regime. Of particular interest in these tests was confirming burn repeatability and production of acid gases with different

  19. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  20. Structural Benchmark Tests of Composite Combustion Chamber Support Completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Thesken, John C.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2005-01-01

    A series of mechanical load tests was completed on several novel design concepts for extremely lightweight combustion chamber support structures at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/). The tests included compliance evaluation, preliminary proof loadings, high-strain cyclic testing, and finally residual strength testing of each design (see the photograph on the left). Loads were applied with single rollers (see the photograph on the right) or pressure plates (not shown) located midspan on each side to minimize the influence of contact stresses on corner deformation measurements. Where rollers alone were used, a more severe structural loading was produced than the corresponding equal-force pressure loading: the maximum transverse shear force existed over the entire length of each side, and the corner bending moments were greater than for a distributed (pressure) loading. Failure modes initiating at the corner only provided a qualitative indication of the performance limitations since the stress state was not identical to internal pressure. Configurations were tested at both room and elevated temperatures. Experimental results were used to evaluate analytical prediction tools and finite-element methodologies for future work, and they were essential to provide insight into the deformation at the corners. The tests also were used to assess fabrication and bonding details for the complicated structures. They will be used to further optimize the design of the support structures for weight performance and the efficacy of corner reinforcement.

  1. Combustion efficiency optimization and virtual testing: A data-mining approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kusiak, A.; Song, Z.

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, a data-mining approach is applied to optimize combustion efficiency of a coal-fired boiler. The combustion process is complex, nonlinear, and nonstationary. A virtual testing procedure is developed to validate the results produced by the optimization methods. The developed procedure quantifies improvements in the combustion efficiency without performing live testing, which is expensive and time consuming. The ideas introduced in this paper are illustrated with an industrial case study.

  2. Development and test of combustion chamber for Stirling engine heated by natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tie; Song, Xiange; Gui, Xiaohong; Tang, Dawei; Li, Zhigang; Cao, Wenyu

    2014-04-01

    The combustion chamber is an important component for the Stirling engine heated by natural gas. In the paper, we develop a combustion chamber for the Stirling engine which aims to generate 3˜5 kWe electric power. The combustion chamber includes three main components: combustion module, heat exchange cavity and thermal head. Its feature is that the structure can divide "combustion" process and "heat transfer" process into two apparent individual steps and make them happen one by one. Since natural gas can mix with air fully before burning, the combustion process can be easily completed without the second wind. The flame can avoid contacting the thermal head of Stirling engine, and the temperature fields can be easily controlled. The designed combustion chamber is manufactured and its performance is tested by an experiment which includes two steps. The experimental result of the first step proves that the mixture of air and natural gas can be easily ignited and the flame burns stably. In the second step of experiment, the combustion heat flux can reach 20 kW, and the energy utilization efficiency of thermal head has exceeded 0.5. These test results show that the thermal performance of combustion chamber has reached the design goal. The designed combustion chamber can be applied to a real Stirling engine heated by natural gas which is to generate 3˜5 kWe electric power.

  3. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Brewer, David; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to the metallic rig structure. The effect of combustion exposure on the fastener material was characterized via microstructural examination. Fasteners were also destructively tested, after combustion exposure, and the failure loads of fasteners exposed in the sector rig were compared to those of as-manufactured fasteners. Combustion exposure reduced the fastener failure load by 50% relative to the as-manufactured fasteners for exposure times ranging from 50 to 260 hours. The fasteners exposed in the combustion environment demonstrated failure loads that varied with failure mode. Fasteners that had the highest average failure load, failed in the same manner as the unexposed fasteners.

  4. Cooled Ceramic Composite Panel Tested Successfully in Rocket Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2003-01-01

    Regeneratively cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) structures are being considered for use along the walls of the hot-flow paths of rocket-based or turbine-based combined-cycle propulsion systems. They offer the combined benefits of substantial weight savings, higher operating temperatures, and reduced coolant requirements in comparison to components designed with traditional metals. These cooled structures, which use the fuel as the coolant, require materials that can survive aggressive thermal, mechanical, acoustic, and aerodynamic loads while acting as heat exchangers, which can improve the efficiency of the engine. A team effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and various industrial partners has led to the design, development, and fabrication of several types of regeneratively cooled panels. The concepts for these panels range from ultra-lightweight designs that rely only on CMC tubes for coolant containment to more maintainable designs that incorporate metal coolant containment tubes to allow for the rapid assembly or disassembly of the heat exchanger. One of the cooled panels based on an all-CMC design was successfully tested in the rocket combustion facility at Glenn. Testing of the remaining four panels is underway.

  5. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D

    1980-05-01

    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  6. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  7. Redesign and Test of an SSME Turbopump for the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, K. J.; Lee, G. A.; Eastland, A. H.; Rojas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The preburner oxidizer turbopump for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) was successfully redesigned for use with the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber (LTMCC) and tested in air utilizing rapid prototyping. The redesign increases the SSME's operating range with the current Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) while achieving full operational range with the LTMCC. The use of rapid prototyping and air testing to validate the redesign demonstrated the ability to design, fabricate and test designs rapidly and at a very low cost.

  8. Field test of the W501D, a 100 MW combustion turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Scaizo, A.J.; Holden, P.C.; Howard, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    The field test of the current production W501D combustion turbine shows the engine to be an outstanding success. The engine meets power and exceeds efficiency expectations. Metal temperatures are at or below expected levels throughout the engine. In particular the test data demonstrates low temperatures provided by improved design concepts for the combustion chamber and first stage turbine vane, which are critical components because of their severe environment. Other design improvements for performance and reliability were also verified during the test.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... minimum treatment necessary to ensure its homogeneity. After removing each test portion, the...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... minimum treatment necessary to ensure its homogeneity. After removing each test portion, the...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... minimum treatment necessary to ensure its homogeneity. After removing each test portion, the...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... minimum treatment necessary to ensure its homogeneity. After removing each test portion, the...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 173 - Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standard manner sustains combustion. 2. Principle of the method A metal block with a concave depression... minimum treatment necessary to ensure its homogeneity. After removing each test portion, the...

  14. Development of a vortex combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (combustion tests). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, T.T.; Nieh, S.

    1990-11-01

    This is the final report for Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-87PC79660 on ``Combustion Test`` for vortex combustor (VC) development for commercial applications. The work culminated in the successful demonstration of a 2 MB/H proof-of-concept (POC) model firing coal-water fuel (CWF). This development is concerned with a new concept in combustion, and was a general lack of relevant information. The work therefore began (in addition to the companion cold flow modeling study) with the design and test of two subscale models (0.15 and 0.3 MB/H) and one full scale model (3 MB/H) to obtain the needed information. With the experience gained, the 2 MB/H POC model was then designed and demonstrated. Although, these models were designed somewhat differently from one another, they all performed well and demonstrated the superiority of the concept. In summary, test results have shown that VC can be fired on several coal fuels (CWF, dry ultrafine coal, utility grind pulverized coal) at high combustion efficiency (>99%), high firing intensity (up to 0.44 MB/H-ft{sup 3}), and at temperatures sufficiently low or dry ash removal. The combustion process is completed totally inside the combustor. Conventional combustion enhancement techniques such as: preheating (air and/or fuel), pre-combustion, and post combustion are not needed.

  15. Development of a vortex combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (combustion tests)

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, T.T. ); Nieh, S. . Combustion and Multiphase Flows Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This is the final report for Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-87PC79660 on Combustion Test'' for vortex combustor (VC) development for commercial applications. The work culminated in the successful demonstration of a 2 MB/H proof-of-concept (POC) model firing coal-water fuel (CWF). This development is concerned with a new concept in combustion, and was a general lack of relevant information. The work therefore began (in addition to the companion cold flow modeling study) with the design and test of two subscale models (0.15 and 0.3 MB/H) and one full scale model (3 MB/H) to obtain the needed information. With the experience gained, the 2 MB/H POC model was then designed and demonstrated. Although, these models were designed somewhat differently from one another, they all performed well and demonstrated the superiority of the concept. In summary, test results have shown that VC can be fired on several coal fuels (CWF, dry ultrafine coal, utility grind pulverized coal) at high combustion efficiency (>99%), high firing intensity (up to 0.44 MB/H-ft[sup 3]), and at temperatures sufficiently low or dry ash removal. The combustion process is completed totally inside the combustor. Conventional combustion enhancement techniques such as: preheating (air and/or fuel), pre-combustion, and post combustion are not needed.

  16. Solid Fuel Delivery System Developed for Combustion Testing on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.

    2004-01-01

    NASA initiated Bioastronautics and Human Research Initiatives in 2001 and 2003, respectively, to enhance the safety and performance of humans in space. The Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) is a multiuser facility being built at the NASA Glenn Research Center to advance these initiatives by studying fire safety and the combustion of solid fuels in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). One of the challenges for the FEANICS team was to build a system that allowed for several consecutive combustion tests to be performed with minimal astronaut crew interaction. FEANICS developed a fuel carousel that contains a various number of fuel samples, depending on the fuel width, and introduces them one at a time into a flow tunnel in which the combustion testing takes place. This approach will allow the science team to run the experiments from the ground, while only requiring the crew to change out carousels after several tests have been completed.

  17. Laboratory test methods for combustion stability properties of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Brown, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of experimental methods for determining the combustion-stability properties of solid propellants. The methods are generally based on either the temporal response to an initial disturbance or on external methods for generating the required oscillations. The size distribution of condensed-phase combustion products are characterized by means of the experimental approaches. The 'T-burner' approach is shown to assist in the derivation of pressure-coupled driving contributions and particle damping in solid-propellant rocket motors. Other techniques examined include the rotating-valve apparatus, the impedance tube, the modulated throat-acoustic damping burner, and the magnetic flowmeter. The paper shows that experimental methods do not exist for measuring the interactions between acoustic velocity oscillations and burning propellant.

  18. Instant-replay data system for combustion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A portable, inexpensive, easily programmed, and flexible pressure measuring and display system is described and evaluated in a multi-port combustion model. The data reduction system consists of a desk-top graphics display system and calculator with data tape storage and standard data communications interfacing capabilities, while a hard copy unit provides a permanent record of all plots and tables. The system offers the advantages of recording and comparing a large number of pressures at high data rates along with the display of the results in a meaningful graphical form for near real time analysis. Some discussion of combustor and engine experiments are included as examples of the data system application.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  20. NASA Engineers Test Combustion Chamber to Advance 3-D Printed Rocket Engine Design

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    A series of test firings like this one in late August brought a group of engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a big step closer to their goal of a 100-percent 3-D printed rocket engine, said Andrew Hanks, test lead for the additively manufactured demonstration engine project. The main combustion chamber, fuel turbopump, fuel injector, valves and other components used in the tests were of the team's new design, and all major engine components except the main combustion chamber were 3-D printed. (NASA/MSFC)

  1. Performance/combustion characteristics of six Canadian alternative fuels tested in a bombardier medium speed diesel

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsey, R.G.; Stoneman, R.T.; Webster, G.D.; Chan, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Six experimental fuels representative of Canadian future fuel options were tested against a reference fuel in a bombardier 12 cylinder, 4 stroke, 3000 hp, medium speed diesel. The reference fuel was a straight run ASTM number2-d. Each fuel was analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The engine was tested under a marine application propeller law load curve at 8 different engine speeds. Correlations between fuel properties and engine performance/combustion behaviour indicated that the longest ignition delays were observed for fuels with the lowest cetane numbers. Rates of combustion pressure rise increased proportionately with decreased cetane numbers and increased levels of aromatic components. Increases in peak combustion pressures and rates of pressure rise at low engine speeds are not expected to pose durability problems with medium speed engines operating at or near rated speed and load for the fuels tested.

  2. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  3. Engine-Scale Combustor Rig Designed, Fabricated, and Tested for Combustion Instability Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Low-emission combustor designs are prone to combustor instabilities. Because active control of these instabilities may allow future combustors to meet both stringent emissions and performance requirements, an experimental combustor rig was developed for investigating methods of actively suppressing combustion instabilities. The experimental rig has features similar to a real engine combustor and exhibits instabilities representative of those in aircraft gas turbine engines. Experimental testing in the spring of 1999 demonstrated that the rig can be tuned to closely represent an instability observed in engine tests. Future plans are to develop and demonstrate combustion instability control using this experimental combustor rig. The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is leading the Combustion Instability Control program to investigate methods for actively suppressing combustion instabilities. Under this program, a single-nozzle, liquid-fueled research combustor rig was designed, fabricated, and tested. The rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor, including an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, and an effusion-cooled liner. Prior to designing the experimental rig, a survey of aircraft engine combustion instability experience identified an instability observed in a prototype engine as a suitable candidate for replication. The frequency of the instability was 525 Hz, with an amplitude of approximately 1.5-psi peak-to-peak at a burner pressure of 200 psia. The single-nozzle experimental combustor rig was designed to preserve subcomponent lengths, cross sectional area distribution, flow distribution, pressure-drop distribution, temperature distribution, and other factors previously found to be determinants of burner acoustic frequencies, mode shapes, gain, and damping. Analytical models were used to predict the acoustic resonances of both the engine combustor and proposed experiment. The analysis confirmed that the test rig

  4. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Methodology of a combined ground based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, Klaus; Karl, Sebastian; Martinez Schramm, Jan; Steelant, Johan

    2010-10-01

    In the framework of the European Commission co-funded LAPCAT (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies) project, the methodology of a combined ground-based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths was established. The approach is based on free jet testing of complete supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) configurations consisting of intake, combustor and nozzle in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and computational fluid dynamics studies utilising the DLR TAU code. The capability of the established methodology is demonstrated by applying it to the flow path of the generic HyShot II scramjet flight experiment configuration.

  6. Droplet combustion drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering model built for droplet combustion drop tower tests is described. The model was built using a design with mechanical and electrical assemblies of the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and integrated into a 5-sec drop tower. Test data obtained to date are presented together with model and test cell diagrams.

  7. Droplet combustion drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering model built for droplet combustion drop tower tests is described. The model was built using a design with mechanical and electrical assemblies of the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and integrated into a 5-sec drop tower. Test data obtained to date are presented together with model and test cell diagrams.

  8. Determination of Pass/Fail Criteria for Promoted Combustion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle M.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Lynn, David

    2009-01-01

    Promoted ignition testing is used to determine the relative flammability of metal rods in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. In these tests, a promoter is used to ignite each metal rod to start the sample burning. Experiments were performed to better understand the promoted ignition test by obtaining insight into the effect a burning promoter has on the preheating of a test sample. Test samples of several metallic materials were prepared and coupled to fast-responding thermocouples along their length. Various ignition promoters were used to ignite the test samples. The thermocouple measurements and test video was synchronized to determine temperature increase with respect to time and length along each test sample. A recommended length of test sample that must be consumed to be considered a flammable material was determined based on the preheated zone measured from these tests. This length was determined to be 30 mm (1.18 in.). Validation of this length and its rationale are presented.

  9. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  10. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  11. Modeling of Nonacoustic Combustion Instability in Simulations of Hybrid Motor Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, M.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model of a hybrid motor was formulated to study the cause and elimination of nonacoustic combustion instability. The transient model was used to simulate four key tests out of a series of seventeen hybrid motor tests conducted by Thiokol, Rocketdyne, and Martin Marietta at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These tests were performed under the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters (HPTLVB) program. The first test resulted in stable combustion. The second test resulted in large-amplitude, 6.5-Hz chamber pressure oscillations that gradually damped away by the end of the test. The third test resulted in large-amplitude, 7.5-Hz chamber pressure oscillations that were sustained throughout the test. The seventh test resulted in elimination of combustion instability with the installation of an orifice immediately upstream of the injector. Formulation and implementation of the model are the scope of this presentation. The current model is an independent continuation of modeling presented previously by joint Thiokol-Rocketdyne collaborators Boardman, Hawkins, Wassom. and Claflin. The previous model simulated an unstable independent research and development (IR&D) hybrid motor test performed by Thiokol. There was very good agreement between the model and test data. Like the previous model, the current model was developed using Matrix-x simulation software. However, tests performed at MSFC under the HPTLVB program were actually simulated. ln the current model, the hybrid motor, consisting of the liquid oxygen (lox) injector, the multiport solid fuel grain, and nozzle, was simulated. The lox feedsystem, consisting of the tank, venturi. valve, and feed lines, was also simulated in the model. All components of the hybrid motor and lox feedsystem are treated by a lumped-parameter approach. Agreement between the results of the transient model and actual test data was very good. This agreement between simulated and actual test data indicated

  12. Influence of test configuration on the combustion characteristics of polymers as ignition sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julien, Howard L.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of polymers as ignition sources for metals was accomplished at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) using a standard promoted combustion test. These tests involve the transient burning of materials in high-pressure oxygen environments. They have provided data from which design decisions can be made; data include video recordings of ignition and non-ignition for specific combinations of metals and polymers. Other tests provide the measured compositions of combustion products for polymers at select burn times and an empirical basis for estimating burn rates. With the current test configuration, the detailed analysis of test results requires modeling a three-dimensional, transient convection process involving fluid motion, thermal conduction and convection, the diffusion of chemical species, and the erosion of sample surface. At the high pressure extremes, it even requires the analysis of turbulent, transient convection where the physics of the problem are not well known and the computation requirements are not practical at this time. An alternative test configuration that can be analyzed with a relatively-simple convection model was developed during the summer period. The principal change constitutes replacing a large-diameter polymer disk at the end of the metal test rod with coaxial polymer cylinders that have a diameter nearer to that of the metal rod. The experimental objective is to assess the importance of test geometries on the promotion of metal ignition by testing with different lengths of the polymer and, with an extended effort, to analyze the surface combustion in the redesigned promoted combustion tests through analytical modeling of the process. The analysis shall use the results of cone-calorimeter tests of the polymer material to model primary chemical reactions and, with proper design of the promoted combustion test, modeling of the convection process could be conveniently limited to a quasi-steady boundary layer

  13. Quenching Combustible Dust Mixtures Using Electric Particulate Suspensions (EPS): A New Testing Method For Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Greene, Nathanael; Shoemaker, David; Xu, Hua

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Particulate Suspension (EPS) is a combustion ignition system being developed at Iowa State University for evaluating quenching effects of powders in microgravity (quenching distance, ignition energy, flammability limits). Because of the high cloud uniformity possible and its simplicity, the EPS method has potential for "benchmark" design of quenching flames that would provide NASA and the scientific community with a new fire standard. Microgravity is expected to increase suspension uniformity even further and extend combustion testing to higher concentrations (rich fuel limit) than is possible at normal gravity. Two new combustion parameters are being investigated with this new method: (1) the particle velocity distribution and (2) particle-oxidant slip velocity. Both walls and (inert) particles can be tested as quenching media. The EPS method supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as a parameter in laminar flame theory as it closely relates to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. Because of its design simplicity, EPS is suitable for testing on the International Space Station (ISS). Laser scans showing stratification effects at 1-g have been studied for different materials, aluminum, glass, and copper. PTV/PIV and a leak hole sampling rig give particle velocity distribution with particle slip velocity evaluated using LDA. Sample quenching and ignition energy curves are given for aluminum powder. Testing is planned for the KC-135 and NASA s two second drop tower. Only 1-g ground-based data have been reported to date.

  14. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  15. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  16. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  17. Successful First J-2X Combustion Stability Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than eve...

  18. 16 CFR 1209.7 - Test procedures for smoldering combustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) and a relative humidity of 50±5 percent to equilibrium prior to test. A change of less than 1% in net... equilibrium. Cigarettes shall be removed from any packaging and exposed in a suitable manner to permit...

  19. Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

  20. Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

  1. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Bert Zauderer

    1999-03-11

    In the second half of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was operated for 11 tests, primarily with Coal Tech resources on biomass combustion and gasification. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of August 1998 was 119. Of these, 36 tests were part of another DOE project on sulfur retention is slag, and 8 were on an in-house biomass combustion effort. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. Also, the test work of 1998 revealed for the first time the major potential of this combustor for biomass combustion. These tests are double the 63 tests in the original plan for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. However, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is planning to maintain the combustor facility in an operational mode at least through 2001. Coal Tech is focusing on utilizing the combustor with biomass fuels in very low cost, small (1 MW nominal) steam power plants. Worldwide application of this technology would have a major impact in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions because the energy content of agricultural biomass is equal to the energy content of the USA's annual coal production.

  3. Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor Testing in a Thermal Barrier Coated Combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Chorpening, B.T.; Dukes, M.G.; Robey, E.H.; Thornton, J.D.

    2007-05-01

    The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) continues to be developed as an in-situ combustion sensor, with immediate application to natural gas fired turbines. In-situ combustion monitoring is also expected to benefit advanced power plants of the future, fueled by coal-derived syngas, liquified natural gas (LNG), hydrogen, or hydrogen blend fuels. The in-situ monitoring that CCADS provides can enable the optimal operation of advanced, fuel-flexible turbines for minimal pollutant emissions and maximum efficiency over the full operating range of an advanced turbine. Previous work has demonstrated CCADS as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff, in experimental combustors without thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Since typical TBC materials are electrical insulators at room temperature, and CCADS operation requires conduction of electrical current to the walls of the combustor, a TBC on the combustion liner was identified as a potential barrier to CCADS operation in commercial application. This paper reports on CCADS experiments in a turbulent lean premixed combustor with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on the combustor wall. The tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa (1 atm), with a 15V excitation voltage on the CCADS electrodes. The results confirm that for a typical thermal barrier coating, CCADS operates properly, and the total measured average resistance is close to that of an uncoated combustor. This result is consistent with previous materials studies that found the electrical resistance of typical TBC materials considerably decreases at combustor operating temperatures.

  4. 16 CFR 1209.7 - Test procedures for smoldering combustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... specimen holder during test use shall rest upon a pad of unfaced glass fiberboard or equivalent having... density of 0.270±0.020 g/cm3 (16.9±1.25 lb/ft3) and a total weight of 1.1±0.1 gm (0.039±0.004 oz). (3... weight of the specimen in two consecutive weighings with two hours between each weighing constitutes...

  5. Development and Hotfire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy; Protz, Chris

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. MSFC’s efforts include a 4,000 pounds-force thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber. Small thrust chambers for 1,200 pounds-force LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications have also been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. Similar chambers have also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRCop-84 material, evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser- and arc-based techniques. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25,000-35,000 pounds-force main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  6. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fire combustion system: phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Dr. Bert

    1997-08-15

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1997, 9 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including 3 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of June 1997 in the task 5 effort to 83 days. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan have been completed. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in the previous quarter. The emphasis of tests in the present quarter have been on further optimizing post-combustion sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control processes, with most of the test effort focused on the NO{sub x} control process. Many factors which control the NO{sub x} reduction were identified in tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler. Another very important milestone in this quarter was the successful test of this Coal Tech post combustion NO{sub x} control process on a 100 MW utility boiler, where in a preliminary test 25% NO{sub x} reduction was measured.

  7. CFB combustion of high-ash Ukrainian anthracite -- Pilot testing and design implications

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Fuller, T.A.; Maryamchik, M.; Perna, M.A.; Maystrenko, A.Yu.

    1997-12-31

    High-ash anthracite is the most important indigenous fuel used for power generation in Ukraine. The power plant upgrade program, developed jointly by US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ukrainian Ministry of Energy, anticipates applying the CFB technology for efficient and environmentally clean utilization of this hard-to-burn fuel. Testing of high-ash anthracite sponsored by DOE was conducted at CFB test facilities at the Division of High Temperature Energy Conversion (DHTEC) of Ukrainian Academy of Science in Kiev and at the Babcock and Wilcox Research Center in Alliance, Ohio, USA (ARC). Testing at DHTEC included kinetic studies and combustion tests on a small-scale (100 mm diameter) CFB combustor. The rest results were used to select the fuel sizing and limestone type for pilot testing at ARC and to evaluate the effects of operating parameters on fuel combustion. Testing at the ARC 2.5 MW{sub t} CFB pilot facility (700 x 700 mm cross section, 23 m high) provided combustion and emission performance data applicable for designing of commercial-scale CFB boilers. Stable combustion without supplemental fuel and with the unburned carbon loss of less than 3% was achieved over a 55 to 100% load range. About 90% of sulfur was removed by adding limestone at a Ca/S ratio of 1.85; nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions were below 340 mg/Nm{sup 3} and 260 mg/Nm{sup 3}, respectively. The CFB boiler design recommendations for high-ash anthracite, developed based on the test results, are described in the paper.

  8. Experimental comparisons of hypothesis test and moving average based combustion phase controllers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinwu; Wu, Yuhu; Shen, Tielong

    2016-11-01

    For engine control, combustion phase is the most effective and direct parameter to improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, the statistical control strategy based on hypothesis test criterion is discussed. Taking location of peak pressure (LPP) as combustion phase indicator, the statistical model of LPP is first proposed, and then the controller design method is discussed on the basis of both Z and T tests. For comparison, moving average based control strategy is also presented and implemented in this study. The experiments on a spark ignition gasoline engine at various operating conditions show that the hypothesis test based controller is able to regulate LPP close to set point while maintaining the rapid transient response, and the variance of LPP is also well constrained.

  9. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  10. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal-Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Bert

    1997-02-27

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1996, 15 days of combust-boiler tests were performed, including 10 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of December in the task 5 effort to 57, increased to 65 as of the date of this Report, 1/27/97. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and it completes the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives of the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NOX emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and S02 emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Work in the next quarter will focus on even greater reductions in environmental emissions. Also tests are planned with coals other than the Eastern US bituminous coals tested in this project. For example, it is planned to tests Indian coals whose ash concentration is in the 40 {approx} 0 range.

  11. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  12. Test facilities for investigation of combustion processes built at the Technical University of Lodz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Grzegorz

    2001-04-01

    A number of fundamental research projects devoted to combustion processes have been carried out during the last years in the Department of Heat Technology and Refrigeration of the Technical University of Lodz, Poland. The investigations under various conditions of combustion have been conducted with the following research facilities and equipment: (1) a drop tower with 1.2 sec of microgravity conditions and ca. 1 m3 volume of the experimental package, (2) a test rig with a rotating cylindrical vessel (combustion chamber) up to 6000 rpm, (3) schlieren devices of 300 and 150 mm diameter, including a compact system for experiments in the drop tower, (4) several specialized chambers for combustion of gas- and two-phase mixtures, (5) high speed photography equipment including a 500 fps camera. Some of the experiments and facilities are presented on 27.5 min long video and mentioned in this paper in a form of the editing list of the video. Some examples of abstracts of particular specialized publications are quoted.

  13. [Testing of Concentration and Characteristics of Particulate Matters Emitted from Stationary Combustion Sources in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Wu, Xiao-dong; Wang, Chen; Liang, Yun-ping; Ma, Zhao-hui

    2016-05-15

    A self-built monitoring sampling system on particulate matters and water soluble ions emitted from stationary combustion sources and a size separated sampling system on particulate matters based on FPS4000 and ELPI + were applied to test particulate matters in fumes of typical stationary combustion sources in Beijing. The results showed that the maximum concentration of total particulate matters in fumes of stationary combustion sources in Beijing was 83.68 mg · m⁻³ in standard smoke oxygen content and the minimum was 0.12 mg · m⁻³. And particle number concentration was in the 10⁴-10⁶ cm⁻³ number of grade. Both mass and number concentration ranking order of particulate matters emitted from stationary combustion sources in Beijing was: heating gas fired boilers < power plant coal fired boilers < heating coal fired boilers. And two or three peaks existed under 1 µm of particulate size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution. The number concentration for PM₂.₅ accounted for over 99.8% of that for PM₁₀ and that for PM₀.₁ accounted for over 83% of that for PM₂.₅. But the proportions of PM₀.₁, and PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ were significantly lower in quality analysis,the proportion of PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ was about 82%, and that of PM₀.₁ in PM₂.₅ was about 27%-33%.

  14. A Preliminary Study on the Toxic Combustion Products Testing of Polymers Used in High-Pressure Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, Fu-Yu; Beeson, Harold D.

    2004-01-01

    One likely cause of polymer ignition in a high-pressure oxygen system is adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. Oxidative _ pyrolysis or combustion of polymers in a high-pressure oxygen system could generate toxic gases. This paper reports the preliminary results of toxic combustion product testing of selected polymers in a pneumatic-impact test system. Five polymers commonly used in high-pressure oxygen systems, Nylon 6/6, polychlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), fluoroelastomer (Viton(TradeMark) A), and nitrile rubber (Buna N), were tested in a pneumatic-impact test system at 2500- or 3500-psia oxygen pressure. The polymers were ignited and burned, then combustion products were collected in a stainless-steel sample bottle and analyzed by GC/MS/IRD, GC/FID, and GC/Methanizer/FID. The results of adiabatic-compression tests show that combustion of hydrocarbon polymers, nitrogen-containing polymers, and halogenated polymers in high-pressure oxygen systems are relatively complete. Toxicity of the combustion product gas is presumably much lower than the combustion product gas generated from ambient-pressure oxygen (or air) environments. The NASA-Lewis equilibrium code was used to determine the composition of combustion product gas generated from a simulated, adiabatic-compression test of nine polymers. The results are presented and discussed.

  15. Hot-Fire Test Results of an Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged-Combustion Integrated Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. For the thrust chamber assembly of the test article, several configurations of new main injectors, using relatively conventional gas-centered swirl coaxial injector elements, were designed and fabricated. The design and fabrication of these main injectors are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF meeting. New ablative combustion chambers were fabricated based on hardware previously used at NASA for testing at similar size and pressure. An existing oxygen/RP-1 oxidizer-rich subscale preburner injector from a previous NASA-funded program, along with existing and new inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware, were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. Results from independent hot-fire tests of the preburner injector in a combustion chamber with a sonic throat are described in companion papers at this JANNAF conference. The resulting integrated test article - which includes the preburner, inter-connecting hot gas duct, main injector, and ablative combustion chamber - was assembled at Test Stand 116 at the East Test Area of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The test article was well instrumented with static and dynamic pressure, temperature, and acceleration sensors to allow the collected data to be used for

  16. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further

  17. Test Medium Effects on Ignition, Combustion and Flameholding Processes in Scramjet Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinitz, W.; Pellett, G. L.

    2000-01-01

    The total temperatures (enthalpies) required to ground-test air-breathing (aero-propulsion) engines at high Mach number flight conditions can be achieved in a number of ways. Among these are: 1. Heat exchangers, including pre-heated ceramic beds. 2. direct electrical heating, e.g., arc discharge and resistance heaters. 3. Compression heating. 4. Shock heating, and 5. In-stream combustion, with oxygen replenishment to match air content. Each method has distinct advantages, disadvantages and limitations. All have a common characteristic of being designed for intermittent flow, due to the extreme energy required for continuous operation at simulated Mach numbers above about 3. All also distort the composition of atmospheric air to some degree, due to the high temperatures that occur in the plenum section prior to expansion of the flow to simulated flight conditions. In the case of in-stream combustion, the resulting test medium is commonly referred to as "vitiated air", being composed of oxygen, nitrogen and some fraction of combustion products.

  18. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. F.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Shiwa, M.; Moriya, S.

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber.

  19. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines.

    PubMed

    He, D F; Zhang, Y Z; Shiwa, M; Moriya, S

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber.

  20. The NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program: An assessment of phase 1 test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the results of Phase 1 screening testing of current and advanced combustion system concepts using several broadened-properties fuels. The severity of each of several fuels-properties effects on combustor performance or liner life is discussed, as well as design techniques with the potential to offset these adverse effects. The selection of concepts to be pursued in Phase 2 refinement testing is described. This selection takes into account the relative costs and complexities of the concepts, the current outlook on pollutant emissions control, and practical operational problems.

  1. Combustion Gas Heating Tests of C/C Composites Coated with SiC Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaki; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Sato, Masahiro; Tadano, Makoto; Kusaka, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Keiichi; Kumakawa, Akinaga; Yoshida, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    In order to examine the applicability of carbon fiber/carbon matrix composites coated with a silicon carbide layer (C/C-SiCs) to an advanced nozzle for the future reusable rocket engines, two series of combustion gas heating tests were conducted using a small rocket combustor. In the first series of heating tests, five different kinds of C/C-SiCs were tested with specimens in the shape of a square plate for material screening. In the second series of heating tests, two selected C/C-SiCs were tested with specimens in the shape of a small nozzle. The effectiveness of an interlayer between a C/C composite and a SiC layer, which was introduced to improve the durability based on the concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs), can be observed. The typical damage mode was also pointed out in the results of heating test using the small nozzle specimens.

  2. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, T. E.; Battista, R. A.; Maxwell, G. P.

    There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO(x), CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if 'logical' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO(x); determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

  3. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  4. Residential Wood Combustion Study. Task 5. Emissions testing of wood stoves. Volumes 3 and 4 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report contains the appendices for the results of 19 emission tests on four wood stoves and two retrofit emission control devices (reported in PB84-170638). The objectives of the study were to further identify the effect of wood moisture on stove emissions, to evaluate several inexpensive (simplified) test procedures for assessing particulate emissions, and to define a level of particulate emissions which can be expected from state-of-the-art improved combustion stoves. This study included evaluating previous test data reported in the literature. A single standard operating procedure was used throughout the test program, the objective of which was to maintain a constant heat output rate, as monitored by combustion chamber temperature and stove surface temperature. A heat output rate corresponding to a relatively moderate to low burn rate (less than 2.5 kg wood/hour) was chosen. A single wood type (Douglas fir) was used throughout the study; wood size was maintained at a consistent level. Throughout the entire test program measurements were made for particulate, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrocarbon content of the emissions; the gaseous constituents were monitored continuously. Measurements were made for creosote deposition, opacity, and smoke spot density.

  5. The E-3 Test Facility at Stennis Space Center: Research and Development Testing for Cryogenic and Storable Propellant Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazos, John T.; Chandler, Craig A.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader a broad overview of the current upgraded capabilities of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center E-3 Test Facility to perform testing for rocket engine combustion systems and components using liquid and gaseous oxygen, gaseous and liquid methane, gaseous hydrogen, hydrocarbon based fuels, hydrogen peroxide, high pressure water and various inert fluids. Details of propellant system capabilities will be highlighted as well as their application to recent test programs and accomplishments. Data acquisition and control, test monitoring, systems engineering and test processes will be discussed as part of the total capability of E-3 to provide affordable alternatives for subscale to full scale testing for many different requirements in the propulsion community.

  6. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

    1993-06-01

    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  7. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results

    SciTech Connect

    Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

    1980-05-01

    Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

  8. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, "self-cooled", vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  9. FutureGen 2.0 Oxy-combustion Large Scale Test – Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kenison, LaVesta; Flanigan, Thomas; Hagerty, Gregg; Gorrie, James; Leclerc, Mathieu; Lockwood, Frederick; Falla, Lyle; Macinnis, Jim; Fedak, Mathew; Yakle, Jeff; Williford, Mark; Wood, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The primary objectives of the FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Oxy-Combustion Large Scale Test Project were to site, permit, design, construct, and commission, an oxy-combustion boiler, gas quality control system, air separation unit, and CO2 compression and purification unit, together with the necessary supporting and interconnection utilities. The project was to demonstrate at commercial scale (168MWe gross) the capability to cleanly produce electricity through coal combustion at a retrofitted, existing coal-fired power plant; thereby, resulting in near-zeroemissions of all commonly regulated air emissions, as well as 90% CO2 capture in steady-state operations. The project was to be fully integrated in terms of project management, capacity, capabilities, technical scope, cost, and schedule with the companion FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project, a separate but complementary project whose objective was to safely transport, permanently store and monitor the CO2 captured by the Oxy-combustion Power Plant Project. The FutureGen 2.0 Oxy-Combustion Large Scale Test Project successfully achieved all technical objectives inclusive of front-end-engineering and design, and advanced design required to accurately estimate and contract for the construction, commissioning, and start-up of a commercial-scale "ready to build" power plant using oxy-combustion technology, including full integration with the companion CO2 Pipeline and Storage project. Ultimately the project did not proceed to construction due to insufficient time to complete necessary EPC contract negotiations and commercial financing prior to expiration of federal co-funding, which triggered a DOE decision to closeout its participation in the project. Through the work that was completed, valuable technical, commercial, and programmatic lessons were learned. This project has significantly advanced the development of near-zero emission technology and will

  10. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro

    1995-06-01

    Construction of a pilot plant of the treatment capacity of 12,000 m{sup 3}N/h flue gas was completed in November, 1992 in the Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Station, Nagoya for electron beam purification of flue-gas from coal combustion boiler and the operation had been continued during one year. The results obtained In the tests shows that the target removal efficiency for SO{sub 2} (94 %) and for NO{sub x} (80 %) was achieved with appropriate operation conditions (electron beam dose, temperature, amount of ammonia etc.). The effective collection of powdery by-products was performed by an electrostatic precipitator.

  11. Green Propellant Test Capabilities of the Altitude Combustion Stand at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubiak, Jonathan M.; Arnett, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is committed to providing simulated altitude rocket test capabilities to NASA programs, other government agencies, private industry partners, and academic partners. A primary facility to support those needs is the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS). ACS provides the capability to test combustion components at a simulated altitude up to 100,000 ft. (approx.0.2 psia/10 Torr) through a nitrogen-driven ejector system. The facility is equipped with an axial thrust stand, gaseous and cryogenic liquid propellant feed systems, data acquisition system with up to 1000 Hz recording, and automated facility control system. Propellant capabilities include gaseous and liquid hydrogen, gaseous and liquid oxygen, and liquid methane. A water-cooled diffuser, exhaust spray cooling chamber, and multi-stage ejector systems can enable run times up to 180 seconds to 16 minutes. The system can accommodate engines up to 2000-lbf thrust, liquid propellant supply pressures up to 1800 psia, and test at the component level. Engines can also be fired at sea level if needed. The NASA GRC is in the process of modifying ACS capabilities to enable the testing of green propellant (GP) thrusters and components. Green propellants are actively being explored throughout government and industry as a non-toxic replacement to hydrazine monopropellants for applications such as reaction control systems or small spacecraft main propulsion systems. These propellants offer increased performance and cost savings over hydrazine. The modification of ACS is intended to enable testing of a wide range of green propellant engines for research and qualification-like testing applications. Once complete, ACS will have the capability to test green propellant engines up to 880 N in thrust, thermally condition the green propellants, provide test durations up to 60 minutes depending on thrust class, provide high speed control and data acquisition, as well as provide advanced imaging and

  12. Development and testing of the ACT-1 experimental facility for hypersonic combustion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccarella, D.; Liu, Q.; Passaro, A.; Lee, T.; Do, H.

    2016-04-01

    A new pulsed-arc-heated hypersonic wind tunnel facility, designated as ACT-1 (Arc-heated Combustion Test-rig 1), has been developed and built at the University of Notre Dame in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Alta S.p.A. The aim of the design is to provide a suitable test platform for experimental studies on supersonic and hypersonic turbulent combustion phenomena. ACT-1 is composed of a high temperature gas-generator system and a model scramjet combustor that is installed in an open-type vacuum test section of the wind tunnel facility. The gas-generator is designed to produce high-enthalpy (stagnation temperature  =  2000 K-3500 K) hypersonic flows for a run time up to 1 s. The supersonic combustor section is composed of a compression ramp (scramjet inlet), an internal flow channel of constant cross-section, a fuel jet nozzle, and a flame holder (wall cavity). The facility allows three-way optical accesses (top and sides) into the supersonic combustor to enable various advanced optical and laser diagnostics. In particular, planar laser Rayleigh scattering (PLRS), high-speed schlieren imaging and OH-planar laser induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) have successfully been implemented to visualize the turbulent flows and flame structures at high speed flight conditions.

  13. Design, Development and Hotfire Testing of Monolithic Copper and Bimetallic Additively Manufactured Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Barnett, Greg; Brandsmeier, Will; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM) otherwise commonly referred to as additive manufacturing. The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for the GRCop-84 copper-alloy commensurate with powder bed additive manufacturing, evaluate bimetallic deposition and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. As a direct spin off of this program, NASA is working with industry partners to further develop the printing process for the GRCop-84 material in addition to the C-18150 (CuCrZr) material. To advance the process further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic additively manufactured chambers. A 1.2k sized thrust-chamber was designed and developed to compare the printing process of the GRCop-84 and C-18150 SLM materials. A series of similar MCC liners also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRcop-84 liner evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser and arc-based techniques. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these combustion chambers and associated lessons learned throughout the design and development process.

  14. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Package

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, R S; Mok, G C; Hagler, L G

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) contracted with the Packaging Review Group (PRG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a single, 30-ft shallow-angle drop test on the Combustion Engineering ABB-2901 drum-type shipping package. The purpose of the test was to determine if bolted-ring drum closures could fail during shallow-angle drops. The PRG at LLNL planned the test, and Defense Technologies Engineering Division (DTED) personnel from LLNL's Site-300 Test Group executed the plan. The test was conducted in November 2001 using the drop-tower facility at LLNL's Site 300. Two representatives from Westinghouse Electric Company in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-SC); two USNRC staff members; and three PRG members from LLNL witnessed the preliminary test runs and the final test. The single test clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of the bolted-ring drum closure to shallow-angle drops-the test package's drum closure was easily and totally separated from the drum package. The results of the preliminary test runs and the 30-ft shallow-angle drop test offer valuable qualitative understandings of the shallow-angle impact.

  15. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 11, drum and barrel reclamation furnace DBR-A

    SciTech Connect

    Knisley, D.R.; Kelly, W.E.; Keller, L.E.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a drum and barrel reconditioning furnace equipped with an afterburner for emissions control. Steel drums are reconditioned by combusting the drum contents (residual material) in a tunnel furnace. The test was the 11th in a series of emission tests conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of Tier 4 is to determine if various combustion devices are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Drum-reconditioning furnaces are one of 8 combustion-device categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested furnace, DBR-A, was selected for the test after an initial information screening and a one-day pretest survey. The drums processed at the plant are received from a number of different sources, thus the combustible material burned in the furnace is heterogeneous. Furnace DBR-A is considered representative of other drum-reconditioning furnaces operating in the United States. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  16. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  17. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal-Fired Combustion System: Phase 3.

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1997-04-21

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1997, 17 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including one day of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Tests in the present quarter have resulted in further optimizing the sorbent injection and NO{sub x} control processes. A very important milestone in this quarter was two successful combustor tests on a very high ash (37%) Indian coal. Work in the next quarter will focus on commercialization of the combustor- boiler system. In addition, further tests of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} control process and on the Indian coal will be performed.

  18. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  19. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Lauderer

    1998-01-17

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1997, 11 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of December 1997 was 103, of which 30 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO emissions as x low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post- 2 combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. This report also contains clarification of project results reported in the 22 Quarterly Technical Report in response to nd comments by DOE.

  20. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Lauderer

    1998-04-01

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1998, 4 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of March 1998 was 108, of which 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NOx emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO2 emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Almost all of the effort in the present quarter focussed on applying the results of this project and the parallel sulfur capture in slag project on new applications of this technology. Several very promising areas were identified and a number of proposals to implement them were prepared.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Bert Zauderer

    1998-07-08

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was not operated during this period. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of June 1998 remained at 108 as in the previous quarter. Of these, 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. As noted previously, this exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NO{sub x} control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Also, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is developing alternative designs of the combustor that allow its fabrication as substantially reduced costs from the present unit.

  2. Combustion Stability of the Gas Generator Assembly from J-2X Engine E10001 and Powerpack Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Kenny, R. L.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Testing of a powerpack configuration (turbomachinery and gas generator assembly) and the first complete engine system of the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellant J-2X rocket engine have been completed at the NASA Stennis Space Center. The combustion stability characteristics of the gas generator assemblies on these two systems are of interest for reporting since considerable effort was expended to eliminate combustion instability during early development of the gas generator assembly with workhorse hardware. Comparing the final workhorse gas generator assembly development test data to the powerpack and engine system test data provides an opportunity to investigate how the nearly identical configurations of gas generator assemblies operate with two very different propellant supply systems one the autonomous pressure-fed test configuration on the workhorse development test stand, the other the pump-fed configurations on the powerpack and engine systems. The development of the gas generator assembly and the elimination of the combustion instability on the pressure-fed workhorse test stand have been reported extensively in the two previous Liquid Propulsion Subcommittee meetings 1-7. The powerpack and engine system testing have been conducted from mid-2011 through 2012. All tests of the powerpack and engine system gas generator systems to date have been stable. However, measureable dynamic behavior, similar to that observed on the pressure-fed test stand and reported in Ref. [6] and attributed to an injection-coupled response, has appeared in both powerpack and engine system tests. As discussed in Ref. [6], these injection-coupled responses are influenced by the interaction of the combustion chamber with a branch pipe in the hot gas duct that supplies gaseous helium to pre-spin the turbine during the start transient. This paper presents the powerpack and engine system gas generator test data, compares these data to the development test data, and provides additional

  3. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  5. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  6. Relative toxicity of products of pyrolysis and combustion of polymeric materials using various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Relative toxicity data for a large number of natural and synthetic polymeric materials are presented which were obtained by 11 pyrolysis and three flaming-combustion test methods. The materials tested include flexible and rigid polyurethane foams, different kinds of fabrics and woods, and a variety of commodity polymers such as polyethylene. Animal exposure chambers of different volumes containing mice, rats, or rabbits were used in the tests, which were performed over the temperature range from ambient to 800 C with and without air flow or recirculation. The test results are found to be sensitive to such variables as exposure mode, temperature, air flow and dilution, material concentration, and animal species, but relative toxicity rankings appear to be similar for many methods and materials. It is concluded that times to incapacitance and to death provide a more suitable basis for relative toxicity rankings than percent mortality alone, that temperature is the most important variable in the tests reported, and that variables such as chamber volume and animal species may not significantly affect the rankings.

  7. Summer Work Experience: Determining Methane Combustion Mechanisms and Sub-Scale Diffuser Properties for Space Transporation System Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Powtawche N.

    1998-01-01

    To assess engine performance during the testing of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), the design of an optimal altitude diffuser is studied for future Space Transportation Systems (STS). For other Space Transportation Systems, rocket propellant using kerosene is also studied. Methane and dodecane have similar reaction schemes as kerosene, and are used to simulate kerosene combustion processes at various temperatures. The equations for the methane combustion mechanism at high temperature are given, and engine combustion is simulated on the General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP). The successful design of an altitude diffuser depends on the study of a sub-scaled diffuser model tested through two-dimensional (2-D) flow-techniques. Subroutines given calculate the static temperature and pressure at each Mach number within the diffuser flow. Implementing these subroutines into program code for the properties of 2-D compressible fluid flow determines all fluid characteristics, and will be used in the development of an optimal diffuser design.

  8. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior operability was

  9. The solid surface combustion space shuttle experiment hardware description and ground-based test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vento, D. M.; Zavesky, R. J.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Altenkirch, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center is developing a series of microgravity combustion experiments for the Space Shuttle. The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) is the first to be completed. SSCE will study flame spreading over thermally thin fuels (ashless filter paper) under microgravity conditions. The flight hardware consists of a combustion chamber containing the sample and a computer which takes the data and controls the experiment. Experimental data will include gas-phase and solid-phase temperature measurements and motion pictures of the combustion process. Flame spread rates will be determined from the motion pictures.

  10. Droplet combustion experiment drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) is an experiment that is being developed to ultimately operate in the shuttle environment (middeck or Spacelab). The current experiment implementation is for use in the 2.2 or 5 sec drop towers at NASA Lewis Research Center. Initial results were reported in the 1986 symposium of this meeting. Since then significant progress was made in drop tower instrumentation. The 2.2 sec drop tower apparatus, a conceptual level model, was improved to give more reproducible performance as well as operate over a wider range of test conditions. Some very low velocity deployments of ignited droplets were observed. An engineering model was built at TRW. This model will be used in the 5 sec drop tower operation to obtain science data. In addition, it was built using the flight design except for changes to accommodate the drop tower requirements. The mechanical and electrical assemblies have the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and then delivered to NASA Lewis. The model was then integrated into the 5 sec drop tower. The model is currently undergoing initial operational tests prior to starting the science tests.

  11. Liquid oxygen/hydrogen testing of a single swirl coaxial injector element in a windowed combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulka, J.; Makel, D.

    1993-06-01

    A modular, high pressure, liquid rocket single element combustion chamber was developed at Aerojet for use with nonintrusive combustion diagnostics. The hardware is able to accommodate full-size injection elements and includes a recessed annular injector around the single element to provide a source for hot gas background flow, which reduces recirculation in the chamber and provides additional injection mass to elevate chamber pressure. Experiments are being conducted to develop the diagnostics required to characterize a single-element combustion spray field for combustion modeling, benchmark data for CFD model validation, and development of the transfer functions between single element cold flow and multielement hot fire. The latter task is being pursued using an injector element identical to elements that had been previously cold-flow tested in single element tests to ambient backpressure and hot fire tested in a multielement injector. Preliminary tests conducted to date without hydrogen flowing through the annular coaxial orifice of the single element show the general flow characteristics of a reacting, unconfined, liquid oxygen hollow cone swirl spray.

  12. Combustion characteristics of various fuels during research octane number testing on an instrumented CFR F1/F2 engine

    DOE PAGES

    Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Wallner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine is the long-established standard for characterization of fuel knock resistance in spark-ignition internal combustion engines. Despite its measurements of RON and MON being widely used, there is little understanding of what governs the CFR octane rating for fuels of various chemical compositions compared to primary reference fuels (iso-octane and n-heptane). Some detailed combustion characteristics were measured on a highly instrumented CFR F1/F2 engine during RON testing of fuels with significantly different chemical composition. Our results revealed differences in the cylinder pressure and temperature conditions, as well as knocking characteristics.

  13. Test plan for valveless ash removal from pressurized fluid bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1989-07-01

    This is a test plan to demonstrate a method of ash removal from pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) systems through small beds of crushed rock rather than conventional pressure let-down valves and lock hoppers. The economic advantage of such a method is that process-inherent erosive damage will be inflicted upon the cheaply replaceable crushed rock, rather than upon expensive, fabricated valve trim components. The concept to be tested is an extension of the gravel bucket'' principle in which an erosive, high pressure slurry stream passes through a bed of crushed rock with an adjustable flow path and cross-section. The original gravel bucket concept was inspired by the costly valve erosion problems projected for coal liquefaction plants. This project extends the same approach to systems where solids are to be removed from PFBC systems, with more limited possibilities of application to some coal gasification processes. If proven successful, a hot-gas gravel bucket could offer an economic alternative to a lock hopper plus a pair of expensive block valves. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  15. Preliminary results from screening tests of commercial catalysts with potential use in gas turbine combustors. Part 2: Combustion test rig evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several commercial monolithic catalysts were tested in a combustion test rig to determine their suitability for use in a gas turbine combuster primary zone. The catalyst test bed consisted of two to four elements of 12-centimeter diameter by 2.5-centimeter long monolith. Results are presented of the measured combustion efficiency and catalyst bed temperature history for an inlet propane-air mixture temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 newtons per square meter, inlet velocities of 10 to 25 meters per second and equivalence ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. The best catalysts tested gave combustion efficiencies of virtually 100 percent for reaction temperatures ranging from 1,325 K at 10 meters per second to 1,400 K at 25 meters per second. This performance was only possible with fresh catalysts. The catalysts tested were not specifically developed for use at these conditions and showed some loss in activity after about 3 hours' testing.

  16. Validation of a Pressure-Based Combustion Simulation Tool Using a Single Element Injector Test Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddarth; Wright, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The traditional design and analysis practice for advanced propulsion systems, particularly chemical rocket engines, relies heavily on expensive full-scale prototype development and testing. Over the past decade, use of high-fidelity analysis and design tools such as CFD early in the product development cycle has been identified as one way to alleviate testing costs and to develop these devices better, faster and cheaper. Increased emphasis is being placed on developing and applying CFD models to simulate the flow field environments and performance of advanced propulsion systems. This necessitates the development of next generation computational tools which can be used effectively and reliably in a design environment by non-CFD specialists. A computational tool, called Loci-STREAM is being developed for this purpose. It is a pressure-based, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver for generalized unstructured grids, which is designed to handle all-speed flows (incompressible to hypersonic) and is particularly suitable for solving multi-species flow in fixed-frame combustion devices. Loci-STREAM integrates proven numerical methods for generalized grids and state-of-the-art physical models in a novel rule-based programming framework called Loci which allows: (a) seamless integration of multidisciplinary physics in a unified manner, and (b) automatic handling of massively parallel computing. The objective of the ongoing work is to develop a robust simulation capability for combustion problems in rocket engines. As an initial step towards validating this capability, a model problem is investigated in the present study which involves a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) shear coaxial single element injector, for which experimental data are available. The sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid density, grid distribution, different turbulence models, and different near-wall treatments is investigated. A refined grid, which is clustered in the vicinity of

  17. Validation of a Pressure-Based Combustion Simulation Tool Using a Single Element Injector Test Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddarth; Wright, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The traditional design and analysis practice for advanced propulsion systems, particularly chemical rocket engines, relies heavily on expensive full-scale prototype development and testing. Over the past decade, use of high-fidelity analysis and design tools such as CFD early in the product development cycle has been identified as one way to alleviate testing costs and to develop these devices better, faster and cheaper. Increased emphasis is being placed on developing and applying CFD models to simulate the flow field environments and performance of advanced propulsion systems. This necessitates the development of next generation computational tools which can be used effectively and reliably in a design environment by non-CFD specialists. A computational tool, called Loci-STREAM is being developed for this purpose. It is a pressure-based, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver for generalized unstructured grids, which is designed to handle all-speed flows (incompressible to hypersonic) and is particularly suitable for solving multi-species flow in fixed-frame combustion devices. Loci-STREAM integrates proven numerical methods for generalized grids and state-of-the-art physical models in a novel rule-based programming framework called Loci which allows: (a) seamless integration of multidisciplinary physics in a unified manner, and (b) automatic handling of massively parallel computing. The objective of the ongoing work is to develop a robust simulation capability for combustion problems in rocket engines. As an initial step towards validating this capability, a model problem is investigated in the present study which involves a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) shear coaxial single element injector, for which experimental data are available. The sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid density, grid distribution, different turbulence models, and different near-wall treatments is investigated. A refined grid, which is clustered in the vicinity of

  18. Conventional pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustion testing of San Miguel lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Goblirsch, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The information generated at GFETC can be summarized in the following way: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite, tests suggest a severe fouling problem if conventional boiler designs are employed. (2) No effect in either deposition rate or deposit strength was seen when MgO and CaCO/sub 3/ were used as additives. For these tests a single addition rate was utilized at two different injection points in the system. (3) Deposits from the combustion of San Miguel lignite are very different from those observed when burning a Northern Great Plains lignite, primarily because of the building of deposits from the refractory wall. (4) No bed agglomeration was noted under the varied run conditions used in AFBC testing of this lignite fuel. (5) The AFBC NO/sub chi/ level emitted in the flue gas were always less than the NSPS limit of 0.6 lbs NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu. (6) Utilization of inherent alkali was less than that observed for North Dakota lignites. It was possible to meet NSPS standards of 90% sulfur capture using limestone addition. Use of lower grade fuels such as the lignite from the San Miguel mine is inevitable if we are to meet the expanding needs for energy in the United States today. To make use of these different fuels extensive testing on laboratory and pilot scales will be beneficial in avoiding major problems due to the different characteristics these materials possess. The present successful operation of a full scale boiler using the San Miguel lignite is a good example of the value pilot scale studies can have on the road to successful operation.

  19. Development and Hot-fire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Christopher S.; Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder-bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. NASA's efforts include a 4K lbf thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber and subscale thrust chambers for 1.2K lbf LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications that have been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25-35K lbf main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  20. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  1. Beta Testing of CFD Code for the Analysis of Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Emma; Wey, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary version of OpenNCC was tested to assess its accuracy in generating steady-state temperature fields for combustion systems at atmospheric conditions using three-dimensional tetrahedral meshes. Meshes were generated from a CAD model of a single-element lean-direct injection combustor, and the latest version of OpenNCC was used to calculate combustor temperature fields. OpenNCC was shown to be capable of generating sustainable reacting flames using a tetrahedral mesh, and the subsequent results were compared to experimental results. While nonreacting flow results closely matched experimental results, a significant discrepancy was present between the code's reacting flow results and experimental results. When wide air circulation regions with high velocities were present in the model, this appeared to create inaccurately high temperature fields. Conversely, low recirculation velocities caused low temperature profiles. These observations will aid in future modification of OpenNCC reacting flow input parameters to improve the accuracy of calculated temperature fields.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  3. Gas hydrate dissociation via in situ combustion of methane - lab studies and field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Schicks, Judith M.; Spangenberg, Erik; Giese, Ronny

    2013-04-01

    would have to be used for the catalytic combustion of methane. However, only a part of the hydrate-bound methane gas could be produced during the experiment. The residual gas remained in the pore space. Currently the pilot-scale reactor is developed to a borehole tool with an outer diameter of 90 mm and ca. 5 m length. The first field test is planned for summer 2013 at the continental deep drilling KTB in Windischeschenbach, Germany. In future, we aim for a field test in hydrate-bearing sediments.

  4. (Combustion tests of sample Jordan oil shale, Karhula, Finland, and visit to Espoo, Finland, January 14--20, 1988): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1988-02-04

    The traveler was present at combustion tests of sample Jordan oil shale in the Ahlstrom CFB test unit during which a series of tests was run to determine the effect of the key operating parameters on the combustion performance. A tour was given of the 80 MWt CFB coal-fired district heating boiler plant in Espoo, Finland. Both activities provided valuable insight for the technical evaluation.

  5. The development of an optically accessible, high-power combustion test rig.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Carson D; Pratt, Andrew C; Lucht, Robert P; Meyer, Scott E; Benjamin, Michael; Lyle, Kent; Kelsey, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This work summarizes the development of a gas turbine combustion experiment which will allow advanced optical measurements to be made at realistic engine conditions. Facility requirements are addressed, including instrumentation and control needs for remote operation when working with high energy flows. The methodology employed in the design of the optically accessible combustion chamber is elucidated, including window considerations and thermal management of the experimental hardware under extremely high heat loads. Experimental uncertainties are also quantified. The stable operation of the experiment is validated using multiple techniques and the boundary conditions are verified. The successful prediction of operating conditions by the design analysis is documented and preliminary data are shown to demonstrate the capability of the experiment to produce high-fidelity datasets for advanced combustion research.

  6. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  8. Residential Wood Combustion Study. Task 5. Emissions testing of wood stoves. Volumes 1 and 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of 19 emission tests on four wood stoves and two retrofit emission control devices. The testing was conducted during June-October 1981. The objectives of this study were to further identify the effect of wood moisture on stove emissions, to evaluate several inexpensive (simplified) test procedures for assessing particulate emissions, and to define a level of particulate emissions which can be expected from state-of-the-art improved combustion stoves. This study included evaluating previous test data reported in the literature. A single standard operating procedure was used throughout the test program, the objective of which was to maintain a constant heat output rate, as monitored by combustion chamber temperature and stove surface temperature. A heat output rate corresponding to a relatively moderate to low burn rate (less than 2.5 kg wood/hour) was chosen. A single wood type (Douglas fir) was used throughout the study, wood size was maintained at a consistent level. Throughout the entire test program measurements were made for particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrocarbon content of the emissions; the gaseous constituents were monitored continuously. Measurements were made for creosote deposition, opacity, and smoke spot density. Appendices for this report are contained in Report No. PB84-170646.

  9. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  10. Combustibility Tests of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane in a Simulated Compressor Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Dale A.; Bruce, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The advantages of high-molecular-weight gas (heavy gas) as a wind-tunnel medium have been recognized for some time. The current heavy gas of choice chlorofluorocarbon-12(CFC-12) (refrigerant R12) for the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel(TDT) must be replaced because manufacture of this gas ceased in 1995. An attractive replacement is 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (refrigerant R134a). Acceptable properties of this gas include molecular weight and speed of sound. Its vapor pressure allows simplified reclamation from mixtures with air. However, it is recognized that R134a is combustible under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and concentration. A comprehensive study was conducted to identify those conditions and the influence of various parameters on the combustibility of the gas-air mixture.

  11. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  12. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-07-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  13. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  14. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  15. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Seventh Quarter of the First Budget Period, April 1 through June 30, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion will include the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. Combustion Gas Turbine; Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment; and Externally Fired Gas Turbine/Water Augmented Gas Turbine. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  16. High-pressure calorimeter chamber tests for liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) rocket combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Philip A.; Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Price, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the rocket combustion and heat transfer characteristics of liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) mixtures at high chamber pressures. Two water-cooled calorimeter chambers of different combustion lengths were tested using 37- and 61-element oxidizer-fuel-oxidizer triplet injectors. The tests were conducted at nominal chamber pressures of 4.1, 8.3, and 13.8 MPa abs (600, 1200, and 2000 psia). Heat flux Q/A data were obtained for the entire calorimeter length for oxygen/fuel mixture ratios of 1.8 to 3.3. Test data at 4.1 MPa abs compared favorably with previous test data from another source. Using an injector with a fuel-rich outer zone reduced the throat heat flux by 47 percent with only a 4.5 percent reduction in the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency C* sub eff. The throat heat transfer coefficient was reduced approximately 40 percent because of carbon deposits on the chamber wall.

  17. The N.A.C.A. Apparatus for Studying the Formation and Combustion of Fuel Sprays and the Results from Preliminary Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    Described here is an apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those in a high speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows. When the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, motion pictures at the rate of 2000 per second are taken of the spray formation by means of spark discharges. When combustion takes place, the light of combustion is recorded on the same photographic film as the spray photographs. Included here are the results of some tests to determine the effect of air temperature, air flow, and nozzle design on the spray formation. The results show that the compression temperature has little effect on the penetration of the fuel spray, but does not affect the dispersion, that air velocities of about 300 feet per second are necessary to destroy the core of the spray, and that the effect of air flow on the spray is controlled to a certain extent by the design of the injection nozzle. The results on the combustion of the spray show that when ignition does not take place until after spray cut-off, the ignition may start almost simultaneously throughout the combustion chamber or at different points throughout the chamber. When ignition takes place before spray cut-off, the combustion starts around the edge of the spray and then spreads throughout the chamber.

  18. High-Pressure Combustion Testing Reveals Promise of Low-Emission Combustors for Advanced Subsonic Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's new, world-class, 60-atm combustor research facility, the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), is in operation and producing highly unique research data. At operating pressures to 800 psia, emissions of nitrogen oxides were reduced by greater than 70 percent with an advanced fuel injector designed at NASA Lewis. Data, including exhaust emissions and pressure and temperature distributions, were acquired at high pressures and temperatures representative of future subsonic engines. Results to date represent an improved understanding of the formation of nitrogen oxides at these high pressures (twice the pressure of previous combustor tests) and temperatures.

  19. A seismic field test with a Low-level Acoustic Combustion Source and Pseudo-Noise codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askeland, Bjørn; Ruud, Bent Ole; Hobæk, Halvor; Mjelde, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The Low-level Acoustic Combustion Source (LACS) which can fire its pulses at a high rate, has been tested successfully as a seismic marine source on shallow ice-age sediments in Byfjorden at Bergen, Norway. Pseudo-Noise pulsed signals with spiky autocorrelation functions were used to detect the sediments. Each transmitted sequence lasted 10 s and contained 43 pulses. While correlation gave a blurry result, deconvolution between the near-field recordings and the streamer recordings gave a clear seismic section. Compared to the section acquired with single air-gun shots along the same profile, the LACS gave a more clear presentation of the sediments and basement.

  20. Test results from the Department of Energy`s Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Hot Gas Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Presented here is a summary of operations and conclusions from the last two test campaigns of the Department of Energy`s Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Hot Gas Cleanup Program which was implemented by the American Electric Power Service Corporation. In these tests, the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter (APF) operated on a one-seventh flow from the Tidd 70-MWe Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor. During these tests, the filter operated as predicted with extremely high particulate removal. During the combined test periods, more than 2,800 hours of operation were accumulated -- two operational periods lasted more than 650 hours. The completion of this program brings the total coal fired operating time of the APF to 5,854 hours.

  1. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  2. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The major emphasis during this reporting period was finishing the conceptual design for the test facility and discussions on the potential expansion of the test facility. Results are discussed for the following subtasks of conceptual design: design bases; quasifier/combustor and hot stream design; balance of plant designs; and particulate collection.

  3. Combustion tests of a turbine simulator burning low Btu fuel from a fixed bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Abuaf, N.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Najewicz, D.J.; Samuels, M.S.

    1993-11-01

    One of the most efficient and environmentally compatible coal fueled power generation technologies is the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) concept. Commercialization of the IGCC/HGCU concept requires successful development of combustion systems for high temperature low Btu fuel in gas turbines. Toward this goal, a turbine combustion system simulator has been designed, constructed, and fired with high temperature low Btu fuel. Fuel is supplied by a pilot scale fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) demonstration of long term operability of the turbine simulator with high temperature low Btu fuel; (2) measurement of NO{sub x}, CO, and particulate emissions; and (3) characterization of particulates in the fuel as well as deposits in the fuel nozzle, combustor, and first stage nozzle. In a related project, a reduced scale rich-quench-lean (RQL) gas turbine combustor has been designed, constructed, and fired with simulated low Btu fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop an RQL combustor with lower conversion of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) to NO{sub x} than a conventional combustor.

  4. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen Guanyi

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  5. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen, Guanyi

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  6. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  7. A Preliminary Study on Designing and Testing of an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Powered by Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitupulu, F. H.; Daulay, F. A.; Dedy, P. M.; Denis; Jecson

    2017-03-01

    In order to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas of a combustion engine, an adsorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. This is a preliminary study on design and testing of a prototype of absorption refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion engine. The heat source of the cycle is a compression ignition engine which generates 122.36 W of heat in generator of the cycle. The pairs of absorbent and refrigerant are water and ammonia. Here the generator is made of a shell and tube heat exchanger with number of tube and its length are 20 and 0.69 m, respectively. In the experiments the exhaust gas, with a mass flow rate of 0.00016 kg/s, enters the generator at 110°C and leaves it at 72°C. Here, the solution is heated from 30°C to 90°C. In the evaporator, the lowest temperature can be reached is 17.9°C and COP of the system is 0.45. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that the proposed system can be used to recycle the waste heat and produced cooling. However, the COP is still low.

  8. Initial test results from the Department of Energy`s pressurized fluidized bed combustion Hot Gas Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Mudd, M.J. |

    1993-06-01

    In August 1989 a cooperative agreement was signed between Ohio Power Company, through its agent the American Electric Power Service Corporation, and the United States Department of Energy to assess the readiness and economic viability of high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) particulate filter systems for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) applications. In this agreement, known as the PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program, two HTHP particulate filtration systems are to be tested with one seventh of the flow from the Tidd 70-MWe PFBC Clean Coal Demonstration Plant. This paper describes the initial results from the first PFBC HGCU test and an additional proof-of-concept, pilot-scale test used to validate a ceramic candle filter element, which may be used in the second test of the PFBC HGCU Program. The first test consisted of a three-cluster filter system, incorporating 384, 1.5-meter long silicon carbide candle filters. This system utilized a one-seventh flow slipstream, approximately 7360 actual cubic feet per minute, from the Tidd 70-MWe PFBC. The proof-of-concept test is being used to qualify mullite candle filters as a potential candidate for the second test at the Tidd 70-MWe PFBC. Both filter systems were designed and fabricated by the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center.

  9. Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Pure Bulk Metals: Normal-Gravity Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental apparatus has been designed for the study of bulk metal ignition under elevated, normal and reduced gravity environments. The present work describes the technical characteristics of the system, the analytical techniques employed, the results obtained from the ignition of a variety of metals subjected to normal gravity conditions and the first results obtained from experiments under elevated gravity. A 1000 W xenon short-arc lamp is used to irradiate the top surface of a cylindrical metal specimen 4 mm in diameter and 4 mm high in a quiescent pure-oxygen environment at 0.1 MPa. Iron, titanium, zirconium, magnesium, zinc, tin, and copper specimens are investigated. All these metals exhibit ignition and combustion behavior varying in strength and speed. Values of ignition temperatures below, above or in the range of the metal melting point are obtained from the temperature records. The emission spectra from the magnesium-oxygen gas-phase reaction reveals the dynamic evolution of the ignition event. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray spectroscopic analysis provide the sequence of oxide formation on the burning of copper samples. Preliminary results on the effect of higher-than-normal gravity levels on the ignition of titanium specimens is presented.

  10. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  11. Combustion Tests of Black-Powder Substitutes for the Hand-Held Signal Flare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    candidate powders were not available in the proper granulation for tests in the flare fixtures. The granulation of the Pyrodex RS powder is visibly...The material should be granulated to the appropriate size for testing in the fixtures. The phenolpthalein substitute with the lowest pressure exponent...obtained in these tests deserves testing with probable granulation adjustment. The isopthalic acid mixture as tested in the strand burner produced

  12. The N.A.C.A. Combustion Chamber Gas-sampling Valve and Some Preliminary Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Buckley, E C

    1933-01-01

    A gas sampling valve of the inertia-operated type was designed for procuring samples of the gases in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines at identical points in successive cycles so that the analysis of the gas samples thus procured may aid in the study of the process of combustion. The operation of the valve is described. The valve was used to investigate the CO2 content of gases taken from the quiescent combustion chamber of a high speed compression-ignition engine when operating with two different multiple-orifice fuel injection nozzles. An analysis of the gas samples thus obtained shows that the state of quiescence in the combustion chamber is maintained during the combustion of the fuel.

  13. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  14. High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

    1981-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup

  15. Heat Effects of Promoters and Determination of Burn Criterion in Promoted Combustion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle M.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Lynn, David

    2010-01-01

    Promoted ignition testing (NASA Test 17) [1] is used to determine the relative flammability of metal rods in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. A promoter is used to ignite a metal sample rod, initiating sample burning. If a predetermined length of the sample burns, beyond the promoter, the material is considered flammable at the condition tested. Historically, this burn length has been somewhat arbitrary. Experiments were performed to better understand this test by obtaining insight into the effect a burning promoter has on the preheating of a test sample. Test samples of several metallic materials were prepared and coupled to fast-responding thermocouples along their length. Thermocouple measurements and test video were synchronized to determine temperature increase with respect to time and length along each test sample. A recommended flammability burn length, based on a sample preheat of 500 F, was determined based on the preheated zone measured from these tests. This length was determined to be 30 mm (1.18 in.). Validation of this length and its rationale are presented.

  16. Improved PFB operations: 400-hour turbine test results. [coal combustion products and hot corrosion in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal-burning reactor was used to provide hot effluent gases for operation of a small gas turbine. Preliminary tests determined the optimum operating conditions that would result in minimum bed particle carryover in the combustion gases. Solids were removed from the gases before they could be transported into the test turbine by use of a modified two stage cyclone separator. Design changes and refined operation procedures resulted in a significant decrease in particle carryover, from 2800 to 93 ppm (1.5 to 0.05 grains/std cu ft), with minimal drop in gas temperature and pressure. The achievement of stable burn conditions and low solids loadings made possible a 400 hr test of small superalloy rotor, 15 cm (6 in.) in diameter, operating in the effluent. Blades removed and examined metallographically after 200 hr exhibited accelerated oxidation over most of the blade surface, with subsurface alumina penetration to 20 micron m. After 400 hours, average erosion loss was about 25 micron m (1 mil). Sulfide particles, indicating hot corrosion, were present in depletion zones, and their presence corresponded in general to the areas of adherent solids deposit. Sulfidation appears to be a materials problem equal in importance to erosion.

  17. Altitude Test Chamber Investigation of Performance of a 28-inch Ram-jet Engine II : Effects of Gutter Width and Blocked Area on Operating Range and Combustion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, T B; Jones, W L; Kahn, R W

    1950-01-01

    Altitude-test-chamber investigation of effects of flame-holder blocked area and gutter width on performance of 28-inch diameter ram jet at simulated flight Mach number of 2.0 for altitudes from 40,000 to 55,000 feet was conducted at NACA Lewis laboratory. Ten flame holders investigated covered gutter widths from 1.00 to 2.50 inches and blocked areas from 40.5 to 62.0 percent of combustion-chamber area. Gutter width did not appreciably affect combustion efficiency. Increase in blocked area from 40 to 62 percent resulted in 5- to 10-percent increase in combustion efficiency. Increasing gutter width resulted in improvement in fuel-air-ratio operating range.

  18. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, October 1990--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  19. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  20. A critical evaluation of combustible/explosible dust testing methods-part 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tests were conducted by the Center for Agricultural Air Quality Engineering and Science (CAAQES) and by Safety Consulting Engineers Inc. (SCE) to determine if dust found in cotton gins (gin dust) would serve as fuel for dust explosions. In other words, is gin dust explosible? The laboratory tests us...

  1. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  2. A Combustion Research Facility for Testing Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bur, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The test facility presented herein uses a groundbased rocket combustor to test the durability of new ceramic composite and metallic materials in a rocket engine thermal environment. A gaseous H2/02 rocket combustor (essentially a ground-based rocket engine) is used to generate a high temperature/high heat flux environment to which advanced ceramic and/or metallic materials are exposed. These materials can either be an integral part of the combustor (nozzle, thrust chamber etc) or can be mounted downstream of the combustor in the combustor exhaust plume. The test materials can be uncooled, water cooled or cooled with gaseous hydrogen.

  3. Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook establishes NASA program requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials to preclude unsafe conditions related to flammability, odor, offgassing, and fluid compatibility. Materials intended for use in space vehicles, specified test facilities, and specified ground support equipment (GSE) must meet the requirements of this document. Additional materials performance requirements may be specified in other program or NASA center specific documentation. Responsible NASA centers materials organizations must include applicable requirements of this document in their materials control programs. Materials used in habitable areas of spacecraft, including the materials of the spacecraft, stowed equipment, and experiments, must be evaluated for flammability, odor, and offgassing characteristics. All materials used in other areas must be evaluated for flammability characteristics. In addition, materials that are exposed to liquid oxygen (LOX), gaseous oxygen (GOX), and other reactive fluids' must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid in their use application. Materials exposed to pressurized breathing gases also must be evaluated for odor and offgassing characteristics. The worst-case anticipated use environment (most hazardous pressure, temperature, material thickness, and fluid exposure conditions) must be used in the evaluation process. Materials that have been shown to meet the criteria of the required tests are acceptable for further consideration in design. Whenever possible, materials should be selected that have already been shown to meet the test criteria in the use environment. Existing test data are compiled in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) and published periodically as the latest revision of a joint document with Johnson Space Center (JSC), MSFC-HDBK-527/JSC 09604. MAPTIS can be accessed by computer datalink. Systems containing materials that have not

  4. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G; Hagler, L

    2002-06-01

    Steel cylindrical drums have been used for many years to transport radioactive materials. The radioactive material inserted into the drum cavity for shipping is usually restrained within its own container or containment vessel. For additional protection, the container is surrounded or supported by components made of impact-absorbent and/or thermal-insulation materials. The components are expected to protect the container and its radioactive contents under severe transportation conditions like free drops and fires. Due to its simplicity and convenience, bolted-ring drum closures are commonly used to close many drum packages. Because the structural integrity of the drum and drum closure often play a significant role in determining the package's ability to maintain sub-criticality, shielding, and containment of the radioactive contents, regulations require that the complete drum package be tested for safety performance. The structural integrity of the drum body is relatively simple to understand and analyze, whereas analyzing the integrity of the drum closure is not so simple. In summary, the drop test accomplished its mission. Because the lid and closure device separated from the drum body in the 30-ft 17.5{sup o} shallow-angle drop, the drop test confirmed that the common drum closure with a bolted ring is vulnerable to damage by a shallow-angle drop, even though the closure has been shown to survive much steeper-angle drops. The test program also demonstrated one of the mechanisms by which the shallow-angle drop opens the common bolted-ring drum closure. The separation of the drum lid and closure device from the drum body was initiated by a large outward buckling deformation of the lid and completed with minimal assistance by the round plywood boards behind the lid. The energy spent to complete the separation appeared to be only a small fraction of the total impact energy. Limited to only one test, the present test program could not explore all possible mechanisms

  5. Study of ignition, combustion, and production of harmful substances upon burning solid organic fuel at a test bench with a vortex chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Greben'kov, P. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of furnace processes upon burning of pulverized fuel at a test bench with a power of 5 MW are presented. The test bench consists of two stages with tangential air and pulverized coal feed, and it is equipped by a vibrocentrifugal mill and a disintegrator. Such milling devices have an intensive mechanical impact on solid organic fuel, which, in a number of cases, increases the reactivity of ground material. The processes of ignition and stable combustion of a mixture of gas coal and sludge (wastes of concentration plant), as well as Ekibastus coal, ground in the disintegrator, were studied at the test bench. The results of experimental burning demonstrated that preliminary fuel grinding in the disintegrator provides autothermal combustion mode even for hardly inflammable organic fuels. Experimental combustion of biomass, wheat straw with different lignin content (18, 30, 60%) after grinding in the disintegrator, was performed at the test bench in order to determine the possibility of supporting stable autothermal burning. Stable biofuel combustion mode without lighting by highly reactive fuel was achieved in the experiments. The influence of the additive GTS-Powder (L.O.M. Leaders Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) in the solid and liquid state on reducing sulfur oxide production upon burning Mugun coal was studied. The results of experimental combustion testify that, for an additive concentration from 1 to 15% of the total mass of the burned mixture, the maximum SO2 concentration reduction in ejected gases was not more than 18% with respect to the amount for the case of burning pure coal.

  6. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  7. Pyrolysis kinetics and combustion of thin wood by an advanced cone caorimetry test method

    Treesearch

    Mark Dietenberger

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics analysis of extractives, holocellulose, and lignin in the solid redwood over the entire heating regime was possible by specialized cone calorimeter test and new mathematical analysis tools. Added hardware components include: modified sample holder for the thin specimen with tiny thermocouples, the methane ring burner with stainless-steel mesh above...

  8. Pyrolysis kinetics and combustion of thin wood using advanced cone calorimetry test method

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Mechanistic pyrolysis kinetics analysis of extractives, holocellulose, and lignin in solid wood over entire heating regime was possible using specialized cone calorimeter test and new mathematical analysis tools. Added hardware components include: modified sample holder for thin specimen with tiny thermocouples, methane ring burner with stainless steel mesh above cone...

  9. METC Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. Currently two combustion rigs are operating and one additional project is under construction for the facility. Space is available in the test cells for at least one additional test rig. A pressurized pulsed combustor began operating in July of 1993. The combustor will carry out pulsed combustion of natural gas at pressures up to 10 atmospheres. A high pressure steady flow rig is currently completely fabricated. The objective of this rig is to test novel, steady-flow, pressurized combustors that produce very low NO{sub x} and other emissions. An evaporation rig currently is in startup. This rig will test the concept of water injection in an externally fired cycle. The specific technical issue that the unit will address is evaporation rates of water droplets in high pressure flows.

  10. A 3D numerical study of LO2/GH2 supercritical combustion in the ONERA-Mascotte Test-rig configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmansour, Abdelkrim; Liazid, Abdelkrim; Logerais, Pierre-Olivier; Durastanti, Jean-Félix

    2016-02-01

    Cryogenic propellants LOx/H2 are used at very high pressure in rocket engine combustion. The description of the combustion process in such application is very complex due essentially to the supercritical regime. Ideal gas law becomes invalid. In order to try to capture the average characteristics of this combustion process, numerical computations are performed using a model based on a one-phase multi-component approach. Such work requires fluid properties and a correct definition of the mixture behavior generally described by cubic equations of state with appropriated thermodynamic relations validated against the NIST data. In this study we consider an alternative way to get the effect of real gas by testing the volume-weighted-mixing-law with association of the component transport properties using directly the NIST library data fitting including the supercritical regime range. The numerical simulations are carried out using 3D RANS approach associated with two tested turbulence models, the standard k-Epsilon model and the realizable k-Epsilon one. The combustion model is also associated with two chemical reaction mechanisms. The first one is a one-step generic chemical reaction and the second one is a two-step chemical reaction. The obtained results like temperature profiles, recirculation zones, visible flame lengths and distributions of OH species are discussed.

  11. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  12. Pulse-combustion space-heater field-test-unit design. Topical report, February 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.L.; Thrasher, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    A 20,000 Btu/hr direct-vent pulse-combustion space heater that operates at steady-state thermal efficiencies in excess of 90% was developed. A new participating manufacturer joined the project in February, 1985 and supplied design requirements that served as the basis for the subsequent development work at A.G.A.L. Due to differences in the manufacturing capabilities of the original and present participating manufacturers, the combustor system and many other components were significantly redesigned. Efforts were also made to incorporate the manufacturer's marketing requirements into the design. An exhaust decoupler is included in the combustor design so that the space heater may be installed at lengths up to 15 feet from the vent termination. The model was designed to be free standing rather than wall mounted with a removable circulating air filter that may be cleaned by the occupant. Humidification of the circulating air is achieved by evaporating condensate collected in a pan at the bottom of the inner cabinet. Results of field testing of the initial prototypes indicated the importance of minimizing the overall sound pressure level of the unit. A tangential blower was incorporated in the design to decrease the contribution of the circulating air-blower noise to the overall sound level.

  13. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  14. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  15. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  16. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3: Twentieth quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Bert

    1997-02-27

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1996, 15 days of combust boiler tests were performed, including 10 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of December in the task 5 effort to 57, increased to 65 as of the date of this Report, 1/27/97. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and it completes the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives of the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Work in the next quarter will focus on even greater reductions in environmental emissions. Also tests are planned with coals other than the Eastern U.S. bituminous coals tested in this project. For example, it is planned to tests Indian coals whose ash concentration is in the 40% range.

  17. Proposed methodology for combustion toxicology testing of combined halon replacement agent/jet fuel interaction. Final report, June-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kibert, C.J.

    1993-04-01

    An international consensus to remove Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds from production and U.S. national policy to implement the resulting protocols has motivated the U.S. Air Force to embark on a program to find a suitable replacement for Halon 1211, currently used to extinguish flight line fires. This research addressed the feasibility of conducting a combustion toxicology (CT) program to assess the toxic products of the combustion interaction of JP-8 and the Group 1 or so-called Near Term candidate replacement agents for Halon 1211: HCFCs -123, -124, and -142b. A laboratory scale experiment benchmarked on large scale testing of a 150 sq ft pool fire was developed on the basis of Froude scaling of the full scale fire to a 15 x 15 cm pan fire. A prototype apparatus was developed and investigation into the use of animal behavior methods as an indicator of human incapacitation was conducted. The result is a new method which may potentially be utilized for future toxicity studies of the combustion interaction of current and future U.S. Air Force fuels with various fire extinguishants. Extinguishing agents, Halon 1211, Halon replacement, Combustion.

  18. Rocket engine high-enthalpy flow simulation using heated CO2 gas to verify the development of a rocket nozzle and combustion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeishi, K.; Ishizaka, K.; Okamoto, J.; Watanabe, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The LE-7A engine is the first-stage engine of the Japanese-made H-IIA launch vehicle. This engine has been developed by improving and reducing the price of the LE-7 engine used in the H-II launch vehicle. In the qualification combustion tests, the original designed LE-7A (LE-7A-OR) engine experienced two major problems, a large side load in the transient state of engine start and stop and melt on nozzle generative cooling tubes. The reason for the troubles of the LE-7A-OR engine was investigated by conducting experimental and numerical studies. In actual engine conditions, the main hot gas stream is a heated steam. Furthermore, the main stream temperature in the nozzle changes from approximately 3500 K at the throat to 500 K at the exit. In such a case, the specific heat ratio changes depending on the temperature. A similarity of the Mach number should be considered when conducting a model flow test with a similar flow condition of the Mach number between an actual engine combustion test and a model flow test. High-speed flow tests were conducted using CO2 gas heated up to 673 K as a working fluid and a 1:12 sub-scaled model nozzle of the LE-7A-OR engine configuration. The problems of the side force and the conducted form of the shock waves generated in the nozzle of the LE-7A-OR engine during engine start and stop were reproduced by the model tests of experimental and numerical investigations. This study presented that the model flow test using heated CO2 gas is useful and effective in verifying the numerical analysis and the design verification before actual engine combustion tests.

  19. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Seventeenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-04-07

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1996, 9 days of combust-boiler tests were performed. Between these tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. In January and early February, the modifications and installations indicated by the 6 days of testing in December 1995 were implemented. This was followed by 6 additional consecutive test days in mid- February. This was in turn followed by additional modifications, followed by a series of 3 one day, coal fired tests at end of March. These latter tests were the first ones in which slagging conditions were achieved in the combustor. The maximum thermal input was 13 MMBtu/hr, which equals two-thirds of the rated boiler heat input. The measured thermal, combustion, and slagging performance achieved in the combustor was superior to that achieved in the final series of tests conducted in Williamsport in 1993. The combustor-boiler facility is now ready for implementation of the task 5 site demonstration.

  20. Group Combustion Module (GCM) Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-27

    ISS049e011638 (09/27/2016) --- Expedition 49 crewmember Takuya Onishi of JAXA works on the setup of the Group Combustion Module (GCM) inside the Japanese Experiment Module. The GCM will be used to house the Group Combustion experiment from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to test a theory that fuel sprays change from partial to group combustion as flames spread across a cloud of droplets.

  1. Combustion characteristics of north-eastern USA vegetation tested in the cone calorimeter: invasive versus non-invasive plants

    Treesearch

    Alison C. Dibble; Robert H. White; Patricia K. Lebow

    2007-01-01

    In the north-eastern United States, invasive plants alter forest fuels, but their combustion characteristics are largely unknown. We assessed unground samples of foliage and twigs in the cone calorimeter for 21 non-invasive, native species, paired with 21 invasive species (18 non-native). Variables included sustained ignition, peak heat release rate, total heat release...

  2. Combustion detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  3. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  4. Industrial boiler combustion modification Nox controls. Volume III: stoker-coal-fired boiler field test - Site B. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, H.I.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at an industrial site. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO2, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) were compared. Test results show that applying combustion modification NOx controls did not affect total particulate emissions from ESP outlet or sulfur species emissions. Some changes in trace element partitioning occurred with the application of NOx controls. Bioassays of ash samples for LEA operation had low or nondetectable toxicity/mutagenicity.

  5. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  6. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  7. Review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion{trademark} combustion tests. Report for November 1998--January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A.; Srivastava, R.K.; Hall, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    During the late 1980s and through the 1990s, a new fossil fuel with the trade name Orimulsion has been marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil. Orimulsion, a bitumen-in-water emulsion, is produced from bitumen extracted from the Cerro Negro field of the Orinoco Belt of eastern Venezuela. Economically recoverable Orinoco bitumen reserves are estimated at 267 billion barrels (oil equivalent) representing approximately 26% of the world`s recoverable crude oil reserves and 27% of the US recoverable coal reserves. Orimulsion is produced by Bitumenes Orinoco, S.A. (Bitor), a subsidiary of PdVSA, and derives its name from the combination of Orinoco and emulsion. In 1997, the US Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency to ``initiate a research activity to provide better scientific data on the qualities and characteristics of this product and the potential environmental impact of its introduction.`` As a first step in conducting this research activity, a review of the available literature on the topic of Orimulsion combustion and emissions was undertaken. The emphasis of this review is on the emissions of air pollutants rather than on the combustion behavior of the fuel, and particular emphasis will be placed on emissions from electric utility power boilers. While the combustion characteristics of Orimulsion will be addressed, it will be addressed primarily from the perspective of its ability to strongly influence the emissions of air pollutants.

  8. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas

  9. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  10. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  11. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  12. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  13. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  14. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  15. Combustion products generating and metering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, R. E.; Klisch, J. A. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    An apparatus for generating combustion products at a predetermined fixed rate, mixing the combustion products with air to achieve a given concentration, and distributing the resultant mixture to an area or device to be tested is described. The apparatus is comprised of blowers, a holder for the combustion product generating materials (which burn at a predictable and controlled rate), a mixing plenum chamber, and a means for distributing the air combustion product mixture.

  16. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  17. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for the commercial sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS) fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr. will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 million Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. This report documents the work carried out in the seventh quarter of the program. During this period, proof-of-concept tests aimed at eliminating ash accumulation in the combustor and boiler were conducted. A compressed air soot blower system was installed on the boiler and combustor design changes implemented to reduced direct impingement of slurry on the upper chamber partition. As part of this testing, emission performance goals using Kentucky Hazard Prince Mine coal water slurry were met. Also, during this period the automatic control system for the system was installed and operation with this system was implemented.

  19. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  20. METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

  1. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  2. Initial supersonic combustion facility measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Roland H.; Whitehurst, R. Bradford, III; Abitt, John D., III; Segal, Corin; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A combustion test tunnel designed for continuous operation to 2000 K was assembled. Flow quality of a Mach 2 nozzle for use with this tunnel was examined using an array of impact probes. The performance of gas shields used to protect optical windows was examined using both shadowgraphs and planar laser induced iodine fluorescence. High speed videography was used to aid in design of pressure relief panels related to hydrogen combustion testing safety.

  3. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-01-03

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1995 the installation and checkout of the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor and auxiliary equipment in Philadelphia was completed. The task 5, Site Demonstration Testing, combustor-boiler tests on gas, oil, and coal were initiated. The task 5 effort involves testing the combustor over extended periods under conditions that fully simulate commercial operation and that meet the combustion and environmental specifications for this project. To meet this project objective within the current work scope requires up to 500 hours of testing. The focus of this testing will be on the component and environmental performance of combustor, boiler, coal preparation and feeding, and the stack gas equipment. The facility can be converted to a 500 kW power plant by the addition of a steam turbine, condenser, and cooling tower. However, this added effort is beyond the current work scope and its implementation will depend on recovering the added costs by placing the steam production from the boiler to beneficial use. During the present quarterly reporting period, all the components needed to implement the initial 100 hours of testing under task 5 were installed at the test site, and checkout of this equipment was performed. Since the present installation contained substantial improvements and simplifications to all sub-systems that had been used in the Williamsport facility, each component and sub-system had to be tested individually.

  4. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  5. Combustion modification Nox controls for utility boilers. Volume I: tangential coal-fired unit field test. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, E.B.; Goldberg, P.M.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO2, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions were compared under normal and low-NOx operating conditions. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. The test were conducted on TVA's Kingston Steam Plant, Unit 6, a 180-MW, pulverized-coal, tangentially fired, electric utility boiler with a rated capacity of 582 Mg/hr (1.28 million lb/hr) steam. Burners-out-of-service and biased-burner firing were used for NOx control.

  6. Effect of Carbonate Matrix on δ15N Analysis Tested for Simple Bulk Combustion on Coupled Elemental Analyzer-GC-IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, D.; Grossman, E. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Roark, B.; O'Dea, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) have been extensively used to reconstruct trophic structure, anthropogenic nutrient loading, ecosystem dynamics, and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and marine systems. Extending similar efforts to deep time is critical to investigate sources and fluxes of nutrients in past oceans, and explore causes of biotic turnover. To test the fidelity of N-isotope analyses of biogenic carbonate samples by simple bulk combustion, we performed two sets of experiments involving varying proportions of reagent CaCO3 (0, 2, 35 mg) and three organic standards (3.7-47.2 µg) viz. USGS40 (δ15NAir = -4.52‰), USGS41 (δ15NAir = +47.57‰), and in-house standard Rice (δ15NAir = +1.18‰). At high N contents (15-47.2 µg), δ15N values for CaCO3-amended samples are consistently either 0.5‰ higher (USGS40, -4.5‰), equivalent (Rice, 1.2‰), or 0.5‰ lower (USGS41, 47.6‰) relative to unamended samples. The difference thus depends on the δ15N of the standard relative to air. With decreasing N content (10-15 µg), δ15N values for CaCO3-amended samples diverge from expected values, with 35 mg CaCO3 samples diverging at the highest N content and 0 mg CaCO3 samples at the lowest (10 µg). The latter matches the lower sample-size limit for accurate measurement under the experimental conditions. At very low sample size (3.7-10 µg), all unamended standards show decreasing δ15N with decreasing N content, presumably because of non-linearity in instrument electronics and ion source behavior. The δ15N values of amended USGS41 also decrease with decreasing N content, but those of amended USGS40 and Rice samples increase, with samples containing more CaCO3 (35 versus 2 mg) showing greater deviation from expected values. Potential causes for deviation in δ15N values with CaCO3 amendments include N2 contamination from tin capsules and reagent CaCO3, and incomplete combustion due to energy consumption during CaCO3 decomposition. While tin capsules and reagent Ca

  7. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; ascertain instrumentation and control needs; calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and determine the feasibility of different waste-heat recovery technologies for the Frank E. Van Lare (FEV) Wastewater Treatment Plant. As an integral part of this study, current and pending federal and state regulations were evaluated to establish their impact on furnace operation and subsequent heat recovery. Of significance is the effect of the recently promulgated Federal 40 CFR Part 503 regulations on the FEV facility. Part 503 regulations were signed into law in November 1992, and, with some exceptions, affected facilities must be in compliance by February 19, 1994. Those facilities requiring modifications or upgrades to their incineration or air pollution control equipment to meet Part 503 regulations must be in compliance by February 19, 1995.

  8. 20-liter furnance test method to determine the combustion gas toxicity of conveyor belts. Report of investigations/1996

    SciTech Connect

    De Rosa, M.I.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center conducted experiments with mine conveyor belt samples in a 20-L furnace and in a laboratory fire tunnel to measure and compare the major toxic gas concentrations evolved during the combustion of the materials. The toxic gas concentrations, measured simultaneously through a multiport sampling device and treated as yield values, included hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NOx treated as NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Correlations were developed for the toxic gas yields as a function of the percentage of chlorine (for HCl gas), nitrogen (for HCN and NO2 gases), and carbon (for CO gas) contained in the original materials.

  9. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 3, Quarterly progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1993-05-01

    In the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, etc. These buildings generally require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. Objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system is a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS (Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation). The combustor concept employs centrifugal forces combined with a staged combustion process to achieve high carbon conversion efficiencies and low N oxides generation. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system includes pollution control devices to meet targeted values of SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions. In general, the system is designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. During the 8th quarter of this program, a demonstration plan was developed for installation and operation of the space heating system at an actual installation. Also, equipment upgrades were implemented and laboratory testing performed to evaluate the performance of the system with these changes.

  10. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  11. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Nineteenth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-10-27

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1996, 13 days of combust-boiler tests were performed, including 3 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a stagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of September in the task 5 effort to 41, increased to 46 as of the date of this Report, 10/27/96. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort. As reported previously, the only major modification to the Williamsport combustor has been the addition of a new downstream section, which lengthens the combustor and improves the combustor-boiler interface. The original combustor section, which includes the fuel, air, and cooling water delivery systems remained basically unchanged. Only the refractory liner was completely replaced, a task which occurs on an annual basis in all commercial stagging utility combustors. Therefore, this combustor has been operated since 1988 without replacement.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 2, Overfire air tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.L.; Hooper, M.P.

    1992-07-13

    This Phase 2 Test Report summarizes the testing activities and results for the second testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The second phase demonstrates the Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) retrofit with existing Foster Wheeler (FWEC) burners. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data supported by short-term characterization data. Ultimately a fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction target using combinations of combustion modifications has been established for this project.

  13. Mock-up tests on the combustion of hydrogen air mixture in the vertical tube simulating the CNS channel of the CARR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Xu, Jian

    2007-01-01

    A two-phase thermo-siphon loop for removing nuclear heating and maintaining the stable liquid level in the moderator cell was adopted for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China advanced research reactor (CARR). The moderator is liquid hydrogen. The two-phase thermo-siphon loop consists of the crescent-shape moderator cell, the moderator transfer tube, and the condenser. The hydrogen is supplied from the buffer tank to the condenser. The main feature of the loop is that the moderator cell is covered by the helium sub-cooling system. The cold helium gas from the helium refrigerator is firstly introduced into the helium sub-cooling system and then flows up through the tube covering the moderator transfer tube into the condenser. The main part of this system is installed in the CNS vertical channel made of aluminum alloy 6061 T6 (Al-6061-T6) of 6 mm in thickness, 270 mm in outer diameter and about 6 m in height. For confirming the safety of the CNS channel, the combustion tests using a tube compatible with the CNS channel were carried out using the hydrogen-air mixture under which air is introduced into the tube at 1 atmosphere, and then hydrogen gas is supplied from the gas cylinder up to the test pressures. And maximum test pressure is 0.14 MPa G. This condition is involved with the maximum design basis accident of the CARR-CNS. The peak pressure due to combustion was 1.09 MPa, and the design pressure of the CNS channel is 3 MPa. The safety of the CNS was thus verified even if the maximum design basis accident occurs. The pressure and stress distributions along the axial direction and the displacement of the tube were also measured.

  14. Safety Design and Mock-Up Tests on the Combustion of Hydrogen-Air Mixture in the Vertical CNS Channel of the CARR-CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Qingfeng Yu; Quanke Feng

    2006-07-01

    A two-phase thermo-siphon loop is applied to the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). The moderator is liquid hydrogen. The two-phase thermo-siphon consists of the crescent-shape moderator cell, the moderator transfer tube, and the condenser. The hydrogen is supplied from the buffer tank to the condenser. The most characteristic point is that the cold helium gas is introduced into the helium sub-cooling system covering the moderator cell and then flows up through the tube covering the moderator transfer tube into the condenser. The helium sub-cooling system also reduces the void fraction of the liquid hydrogen and takes a role of the helium barrier for preventing air from intruding into the hydrogen system. We call the two-phase thermo-siphon the hydrogen cold system. The main part of this system is installed in the CNS channel made of 6061 aluminum alloy (6061A) of 6 mm in thickness, 270 mm in outer diameter and about 6 m in height. For confirming the safety of the CNS, the combustion tests were carried out using the hydrogen-air mixture under the conditions in which air is introduced into the tube at 1 atmosphere, and then hydrogen gas is supplied from the gas cylinder up to the test pressures. And maximum test pressure is 0.140 MPa Gauge (G). This condition includes the design accident of the CNS. The peak pressure due to combustion is 1.09 MPa, and the design strength of the CNS channel is 3 MPa. The safety of the CNS was thus verified even if the design basis accident occurs. The pressure distribution, the stress, and the displacement of the tube were also measured. (authors)

  15. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  16. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-05-17

    In the present reporting period, the first quarter of calendar year 1993, the effort was divided between Task 2. ``Pre Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan.`` A major part of the task 2 effort was devoted converting the nozzle from adiabatic to air cooted operation. This conversion will allow immediate implementation of the longer duration task 3.2 tests after the completion of the task 2 tests. Therefore, a significant pan of the exit nozzle conversion effort is also part of task 3.1, ``Combustor Refurbishment.`` In task 1 the only activity remaining is to receive the results of the BYU combustion modeling. The results are anticipated this Spring. One of the three remaining tests in task 2 was implemented in late January under freezing weather and snow conditions. Ice plugged the coal feed lines and stack scrubber water outlet and ice jammed and damaged the coal metering auger. While these lines were thawed, the combustor was fired with oil. The coal used in this test contained fine fibrous tramp material which passed through the two tramp material retaining screens and eventually plugged several of the coal feed lines to the combustor. This cut the planned coal feed rate in half. As a result it was decided for the next test to increase the number of coal injection ports by 50% in order to provide excess capacity in the pneumatic feed feed. This will allow continued operation even in the presence of fine tramp material in the coal.

  17. Industrial boiler combustion modification Nox controls. Volume II: stoker-coal-fired boiler field test - Site A. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, P.M.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at an industrial site. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO/sub 2/, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions, were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. This unit is a spreader-stoker coal-fired boiler rated at 38 kg/s (300,000 lb/hr) of steam. The fuel tested was low-sulfur coal. High overfire air firing (constant overall air flow) was used for NOx control. These measures reduced NOx by about 10% from baseline. Increased overfire air levels also improved boiler efficiency. These tests lasted about 5 hours; long-term operation under test conditions was not addressed in this program. Test results suggest that applying combustion modification NOx controls increased particulate and organic emissions.

  18. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  19. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit test report. Test report, August 6--October 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1993-06-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology M demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective NonCatalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the third phase of the test program, where the performance of the retrofit low-NO{sub x} combustion system is compared to that of the original combustion system. This third test phase was comprised of an optimization of the operating conditions and settings for the burners and overfire air ports, followed by an investigation of the performance of the low-NO{sub x} combustion system as a function of various operating parameters. These parameters included boiler load, excess air level, overfire air flow rate and number of mills in service. In addition, emissions under normal load following operation were compared to those collected during the optimization and parametric performance tests under baseloaded conditions. The low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit resulted in NO{sub x} reductions of 63 to 69 percent, depending on boiler load. The majority of the NO{sub x} reduction was obtained with the low-NO{sub x} burners, as it was shown that the overfire air system provided little additional NO{sub x} reduction for a fixed excess air level. CO emissions and flyash carbon levels did not increase as a result of the retrofit.

  20. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  1. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  2. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation and a detailed wet-CO mechanism to complete the combustion process. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustion efficiency of an unielement, tripropellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  3. Direct simulation of turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsot, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding and modeling of turbulent combustion are key-problems in the computation of numerous practical systems. Because of the lack of analytical theories in this field and of the difficulty of performing precise experiments, direct simulation appears to be one of the most attractive tools to use in addressing this problem. The present work can be split into two parts: (1) Development and validation of a direct simulation method for turbulent combustion; (2) Applications of the method to premixed turbulent combustion problems. The goal of part 1 is to define and to test a numerical method for direct simulation of reacting flows. A high level of confidence should be attached to direct simulation results, and this can only be achieved through extensive validation tests. In part 2, direct simulation is used to address some of the many critical problems related to turbulent combustion. At the present time, I have limited this work to premixed combustion and considered only four basic issues: (1) The effect of pressure waves on flame propagation; (2) The interaction between flame fronts and vortices; (3) The influence of curvature on premixed flame fronts; and (4) The validation of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion.

  4. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1992-10-23

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and proof-of-concept (POC) testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. The objective of this program is to design, build and test a coal based heating system for this sector and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel has been chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering and dusting problems as well as its explosive potential. Equally important in selecting a fuel form is the impact on emission levels and pollution control equipment requirements. CWS is amenable to coal washing since coal cleaning technologies are generally water-based processes requiring the fine grinding of the coal. In the first stage. an overall system heat balance was prepared, system components were designed and manufactured or purchased, the system was fully assembled and preliminary testing performed to validate component performance and identify key operating variables. In the second stage the system was operated for prolonged periods to simulate a commercial application, and combustion and thermal efficiencies; tendencies to slag, foul, erode and corrode; and gaseous and particulate emissions were evaluated. Also during the second stage, an assessment of the commercial viability of the system was made. This assessment included an evaluation of the economics and market potential, including the sensitivity to fluctuations in fuel prices.

  5. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  6. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Quarterly technical progress report, November 15, 1989--February 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Elston, J.T.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1990-04-06

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) operations and disposition. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, slagging and fouling factors, erosion and corrosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits. Progress for this quarter is summarized.

  7. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Eighteenth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-08-18

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1996, 16 days of combust- boiler tests were performed, including 2 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of June in the task 5 effort to 28, increased to 36 as of the date of this Report, 8/18/96. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort. It is important to note that the only major modification to the Williamsport combustor has been the addition of a new downstream section, which lengthens the combustor and improves the combustor-boiler interface. The original combustor section, which includes the fuel, air, and cooling water delivery systems remained basically unchanged. Only the refractory liner was completely replaced, a task which occurs on an annual basis in all commercial slagging utility combustors. Therefore, this combustor has been operated since 1988 without replacement. The tests in the present reporting period are of major significance in that beginning with the first test on March 31st, for the first time slagging opening conditions were achieved in the upgraded combustor. The first results showed that the present 20 MMBtu/hr combustor design is far superior to the previous one tested since 1988 in Williamsport, PA. The most important change is that over 95% of the slag was drained from the slag tap in the combustor. This compares with an range of one-third to one-half in Williamsport. In the latter, the balance of the slag flowed out of the exit nozzle into the boiler floor. In addition, the overall system performance, including the combustor, boiler, and stack equipment, ranged from good to excellent. Those areas requiring improvement were of a nature that could be corrected with some work. but in no case were the problems encountered of a barrier type.

  8. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  9. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  10. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  12. Determining Heats of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Puster, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Enrichment-oxygen flow rate-ratio related to heat of combustion. Technique developed for determining heats of combustion of natural-gas samples. Based on measuring ratio m/n, where m is (volmetric) flow rate of oxygen required to enrich carrier air in which test gas flowing at rate n is burned, such that mole fraction of oxygen in combustion-product gases equals that in carrier air. The m/n ratio directly related to heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons present in natural gas.

  13. Advanced Booster Liquid Engine Combustion Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; Gentz, Steve; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability is a phenomenon in liquid rocket engines caused by complex coupling between the time-varying combustion processes and the fluid dynamics in the combustor. Consequences of the large pressure oscillations associated with combustion instability often cause significant hardware damage and can be catastrophic. The current combustion stability assessment tools are limited by the level of empiricism in many inputs and embedded models. This limited predictive capability creates significant uncertainty in stability assessments. This large uncertainty then increases hardware development costs due to heavy reliance on expensive and time-consuming testing.

  14. Integrated method for combustion stability prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. C.; O'Hara, L.; Smith, R. J.; Anderson, W. E.; Merkle, C. L.

    2011-10-01

    Major obstacles in overcoming combustion instability include the absence of a mechanistic and a priori prediction capability, and the difficulty in studying instability in the laboratory due to the perceived need for testing at the full-scale pressure and geometry to ensure that important processes are maintained. A hierarchal approach toward combustion instability is described that comprises experiment, analysis, and highfidelity computation to develop combustion response submodels that can be used in engineering-level design analysis. The paper provides an illustrative example of how these elements are used to develop a prediction for growth rates in model rocket combustors that generate spontaneous longitudinal combustion instabilities.

  15. Development and testing of an industrial scale coal fired slagging combustion system, Phase 3. Task 2.1, Preliminary systems test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-11

    The planned effort for the task 2 tests has four major objectives. They are computer controlled combustor operation, optimization of SO2 reduction, combustor materials durability, and testing focused on application to industrial coal fired boilers. Several major advances in the combustor development have occurred since this original plan was proposed in 1991. Some of these advances occurred in tests performed in a project that was completed in June 1992, while others occurred during the design and shakedown tests of equipment that was installed in task I of this project. Therefore, the present test plan is based on the current status of the combustor technology, and it differs somewhat from the preliminary test plan that was prepared in April 1992. Depending on the results in the early tests in this task, further test plan modifications may be required. However, the general objectives will most probably remain unchanged.

  16. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  17. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  18. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  19. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  20. Characterization and wall compatibility testing of a 40K pound thrust class swirl-coaxial injector and calorimeter combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, E. L.; Rozelle, R.; Borgel, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Subscale injector-combustor tests under the NASA Space Transportation Engine Thrust Chamber Technology program measured characteristic velocity (c-asterisk) efficiencies and wall heat fluxes for the pressure range 1710 psia to 2360 psia and for the overall O2/H2 mixture ratio range 5.5 to 6.4. Tests involving radially-uniform mixture ratio profiles produced c-asterisk efficiencies above 99 percent; nonuniform profiles associated with wall durability-enhancement schemes resulted in lower efficiencies. Though all three wall protection methods proved successful at reducing wall heat flux, scarfing of the outer-row, swirl-coaxial injection elements was the technique which resulted in the least debit in c-asterisk per unit reduction in heat flux.

  1. Characterization and wall compatibility testing of a 40K pound thrust class swirl-coaxial injector and calorimeter combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, E. L.; Rozelle, R.; Borgel, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Subscale injector-combustor tests under the NASA Space Transportation Engine Thrust Chamber Technology program measured characteristic velocity (c-asterisk) efficiencies and wall heat fluxes for the pressure range 1710 psia to 2360 psia and for the overall O2/H2 mixture ratio range 5.5 to 6.4. Tests involving radially-uniform mixture ratio profiles produced c-asterisk efficiencies above 99 percent; nonuniform profiles associated with wall durability-enhancement schemes resulted in lower efficiencies. Though all three wall protection methods proved successful at reducing wall heat flux, scarfing of the outer-row, swirl-coaxial injection elements was the technique which resulted in the least debit in c-asterisk per unit reduction in heat flux.

  2. Combustion modification controls for stationary gas turbines. Volume II: Utility unit field test. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, R.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at Houston Lighting and Power's T.H. Wharton Generating Station, Unit 52. The aim of the program was to measure emissions changes resulting from applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO2, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions, were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. Unit 52 is a General Electric MS 7001C simple-cycle, single-shaft, heavy duty gas turbine, rated at 70.8 MW nominal electrical output. This gas turbine may use either natural gas or distillate oil fuels. The test program was conducted using oil fuel. Water injection was used for NOx control.

  3. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), a unique, state-of-the-art facility for conducting combustion research, is located at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The ASCR, which was nearing completion at the close of 1995, will be capable of simulating the very high pressure and high temperature conditions that are expected to exist in future, advanced subsonic gas turbine (jet) engines. Future environmental regulations will require much cleaner burning (more environmentally friendly) aircraft engines. The ASCR is critical to the development of these cleaner engines. It will allow NASA and U.S. aircraft engine industry researchers to identify and test promising clean-burning gas turbine engine combustion concepts under the pressure and temperature conditions that are expected for those future engines. Combustion processes will be investigated for a variety of next-generation aircraft engine sizes, including engines for large, long-range aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 3000 mi) and for regional aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 400 mi). The ASCR design was conceived and initiated in 1993, and fabrication and construction of the rig, including the buildup of an advanced control room, took place throughout 1994 and 1995. In early 1996, the ASCR will be operational for obtaining research data. The ASCR is an intricate part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program, which is aimed at developing technologies critical to the next generation of gas turbine engines. This effort is in collaboration with the U.S. aircraft gas turbine engine industry. A goal of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program is to develop combustion concepts and technologies that will result in gas turbine engines that produce 50 percent less nitrous oxide (NO_x) pollutants than current engines do. This facility is unique in its capability to simulate advanced subsonic engine pressure, temperature, and air flow rate conditions

  4. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  5. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  6. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  7. DNA damage induced by coal dust, fly and bottom ash from coal combustion evaluated using the micronucleus test and comet assay in vitro.

    PubMed

    Matzenbacher, Cristina Araujo; Garcia, Ana Letícia Hilario; Dos Santos, Marcela Silva; Nicolau, Caroline Cardoso; Premoli, Suziane; Corrêa, Dione Silva; de Souza, Claudia Telles; Niekraszewicz, Liana; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Delgado, Tânia Valéria; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Grivicich, Ivana; da Silva, Juliana

    2017-02-15

    Coal mining and combustion generating huge amounts of bottom and fly ash are major causes of environmental pollution and health hazards due to the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. The Candiota coalfield in Rio Grande do Sul, is one of the largest open-cast coal mines in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and mutagenic effects of coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples from Candiota with the comet assay (alkaline and modified version) and micronucleus test using the lung fibroblast cell line (V79). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of PAH and inorganic elements was carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques respectively. The samples demonstrated genotoxic and mutagenic effects. The comet assay modified using DNA-glicosilase formamidopirimidina (FPG) endonuclease showed damage related to oxidative stress mechanisms. The amount of PAHs was higher in fly ash followed by pulverized coal. The amount of inorganic elements was highest in fly ash, followed by bottom ash. It is concluded that the samples induce DNA damage by mechanisms that include oxidative stress, due to their complex composition, and that protective measures have to be taken regarding occupational and environmental hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Batch tests on mineral deposit formation due to co-mingling of leachates derived from municipal solid wastes and waste-to-energy combustion residues.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Antonio J; Levine, Audrey D

    2009-02-01

    Deposit formation in leachate collection systems can be problematic for landfill operations. Deposits from municipal solid waste (MSW) derived leachates are impacted by microbial activity and biofilm development, whereas leachates generated from co-disposal of MSW with combustion residues (CR) from waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities and other mineral-rich waste materials are more prone to forming dense mineral deposits dominated by calcium carbonate. In this study, leachates from laboratory lysimeters containing either WTE-CR or shredded MSW were mixed at different volumetric ratios. The mixed leachates were incubated for 5 weeks in batch tests to evaluate the potential for formation of precipitates. Although mineral precipitates have been reported to form in landfills with no co-disposal practices, in this study mineral precipitates did not form in either the WTE-CR derived leachate or the MSW derived leachate, but formed in all leachate mixtures. Mineral precipitates consisted of calcium carbonate particles, with the highest yield from a 1:1 combination of the WTE-CR derived leachate mixed with the MSW derived leachate. The introduction of gaseous carbon dioxide or air into WTE-CR derived leachate resulted in the production of particles of similar chemical composition but different morphology. Operation of landfills to prevent co-mingling of mineral-rich leachates with microbially active leachates and/or to control leachate exposure to sources of carbon dioxide may help to prevent this type of precipitate formation in leachate collection systems.

  9. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  10. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  11. Shakedown and Preliminary Calibration Tests for the Fuel Engine Evaluation System Using the KM914A Sachs Rotary Combustion Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Fuel Rates vs Engine Speed 18 DI Dynamometer Torque Measurement 39 D2 Temperature Entropy Diagram For Test RC30 42 D3 Adiabatic Saturation Process 43...air ratio (F) is calculated from ff F = -- (9) m a where rhf = mass fuel flow rate ma PaQa where Qa = volumetric flow rate of dry air Pa = density of...air flow before the comba.ition process . This process usually leads to so called part throttle performance flat spots that are evident at 2500 and

  12. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Combustion Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user, two-rack facility dedicated to combustion and fluids science in the US Laboratory Destiny on the International Space Station. FCF is a permanent facility that is capable of accommodating up to ten combustion and fluid science investigations per year. FCF research in combustion and fluid science supports NASA's Exploration of Space Initiative for on-orbit fire suppression, fire safety, and space system fluids management. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two racks in the FCF. The CIR major structural elements include the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR), Experiment Assembly (optics bench and combustion chamber), Air Thermal Control Unit (ATCU), Rack Door, and Lower Structure Assembly (Input/Output Processor and Electrical Power Control Unit). The load path through the rack structure is outlined. The CIR modal survey was conducted to validate the load path predicted by the CIR finite element model (FEM). The modal survey is done by experimentally measuring the CIR frequencies and mode shapes. The CIR model was test correlated by updating the model to represent the test mode shapes. The correlated CIR model delivery is required by NASA JSC at Launch-10.5 months. The test correlated CIR flight FEM is analytically integrated into the Shuttle for a coupled loads analysis of the launch configuration. The analysis frequency range of interest is 0-50 Hz. A coupled loads analysis is the analytical integration of the Shuttle with its cargo element, the Mini Payload Logistics Module (MPLM), in the Shuttle cargo bay. For each Shuttle launch configuration, a verification coupled loads analysis is performed to determine the loads in the cargo bay as part of the structural certification process.

  13. Fluidised-bed combustion. IEA Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidised-Bed Test Facility back-end valves: history and modification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The pressure of the combustor freeboard is controlled by one of three back-end pressure control valves. The back-end valves are so called as they are situated at the back end of the exhaust gas system at the outlet of the main exhaust gas heat exchanger. In normal operation one of the valves is on pressure control duty, another on pressure relief duty, and the third is shut and available for operation on control or relief duty. These valves are subjected to a very arduous duty: temperatures of up to 350/sup 0/C to 375/sup 0/C with pressure drops of approximately 8 bar, and an estimated solids content of up to 400 ppM in the exhaust gases. Severe erosion on the valves seats, shafts, seals and upstream and downstream pipework has occurred and a large amount of remedial work has been carried out on the valves and adjacent pipework. This report describes the history of the valve erosion, the maintenance/remedial work carried out, and the steps being taken to attempt to solve the problem for future tests.

  14. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-12-15

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities.

  15. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  16. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  17. The effect of fuel and air agitation on the combustion process in a low-emission combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Gorban', V. D.

    2013-09-01

    Methods for numerically simulating the working process in low-emission combustion chamber and for testing it are described. A method of using numerical simulation for predicting NO x emission and combustion process stability in a low-emission combustion chamber is proposed.

  18. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties.

  19. Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    NASA Glenn engineer Chris Mroczka installs a gas-jet burner in a chamber within the center’s Combustion Integrated Rack. This chamber is where scientists conduct gaseous combustion experiments in a zero gravity environment.

  20. Results from expert tests of the TP-100A boiler at the Lugansk thermal power station during the combustion of lean coal and anthracite culm with addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Malygin, V. I.; Yazykov, Yu. V.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Results from expert tests of separated combustion of Grade T and Grade ASh anthracite culm in the TP-100A boiler No. 15 at the Lugansk thermal power station carried out with and without addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid are presented. The possibility of extending the boiler load adjustment range and excluding the use of natural gas for supporting the flame at minimal loads is considered.

  1. Combustion by pulsed jet plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Beltramo, J.; Faris, D.W.; Maxson, J.A.; Hom, K.; Stewart, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Pulsed Jet Combustion (PJC) is introduced in this paper as a key element for engines where the progress of combustion is interactively controlled by a microprocessor system. Practical realization of PJC presented here involves the use of an 18 mm plug containing a cavity, where a rich mixture is ignited by a conventional spark discharge, closed by a tip with a suitable orifice to form the effluent stream. Its performance is determined by tests carried out in a constant volume vessel, simulating the enclosure of a CFR engine at 60 CAD with compression ratio of 7:1, using propane/air mixtures at equivalence ratios of an order of 0.6, in comparison to that of a flame traversing the charge, a so-called FTC mode, upon ignition by standard spark discharge under identical geometrical and initial thermochemical conditions. The results demonstrate the superiority of PJC for executing the exothermic process of combustion in a lean burn engine.

  2. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-20

    future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean... future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability...C. Bruno, Italy 1430-1500 Technology to Ramjet Combustion Application of FLameless H. Mongia , GE Transportation, 1500-1530 Combustion (FLC) for

  3. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  4. Pulse combustion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, J.A.

    1986-07-22

    A pulse combustion apparatus is described which includes: a combustion chamber; an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe forming a resonant system with the combustion chamber and a generally cylindrical exhaust cushion chamber downstream of the exhaust pipe for receiving combustion gases from the pipe and communicating with an exhaust outlet form the apparatus; means for delivering successive fuel charges to the chamber; combustion air supply means including a housing of generally rectangular, box shape enclosing the exhaust cushion chamber and defining a space around the chamber through which combustion air can be conducted from an air inlet to the combustion chamber for permitting heat exchange between exhaust gases in the exhaust cushion chamber and the combustion air when the apparatus is in operation, for pre-heating the combustion air; means adapted to cause combustion air to flow in a convoluted path in the space for promoting improved heat transfer between exhaust gases in the chamber and the combustion air, the means comprising partitions between the exhaust cushion chamber and housing extending generally longitudinally of the exhaust cushion chamber and arranged to cause the combustion air to flow alternately from end to end of the chamber in the convoluted path.

  5. Testing the National Combustion Code

    NASA Image and Video Library

    During their summer internships at NASA centers this year, Aeronautics Academy and Aeronautics Scholarship Program interns produced videos about their work for the NASA Aeronautics "Ideas in Flight...

  6. Combustion of Unconfined Droplet Clusters in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the confounding effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would fill a large gap in our current understanding of droplet and spray combustion and provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. This paper describes the design and performance of the 1-g experimental apparatus, some preliminary 1-g results, and plans for testing in microgravity.

  7. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  8. Passive Nosetip Technology (PANT) Program. Volume XI. Analysis and Review of the ABRES Combustion Test Facility for High Pressure Hyperthermal Reentry Nosetip Systems Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    HYPERTHERMAL REENTRY NOSETIP SYSTEMS TESTS R. E. Maurer, et al Acurex Corporation Prepared for: Space and Missile Systems Organization April 19741...E. Maurer E. K. Chu Aerothe.m Division/Acurex Corporation SAMSO-TR-74-86 DDC April 1974 1. T-•FES 󈧕 1976 !t AEROTHERM REPORT 74-100 L.,.L.t...Report This report was prepared by Aerotherm Division/Acurex Corporation under Contract F04701-71-C-0027. Volumes I through IX covered PANT activities

  9. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  10. Investigation of GH2-GO2 combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoon, D. F.

    1972-01-01

    Data from prototype GO2-GH2 injection elements were obtained and analyzed. The bulk of the testing was conducted with nonreacting propellants, N2 to simulate the O2 and H2. A limited number of tests were conducted in combusting environment, with the purpose of this testing being to evaluate the effects of combustion on cold flow mixture ratio and mass profiles. The cold flow testing was completed in 223 tests. Analytical model correlations of these data are under way. The hot flow testing was completed in 36 tests. These data have been reduced and are documented in the report.

  11. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  12. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 -- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 1, Test results

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume of the report.

  13. On-line measurement of heat of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

  14. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  15. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  16. The In-Plume Emission Test Stand: an instrument platform for the real-time characterization of fuel-based combustion emissions.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Zhu, Dongzi; Kuhns, Hampden D; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Chang, M-C Oliver; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G

    2009-12-01

    The In-Plume Emission Test Stand (IPETS) characterizes gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from combustion sources in real time. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and other gases are quantified with a closed-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Particle concentrations, chemical composition, and other particle properties are characterized with an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI), a light-scattering particle detector, an optical particle counter, and filter samples amenable to different laboratory analysis. IPETS measurements of fuel-based emission factors for a diesel generator are compared with those from a Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). IPETS emission factors ranged from 0.3 to 11.8, 0.2 to 3.7, and 22.2 to 32.8 g/kg fuel for CO, NO2, and NO, respectively. IPETS PM emission factors ranged from 0.4 to 1.4, 0.3 to 1.8, 0.3 to 2.2, and 1 to 3.4 g/kg fuel for filter, photoacoustic, nephelometer, and impactor measurements, respectively. Observed linear regression statistics for IPETS versus MEL concentrations were as follows: CO slope = 1.1, r2 = 0.99; NO slope = 1.1, r2 = 0.92; and NO2 slope = 0.8, r2 = 0.96. IPETS versus MEL PM regression statistics were: filter slope = 1.3, r2 = 0.80; ELPI slope = 1.7, r2 = 0.87; light-scattering slope = 2.7, r2 = 0.92; and photoacoustic slope = 2.1, r2 = 0.91. Lower temperatures in the dilution air (approximately 25 degrees C for IPETS vs. approximately 50 degrees C for MEL) may result in greater condensation of semi-volatile compounds on existing particles, thereby explaining the 30% difference for filters. The other PM measurement devices are highly correlated with the filter, but their factory-default PM calibration factors do not represent the size and optical properties of diesel exhaust. They must be normalized to a simultaneous filter measurement.

  17. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  18. Pulse combustion space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, W.H.; Pavlik, C.M.; Moon, L.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a pulse combustion space heater for heating air in a space to be temperature conditioned. It comprises: a cabinet having exterior walls providing a cabinet volume for enclosing and supporting the heater, interior housing means located within the cabinet volume including walls providing a substantially closed heat transfer chamber having inlet and outlet openings through which air to be heated is circulated and a chamber volume substantially smaller than the cabinet volume, pulse combustion burner means including an assembly of closely spaced elongate burner elements operably connected in a fluid-tight manner for pulse combustion of a combustible gaseous mixture and discharge of combustion products to the atmosphere. The burner elements having exterior heat transfer surface located within the heat transfer chamber for transfer of combustion heat to air contacting the heat transfer surfaces, and blower means for circulating air from the space through the heat transfer chamber.

  19. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  20. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  1. Fuels Combustion Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-18

    uncertainties in the future sources and characteristics of fuels has emphasized the need to better understand fuel effects on combustion , e.g. energy release...experimentally to be made. Unsuccessful comparisons can lead to impro- vements in modelling concepts . Two simplified models for the combustion of slurry...AD-A149 186 FUELS COMBUSTION RESEACCH(U) PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF i/i MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING F L DRYER ET AL. 18 JUL 84 NAE-i668 AFOSR

  2. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  3. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  4. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-07-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  5. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  6. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  7. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-06-01

    The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and missions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects test; and full-scale combustion tests.

  8. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  9. Large-scale coherent structures as drivers of combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Gutmark, E.; Parr, T.P.; Parr, D.M.; Wilson, K.J.

    1987-06-01

    The role of flow coherent structures as drivers of combustion instabilities in a dump combustor was studied. Results of nonreacting tests in air and water flows as well as combustion experiments in a diffusion flame and dump combustor are discussed to provide insight into the generation process of large-scale structures in the combustor flow and their interaction with the combustion process. It is shown that the flow structures, or vortices, are formed by interaction between the flow instabilities and the chamber acoustic resonance. When these vortices dominate the reacting flow, the combustion is confined to their cores, leading to periodic heat release, which may result in the driving of high amplitude pressure oscillations. These oscillations are typical to the occurrence of combustion instabilities for certain operating conditions. The basic understanding of the interaction between flow dynamics and the combustion process opens up the possibility for rational control of combustion-induced pressure oscillations. 42 references.

  10. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  11. Real time identification of the internal combustion engine combustion parameters based on the vibration velocity signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuliang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limei; Ji, Shaobo

    2017-03-01

    Accurate combustion parameters are the foundations of effective closed-loop control of engine combustion process. Some combustion parameters, including the start of combustion, the location of peak pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate and its location, can be identified from the engine block vibration signals. These signals often include non-combustion related contributions, which limit the prompt acquisition of the combustion parameters computationally. The main component in these non-combustion related contributions is considered to be caused by the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) of engine crank train. A mathematical model is established to describe the response of the RIFE. The parameters of the model are recognized with a pattern recognition algorithm, and the response of the RIFE is predicted and then the related contributions are removed from the measured vibration velocity signals. The combustion parameters are extracted from the feature points of the renovated vibration velocity signals. There are angle deviations between the feature points in the vibration velocity signals and those in the cylinder pressure signals. For the start of combustion, a system bias is adopted to correct the deviation and the error bound of the predicted parameters is within 1.1°. To predict the location of the maximum pressure rise rate and the location of the peak pressure, algorithms based on the proportion of high frequency components in the vibration velocity signals are introduced. Tests results show that the two parameters are able to be predicted within 0.7° and 0.8° error bound respectively. The increase from the knee point preceding the peak value point to the peak value in the vibration velocity signals is used to predict the value of the maximum pressure rise rate. Finally, a monitoring frame work is inferred to realize the combustion parameters prediction. Satisfactory prediction for combustion parameters in successive cycles is achieved, which

  12. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  13. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  14. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  15. LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. J.; Dodson, H. C.; Claflin, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    The LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation Program was structured to determine if the use of light hydrocarbon combustion fuels with liquid oxygen (LOX) produces combustion performance and stability behavior similar to the LOX/hydrogen propellant combination. In particular methane was investigated to determine if that fuel can be rated for combustion instability using the same techniques as previously used for LOX/hydrogen. These techniques included fuel temperature ramping and stability bomb tests. The hot fire program probed the combustion behavior of methane from ambient to subambient temperatures. Very interesting results were obtained from this program that have potential importance to future LOX/methane development programs. A very thorough and carefully reasoned documentation of the experimental data obtained is contained. The hot fire test logic and the associated tests are discussed. Subscale performance and stability rating testing was accomplished using 40,000 lb. thrust class hardware. Stability rating tests used both bombs and fuel temperature ramping techniques. The test program was successful in generating data for the evaluation of the methane stability characteristics relative to hydrogen and to anchor stability models. Data correlations, performance analysis, stability analyses, and key stability margin enhancement parameters are discussed.

  16. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  17. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  18. Hypersonic combustion of hydrogen in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Stalker, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported on shock-tunnel experiments testing the feasibility of hypersonic combustion and thrust generation in a hydrogen scramjet model. Tests with a constant-area duct show that hypersonic combustion is possible with a central injection at static intake pressures of about 20 kPa. The results of a comparison made between model configurations with nominal combustion-chamber intake Mach numbers of 4 and 6 indicated that the hypersonic duct gives a better performance at flight enthalpies above 7 mJ/kg. It is argued that the lower temperatures associated with hypersonic flow produce more efficient combustion.

  19. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2000-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation, and a detailed wet-CO mechanism. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustor efficiency of an uni-element, tri-propellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  20. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  1. Laser Schlieren and ultraviolet diagnostics of rocket combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure oxygen/hydrogen turbine drive combustor hot-fire test series was conducted on the Turbine Drive Combustor Technology Program. The first objective was to gather data on an axisymmetric combustion system to support anchoring of a new combustion/fluid dynamics computer code under development on the same contract. The second objective was to gain insight into low mixture ratio combustion characteristics of coaxial injector elements.

  2. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  3. New Combustion Regimes and Kinetic Studies of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion Nov.6-7, 2012 MURI Plasma 3rd Yr Review Meeting MURI Topic #11: Chemical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Flow reactor Species and kinetics (Ju) 1. New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of in situ plasma discharge in counterflow flames

  4. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  5. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  6. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  7. REDUCTION OF NOx VIA COAL COMBUSTION CATALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    George Ford; Stan Harding; Jeff Hare

    2003-04-28

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different iron catalysts on the production of NO{sub x} during fuel-rich and fuel-lean combustion of coal. Iron in various forms and quantities will be introduced with the pulverized coal and tested in a laboratory-scale combustion furnace. The testing protocol is based on simulation of the near burner region in a full-scale boiler. This semi-annual report describes the selection of the iron catalysts used in the program as well as catalyst preparation. A detailed description of the combustion reactor and ancillary equipment is provided combined with a discussion of the test procedures. The first preliminary data have been collected and are presented followed by the plans to complete the project over the next six months.

  8. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  9. Metals combustion in normal gravity and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Benz, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the combustion characteristics of metallic materials has been an ongoing area of research at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This research has been in support of both government and industrial operations and deals not only with the combustion of specific metallic materials but also with the relative flammabilities of these materials under similar conditions. Since many of the metallic materials that are characterized at WSTF for aerospace applications are to be used in microgravity environments, it was apparent that the testing of these materials needed to proceed in a microgravity environment. It was believed that burning metallic materials in a microgravity environment would allow the evaluation of the validity of applying normal gravity combustion tests to characterize metallic materials to be used in microgravity environments. It was also anticipated that microgravity testing would provide insight into the general combustion process of metallic materials. The availability of the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) 2.2-second drop tower provided the necessary facility to accomplish the microgravity portion of the testing while the normal gravity testing was conducted at NASA WSTF. The tests, both at LeRC and WSTF, were conducted in the same instrumented system and utilized the standard metal flammability test of upward propagation burning of cylindrical rod samples.

  10. GRCop-84 Development for Combustion Chamber Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David; Nathal, Michael; Yun, Hee Man; Lerch, Bradley; Greenbauer-Seng, Leslie; Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus; Holmes, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The development, test, and thermophysical & mechanical properties of a GRCop-84 alloy for combustion chamber liners is discussed. Topics discussed include: History of GRCop-84 development, GRCop-84 thermal expansion, thermal conductivity of GRCop-84, yield strength of GRCop-84, GRCop-84 creep lives, GrCop-84 low cycle fatigue (LCF) lives, and hot fire testing of GRCop-84 spool pieces.

  11. Overview of IEA biomass combustion activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustad, J. E.

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA) bioenergy program are: (1) to encourage cooperative research, development and use of energy and the increased utilization of alternatives to oil; and (2) to establish increased program and project cooperation between participants in the whole field of bioenergy. There are four Task Annexes to the Implementing Agreement during the period 1992-1994: Efficient and Environmentally Sound Biomass Production Systems; Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Biomass Utilization; and Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstock to Energy. The report describes the following biomass combustion activities during the period 1992-1994: Round robin test of a wood stove; Emissions from biomass combustion; A pilot project cofiring biomass with oil to reduce SO2 emissions; Small scale biomass chip handling; Energy from contaminated wood waste combustion; Modeling of biomass combustion; Wood chip cogeneration; Combustion of wet biomass feedstocks, ash reinjection and carbon burnout; Oxidation of wet biomass; Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances; Characterization of biomass fuels and ashes; Measurement techniques (FTIR).

  12. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  13. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  14. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  15. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  16. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  17. Beryllium particle combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A two-year study of the combustion efficiency of single beryllium droplets burning in a variety of oxidizers (primarily mixtures of oxygen/argon and oxygen/nitrogen) is summarized. An advanced laser heating technique was used to acquire systematic quantitative data on the burning of single beryllium droplets at atmospheric pressure. The research confirmed the sensitivity of beryllium droplet combustion to the chemistry of environmental species and provides experimental documentation for the nitrogen-induced droplet fragmentation of burning beryllium droplets.

  18. Generalities on combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentzmann, Paul

    The main manifestations of combustion instabilities are reviewed, and the specific characteristics of instabilities in solid-propellant rocket engines are analyzed, with the Minuteman III third-stage engine and the SRB engine of Titan 34 D considered as examples. The main approaches for predicting combustion instabilities are discussed, including the linear approach based on the acoustic balance, the nonlinear mode-coupling approach, and the nonlinear approach using numerical calculation. Projected directions for future research are also examined.

  19. Combustion Dynamics in Rockets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify, by block number) Solid propellant combustion; Aluminum...continued on the behavior of aluminum and other nonvolatile ingredients .: in the propellant combustion zone. A method for observation of particle behavior...PBAN propellant . The results showed enh~nced agglomeration, and indicate that Fe20L affects agglomeration through two competing mechanisms. rombustion

  20. Oxy-combustion of biomass in a circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Luckos, Adam; Wolski, Krzysztof; Musiał, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate combustion characteristics of biomass (willow, Salix viminalis) burnt in air and O2/CO2 mixtures in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Air and oxy-combustion characteristics of wooden biomass in CFB were supplemented by the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA). The results of conducted CFB and TGA tests show that the composition of the oxidizing atmosphere strongly influences the combustion process of biomass fuels. Replacing N2 in the combustion environment by CO2 caused slight delay (higher ignition temperature and lower maximum mass loss rate) in the combustion of wooden biomass. The combustion process in O2/CO2 mixtures at 30% and 40% O2 is faster and shorter than that at lower O2 concentrations.

  1. Combustion of PMMA, PE, and PS in a ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    van der Geld, C.W.M. ); Korting, P.A.O.G. ); Wijchers, T. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the combustion behavior of polymethylmetharcrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) with air investigated in a connected pipe test facility; spectroscopy showed the presence of OH, C{sub 2}, and CH and temperatures between 1300 and 3000 K during combustion. Particular attention was focused on regression rate and combustion efficiency and the role of temperature and soot production. The present investigation gives an understanding of the most important phenomena that control (or emanate from) the combustion of a cylindrical solid fuel with a rearward facing step, and this has application for solid fuel ramjets, the safe burning of toxic waste, and hot gas generators. The results are summarized.

  2. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  3. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  4. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.; Stratton, Chris; Wray, Craig P.

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  6. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  7. MERCURY CAPTURE ON COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASH. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to test the hypotheses that (1) different carbon types contained in coal combustion fly ash have variable sorption capabilities relative to mercury and (2) the inorganic fraction of coal combustion fl...

  8. Effects of backing board materials on wood combustion performance

    Treesearch

    Mathew J. Hagge; Kenneth M. Bryden; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2004-01-01

    Cone calorimeter tests show that backing board materials do not affect the ignition time, initial heat release rate, or the total heat released of combustion for redwood slabs. However, it has been observed that backing board materials alter combustion performance by altering the secondary heat release peak observed when the pyrolysis reaction front nears the unheated...

  9. MERCURY CAPTURE ON COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASH. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to test the hypotheses that (1) different carbon types contained in coal combustion fly ash have variable sorption capabilities relative to mercury and (2) the inorganic fraction of coal combustion fl...

  10. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  11. Experimental Replication of an Aeroengine Combustion Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the causal dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment was designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic and thermo-fluid features. The process increases the probability that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  12. Expert test results of the TPP-312A Boiler at the Zuev District Power Station during the combustion of the GSSh grade coal with adding the RA-GEN-F Anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    The expert test results of the TPP-312 boiler no. 4 at the Zuev District Power Station (DPS) without supply and with the supply of the RA-GEN-F anaklarid to the boiler by means of its introduction in the approved dosing with the secondary air are presented. It is shown that the introduction of anaklarid positively affects the furnace process parameters during the combustion of grade GSSh coal. The possibility of the boiler operation at its minimal (490 t/h) and extremely minimal (440 t/h) steam output without supporting the flame by natural gas and the provision of the mode of liquid slag removal in the night drop of electrical loads.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  14. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  15. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  16. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  17. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  18. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  19. High efficiency RCCI combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splitter, Derek A.

    An experimental investigation of the pragmatic limits of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine efficiency was performed. The study utilized engine experiments combined with zero-dimensional modeling. Initially, simulations were used to suggest conditions of high engine efficiency with RCCI. Preliminary simulations suggested that high efficiency could be obtained by using a very dilute charge with a high compression ratio. Moreover, the preliminary simulations further suggested that with simultaneous 50% reductions in heat transfer and incomplete combustion, 60% gross thermal efficiency may be achievable with RCCI. Following the initial simulations, experiments to investigate the combustion process, fuel effects, and methods to reduce heat transfer and incomplete combustion reduction were conducted. The results demonstrated that the engine cycle and combustion process are linked, and if high efficiency is to be had, then the combustion event must be tailored to the initial cycle conditions. It was found that reductions to engine heat transfer are a key enabler to increasing engine efficiency. In addition, it was found that the piston oil jet gallery cooling in RCCI may be unnecessary, as it had a negative impact on efficiency. Without piston oil gallery cooling, it was found that RCCI was nearly adiabatic, achieving 95% of the theoretical maximum cycle efficiency (air standard Otto cycle efficiency).

  20. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  1. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  2. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  4. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  5. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  6. LES of Mild Combustion using Pareto-efficient Combustion Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Evans, Michael; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a combustion regime that provides opportunities for improved thermal efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the ignition, mixing, and stabilization of a jet flame in this kinetics-controlled combustion regime. The combustion process is modeled by a Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) formulation that optimally combines reaction-transport and chemistry combustion models. In this approach, a three-stream flamelet/progress variable model is used as a computationally efficient description of equilibrated flame regions, and a finite-rate chemistry representation is employed to accurately represent the ignition behavior and flame stabilization. Through comparisons with experiments and simulations with single-regime combustion models, it will be shown that this Pareto-efficient combustion submodel assignment accurately captures important dynamics in complex turbulent flame configurations.

  7. Internal combustion engine squish jet combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.L.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a internal combustion engine block having a piston and cylinder head, one of which has: (a) a substantially cylindrical bowl opening into the face thereof; (b) a pair of squish jet passages having respective inlets communicating with the face thereof, and respective, transversely spaced, outlets directed substantially tangentially into the bowl, the outlet of a first one of the pair being directed upwardly, and the outlet of second one of the pair being directed downwardly from a position above the outlet of the first one, so that a counter-rotating, bilevel swirl can be produced in the bowl by the squish jet outlets.

  8. Techniques for Liquid Rocket Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. J.; Giacomoni, C.; Casiano, M. J.; Fischbach, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents techniques for liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments with respect to spontaneous stability and rough combustion. Techniques covering empirical parameter extraction, which were established in prior works, are applied for three additional programs: the F-1 Gas Generator (F1GG) component test program, the RS-84 preburner component test program, and the Marshall Integrated Test Rig (MITR) program. Stability assessment parameters from these programs are compared against prior established spontaneous stability metrics and updates are identified. Also, a procedure for comparing measured with predicted mode shapes is presented, based on an extension of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC).

  9. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  10. Antipollution combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Caruel, J.E.; Gastebois, P.M.

    1981-01-27

    The invention concerns a combustion chamber for turbojet engines. The combustion chamber is of the annular type and consists of two coaxial flame tubes opening into a common dilution and mixing zone. The inner tube is designed for low operating ratings of the engine, the outer tube for high ratings. Air is injected as far upstream as possible into the dilution zone, to enhance the homogenization of the gaseous flow issuing from the two tubes prior to their passage into the turbine and to assure the optimum radial distribution of temperatures. The combustion chamber according to the invention finds application in a particularly advantageous manner in turbojet engines used in aircraft propulsion because of the reduced emission of pollutants it affords.

  11. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  12. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  13. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, S.S.; Pagni, P.J.; Fernandez-Pello, A.C.

    1987-05-01

    An analytic model of the propagation of smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is presented. Here smoldering is initiated at the top of a long, radially insulated, uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward forced flow of oxidizer. Because the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer enter the reaction zone from the same direction, this configuration is referred to as cocurrent (or premixed-flame-like). It is assumed that the propagation of the smolder wave is one-dimensional and steady in a frame of reference moving with the wave. Buoyancy is included and shown to be negligible in the proposed application of a smoldering combustion experiment for use on the Space Shuttle. Radiation heat transfer is incorporated using the diffusion approximation and smoldering combustion is modeled by a finite rate, one-step reaction mechanism.

  14. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  15. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (199KB JPEG, 1311 x 1477 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300165.html.

  16. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (120KB JPEG, 655 x 736 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300167.html.

  17. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech has targeted waste incineration as a potential application for this technology. Based on bench-scale rotary-kiln simulator tests, Sonotech proposed a demonstration under the SITE program to evaluate the Sonotech pulse combustion system on a larger scale at EPA's IRF in J...

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech has targeted waste incineration as a potential application for this technology. Based on bench-scale rotary-kiln simulator tests, Sonotech proposed a demonstration under the SITE program to evaluate the Sonotech pulse combustion system on a larger scale at EPA's IRF in J...

  20. A laboratory scale supersonic combustive flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, E.C.; Zerkle, D.K.; Fry, H.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1995-02-01

    A laboratory scale supersonic flow system [Combustive Flow System (CFS)] which utilizes the gaseous products of methane-air and/or liquid fuel-air combustion has been assembled to provide a propulsion type exhaust flow field for various applications. Such applications include providing a testbed for the study of planar two-dimensional nozzle flow fields with chemistry, three-dimensional flow field mixing near the exit of rectangular nozzles, benchmarking the predictive capability of various computational fluid dynamic codes, and the development and testing of advanced diagnostic techniques. This paper will provide a detailed description of the flow system and data related to its operation.

  1. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  2. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  3. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  4. Transition nozzle combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  5. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  6. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-05-03

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system.

  7. Design factors for stable lean premix combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program includes the development of low-emission combustors. Low emissions have already been achieved by premixing fuel and air to avoid the hot gas pockets produced by nozzles without premixing. While the advantages of premixed combustion have been widely recognized, turbine developers using premixed nozzles have experienced repeated problems with combustion oscillations. Left uncontrolled, these oscillations can lead to pressure fluctuations capable of damaging engine hardware. Elimination of such oscillations is often difficult and time consuming - particularly when oscillations are discovered in the last stages of engine development. To address this issue, METC is studying oscillating combustion from lean premixing fuel nozzles. These tests are providing generic information on the mechanisms that contribute to oscillating behavior in gas turbines. METC is also investigating the use of so-called {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} control of combustion oscillations. This technique periodically injects fuel pulses into the combustor to disrupt the oscillating behavior. Recent results on active combustion control are presented in Gemmen et al. (1995) and Richards et al. (1995). This paper describes the status of METC efforts to avoid oscillations through simple design changes.

  8. Dioxins and polyvinylchloride in combustion and fires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Jiang, Xuguang; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    This review on polyvinylchloride (PVC) and dioxins collects, collates, and compares data from selected sources on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or in brief dioxins, in combustion and fires. In professional spheres, the incineration of PVC as part of municipal solid waste is seldom seen as a problem, since deep flue gas cleaning is required anyhow. Conversely, with its high content of chlorine, PVC is frequently branded as a major chlorine donor and spitefully leads to substantial formation of dioxins during poorly controlled or uncontrolled combustion and open fires. Numerous still ill-documented and diverse factors of influence may affect the formation of dioxins during combustion: on the one hand PVC-compounds represent an array of materials with widely different formulations; on the other hand these may all be exposed to fires of different nature and consequences. Hence, attention should be paid to PVC with respect to the ignition and development of fires, as well as attenuating the emission of objectionable compounds, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dioxins. This review summarises available dioxin emissions data, gathers experimental and simulation studies of fires and combustion tests involving PVC, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of dioxins during PVC combustion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  10. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  11. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  12. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  13. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  14. Special measurements in combustion equipment furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ochodek, T.; Janalik, R.; Vytisk, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the authors` knowledge from the measurement of temperature and concentration fields taken from combustion equipment furnaces. The obtained results serve in the research on combustion processes and in the research on the formation of pollutants, for example NO{sub x}. The special measurement technique makes it possible to find the concentration and temperature distribution for a temperature as high as 1,500 C. The measurement results were obtained through tests for grate boilers with an output of 20--50 MW, burning solid fuel (a mixture of powders and small pieces of coal which were burnt separately as black (hard) coal or brown coal). On the basis of the obtained results a proposal was formulated for the reconstruction of existing boilers or the construction of new boilers with an aim to ensure the maximum combustion efficiency with a minimal formation of pollutants.

  15. Factors influencing spontaneous combustion of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Moqbel, Shadi; Reinhart, Debra; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Landfill fires create a critical problem for landfill operators and require investigation of its occurrence and the conditions that favor its initiation. Subsurface fires are considered the most significant due to the difficulty in determining their location and extent. These fires are mainly caused by spontaneous combustion, combustion due to high temperature in absence of flame. This study investigates the effect of moisture content, oxygen concentration and leachate components on spontaneous ignition, combustion initiation, and self-heating of solid waste. A new procedure for testing spontaneous ignition is described; however, variations in solid waste components and landfill conditions can create some limitations to its use. The presence of water and dissolved solids in leachate was found to accelerate chemical self-heating of the solid waste. Oxygen concentration at 10% by volume can sustain chemical oxidation but did not promote accelerated burning.

  16. Diagnostics for Characterization of Combustion Products and Heavy Metal Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hansheng

    this step, different optical configurations were tested, and time dependent spectral emissions were characterized. Finally, a measurement was performed at a pilot-scale Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), a harsh, turbulent, and highly luminous MHD combustion environment. The relative concentrations of several species were obtained. This study has indicated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are powerful on-line techniques for coal combustion diagnostics.

  17. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  18. Computing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Coming into the Combustion Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division, there was not any set project planned out for me to work on. This was understandable, considering I am only at my sophmore year in college. Also, my mentor was a division chief and it was expected that I would be passed down the line. It took about a week for me to be placed with somebody who could use me. My first project was to write a macro for TecPlot. Commonly, a person would have a 3D contour volume modeling something such as a combustion engine. This 3D volume needed to have slices extracted from it and made into 2D scientific plots with all of the appropriate axis and titles. This was very tedious to do by hand. My macro needed to automate the process. There was some education I needed before I could start, however. First, TecPlot ran on Unix and Linux, like a growing majority of scientific applications. I knew a little about Linux, but I would need to know more to use the software at hand. I took two classes at the Learning Center on Unix and am now comfortable with Linux and Unix. I already had taken Computer Science I and II, and had undergone the transformation from Computer Programmer to Procedural Epistemologist. I knew how to design efficient algorithms, I just needed to learn the macro language. After a little less than a week, I had learned the basics of the language. Like most languages, the best way to learn more of it was by using it. It was decided that it was best that I do the macro in layers, starting simple and adding features as I went. The macro started out slicing with respect to only one axis, and did not make 2D plots out of the slices. Instead, it lined them up inside the solid. Next, I allowed for more than one axis and placed each slice in a separate frame. After this, I added code that transformed each individual slice-frame into a scientific plot. I also made frames for composite volumes, which showed all of the slices in the same XYZ space. I

  19. Computing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Coming into the Combustion Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division, there was not any set project planned out for me to work on. This was understandable, considering I am only at my sophmore year in college. Also, my mentor was a division chief and it was expected that I would be passed down the line. It took about a week for me to be placed with somebody who could use me. My first project was to write a macro for TecPlot. Commonly, a person would have a 3D contour volume modeling something such as a combustion engine. This 3D volume needed to have slices extracted from it and made into 2D scientific plots with all of the appropriate axis and titles. This was very tedious to do by hand. My macro needed to automate the process. There was some education I needed before I could start, however. First, TecPlot ran on Unix and Linux, like a growing majority of scientific applications. I knew a little about Linux, but I would need to know more to use the software at hand. I took two classes at the Learning Center on Unix and am now comfortable with Linux and Unix. I already had taken Computer Science I and II, and had undergone the transformation from Computer Programmer to Procedural Epistemologist. I knew how to design efficient algorithms, I just needed to learn the macro language. After a little less than a week, I had learned the basics of the language. Like most languages, the best way to learn more of it was by using it. It was decided that it was best that I do the macro in layers, starting simple and adding features as I went. The macro started out slicing with respect to only one axis, and did not make 2D plots out of the slices. Instead, it lined them up inside the solid. Next, I allowed for more than one axis and placed each slice in a separate frame. After this, I added code that transformed each individual slice-frame into a scientific plot. I also made frames for composite volumes, which showed all of the slices in the same XYZ space. I

  20. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  1. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  2. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  3. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  4. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  5. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  6. Plasma-aided solid fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    E.I. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko

    2007-07-01

    Plasma supported solid fuel combustion is promising technology for use in thermal power plants (TPP). The realisation of this technology comprises two main steps. The first is the execution of a numerical simulation and the second involves full-scale trials of plasma supported coal combustion through plasma-fuel systems (PFS) mounted on a TPP boiler. For both the numerical simulation and the full-scale trials, the boiler of 200 MW power of Gusinoozersk TPP (Russia) was selected. The optimization of the combustion of low-rank coals using plasma technology is described, together with the potential of this technology for the general optimization of the coal burning process. Numerical simulation and full-scale trials have enabled technological recommendations for improvement of existing conventional TPP to be made. PFS have been tested for boilers plasma start-up and flame stabilization in different countries at 27 power boilers steam productivity of 75-670 tons per hour (TPH) equipped with different type of pulverised coal burners. At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were used. Volatile content of them varied from 4 to 50%, ash from 15 to 48% and calorific values from 6700 to 25,100 KJ/kg. In summary, it is concluded that the developed and industrially tested PFS improve coal combustion efficiency and decrease harmful emission from pulverised coal-fired TPP. 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    vehicle for future In\\vestgatin,s of spra\\ combustion. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This, rcw,arch hasN hen uvporlcd hv -\\r Force Astronautics Laborator under ,nrmct...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  9. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  10. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  11. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  12. Internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Arcoumanis, C.

    1988-01-01

    The energy crisis of the early 1970s and the gradually increasing levels of pollution of the environment have focused attention and financial resources on the better understanding of the combustion process in gasoline and diesel engines as means of improving fuel consumption and reducing exhaust emissions. This book incorporates in a single volume the current trends in engine design and technology.

  13. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  14. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  15. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  16. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-11-15

    The primary objective of the present effort is to perform the final testing, at a 20Mmbtu/hr commercial scale, of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort is on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimal environmental control of emissions inside the combustor.

  17. Combustion efficiency of a porous injector during throttling of a LOx/H2 combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeken, J.; Suslov, D.; Haidn, O.; Schlechtriem, S.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of throttling on combustion efficiency and stability of a porous injector head has been investigated for the LOx/H2 propellant combination. Several pressure ramps (PR) ranging from 30 to 100 bar have been used so that a broad range of possible chamber pressures was covered. Regarding the design pressure of 80 bar, this was equivalent to a throttling range of 37.5% to 125%. The hydrogen injection temperature was varied between 50 and 105 K. The oxygen injection temperature was about 115 ± 5 K. All tests were performed at the P8 test bench using a 50-millimeter diameter modular combustion chamber. The combustion efficiency at a hydrogen injection temperature of 105 K varied between 97.5% and 99% and was nearly independent of pressure. For hydrogen at 50 K, the combustion efficiency increased with chamber pressure and ranged from 94% to 97%. The combustion roughness at 50 K was higher than for the 105-kelvin test cases.

  18. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  19. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  20. Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

  1. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  2. Propellant combustion response to oscillatory radiant heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Schwartz, K.; Burns, S. P.

    1987-01-01

    An introductory progress report is given on a research project to use the microwave Doppler velocimeter technique to measure the combustion response to an oscillating thermal radiation source (laser). The objective is to relate the measured burning rate response to the thermal radiation to an equivalent oscillation in pressure using existing thermal combustion theory. The test system is described, and the results of an initial test series on the composite propellant A-13 are presented.

  3. Material Testing of Coated Alloys in a Syngas Combustion Environment Year 6 - Activity 1.13 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Modifications were made to the inlet of the existing Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) thermal oxidizer to accommodate side-by-side coupon holders for exposure testing. Two 5-day tests with over 200 hours of total exposure time were completed. The first week of testing was conducted in enriched air-blown mode, with coupon temperatures ranging from 128° to 272°F. Carbonyl sampling was conducted, but it was discovered after the fact that the methodology used was producing very low recoveries of iron and nickel carbonyl. Therefore, the data generated during this week of testing were not considered accurate. The second week of testing was conducted in oxygen-blown mode, with coupon temperatures ranging from 220° to 265°F. Two improved methods were used to measure carbonyl concentration during this week of testing. These methods produced results closer to equilibrium calculations. Since both weeks of testing mostly produced a product gas with approximately 15%–18% carbon monoxide, it was felt that actual carbonyl concentrations for Week 1 should be very similar to those measured during Week 2. The revised carbonyl sampling methodology used during the second week of testing greatly improved the recovery of iron and nickel carbonyl in the sample. Even though the sampling results obtained from the first week were inaccurate, the results from the second week can be used as an estimate for the periods during which the gasifier was operating under similar conditions and producing similar product gas compositions. Specifically, Test Periods 2 and 3 from the first week were similar to the conditions run during the second week. For a product gas containing roughly 15%–18% CO and a coupon temperature of approximately 220°–270°F, the nickel carbonyl concentration should be about 0.05–0.1 ppm and the iron carbonyl concentration should be about 0.1–0.4 ppm. After each week of testing the coupons were recovered from the coupon holder, weighed, and shipped

  4. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  5. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  6. Combustion of liquid fuels in a flowing combustion gas environment at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of fuel droplets in gases which simulate combustion chamber conditions was considered both experimentally and theoretically. The fuel droplets were simulated by porous spheres and allowed to gasify in combustion gases produced by a burner. Tests were conducted for pressures of 1-40 atm, temperatures of 600-1500 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-13% (molar) and approach Reynolds numbers of 40-680. The fuels considered in the tests included methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane and n-decane. Measurements were made of both the rate of gasification of the droplet and the liquid surface temperature. Measurements were compared with theory, involving various models of gas phase transport properties with a multiplicative correction for the effect of forced convection.

  7. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Third quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1992-10-17

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1992, work continued on Task l. ``Design, Installation, and Shakedown of the Modifications to the 20 MMBtu/hr Air Cooled Combustor and Boiler Components``. Task 2. ``Preliminary Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan``. In task 1, the design of the planned modifications were mostly completed. The equipment to implement these modifications was procured, and most of the installation of this equipment was completed. Finally, a series of two shakedown tests was performed to test the operability of these modifications. As previously reported, no modifications to the combustor were made. All the changes were improvements in overall combustor-boiler operation, maintenance and repair of components, and addition of diagnostics. In addition, during shakedown tests of these modifications the need for additional improvements or modifications became apparent, and these were or a-re being implemented. The major improvements focused on coal and sorbent storage, transport, and combustor injection, real time control of ash deposition in the boiler, unproved combustor wall cooling, expanded computer control and diagnostics, and refurbishment of the scrubber and combustor temperature measurements. AD this work has been described in a detailed topical report on task 1, which was recently submitted to DOE, and it will not be repeated here. Instead the focus of this report will be on the analysis of the test results obtained in the two shakedown tests. This work was partly reported in the 7th 8th and 9th monthly reports. An important result of these tests has been the observation of high (over 85%) SO{sub 2} reduction obtained with sorbent injection in the combustor.

  8. Co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge: chemical and ecotoxicological properties of ashes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Boavida, Dulce; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde

    2009-10-30

    The co-combustion of sewage sludge (SS) and coal is widely used for the treatment and thermal valorization of SS produced in wastewater treatment plants. The chemical and ecotoxicological properties of the ashes produced in this thermal treatment have not been fully studied. Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor. Colombian coal was used as fuel in test A. A blend (1+1) of this coal and a stabilized SS (Biogran) was used in a second test B. Samples of the bottom and fly ashes trapped in two sequential cyclones were collected. The characterization of the ashes was focused on two main aspects: (1) the bulk content of a set of metals and (2) the characterization of eluates produced according to the European Standard leaching test EN 12457-2. The eluates were submitted to an ecotoxicological characterization for two bio-indicators. In what concerns the bulk content of ashes, both combustion tests have produced ashes with different compositions. The ashes formed during the co-combustion test have shown higher concentrations of metals, namely Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe for all ashes. The leaching test has shown low mobility of these elements from the by-products produced during the combustion and co-combustion tests. Cr and Cr(VI) were mainly detected in the eluates of the 1st cyclone ashes produced in both combustion tests and in the 2nd cyclone ashes produced in the co-combustion test. Considering the ecotoxicity assays, the eluates of bottom and fly ashes for both combustion and co-combustion tests have shown low ecotoxic levels. The micro-crustacean Daphnia magna was generally more sensitive than the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. CEMWE criterion has allowed to classify the bottom ashes for both combustion and co-combustion tests as non-toxic residues and the fly ashes collected in both cyclones as toxic.

  9. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 7, October 1990--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, M.J.; Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-02-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, the following technical progress was made: (1) Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of microbubble flotation beneficiated products; (2) continued drop tube combustion tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; (3) analyzed the data from three (MIT) pilot-scale combustion tests of the Upper Freeport feed coal; and (4) continued analyses of the data from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels.

  10. Advanced Combustion Modeling for Complex Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Frank Stanford

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of aircraft engines will need to pass stricter efficiency and emission tests. NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has set an ambitious goal of 70% reduction of NO(x) emissions and a 15% increase in fuel efficiency of aircraft engines. We will demonstrate the state-of-the-art combustion tools developed a t Stanford's Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) as part of this program. In the last decade, CTR has spear-headed a multi-physics-based combustion modeling program. Key technologies have been transferred to the aerospace industry and are currently being used for engine simulations. In this demo, we will showcase the next-generation combustion modeling tools that integrate a very high level of detailed physics into advanced flow simulation codes. Combustor flows involve multi-phase physics with liquid fuel jet breakup, evaporation, and eventual combustion. Individual components of the simulation are verified against complex test cases and show excellent agreement with experimental data.

  11. Advanced Combustion Modeling for Complex Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Frank Stanford

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of aircraft engines will need to pass stricter efficiency and emission tests. NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has set an ambitious goal of 70% reduction of NO(x) emissions and a 15% increase in fuel efficiency of aircraft engines. We will demonstrate the state-of-the-art combustion tools developed a t Stanford's Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) as part of this program. In the last decade, CTR has spear-headed a multi-physics-based combustion modeling program. Key technologies have been transferred to the aerospace industry and are currently being used for engine simulations. In this demo, we will showcase the next-generation combustion modeling tools that integrate a very high level of detailed physics into advanced flow simulation codes. Combustor flows involve multi-phase physics with liquid fuel jet breakup, evaporation, and eventual combustion. Individual components of the simulation are verified against complex test cases and show excellent agreement with experimental data.

  12. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  13. Development and testing of industrial scale coal fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-09-22

    The most significant effort in the quarter was the completion of the conversion of the exit nozzle from adiabatic operation to air cooled operation. This conversion was implemented midway in the task 2 test effort, and the final two tests in task 2 were with the cooled nozzle. It performed as per design. The second significant result was the successful implementation of a computer controlled combustor wall cooling procedure. The hot side combustor liner temperature can now be maintained within a narrow range of less than 5OF at the nominal wall temperature of 2000F. This is an essential requirement for long term durability of the combustor wall. The first tests with the computer control system were implemented in June 1993. A third development in this period was the decision to replace the coal feeder that had been in use since coal fired operation began in late 1987. Since that time, this commercial device has been modified numerous times in order to achieve uniform coal feed. Uniform feed was achieved in 1991. However, the feeder operation was not sufficiently reliable for commercial use. The new feeder has the same design as the sorbent feeders that have been successfully used since 1987. This design has much better speed control and it can be rapidly restarted when the feed auger becomes jammed with tramp material. The last task 2 test was a long duration coal fired test with almost 12 hours of coal fired operation until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. It was the longest coal firing period of the task 2 tests. The exit nozzle cooling maintained the wall temperature in the desired operating range.

  14. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  15. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  16. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  17. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  18. Gaseous Emissions Results from a Three-Cup Flametube Test of a Third-Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Podboy, Derek P.; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of lean direct injection (LDI) combustor technology at, or in collaboration with, the NASA Glenn Research Center. These configurations differ mainly in fuel-air mixing strategy. The paper reviews the NOx performance and operability characteristics of multiple LDI configurations tested at NASA Glenn.

  19. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  20. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  1. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  2. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  3. Emissions from combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports that environmental pollution from combustion processes is an important area of concern. Attention has recently been focused on the emissions from municipal wate incineration, although the issue is much more complex. Other sources such as rotary kilns, steel mills, pulp and paper plants, and natural sources must also be assessed. Great concern over the emission of trace levels of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans has been expressed by some, but other pollutants such as acid rain precursors, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and others should not be ignored. Solutions to the environmental problems, caused by emissions from combustion processes will be based, in part, on the science and technology that is described here.

  4. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  5. Combustion method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, W.F.; Milliken, B.R.; Braaten, D.A.

    1989-05-16

    This patent describes a process for the combustion of a mixture composed of (i) at least one hydrocarbonaceous material and (ii) at least one of water and particulate solids, the improvement comprising providing an open topped trough means for containing the mixture, introducing at least one of an oxygen containing gas and a fluid fuel into a lower portion of the trough means to mix with the mixture in the trough means, establishing around the trough means a continuously moving curtain of oxygen containing gas, the curtain being adapted to pick up at least some combustion products rising from the open top of the trough means, circulate same around the under side of the trough means and carry same back to the top of the trough means, whereby visible emissions are reduced and at least some particulate solids removed.

  6. Stratified combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Solheim, R.G.

    1987-03-17

    The method is described of operating an internal combustion engine having a cylinder with an inner wall. The method comprises admitting, adjacent to the inner wall of the cylinder, a quantity of substantially pure air in a spirally rapidly rotating layer and directing all of the quantity uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and toward and against only the adjacent inner wall of the cylinder, and held thereat by Coanda effect and centrifugal force. This is done while also admitting a quantity of fuel mixture in a non-rotating and non-turbulent manner between the layer of rotating pure air and the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, compressing the rotating pure air and the non-rotating fuel mixture simultaneously and firing the non-rotating fuel mixture and exhausting the products of combustion and pure air uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and only from a region adjacent to the inner wall and uniformly and completely from the inner wall.

  7. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  8. Ultralean combustion in general aviation piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The role of ultralean combustion in achieving fuel economy in general aviation piston engines was investigated. The aircraft internal combustion engine was reviewed with regard to general aviation requirements, engine thermodynamics and systems. Factors affecting fuel economy such as those connected with an ideal leanout to near the gasoline lean flammability limit (ultralean operation) were analyzed. A Lycoming T10-541E engine was tested in that program (both in the test cell and in flight). Test results indicate that hydrogen addition is not necessary to operate the engine ultralean. A 17 percent improvement in fuel economy was demonstrated in flight with the Beechcraft Duke B60 by simply leaning the engine at constant cruiser power and adjusting the ignition for best timing. No detonation was encountered, and a 25,000 ft ceiling was available. Engine roughness was shown to be the limiting factor in the leanout.

  9. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Latex 241 * Nitrocellulose and Kraft /fibers National Starch Resin 78-3730 The beater additive process for manufacturing combustible cartridge cases *is... Kraft Fibers The Kraft fibers were received as sheets weighing approximately 1.3 lb each. The moisture content of the sheets varied from 6 to 7-1/2... Kraft fibers was incorporated into each batch. Resins The resins were supplied as a water emulsion with nominally 50 percent solids. Samples of each

  10. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland...Brisbane 4072 AUSTRALIA 1.0 INTRODUCTION Research into hypersonic flow phenomona has been conducted by numerous groups within Australia for over 40...describes some key aspects of the hypersonics research that has been performed at The University of Queensland. A short description of the operation of the

  11. Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Melton, Lula H

    1996-08-01

    The following article is excerpted from the document Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking - Proposed Organizational Structure and Process, which is available from the Technology Transfer Network (TTN), a computer bulletin board. To access the TTN, call (919) 541-5742; to obtain help with the TTN, call (919) 541-5384. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) document is evolving, reflecting an ongoing dialogue with various stakeholders; therefore, there may be changes between this article and the ICCR as it is implemented. EPA would like to thank all stakeholders (e.g., representatives from various companies and trade associations, state and local air pollution control agencies, and environmental organizations) who have offered suggestions and comments on development of the ICCR. As mentioned in the implications statement, the overall goal of the ICCR is to develop a unified set of federal air emissions regulations. The proposed ICCR will achieve this goal by: • Obtaining active participation from stakeholders, including environmental groups, regulated industries, and state and local regulatory agencies in all phases of regulatory development. • Coordinating the schedule and approach for development of regulations under Sections 111, 112, and 129 of the Clean Air Act that affect ICI combustion. • Determining the most effective ways to address the environmental issues associated with toxic and criteria pollutants from the range of combustion sources. • More effectively considering interactions among the regulations by analyzing the combined benefits and economic impacts of the group of Section 111, 112, and 129 regulations. • Considering strategies to simplify the regulations and allow flexibility in the methods of compliance while maintaining full environmental benefits.

  12. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    4.2 Ignition, Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows ......................... 18 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding...high- speed flows), plasma -assisted combustion, flameholding (particularly in a high-speed flow), and development and application of diagnostic...Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding Key questions that have guided this

  13. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  14. Theory of Combustion Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-07-01

    The overall sound generation processes have been classi- fied in terms of the sound due to an isolated turbulent flame and that due to the...of the fluid mechanics of the reacting gas. The overall sound generation processes have been classified in terms of the sound due to an isolated ...steady intercoupling between various aerothermochemical modes excited in the combustion zone. To be specific, the non-steady exo- thermic and

  15. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  16. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  17. Spray atomization and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    New theoretical and experimental methods for studying sprays are reviewed. Common methods to analyze dilute sprays are described and used to interpret recent measurements of the structure of dilute sprays and related dispersed turbulent jets. Particle-laden jets, nonevaporating, evaporating, and combusting sprays, and noncondensing and condensing bubbly jets are examined and used to initially evaluate current analytical methods for a wide range of conditions. Dense sprays are briefly discussed.

  18. Combustion Noise Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    from aircraft engines arm de- velc. ped and experimentally evaluated by conducting rig experiments and by comparing with data from se’.,_ full scale ...engines. Comparison of predictions with full scale engine data indicate that direct combus- tior noise is the dominant source for the P&WA engines...investigated. The dlirect combustion noise prediction system includes expressions for acoustic pow.,r level, peak frequency and full- scale engine acoustic

  19. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  20. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  1. Strobes: an oscillatory combustion.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Justine M L; Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2012-04-26

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the chemical and physical processes involved in this curious oscillatory combustion remain unknown. Several theories have been proposed: One claims that two different reactions occur: one during the slow dark phase and another during the fast flash phase. The alternation between the phases is ascribed to heat variations. Other theories suggest that the formation of intermediate species during the dark phase and the change of phase are caused by variations in their concentration. A ternary strobe composition with ammonium perchlorate, magnalium, and barium sulfate is analyzed. The role of barium sulfate is studied by replacing it by other metal sulfates that have different physical properties (melting points), and the burning of the compositions is recorded with a high-speed camera and a spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Experimental results show noticeable differences in the physical and chemical processes involved in the strobe reactions.

  2. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  3. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  4. Spray combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concern over the future availability of high quality liquid fuels or use in furnaces and boilers prompted the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider alternate fuels as replacements for the high grade liquid fuels used in the 1970's and 1980's. Alternate fuels were defined to be combinations of a large percentage of viscous, low volatility fuels resulting from the low end of distillation mixed with a small percentage of relatively low viscosity, high volatility fuels yielded by the high end of distillation. The addition of high volatility fuels was meant to promote desirable characteristics to a fuel that would otherwise be difficult to atomize and burn and whose combustion would yield a high amount of pollutants. Several questions thus needed to be answered before alternate fuels became commercially viable. These questions were related to fuel atomization, evaporation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. This final report describes the results of the most significant studies on ignition and combustion of alternative fuels.

  5. Combustion modification Nox controls for utility boilers. Volume III: residual oil wall-fired unit field test. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at Pacific Gas and Electric's Moss Landing Power Plant, Unit 6. The aim of the program was to measure changes in emissions as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, particulate matter, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, NOx, and CO were measured. These emissions, under as-designed and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions, were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. Two degrees of NOx control were tested: the highest level, corresponding to present boiler operation, consisted of burners-out-of-service and flue gas recirculation (FGR) to the windbox; and the other, representing an intermediate degree of control, consisted of only FGR to the windbox.

  6. Combustion modification controls for residential and commercial heating systems. Volume II: oil-fired residential furnace field test. Final task report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    Methods and results are given of an environmental assessment test program at an oil-fired, low-emission residential heating unit. The aim of the program was to measure emission changes resulting from changing the operating mode of the low-emission furnace. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, NO, CO, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter were measured. Both continuous and cyclic operating modes were evaluated.

  7. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  8. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Second quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1992-07-10

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1992, work continued on Task 1.1. ``DESIGN MODIFICATIONS TO THE 20 MMBTU/HR AIR COOLED COMBUSTOR AND BOILER COMPONENTS``. This consisted of specifying and designing the changes needed to prepare the 20 MMBtu/hr air cooled combustor at the Tampella boiler house site in Williamsport, PA. In depth review of the technical status of the combustor showed that no major design changes were necessary in order to implement the effort of task 2 testing and part of the task 3 testing. Among the major planned changes eliminated were replacement of the inlet swirl air flow section of the combustor. The major changes undertaken were to improve the coal and sorbent injection into the combustor; refurbishing various components and controls systems such as the stack particle scrubber and temperature probes; automating key elements of the combustor, such as the slag tap, upgrading the computer control and automatic data acquisition; and upgrading the long duration capability of the exit nozzle. To support this effort advanced analytical modeling was used to provide guidance for the design changes. A multi-dimensional computer code was used to analyze the combustor performance for different combustor stoichiometries and geometry. A heat transfer analysis of the exit nozzle was performed to determine the best method of adding cooling capacity to the exit nozzle to allow its use for multi-day, round-the-clock coal testing.

  9. Experimental Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Guy, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Experimental supersonic combustion research related to hypersonic airbreathing propulsion has been actively underway at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the mid-1960's. This research involved experimental investigations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic flows and numerous tests of scramjet engine flowpaths in LaRC test facilities simulating flight from Mach 4 to 8. Out of this research effort has come scramjet combustor design methodologies, ground test techniques, and data analysis procedures. These technologies have progressed steadily in support of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program and the current Hyper-X flight demonstration program. During NASP nearly 2500 tests of 15 scramjet engine models were conducted in LaRC facilities. In addition, research supporting the engine flowpath design investigated ways to enhance mixing, improve and apply nonintrusive diagnostics, and address facility operation. Tests of scramjet combustor operation at conditions simulating hypersonic flight at Mach numbers up to 17 also have been performed in an expansion tube pulse facility. This paper presents a review of the LaRC experimental supersonic combustion research efforts since the late 1980's, during the NASP program, and into the Hyper-X Program.

  10. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  11. Droplet combustion at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Williams, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The current work involves theoretical analyses of the effects identified, experiments in the NASA Lewis drop towers performed in the middeck areas of the Space Shuttle. In addition, there is laboratory work associated with the design of the flight apparatus. Calculations have shown that some of the test-matrix data can be obtained in drop towers, and some are achievable only in the space experiments. The apparatus consists of a droplet dispensing device (syringes), a droplet positioning device (opposing, retractable, hollow needles), a droplet ignition device (two matched pairs of retractable spark electrodes), gas and liquid handling systems, a data acquisition system (mainly giving motion-picture records of the combustion in two orthogonal views, one with backlighting for droplet resolution), and associated electronics.

  12. Feedback control of combustion oscillations in combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jing; Li, Dong-hai; Zhu, Min; Xue, Ya-li

    2010-11-01

    Model-based algorithms are generally employed in active control of combustion oscillations. Since practical combustion processes consist of complex thermal and acoustic couplings, their accurate models and parameters may not be obtained in advance economically, a model free controller is necessary for the control of thermoacoustic instabilities. Active compensation based control algorithm is applied in the suppression of combustion instabilities. Tuning the controller parameters on line, the amplitudes of the acoustic waves can be modulated to desired values. Simulations performed on a control oriented, typical longitudinal oscillations combustor model illustrate the controllers' capability to attenuate combustion oscillations.

  13. Combustion-chamber Performance Characteristics of a Python Turbine-propeller Engine Investigated in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Carl E

    1951-01-01

    Combustion-chamber performance characteristics of a Python turbine-propeller engine were determined from investigation of a complete engine over a range of engine speeds and shaft horsepowers at simulated altitudes. Results indicated the effect of engine operating conditions and altitude on combustion efficiency and combustion-chamber total pressure losses. Performance of this vaporizing type combustion chamber was also compared with several atomizing type combustion chambers. Over the range of test conditions investigated, combustion efficiency varied from approximately 0.95 to 0.99.

  14. Combustion modification Nox controls for utility boilers. volume II: pulverized-coal wall-fired unit field test. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at Gulf Power's Crist Power Plant, Unit 7. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, particulate matter, CO2, O2, NOx, and CO were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed.

  15. Combustion-wave ignition for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion wave ignition concept was experimentally studied in order to verify its suitability for application in baffled sections of a large booster engine combustion chamber. Gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane (GOX/GH4) and gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GOX/GH2) propellant combinations were evaluated in a subscale combustion wave ignition system. The system included four element tubes capable of carrying ignition energy simultaneously to four locations, simulating four baffled sections. Also, direct ignition of a simulated Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) was performed. Tests were conducted over a range of mixture ratios and tube geometries. Ignition was consistently attained over a wide range of mixture ratios. And at every ignition, the flame propagated through all four element tubes. For GOX/GH4, the ignition system ignited the MCC flow at mixture ratios from 2 to 10 and for GOX/GH2 the ratios is from 2 to 13. The ignition timing was found to be rapid and uniform. The total ignition delay when using the MCC was under 11 ms, with the tube-to-tube, as well as the run-to-run, variation under 1 ms. Tube geometries were found to have negligible effect on the ignition outcome and timing.

  16. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, A

    1923-01-01

    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  17. Fluidised-bed combustion: IEA Grimethorpe pressurized fluidised-bed test facility incident report - performance of the exhaust-gas heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The report presents the findings of an investigation into the main heat exchanger performace and the modifications now being carried out on the Grimethorne pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. The heat exchanger was designed as part of the steam/wate circuit to cool the exhaust gas entering with a temperature in the range of 750 to 950/sup 0/C to approximately 300/sup 0/C at the outlet. During hot commissioning, it was noted that the gas outlet temperature from the heat exchanger was appreciably above design although the inlet temperature was substantially below design. An analysis of the calculated heat transfer coefficients derived from several hot commissioning runs for the tube banks within the exchanger, showed them to be more than 50% below the design values. Inspection of the exchanger revealed the tubes to be covered with dust deposits, which acted as insulation and accounted for the reduction in performance, apart from the difference in designand actual inlet conditions. The report provides a description of the heat exchanger in terms of its function and design. Operational aspects up to the completion of Test Series 1 are outlined, and details are given of the modifications taht are to be carried out prior to Test Series 2. A brief outline of the auxiliary heat exchanger and its performance is included.

  18. The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: the Development and Integration Concept for Droplet Combustion Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    using liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. As a result of the concurrent design process of MDCA and CIR, the MDCA team continues to work closely with the CIR team, developing Integration Agreements and an Interface Control Document during preliminary integration activities. Integrated testing of hardware and software systems will occur at the Engineering Model and Flight Model phases. Because the engineering model is a high fidelity unit, it will be upgraded to a flight equivalent Ground Integration Unit (GIU) when the engineering model phase is completed. The GIU will be available on the ground for troubleshooting of any on-orbit problems. Integrated verification testing will be conducted with the MDCA flight unit and the CIR flight unit. Upon successful testing, the MDCA will be shipped to the Kennedy Space Center for a post-shipment checkout and final turn-over to CIR for final processing and launch to the International Space Station. Once on-orbit, the MDCA is managed from the GRC Telescience Support Center (TSC). The MDCA operations team resides at the TSC. Data is transmitted to the PI's at their home sites by means of TREK workstations, allowing direct interaction between the PI and operations staff to maximum science. Upon completion of a PI's experiment, the MDCA is reconfigured for the next of the three follow-on experiments or ultimately removed from the CIR, placed into stowage, and returned to Earth.

  19. Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Rotational /Continuous Detonation • Only Single Initiation needed (Circumvent Initiation/DDT difficulty/loss in PDE ) • 10-100x cycle rate increase • Near...new fuels: 1. Rotational or Continuous Detonation (intense/concentrated combustion); 2. Flameless combustion (distributed combustion process...Steady Exit Flow *CFD Courtesy of NRL Rotational Detonation : (PI: Schauer, AFRL/RZ, working with NRL) Rotational Approach Allows Continuous

  20. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    VUV wavelengths 157 nm (F2) and 193 nm (ArF). Radiative ignitions were achieved with the fluorine laser and not with the argon fluoride laser, even...enhanced combustion processes, utilizing pulsed and continuous VUV light-serces. Similarly, the catalytic technique has provided efficient combustion...ignited fuel-air mixtures, and has enhanced combustion processes, utilizing pulsed and continuous VUV light sources. Similarly, the catalytic technique has

  1. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, phase 3. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October, 1993--31 December, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-01-31

    The primary objective of the present Phase 3 effort is to perform the final testing at a 20 MMBtu/hr commercial scale of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort will be on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimum environmental control of emissions inside the combustor. In connection with the latter, the goal is to achieve 0.4 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2} emissions, 0.2 lb/MMBtu of NO{sub x} emissions, and 0.02 lb particulates/MMBtu. Meeting the particulate goal will require the use of a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator to augment the nominal slag retention in the combustor. The NO{sub x} emission goal will require a modest improvement over maximum reduction achieved to date in the combustor to a level of 0.26 lb/MMBtu. To reach the SO{sub 2} emissions goal may require a combination of sorbent injection inside the combustor and sorbent injection inside the boiler, especially in high (>3.5%) sulfur coals. Prior to the initiation of the project, SO{sub 2} levels as low as 0.6 lb/MMBtu, equal to 81% reduction in 2% sulfur coals, were measured with boiler injection of calcium hydrate. The final objective is to define suitable commercial power or steam generating systems to which the use of the air cooled combustor offers significant technical and economic benefits. In implementing this objective both simple steam generation and combined gas turbine-steam generation systems will be considered.

  2. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 4, February--April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-06-01

    The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and missions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects test; and full-scale combustion tests.

  3. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  4. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  5. Combustion, heat transfer and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on diesel engines combustion. Topics considered include combustion control, high-speed photography, visual studies of diesel combustion, swirl chambers, heat insulated turbochargers, direct injection, autoignition, statistical analysis software, particulate emissions, improvements in exhaust gas emissions and cold startability of diesel engines with new injection-rate-control pumps, jet mixing processes, a thermodynamic simulation model, heat transfer in ceramic combustion chamber walls, temperature distribution in a diesel piston, and the application of a variable swirl device to a two-stroke engine.

  6. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  7. Combustion characteristics of husk charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, H.; Kimura, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Terui, T.

    1984-07-01

    This paper analyzes the factors involved in the extraordinary temperature generation in husk combustion furnaces, and investigates methods of protecting furnaces from heat damage. The combustion characteristics of fixed carbon in rice husks are examined in relation to the air flow rate using different husk charcoals. The theoretical flame temperature in a practical bed was determined from the combustion propagation velocity. It is determined that deviation from the regression line relating the combustion propagation velocity with the specific air flow rate showed a slight correlation with the bulk density of the charcoal samples used.

  8. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-20

    8217, tie imnrulse foree eyuilibr-um c’ the bomd’~ leye - is 173 pv-:irJ p~76vJbK 2sO) IL !-. = Zn pT -- a , bV T. z -,,r y.re C era 3oia * ~~I" onc art-=e...heat by combustion all have very large influences on the capabilities of a combustion chamber. A yellow- colored flame represents diffusion combustion in...the wakes of fuel droplets. Blue- colored flames represent gaseous combustion of evaporated vapors which have already left the fuel droplets. The

  9. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  10. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 --- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 2, Data reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume one. This Volume 2 provides details of the carbonizer data reconciliation.

  11. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Thirteenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1995-04-18

    The present report is a summary of the activities in February and March 1995. The primary activities during these two months was to monitor the fabricator of the combustor extension in order to assure completion of the work according to the design, to procure the additional components needed to install the combustor-boiler system at the Arsenal test site, and on initial installation of auxiliary components at the site. Welding of the combustor extension major sections began in mid-January. However, the quality of the welds was poor and a number of non-critical flanges were warped during welding. As a result the fabricator replaced the welders and the quality assurance personnel in early February. To assure that the welded sections would properly mate with the existing combustor, Coal Tech personnel regularly visited the fabricator until the end of March. The combustor extension section was completed and delivered to the Arsenal at the end of March. To meet the Philadelphia particulate emission standard of 0.06 lb/MMBtu a baghouse was procured in February. Competitive procurement of the stack ducting from the boiler to the baghouse and to the atmosphere was initiated. Pneumatically controlled valves for the combustor extension section`s air cooling sub-system were ordered and delivered.

  12. Characterization of Particle Combustion in a Rijke Burner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    rate HTPB propellant with variable aluminum size. Figure 8. Typical firing with CYH showing the onset of dark combustion mode during high amplitude...turn is based on energy dissipation by viscous drag. When ZrC was first added to propellants it was considered to be an "inert" additive. However...and can provide valuable insight to the combustion mechanisms that occur in a burner. Several propellants have been tested1 ,4-6 in the VCTB and an

  13. Influence of premixed combustion flame stabilizer geometry on flame stability and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Al Dabbagh, N.A.; Andrews, G.E.

    1981-10-01

    Premixed combustion systems for gas turbines offer the possibility of low-pollution, high-combustion efficiency and good temperature distribution. They form a basis by which other well-mixed combustion systems may be assessed. The ultimate objective of this work is the development of nonpremixed rapid mixing combustion systems. Different geometries of baffle flame stabilizers are tested to study the influence of recirculation zone size and number of recirculation zones on flame stability, combustion efficiency and NO/sub x/. The results show that the flame stabilizer geometry has a major influence on combustion efficiency and flame stability but a lesser influence on NO/sub x/. Optimum equivalence ratios are identified for good combustion efficiency and low NO/sub x/ at simulated low and high-power engine conditions. 33 refs.

  14. Enhanced Combustion Woodstove (ECW) technology. Report for January 1991-July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McCrillis, R.C.; Abbott, J.H.; Ponder, W.H.; Butts, N.L.; Henry, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses Enhanced Combustion Woodstove (ECW) technology, developed by EPA in response to the field observation that woodstoves certified by EPA as being clean burning were not achieving the level of emission control 'seen' in laboratory tests. ECW technology is based on the fact that woodstove emissions are caused by the incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of wood in the primary combustion zone. To achieve low emissions, the stove must incorporate a secondary combustion zone above the wood which will hold flame at all times. Current noncatalytic woodstoves can achieve satisfactory secondary combustion only under fairly ideal conditions. Stable secondary combustion may not be achieved at typical low-fire conditions, leading to high emissions. Initial work focused on using an electrical glowplug (ECW electric) to ignite and add energy to the secondary combustion zone. Later work has focused on using a gaseous fuel (ECW gaseous or ECWG) for this purpose.

  15. A combustion model for studying the effects of ideal gas properties on jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Jerin; Tinney, Charles

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical combustion model is developed to simulate the influence of ideal gas effects on various aeroacoustic parameters over a range of equivalence ratios. The motivation is to narrow the gap between laboratory and full-scale jet noise testing. The combustion model is used to model propane combustion in air and kerosene combustion in air. Gas properties from the combustion model are compared to real lab data acquired at the National Center for Physical Acoustics at the University of Mississippi as well as outputs from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Analysis code. Different jet properties are then studied over a range of equivalence ratios and pressure ratios for propane combustion in air, kerosene combustion in air and heated air. The findings reveal negligible differences between the three constituents where the density and sound speed ratios are concerned. Albeit, the area ratio required for perfectly expanded flow is shown to be more sensitive to gas properties, relative to changes in the temperature ratio.

  16. Combustion method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, W.F.; Milliken, B.R.; Braaten, D.A.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes an improvement in apparatus for the combustion of a hydro-carbonaceous material to reduce visible emissions and remove at least some particulate solids. The improvement comprising a pair of spaced apart upstanding elongate wall means having upper and lower longitudinally extending edge means joined by upstanding end edges. The spaced apart wall means being adapted to contain and direct an oxygen containing gas curtain in the space between same, an elongate combustion trough means carried in the space between the spaced apart wall means. The trough means being spaced above the lower edge and below the upper edge of the spaced apart wall means and extending for a substantial portion of the length of the spaced apart wall means. The trough means comprising upwardly diverging side means which extended for a substantial portion of the length of the spaced apart wall means. The side means terminating at their top edge so that the top edge is spaced inwardly from the spaced apart wall means to provide a gap between the top edge and the spaced apart wall means through which the gas curtain can pass. The side means terminating near their bottom edges on at least one conduit means, each conduit means extending essentially the length of the trough means and having a plurality of aperatures along the length thereof for admitting at least one fluid to the interior of the trough means between the side means. The side means being joined at both ends of the trough means by end means which define a closed interior for the trough means, means for feeding combustible material to the closed interior of the trough means, and means for establishing the oxygen containing gas curtain around the trough means and between the spaced apart wall means.

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  18. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  19. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  20. Combustion Experiment Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.